Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Magnetometry: The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Vetiveria: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The RHIZOME contains SESQUITERPENES and is the source of vetiver oil used in PERFUME.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Nanotubes, Peptide: NANOTUBES formed from cyclic peptides (PEPTIDES, CYCLIC). Alternating D and L linkages create planar rings that self assemble by stacking into nanotubes. They can form pores through CELL MEMBRANE causing damage to cells.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Biomedical Enhancement: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Fibroins: Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.PolysaccharidesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Libraries, MedicalDatabases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)United StatesTranslational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Animals, LaboratoryInformation Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Dictionaries, MedicalVomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
"Doctors grow organs from patients' own cells". CNN. April 3, 2006.. *^ a b Trial begins for first artificial liver device using ... Biomedical engineering (BME) or medical engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to ... Micromass cultures of C3H-10T1/2 cells at varied oxygen tensions stained with Alcian blue. ... Introduction to Biomedical Optics *^ a b "Jaw bone created from stem cells". BBC News. October 10, 2009. Retrieved 11 October ...
Artificial bone, skin, uterus, kidney Biomechatronics Biomedical Engineering Decellularization Organ transplant Organ culture ... RFID tags). Organ chips are devices containing hollow microvessels filled with cells simulating tissue and/or organs as a ... This information can create various applications such as creating "human in vitro models" for both healthy and diseased organs ... SSRN 2562952 . Liu Yunying, Yang Ru, He Zuping, Gao Wei-Qiang (2013). "Generation of functional organs from stem cells". Cell ...
Fresh cell therapy is mainly the use of live animal embryo organs cells which are injected into the patient with the purpose of ... Stem cell regenerative medicine uses three different strategies: Implantation of stem cells from culture into an existing ... The first applications of this technology are to isolate stem cells from the bone marrow of patients having blood disease ... The biomedical gerontologist Aubrey de Grey has initiated a project, Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS), to ...
"From Stem Cells to Organ Building". Guest Talk on 'Stem Cell Culture and its Applications" by Prof RC Sobti - YouTube video. ... D.V. Rai; R.C. Sobti; Raj Bahadur (2009). Emerging Trends in Biomedical Science and Health. I K International Publishing House ... "From Stem Cells to Organ Building". 'Stem Cell Culture and its Applications" - Guest Talk-Prof RC Sobti - YouTube video-Part 1 ... "From Stem Cells to Organ Building". 'Stem Cell Culture and its Applications" - Guest Talk-Prof RC Sobti - YouTube video-Part 2 ...
... - a prototype of a stitch-less jacket, grown from cell cultures into a layer of tissue supported by a coat ... He is founder of the Tissue Culture & Art Project. From 2000-2001 he was a Research Fellow at the Tissue Engineering and Organ ... He has also worked with numerous other bio-medical laboratories in several different countries. Ionat Zurr was born in London, ... a Perth-based company that specializes in tissue engineered cartilage for clinical applications. Western Australia state made ...
... in tissue engineering applications and thus reduce the need for long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs after an organ ... Orive G, Gascón AR, Hernández RM, Igartua M, Luis Pedraz J (May 2003). "Cell microencapsulation technology for biomedical ... "Viability of yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in yoghurts made from commercial starter cultures". International Dairy Journal. 7 ... The cell type chosen for this technique depends on the desired application of the cell microcapsules. The cells put into the ...
The application of biomimicry in bioprinting involves creating both identical cellular and extracellular parts of organs. For ... Murphy, S.V.; Skardal, A.; Atala, A. (2013). "Evaluation of hydrogels for bio-printing applications". Journal of Biomedical ... Extrusion printers print cells layer-by-layer, just like 3D printing to create 3D constructs. In addition to just cells, ... 3D printing § Bio-printing Cultured meat Magnetic 3D bioprinting "Advancing Tissue Engineering: The State of 3D Bioprinting". ...
A handheld microfluidic cell culture incubator capable of heating and pumping cell culture solutions has also been developed. ... However, there are some drawbacks to using silicon-based devices in biomedical applications such as their high cost and ... Similarly, integrating microfluidics with micropatterned co-cultures has enabled modelling of organs where multiple ... Cell fate is regulated by both interactions between stem cells and interactions between stem cells and membrane proteins. ...
Secondary cells are from a cell bank. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability to divide in culture and give rise ... Gaharwar, AK; Peppas, NA; Khademhosseini, A (March 2014). "Nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications". Biotechnology ... However, as a culture becomes larger and more complex, such as the case with engineered organs and whole tissues, other ... Tissue engineered cultures also present additional problems in maintaining culture conditions. In standard cell culture, ...
