Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as a acaricide.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
Cholinesterase reactivator used as an antidote in alkyl phosphate poisoning.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
Cholinesterase reactivator occurring in two interchangeable isomeric forms, syn and anti.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.
A organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an anthelmintic, insecticide, and as a nematocide.
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (1/3078)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

The bystander effect in the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and its relationship to gap junctional communication. (2/3078)

The bystander effect (BSE) is an interesting and important property of the herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (hTK/GCV) system of gene therapy for cancer. With the BSE, not only are the hTK expressing cells killed upon ganciclovir (GCV) exposure but also neighboring wild-type tumor cells. On testing a large number of tumor cell lines in vitro, a wide range of sensitivity to bystander killing was found. Since transfer of toxic GCV metabolites from hTK-modified to wild-type tumor cells via gap junctions (GJ) seemed to be a likely mechanism of the BSE, we tested GJ function in these various tumors with a dye transfer technique and pharmacological agents known to affect GJ communication. We confirmed that mixtures of tumor cell resistant to the BSE did not show dye transfer from cell to cell while bystander-sensitive tumor cells did. Dieldrin, a drug known to decrease GJ communication, diminished dye transfer and also inhibited the BSE. Forskolin, an upregulator of cAMP did increase GJ, but directly inhibited hTK and therefore its effect on BSE could not be determined. We conclude that these observations further support port the concept that functional GJ play an important role in the BSE and further suggest that pharmacological manipulation of GJ may influence the outcome of cancer therapy with hTK/GCV.  (+info)

Comparison of two in vitro activation systems for protoxicant organophosphorous esterase inhibitors. (3/3078)

In order to perform in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by organophosphorous (OP) protoxicants, simple, reliable methods are needed to convert protoxicants to their esterase-inhibiting forms. Incubation of parathion or chlorpyrifos with 0.05% bromine solution or uninduced rat liver microsomes (RLM) resulted in production of the corresponding oxygen analogs of these OP compounds and markedly increased esterase inhibition in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Neither activation system affected cell viability or the activity of AChE or NTE in the absence of OP compounds. Although parathion and chlorpyrifos were activated by RLM, bromine activation required fewer steps and produced more esterase inhibition for a given concentration of chlorpyrifos. However, RLM activation of OP protoxicants produced metabolites other than oxygen analogs and may, therefore, be more relevant as a surrogate for OP biotransformation in vivo. This methodology makes the use of intact cells for in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by protoxicant organophosphate compounds a viable alternative to in vivo tests.  (+info)

Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir. (4/3078)

Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day.  (+info)

A phosphonate-induced gene which promotes Penicillium-mediated bioconversion of cis-propenylphosphonic acid to fosfomycin. (5/3078)

Penicillium decumbens is able to epoxidize cis-propenylphosphonic acid (cPA) to produce the antibiotic fosfomycin [FOM; also referred to as phosphonomycin and (-)-cis-1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid], a bioconversion of considerable commercial significance. We sought to improve the efficiency of the process by overexpression of the genes involved. A conventional approach of isolating the presumed epoxidase and its corresponding gene was not possible since cPA epoxidation could not be achieved with protein extracts. As an alternative approach, proteins induced by cPA were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The observation that a 31-kDa protein (EpoA) was both cPA induced and overaccumulated in a strain which more efficiently converted cPA suggested that it might take part in the bioconversion. EpoA was purified, its amino acid sequence was partially determined, and the corresponding gene was isolated from cosmid and cDNA libraries with oligonucleotide probes. The DNA sequence for this gene (epoA) contained two introns and an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 277 amino acids having some similarity to oxygenases. When the gene was subcloned into P. decumbens, a fourfold increase in epoxidation activity was achieved. epoA-disruption mutants which were obtained by homologous recombination could not convert cPA to FOM. To investigate the regulation of the epoA promoter, the bialaphos resistance gene (bar, encoding phosphinothricin acetyltransferase) was used to replace the epoA-coding region. In P. decumbens, expression of the bar reporter gene was induced by cPA, FOM, and phosphorous acid but not by phosphoric acid.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in J774 macrophages occurs in the cytoplasm and lysosomes. (6/3078)