External application of heat may cause surface burns. Tissue damage to a target organ with a regional treatment will vary with ... These temperatures have been derived from cell culture and animal studies. The body keeps itself normal human body temperature ... Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering. 4 (4): 151-162. PMC 4289522 . PMID 25599061. HEYDARI, MORTEZA; JAVIDI, MEHRDAD; ... Cancerous cells are not inherently more susceptible to the effects of heat. When compared in in vitro studies, normal cells and ...
Such studies hold the promise of developing new tests for the health of semen producing organs such as the prostate, which is a ... A current focus is detection of bacteria in semen by molecular biology methods instead of standard laboratory culture. Studies ... Faced with unprecedented disease obstacles, the men and women insisted that biomedical technology be developed to fight their ... clinical laboratory that could facilitate technology transfer from basic science discoveries to clinical test applications. BRF ...
Almedalen 3D bioprinting 3D cell culture Tissue engineering "Swedish StartUp CELLINK Makes Bioprinting Easy With Consumables". ... "From nothing to a super-IPO in only 10 months - Cellink is making it possible to 3D-print human tissues and organs". nordic. ... Erik Gatenholm, co-founder and CEO of Cellink, started his first biomedical device company known as BC Genesis at age 18 in ... BC Genesis focused on developing cellulose based medical implants for applications such as meniscus/cartilage repair as well as ...
For example, examining a cell within a whole organ intact and under perfusion may be in situ investigation. This would not be ... In biology and biomedical engineering, in situ means to examine the phenomenon exactly in place where it occurs (i.e., without ... It has tremendous applications for cancer treatment, vaccination, diagnosis, regenerative medicine, and therapies for loss-of- ... of the culture which formed it. Once an artifact's 'find-site' has been recorded, the artifact can then be moved for ...
... in particular mouse and human cells for biomedical research applications. Since the discovery of embryonic stem (ES) cells ( ... co-culture with stromal cells or feeder cells, and on specific culture substrates: support cells and matrices provide ... Decellularized organs are also being used as tissue scaffold for organogenesis. Source material can be normal healthy cells ... human immortalized cells or primary cultures from biopsies, which their limitations. Clinically-relevant cell types i.e. cell ...
... is used in laboratory studies for cell culture, studying cell behavior and cellular interactions with the ... "Journal of Biomedical Materials. 94 (2): 371-379. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.32694. PMC 2891373 . PMID 20186736.. ... Cardiac applicationsEdit. The collagenous cardiac skeleton which includes the four heart valve rings, is histologically, ... "Type-1 pericytes accumulate after tissue injury and produce collagen in an organ-dependent manner". Stem Cell Research & ...
... a method that models in vivo multiple-organ interaction in vitro. This cell culture system is based on the "wells-in-a-well" ... He is a pioneer in the isolation, cryopreservation, and culturing of human hepatocytes and their application in the evaluation ... Li has held a variety of research and teaching positions throughout the biomedical field. After graduating from the University ... Cell Culture Tool and Method: U.S. Patent No. US 7,186,548 B2; Date of Patent: March 6, 2007. Cell Culture Tool and Method: The ...
Cells organize together to become tissues, organs, etc. Thus, "in the continuity of natural systems every unit is at the very ... It seems to have been pushed into the shadows by a return to medicine and the re-ascendancy of a biomedical model." However, a ... Its social part investigates how different social factors such as socioeconomic status, culture, technology, and religion can ... Some psychiatrists see the model as flawed in either formulation or application. Epstein and colleagues describe six ...
... is used in laboratory studies for cell culture, studying cell behavior and cellular interactions with the ... "Type-1 pericytes accumulate after tissue injury and produce collagen in an organ-dependent manner". Stem Cell Research & ... Collagen has a wide variety of applications, from food to medical. For instance, it is used in cosmetic surgery and burn ... Journal of Biomedical Materials. 94 (2): 371-379. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.32694. PMC 2891373 . PMID 20186736. Onkar, Singh; Gupta, ...
... which was then colonised by epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cell-derived chondrocytes cultured from cells of the ... studies examining the capacity of bone marrow stem cells to differentiate into renal cells are emerging. Like other organs, the ... This has serious applications in regenerative medicine, particularly as a 2012 study successfully purified a population of lung ... 2015). "Extracellular Matrix as a Driver for Lung Regeneration". Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 43: 568-576. doi:10.1007/ ...
While cell culture tests show a good biocompatibility, the analysis of implants shows significant wear, related to a ... Properties such as appearance and electrical insulation are also a concern for specific biomedical applications. Some ... Cells Tissues Organs. 178 (1): 13-22. doi:10.1159/000081089. PMID 15550756. Hao, L; Lawrence, J; Chian, KS (2005). "Osteoblast ... Ceramics show numerous applications as biomaterials due to their physico-chemical properties. They have the advantage of being ...
"High Aerobic Glycolysis of Rat Hepatoma Cells in Culture: Role of Mitochondrial Hexokinase". Proceedings of the National ... In body-scanning applications in searching for tumor or metastatic disease, a dose of 18F-FDG in solution (typically 5 to 10 ... Brain images obtained with an ordinary (non-PET) nuclear scanner demonstrated the concentration of 18F-FDG in that organ (see ... Yu, S (2006). "Review of 18F-FDG synthesis and quality control". Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal. 2. doi:10.2349/ ...
... coli or yeast cultures), mammalian cell lines (see cell culture) and plant cell cultures (see plant tissue culture) and moss ... Important biologics include: Whole blood and other blood components Organs and tissue transplants Stem cell therapy Antibodies ... Gene-based and cellular biologics, for example, often are at the forefront of biomedical research, and may be used to treat a ... This had climbed to 15,600 in 1995, and by 2001 there were 34,527 patent applications. Blood products and other human derived ...
The future of cell culturing for fundamental studies and biomedical applications lies in the creation of multicellular ... Cell130, 601-610 (2007). Atala, A. Engineering tissues, organs and cells. J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med.1, 83-96 (2007). Bilodeau, ... 3D cell culturing is scalable, with the capability for culturing 500 cells to millions of cells or from single dish to high- ... Because of the ability of 3D cell culturing by magnetic levitation to bring cells together, co-culturing different cell types ...
Biomimetics and NCRM, Nichi-In classification of Biomimetics Biomimicry tissue engineering, stem cells, cell therapy. Ncrm.org ... Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence. 12 (3): 389-399. doi:10.1016/S0952-1976(99)00010-X. Archived from the ... In medicine, bionics means the replacement or enhancement of organs or other body parts by mechanical versions. Bionic implants ... wherein political borders conform to natural ecoregions rather than human cultures or the outcomes of prior conflicts. ...
... genetic and biomedical engineering for regeneration and cell expansion targets to restructure and/or repair human organs. ... For cardiovascular application, skeletal myoblasts are of great interest as they can be easily isolated and are associated with ... "3D Cell Culture and QGel Technology" (PDF). ... Washed off cells reach other organs or die, which can be an ... These cell populations are endothelial progenitor cells, hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Adipose tissue ...
Unlike other organs, bone marrow cells can be frozen (cryopreserved) for prolonged periods without damaging too many cells. ... Mahla RS (2016). "Stem cells application in regenerative medicine and disease threpeutics". International Journal of Cell ... during which neither showed traces of HIV in their blood plasma and purified CD4 T cells using a sensitive culture method (less ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ...
"Doctors grow organs from patients own cells". CNN. April 3, 2006.. *^ a b Trial begins for first artificial liver device using ... Biomedical engineering (BME) or medical engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to ... Micromass cultures of C3H-10T1/2 cells at varied oxygen tensions stained with Alcian blue. ... Introduction to Biomedical Optics *^ a b "Jaw bone created from stem cells". BBC News. October 10, 2009. Retrieved 11 October ...
Cell Culture Engineering (cont.) Lecture 7 Cell Communication and Immunology Lecture 8 Cell Communication and Immunology (cont ... Please consult the Open Yale Courses Terms of Use for limitations and further explanations on the application of the Creative ... Engineering Principles for the Design of Replacement Organs and Tissues, and his articles have appeared in Biomaterials and ... Introduction to Biomedical Engineering. Boston: Elsevier Academic Press, 2005.. Saltzman, Mark. Drug Delivery. New York: Oxford ...
Wound healing, near infrared, spectroscopy, cell culture, data analysis, optical coherence tomography (OCT), matlab, life ... Biomedical applications of visoelastic, acoustoptic and ultrasonic properties of liquid and solid media. ... artificial organs research; prediction and quantification of blood trauma and thrombosis in medical devices; design of ... Biomedical Engineering. Major: Biomedical Engineering. Degree Awarded: Master of Science (MS) or Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). ...
Biomedical applications of micro-computed tomography - from cell cultures to organs. 14:45 - 15:30. Nicholas Stone - University ... Cell microbiology: from cancer research to stem cells The focus of this session was to get an overview of the latest ... Study of chemotherapy sensitive cells with synchrotron based FITR spectroscopy 11:45 - 12:30. Joanna Collingwood - Warwick ... SR based infrared micro spectroscopy to monitor the response of human pluripotent stem cells to retanoic acid (RA) and ...