The relationship of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis to the physical state of the cholesteryl ester in J774 murine macrophages was explored in cells induced to store cholesteryl esters either in anisotropic (ordered) inclusions or isotropic (liquid) inclusions. In contrast to other cell systems, the rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was faster in cells containing anisotropic inclusions than in cells containing isotropic inclusions. Two contributing factors were identified. Kinetic analyses of the rates of hydrolysis are consistent with a substrate competition by co-deposited triglyceride in cells with isotropic inclusions. In addition, hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters in cells with anisotropic droplets is mediated by both cytoplasmic and lysosomal lipolytic enzymes, as shown by using the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, and an inhibitor of neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase, umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. In cells containing anisotropic inclusions, hydrolysis was partially inhibited by incubation in media containing either chloroquine or umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. Together, chloroquine and umbelliferyl diethylphosphate completely inhibited hydrolysis. However, when cells containing isotropic inclusions were incubated with umbelliferyl diethylphosphate, cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was completely inhibited, but chloroquine had no effect. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a primarily lysosomal location for lipid droplets in cells with anisotropic droplets and both non-lysosomal and lysosomal populations of lipid droplets in cells with isotropic droplets. These results support the conclusion that there is a lysosomal component to the hydrolysis of stored cholesteryl esters in foam cells.  (+info)

Binding conformers searching method for ligands according to the structures of their receptors and its application to thrombin inhibitors. (7/3078)

AIM: To develop a method of finding binding conformers for ligands according to the three-dimensional structures of their receptors. METHODS: Combining the systematic search method of ligand with the molecular docking approach of ligand fitting into its receptor, we developed a binding conformer searching method for ligands. RESULTS: The binding conformers of phosphonopeptidyl thrombin inhibitors were recognized. The binding (interaction) energies between these inhibitors and thrombin were calculated with molecular mechanical method. CONCLUSION: Both of the total binding energies and steric binding energies have good correlations with the inhibitory activities of these thrombin inhibitors, demonstrating that our approach is reasonable. It can also be used to explain the inhibition mechanism of thrombin interacting with these inhibitors.  (+info)

Early short-term 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine treatment favorably alters the subsequent disease course in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn Rhesus macaques. (8/3078)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study disease pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at delaying disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that very early events of infection greatly determine the ultimate disease course, as short-term antiviral drug administration during the initial viremia stage significantly delayed the onset of AIDS. Fourteen newborn macaques were inoculated orally with uncloned, highly virulent SIVmac251. The four untreated control animals showed persistently high virus levels and poor antiviral immune responses; they developed fatal immunodeficiency within 15 weeks. In contrast, SIV-infected newborn macaques which were started on 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment at 5 days of age and continued for either 14 or 60 days showed reduced virus levels and enhanced antiviral immune responses. This short-term PMPA treatment did not induce detectable emergence of SIV mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to PMPA. Although viremia increased in most animals after PMPA treatment was withdrawn, all animals remained disease-free for at least 6 months. Our data suggest that short-term treatment with a potent antiviral drug regimen during the initial viremia will significantly prolong AIDS-free survival for HIV-infected infants and adults.  (+info)