... are highly relevant for the functionality of the organ and get altered in pathological conditions.Recent advances in cell ... novel cell-based systems such as organoids provide 3D miniaturized versions of epithelia that recapitulate major cell types, ... Most epithelial tissues are multicellular, and the specific cell types are exquisitely arranged in a compartmentalized manner ... unraveling a new potential for in vitro models that had traditionally relied on transformed cell lines grown as monolayers. On ...
Andrews (UK) and Jena (Germany) have now demonstra...Correspon...,Breakthrough,study,opens,door,to,broader,biomedical, ... applications,for,Raman,spectroscopy,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology ... A Spanish breakthrough allows the electroporation of cell cultures for less than 1 Euro. 4. Recent breakthroughs in cocoa ... Plant organ development breakthrough. 8. USDA scientists and cooperators sequence the wheat genome in breakthrough for global ...
Research position in organs-on-chip with a focus on on-chip cell cultures , Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ... 2) microfluidic solutions for biomedical applications. It is meritorious for the candidate to show documentation on culture ... Duties: We want to strengthen the research groups expertise on cell cultures and on-chip studies of cell-cell interactions, ... Research position in organs-on-chip with a focus on on-chip cell cultures Sort on published: 2018-02-26 ...
Xinaris C, Brizi V, Remuzzi G: Organoid Models and Applications in Biomedical Research. Nephron 2015;130:191-199 ... A somehow similar principle is implemented in Organs-on-a-chip which consist of a microfluidic device colonized by various cell ... Introduction to Mammalian Cell Culture. Morphology and Cell Types & Organization Mammalian cell culture is one of the basic ... For 3D cell cultures the cells have to be grown in special vessels or matrices (c). 3D cultures of several cell types are the ...
Pomacentrus caeruleus for Initiating In Vitro Cell Culture Systems, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India ... Recent applications of fish cell culture to biomedical research. Hightower, LE; Renfro, JL ... Technology and uses of cell cultures from tissues and organs of bony fish ... Culture of animal cells-a manual of basic technique and specialized applications ...
Proposals whose core innovation is tissue engineering or organ culture should be submitted to the Engineering of Biomedical ... Fundamental to many research projects in this area is the understanding of how biomolecules, cells and cell populations ... Development of novel "omics" tools for biomanufacturing applications. All applications should include a description on the ... Single cell dynamics and modeling in the context of biomanufacturing. * ...
We explore stem cell biology and long-term 3D cell culture systems to develop Organ-on-a-Chip devices. We further combine ... and materials for biomedical therapeutics and applications in energy technology. Select Publications. *Fan, R., Chen, X., Wang ... Fan, R., Sun, Y., Wan, J. (2015) Leaf-inspired artificial microvascular networks (LIAMN) for 3D cell culture. RSC Advances. 5, ... Wan, J., Forsyth, A. M., and Stone, H. A. (2011) Red blood cell dynamics: from cell deformation to adenosine-5-triphosphate ...
... tissue and organ cultures; and the application of statistical and computer technology to biomedical research as a substitute ... Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the ... A Legislators View on Animal Legislation Affecting Biomedical Research; (5) ... the present and future use and limitations of cell, ... tissue and organ cultures; and the application of statistical ...
Cell culture in two dimensions is widely used for various applications, from fundamental research to biomedical applications. ... However, this type of culture doesnt reproduce the natural physiological microenvironment of a cell or an organ. Going from ... Top 10 Bioprocess Technology Market by Cell Culture, Cell Expansion, Cell Counting, Cell Line Development, Flow Cytometry, ... Understand trends in for 3D cell culture IP. - Classify the major players in for 3D cell culture IP and the relative strength ...
... concentrating on using Lab-on-Chips/Organs-on-Chips for biomedical applications. From September 2013, she joined the Mesoscale ... Regina Luttges ERC starting grant on 3D neuronal cell culture and neuromodulation. ... on the development of a quantitative flow cytometry assay to determine cell death kinetics. From July 2003 to July 2007, she ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books ... The application of semiconductor-driven microtechnology in the biomedical arena now allows fabrication of microscale tissue ... that coordinate organ functions. Conventional cell culture disperses tissues into single cells while neglecting higher-order ... Microscale culture of human liver cells for drug development.. Khetani SR1, Bhatia SN. ...
Devices for healthcare applications, disease modelling and treatment, such as diagnostics, lab-on-a-chip, organs-on-a-chip, ... such as artificial cells, exosomes and extracellular vesicles), as well as all organic and inorganic materials for biomedical ... immunoengineering and 3D cell culture.. *Biofabrication including (bio)inks and technologies, towards generation of functional ... with a strong focus on applications of these fields, from bench-to-bedside, for treatment of all diseases and disorders, such ...
AMO nanoparticles does not alter the normal cell cycle progression of cultured diploid cells, and an in vivo murine model ... confirms that the nanostructures disperse through the host body and tend to localize in particular sites and organs. The ... revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm [email protected] ... revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm [email protected] ...
... organ culture, development of models of healthy or diseased physiology, or design and application of technologies focused on ... Fundamental to many research projects in this area is the understanding of how biomolecules, subcellular systems, cells, and ... the diagnosis or treatment of disease should be submitted to the Engineering of Biomedical Systems program (CBET 5345). ... For full proposals submitted via Grants.gov: the NSF Grants.gov Application Guide: A Guide for the Preparation and Submission ...
Basic cell biology: Cell structure, biopolymers, transcription and translation, signal transduction. Examples of organ ... Applications of design and manufacturing systems.. MME435- Introduction to Biomedical Engineering (6 ECTS) ... Devices for 3D in vitro cell culture. Gene network design. Bioinformatic analysis in genomics and proteomics. Medical device ... Cells and organs as biological machines: Biomechanics and extracellular matrix remodeling. Blood flow in vessels. Transport ...
Cell culture is a fundamental technique for a variety of applications. Cells are cultured in controlled conditions including ... in biomedical sciences have allowed investigators to get closer than ever to an accurate recapitulation of tissue and organ ... Introduction to cell culture. •Critical factors for successful cell culture. •Cell culture tips and techniques. Presenter Bio: ... Cell Culture Masterclass: A 10-Point Plan to Prevent Contamination. All cell culture laboratories have experienced it: cell ...
... cultures (cells, tissues, and organs) and genetic stocks that serve the biomedical research community. The resource centers for ... Number of Applications. Applicant organizations may submit more than one application, provided that each application is ... Introduction to Application: For Resubmission and Revision applications, an Introduction to Application is required in the ... Introduction to Application: For Resubmission and Revision applications, an Introduction to Application is allowed for each ...
These cultures proved themselves to be of value for fundamental biomedical research as well as clinical applications, such as ... One of the models suitable for this application is an organoid - a miniature organ, grown from adult stem cells. The research ... Can we culture a kidney from urine-derived cells in the nearby future? Schutgens puts his research in perspective - he merely ... The stem cells used to culture the kidney organoids can be harvested from urine.. ...
All our systems support a wide variety of applications, including organ-on-a chip assays, 3D biology, spheroid assays, stem ... She has a PhD in pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences from UCLouvain where she developed nanoparticles for nucleic acid ... 3D cell culture as a prerequisite for future cell transplantation applications. *Challenges in preparing a clinical trial for ... Here, physiological relevance is key for improving the predictive power of cell-based assays. 3D cell culture technology, organ ...
3D cell culturing and possibilities for myometrial tissue engineering. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1-12.Google Scholar ... Vaezi, M., & Yang, S. (2015). Extrusion-based additive manufacturing of PEEK for biomedical applications. Virtual and Physical ... Due to shortage of donor organs and also lack of facility to preserve them leads to the demand of artificial tissues. In this ... And finally, summarize the applications of 3D printing technique in medical applications. There is the possibility to increase ...
... facilitating scale-up of kidney cell types in vitro for biomedical applications. ... Kidney micro-organoids in suspension culture as a scalable source of human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney cells Santhosh ... Developmentally inspired human organs on chips Donald E. Ingber. Development 2018 145: dev156125 doi: 10.1242/dev.156125 ... Summary: A modified culture format offers a simple and cost-effective method for expansion of hPSC-derived kidney cells, ...