Guzaev, Andrei P; Vvedenskiy, Vladimir Y.; Gogoi, K. Solid support and Phosphoramidite building blocks for oligonucleotide conjugates. US 10, 781, 175. ​. Guzaev, Andrei P; Vvedenskiy, Vladimir Y. Phosphoramidite building blocks for sugar-conjugated oligonucleotides. US 10,669,301. ​. Guzaev, Andrei P; Vvedenskiy, Vladimir Y. Phosphoramidite building blocks for sugar-conjugated oligonucleotides. US 10,087,208. ​. Guzaev, Andrei P. Sulfur transfer reagents for oligonucleotide synthesis. US 8,552,175. ​. Ravikumar, Vasulinga; Manoharan, Muthiah; Guzaev, Andrei P.; Wang, Zhiwei; Kumar, Raju Krishna. Supports for oligomer synthesis. US 8,541,599. ​. Ravikumar, Vasulinga; Manoharan, Muthiah; Guzaev, Andrei P.; Wang, Zhiwei; Kumar, Raju Krishna. Supports for oligomer synthesis. US 8,153,725. Guzaev, Andrei P. Sulfur transfer reagents for oligonucleotide synthesis. US 7,723,528. Ravikumar, Vasulinga; Manoharan, Muthiah; Guzaev, Andrei P.; Wang, Zhiwei; Kumar, Raju Krishna. Preparation of ...
Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus. They are used primarily in pest control as an alternative to chlorinated hydrocarbons that persist in the environment. These compounds are highly effective insecticides, though some are also lethal to humans at minuscule doses (nerve gas) and include some of the most toxic substances ever created by man, including sarin and VX nerve agents. Organophosphorus chemistry is the corresponding science of the properties and reactivity of organophosphorus compounds. Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is in group 15 of the periodic table, and thus phosphorus compounds and nitrogen compounds have many similar properties. The definition of organophosphorus compounds is variable, which can lead to confusion. In industrial and environmental chemistry, an organophosphorus compound need contain only an organic substituent, but need not have a direct phosphorus-carbon (P-C) bond.[citation needed] Thus a large proportion of pesticides (e.g., ...
(CYANOMETHYL)TRIPHENYLPHOSPHONIUM CHLORIDE 4336-70-3 NMR spectrum, (CYANOMETHYL)TRIPHENYLPHOSPHONIUM CHLORIDE H-NMR spectral analysis, (CYANOMETHYL)TRIPHENYLPHOSPHONIUM CHLORIDE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Alfa Aesar™ (2-Methylbenzyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride, 98+% 50g Alfa Aesar™ (2-Methylbenzyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride, 98+% Mercaptoe to...
The late stages of biosynthesis of phosphinothricin tripeptide (PTT) involve peptide formation and methylation on phosphorus. The exact timing of these transformations is not known. To provide insight into this question, we developed a heterologous expression system for PhsA, one of three NRPS proteins in PTT biosynthesis. The apparent k(cat)/K(m) value for ATP-pyrophosphate exchange activity for d,l-N-acetylphosphinothricin was 3.5 muM(-1) min(-1), whereas the k(cat)/K(m,app) for l-N-acetyldemethylphosphinothricin was 0.5 microM(-1) min(-1), suggesting the former might be the physiological substrate. Each substrate could be loaded onto the phosphopantetheine arm of the thiolation domain as observed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS).. ...
ZD6126 is a novel vascular-targeting agent that acts by disrupting the tubulin cytoskeleton of an immature tumor endothelium, leading to an occlusion of tumor blood vessels and a subsequent tumor necrosis. We wanted to evaluate ZD6126 in primary and metastatic tumor models of human pancreatic cancer. Nude mice were injected orthotopically with L3.6pl pancreatic cancer cells. In single and multiple dosing experiments, mice received ZD6126, gemcitabine, a combination of both agents, or no treatment. For the induction of metastatic diseases, additional groups of mice were injected with L3.6pl cells into the spleen. Twenty-four hours after a single-dose treatment, ZD6126 therapy led to an extensive central tumor necrosis, which was not seen after gemcitabine treatment. Multiple dosing of ZD6126 resulted in a significant growth inhibition of primary tumors and a marked reduction of spontaneous liver and lymph node metastases. Experimental metastatic diseases could be significantly controlled by a combination
Aldrich - 244945; cis-Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II) ; CAS No. 15604-36-1; Pt(PPh3)2Cl2 | cis-Bis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II) dichloride; catalyst | Find related products, papers, technical documents, MSDS & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Shop a large selection of Benzene and substituted derivatives products and learn more about Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(0), 95%, ACROS Organics™ 1g; Glass bottle
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P-Hydroxytetraorganophosphorane, the long-postulated intermediate in phosphonium salt and ylide hydrolysis, has been observed and characterised by low temperature NMR, finally definitively establishing its involvement in these reactions. The results require modification of the previously accepted mechanism for ylide hydrolysis: P-hydroxy-tetraorganophosphorane is generated directly by 4-centre reaction of ylide with water ...
Phosphonium salts are widely used in organic synthesis for the preparation of alkenes (Maercker, 1965; Carruthers, 1971) and are formed by alkylation of triaryl or trialkyl phosphines. Reports on (cycloalkylidenemethyl)triphenylphosphonium salts being used as versatile intermediate reagents have been published (Minami et al., 1988). The crystal structures of several mixed alkyl-aryl phosphonium bromides have been reported such as (3-cyanopropyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (Czerwinski & Ponnuswamy, 1988a) and (3-bromopropyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (Czerwinski & Ponnuswamy, 1988b).. The phosphorus atom is coordinated tetrahedrally. The C-P-C angles span a range of 107.20 (10)-111.18 (10)° with the smallest angle found in between two phenyl groups and the largest angle in between a phenyl and the 3-chloropropyl group. The non-hydrogen atoms of the 3-chloropropyl group adopt a staggered conformation, the corresponding C-C-C-Cl angle is found at -72.0 (3)° (Fig. 1).. In the crystal, two ...