  • While Yoshiki and his group had finally succeeded in this project, there are some big challenges in usefully applying stem cell therapies. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Dr. Yarmush has been credited with many advances including: innovative cell culture systems, bioartificial organs development, stem cell therapies, targeted therapies for tumors and infections, recombinant protein & recombinant retrovirus production / purification techniques, and microfabricated living cell arrays. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • The authors further emphasize the importance of developing efficient methods to isolate homogeneous stem cell populations prior to their use for cell-based therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • Echoing the tale of the Trojan Horse, National Teaching Fellow, Professor Dan Lloyd, explains how antibodies are being used as vehicles to target toxic molecules and radioisotopes to cancer cells exclusively, therefore resulting in more specific therapies and potentially minimising side effects. (kent.ac.uk)
  • We are pleased with the international interest in our hydrogel formulas and hope the hydrogels help develop meaningful medical applications that improve wellness, especially in areas such as cancer therapies," said Tim Fealey, CEO of PepGel LLC. (pepgel.com)
  • In the medical field, AM has been confined to the production of decel ularisation is a top-down approach to tissue engineering and static structures, such as patient-specific craniofacial implants, hip focuses on the use of chemical y and enzymatical y decel ularised and mandibular prostheses and the manufacturing of scaffolds for extracel ular matrices (ECMs) to allow for cell seeding. (who.int)
  • Badylak SF, Taylor D, Uygun K. Whole-Organ Tissue Engineering: Decellularization and Recellularization of Three-Dimensional Matrix Scaffolds. (medigraphic.com)
  • The main approach of this scientific field is the creation of scaffolds, which contain cells that can be applied as cardiac grafts in the body, to have the desired recovery. (scielo.br)
  • They are primarily used for the seeding of cells in 3D scaffolds until they are ready for more large-scale cell culture procedures [ 1 ]. (openwetware.org)
  • In addition to spheroids, collagen-based scaffolds that encourage cell aggregation into tumoroids have been used for immunotherapy applications such as natural killer cell cytotoxicity assays. (genengnews.com)
  • It aims at organ or tissue regeneration by use of scaffolds, which are usually seeded with cells prior to implantation, and stimulated by bioactive cues or growth factors. (wur.nl)
  • We investigated, if protein-based polymers, more specifically, if the de novo designed, C2SH48C2 copolymer, which self-assembles into fibers upon a pH-trigger, is a suitable material for cell scaffolds. (wur.nl)
  • The biocompatibility of the gel scaffolds was demonstrated in a 2D cell culture study. (wur.nl)
  • A synergistic effect was observed, i.e. scaffolds containing both bioactive domains yielded fully confluent layers of cells at an earlier stage during cell culture than the other gels. (wur.nl)
  • Sreedevi, S. 2016-06-29 00:00:00 Explantation and trypsinisation methods for tissue dissociation were attempted for the establishment of primary cell cultures from the caerulean damsel, Pomacentrus caeruleus. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the National Student Survey 2016, Biomedical Science at Kent was ranked 3rd for the quality of its teaching. (kent.ac.uk)
  • An alternative emerging method involves growing a bladder from cells taken from the patient and allowed to grow on a bladder-shaped scaffold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, static media does not provide optimal cell growth and thus deters the cell's ability to migrate into the scaffold. (openwetware.org)
  • This results in a shell formation of cells on the exterior of the scaffold instead of a desired uniform distribution [ 2 ]. (openwetware.org)
  • Perfusion systems constantly replenish the cells with fresh media with the use of chambers, columns, or cartridges that house the scaffold constructs [ 2 ]. (openwetware.org)
  • One of the proposed disadvantages of the perfusion system is the constant flow of media causes the cells to line up parallel to the scaffold lining while in certain systems, it would be preferred to orient the cells perpendicularly, such as articular cartilage [ 2 ]. (openwetware.org)
  • LMWH/P N/MPs can be immobilized onto cell surfaces or extracellular matrix, control the release, activate GFs and protect various GFs. (mdpi.com)
  • The recent popularization of detergentbased "decellularization" of complete tissues/organs, which leaves behind a collagen-containing extracellular matrix that was secreted by the original resident cells, opens the possibility that cells themselves could be used to better generate or modulate physiological collagenous matrices. (eurekaselect.com)
  • A multilayered culture containing primary human fibroblasts, mesothelial cells and extracellular matrix was adapted into a robust and reliable 384- and 1,536-multi-well high-throughput screening assay that reproduces the human ovarian cancer metastatic microenvironment. (fastcongress.com)
  • In addition to raising the possibility of patient-specific models, 3D cell culture could progress beyond relatively simple self-aggregated spheroids to replicate all manner of developmental contingencies in environments consisting of multiple cell types and diverse extracellular elements. (genengnews.com)
  • It is meritorious for the candidate to show documentation on culture optimisation, immunofluorescent staining, genotypic characterisation, phenotype evaluation and studies of cell growth and proliferation, especially focused on blood-brain barrier specific cells. (uu.se)
  • Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) cultures of cells including ADSCs and BMSCs using plasma-medium gel with LMWH/P N/MPs exhibited efficient cell proliferation. (mdpi.com)
  • These assays specifically investigated the effect of the compounds on ovarian cancer cell adhesion, invasion, proliferation and metastasis to the peritoneal microenvironment. (fastcongress.com)
  • However, despite the cell viability, a low proliferation rate was observed. (wur.nl)
  • The viability and proliferation of MG-63 cells, encapsulated in the gels at different protein concentrations and RGD densities, was investigated with a cell activity assay, and by quantitative analysis of confocal pictures of nuclei (DAPI stain) and F-actin (phalloidin). (wur.nl)
  • Yet, the maintenance of a mature, quiescent, and organotypically-differentiated layer of endothelial cells (ECs) lining the inside of all blood vessels is vital for human health. (europa.eu)
  • Effects of fluid shear on endothelial cell signal transduction. (utwente.nl)
  • The bovine pulmonary artery endothelial ( BPAE ) cells presented in the digital image above were resident in an adherent culture stained for F-actin with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin (green fluorescence), and for DNA with the bis-benzimidazole dye Hoechst 33258 (blue fluorescence). (fsu.edu)
  • Also, the device enables to expose endothelial cells to the particular mechanical conditions, like the ones induced by the blood stream. (uab.cat)
  • As Rosa Villa, CSIC scientist and head of the Biomedical Applications Group, explains, "in the living organism, endothelial cells covering the inner walls of blood vessels are exposed to the mechanical stimulus of the blood stream. (uab.cat)
  • Kushida A, Yamato M et al (1999) Decrease in culture temperature releases monolayer endothelial cell sheets together with deposited fibronectin matrix from temperature-responsive culture surfaces. (springer.com)
  • Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)/protamine (P) nano/micro particles (N/MPs) (LMWH/P N/MPs) were applied as carriers for heparin-binding growth factors (GFs) and for adhesive cells including adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). (mdpi.com)
  • Proposals whose core innovation involves tissue engineering, organ culture, development of models of healthy or diseased physiology, or design and application of technologies focused on the diagnosis or treatment of disease should be submitted to the Engineering of Biomedical Systems program (CBET 5345). (nsf.gov)
  • Examples of organ structure and physiology. (ucy.ac.cy)
  • Researchers globally are realizing the potential of 3D cell culture for various applications, including testing and discovering new drugs to treat cancer, organ-on-chip models to study the human physiology in an organ specific context, and 3D cell printing to produce organ models. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • The Physiology Graduate Program includes faculty from the three universities, the medical school and various clinical institutions associated with the School of Biomedical Sciences. (kent.edu)
  • The Physiology Graduate Program is comprised of members drawn from across the institutions participating in Kent's School of Biomedical Sciences. (kent.edu)
  • Understanding mechanotransduction will not only improve the knowledge of cell physiology, but also provide the basis for further investigating related disorders. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Specific projects are available, either on the technological aspects of measuring single cell mechanosensitivity, or on the role of mechanosensing for cell physiology and pathology. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Human physiology is the science of studying the functions of the human body and its organ systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These features indicated that our strategy provides an ideal enzyme cascade reaction system for complex biocatalysis and biomimetic functions of some organelles or organs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hans Clevers' group changed the rules of the game when they isolated and grew in vitro adult stem cells from normal and tumor intestinal tissue. (brighttalk.com)
  • Tumor cells are less responsive to anti-cancer drugs when arranged in three dimensions, for instance, and most neurons are less sensitive to rapid neuronal activity all around them. (corning.com)
  • Resources include laboratories equipped for assessment and visualization of living cells and tissues, cell and tumor culture facilities, electron and scanning electron microscopic, flow cytometry, a transgenic facility, radioimmunoassay facility, and laboratories to assess a variety of metabolic, reproductive, and respiratory functions. (kent.edu)
  • It is our hypothesis that cell fusion may provide acquisition of blood-derived properties to tumor epithelium, permitting them to escape the primary tumor microenvironment and re-establish tumorigenesis at a distant site.A second focus in my laboratory is to determine if cancer stem cell profiling can be used to inform disease behavior. (ohsu.edu)
  • We are currently investigating the expression pattern of these tumor-initiating cells in head and neck carcinoma and colon cancer before and after treatment and correlating our findings with disease aggressiveness. (ohsu.edu)
  • Tumor-associated macrophages can help the metastatic spread of tumor cells, as they stimulate their migration and invasion of different tissues, and the suppression of immune responses. (promocell.com)
  • Advances in tissue engineering are evident, and the application of this technology to the regeneration of myocardium has been increasingly explored, and presented encouraging results. (scielo.br)
  • Proposals whose core innovation is tissue engineering or organ culture should be submitted to the Engineering of Biomedical Systems program (5345). (nsf.gov)
  • TEXAS A&M (US)- The creation of a network of microchannels could advance the field of tissue engineering by serving as a three-dimensional vasculature to support construction of tissue, include organs. (futurity.org)
  • The controlled manufacturing of these networks, which are capable of supporting transport of fluid, is the first step in translating this work to a tissue engineering application where it potentially stands to make a significant impact, Ugaz says. (futurity.org)
  • Providing man-made replacement parts to people in need of organ transplants (and bypassing the need for suitable donors) has been a chief aim of tissue engineering, but so far the field's biggest successes have been the production of skin and cartilage. (futurity.org)
  • Fauza and colleagues [ 5 ] were among the first to explore use of amniotic cells for tissue engineering and repair of congenital defects in utero . (hindawi.com)
  • Tissue engineering is a set of biomedical, biotechnological and engineering techniques that aim to maintain, regenerate or replace tissues or organs. (scielo.br)
  • This review briefly presents the most widely used techniques in cardiac tissue engineering spanning two decades: from the late 1990s, when this tissue engineering application saw its first studies, to nowadays, when grafts with a broad potential for cardiac regeneration are sought. (scielo.br)
  • Xu is currently investigating the use of drug delivery to stimulate host immune system for cancer vaccine applications, and micro/nanofabrication for tissue engineering applications. (tufts.edu)
  • Tissue engineering is a relatively new, but actively developing field of biomedical science. (wur.nl)
  • The artists used tissue engineering and stem cell technologies to grow pig bone tissue, forming three different sets of wings. (wikipedia.org)
  • It would be interesting to be able to use patient cells to make bioartificial kidneys. (hubrecht.eu)
  • 0.01).Shift rotation culture can significantly promote the formation and increase the activity of AC microencapsulated HepLL and HepG2 aggregates, and HepLL cells may be more suitable for bioartificial liver than HepG2. (bvsalud.org)
  • and 4) the Engineering of Biomedical Systems program. (nsf.gov)
  • Applications of design and manufacturing systems. (ucy.ac.cy)
  • Inspired by the multienzyme architecture in eukaryotic cells, considerable attention and effort has been devoted to creating engineered enzyme cascade reaction systems with synergic and complementary functions based on liposomes or polymersomes ( 1 , 2 ), polymer-based capsules ( 3 , 4 ), and Pickering emulsions ( 5 - 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The Scientist is bringing together a panel of experts to discuss the value of spheroid culture systems, and to explore the technical benefits and challenges of making the switch from 2-D to 3-D culture. (the-scientist.com)
  • Understanding living cells and their processes requires analysis of data from various imaging systems and modalities that all use different file formats. (thermofisher.com)
  • Using 2D systems, the functions of various cells are studied by culturing cells or cell products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1st Law - internal energy and enthalpy, applications to non flow/closed and flow/open systems. (iitrpr.ac.in)
  • The project wanted to confront the cultural perceptions of life now that we are able to manipulate living systems, and also discuss the notions of the wholeness of the body.The Pig Wings Project - This project bases its ideas on xenotransplantation and genetically modifying pigs so their organs can be transplanted to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, these studies will provide fundamental insights into the structural basis by which cells form biochemical compartments. (europa.eu)
  • In their studies of plant and animal cells during the early nineteenth century, German botanist Matthias Jakob Schleiden and German zoologist Theodor Schwann recognized the fundamental similarities between the two cell types. (fsu.edu)
  • These projects are cross-disciplinary and we are welcome motivated engineers, material scientists and cell biologists. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The scientists tested the correct formation of the blood-retinal barrier by assessing its permeability, its electrical resistance and the expression of proteins found in the tight junctions between cells, which are expressed when cells have established a barrier function. (uab.cat)
  • Yet, until the mid-seventeenth century, scientists were unaware that cells even existed. (fsu.edu)
  • It took another 175 years, however, before scientists began to understand the true importance of cells. (fsu.edu)
  • In the realm of living cells, tensegrity is helping to explain how cells withstand physical stresses, how they are affected by the movements of organelles, and how a change in the cytoskeleton initiates biochemical reactions or even influences the action of genes. (fsu.edu)
  • 3D printing technology has long-term ramifications for, as an example, organ transplants. (udallas.edu)
  • It is a promising and valuable alternative to the use of transplants, for which the demand is greater than the supply, and for which application is connected with high risk of rejection and infection due to immunosuppressant medication. (wur.nl)
  • Multiple enzymes in these unique internal structures provide eukaryotic cells with the ability for spatiotemporal control over multistep metabolic reactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • The book is divided into two parts, the first part on 3D printing discusses conventional approaches in additive manufacturing aimed at fabrication of structures, which are seeded with cells in a subsequent step. (springer.com)
  • This intriguing phenomenon has potential to significantly impact the fields of Lab-on-a-Chip, MEMS and soft robotics, but the jump into practical application requires precise fabrication of azobenzene-based structures capable of being leveraged into useful and efficient photomechanical work. (spie.org)
  • METHODS: To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. (bvsalud.org)
  • Theoretically, among various possibilities, an established somatic cell nuclear transfer system with genetically engineered donor cells seems to be an efficient and reliable approach to achieve this goal. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Therefore, this review will focus on recent patents related to the use of donor cells to realize collagen synthesis, enrichment, and repair, with the goal of clinical application. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The traditional 2D cell culture is still used as a primary experimental tool all across the world, and with good reason. (corning.com)