p,Methylphosphonate synthase (MPnS) produces methylphosphonate, a metabolic precursor to methane in the upper ocean. Here, we determine a 2.35-angstrom resolution structure of MPnS and discover that it has an unusual 2-histidine-1-glutamine iron-coordinating triad. We further solve the structure of a related enzyme, hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase from Streptomyces albus (SaHEPD), and find that it displays the same motif. SaHEPD can be converted into an MPnS by mutation of glutamine-adjacent residues, identifying the molecular requirements for methylphosphonate synthesis. Using these sequence markers, we find numerous putative MPnSs in marine microbiomes and confirm that MPnS is present in the abundant Pelagibacter ubique. The ubiquity of MPnS-containing microbes supports the proposal that methylphosphonate is a source of methane in the upper, aerobic ocean, where phosphorus-starved microbes catabolize methylphosphonate for its phosphorus.,/p,. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A review of experimental evidence linking neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds and inflammation. AU - Banks, Christopher N.. AU - Lein, Pamela J. PY - 2012/6. Y1 - 2012/6. N2 - Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents and pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and this is thought to be a primary mechanism mediating the neurotoxicity of these compounds. However, a number of observations suggest that mechanisms other than or in addition to AChE inhibition contribute to OP neurotoxicity. There is significant experimental evidence that acute OP intoxication elicits a robust inflammatory response, and emerging evidence suggests that chronic repeated low-level OP exposure also upregulates inflammatory mediators. A critical question that is just beginning to be addressed experimentally is the pathophysiologic relevance of inflammation in either acute or chronic OP intoxication. The goal of this article is to provide a brief review of the current status of our knowledge linking ...
Organophosphorus Chemistry provides a comprehensive annual review of the literature. Coverage includes phosphines and their chalcogenides, phosphonium salts, low coordination number phosphorus compounds, penta- and hexa-coordinated compounds, tervalent phosphorus acids, nucleotides and nucleic acids, ylides and related compounds, and phosphazenes. The series will be of value to research workers in universities, government and industrial research organisations, whose work involves the use of organophosphorus compounds. It provides a concise but comprehensive survey of a vast field of study with a wide variety of applications, enabling the reader to rapidly keep abreast of the latest developments in their specialist areas. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage of progress in the major areas of chemical research. Written by experts in their specialist fields the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, supplying regular critical in-depth
Organophosphorus Chemistry provides a comprehensive annual review of the literature. Coverage includes phosphines and their chalcogenides, phosphonium salts, low coordination number phosphorus compounds, penta- and hexa-coordinated compounds, tervalent phosphorus acids, nucleotides and nucleic acids, ylides and related compounds, and phosphazenes. The series will be of value to research workers in universities, government and industrial research organisations, whose work involves the use of organophosphorus compounds. It provides a concise but comprehensive survey of a vast field of study with a wide variety of applications, enabling the reader to rapidly keep abreast of the latest developments in their specialist areas. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage of progress in the major areas of chemical research. Written by experts in their specialist fields the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, supplying regular critical in-depth
We value your input so if you have suggestions regarding new applications for CARBOMETHOXYMETHYL TRIPHENYLPHOSPHONIUM CHLORIDE email us and we will include your contribution on the website.. Enquire about product ...
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Simple spectrophotometric method for determination of small quantities (traces) of phosphorus in inorganic material and organophosphorus compounds Dipterex, Isopestox and Parathion is described, The method is based on the development of...
They also are compatible with metals in multiple oxidation states. ChemInform Abstract: Triphenylphosphine as a Ligand for the Pd‐Catalyzed Amination of Unactivated Aryl Chlorides with Anilines Promoted by Salicylaldimine. An important technique for the characterization of metal-PR3 complexes is 31P NMR spectroscopy. Such ligands can be classified according to their donor strength and steric bulk. [4], The first reported phosphine complexes were cis- and trans-PtCl2(PEt3)2 reported by Cahours and Gal in 1870. The ligand modified metal created a catalyst which showed significantly improved selectivity as a result of a decrease in the extent of over-hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane. The conformational properties of diphosphines makes them especially useful in asymmetric catalysis, e.g. Tridentate triphosphines come in two classes, linear and tripodal. They are three-fold symmetric with equivalent substituents. Os(CHF)Cl(CO)(PPh) reacts with BCl to give the title metallacycle, (), which is the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The structures of some bis(triphenylphosphine)(halogen-substituted ethylene)platinum(O) complexes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Glentham Life Sciences is a supplier of GX2503 - Bis(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium dicarbonyl dichloride (14564-35-3). Find catalogue prices, chemical data, technical specifications and MSDS documents.
Triphenylphosphine ReagentPlus®, 99%; CAS Number: 603-35-0; EC Number: 210-036-0; Synonym: Phosphorustriphenyl; Linear Formula: C18H15P; find Sigma-Aldrich-T84409 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Pala, L., Senn, H. , Caldwell, S. , Prime, T. A., Warrington, S., Bright, T. P., Prag, H., Wilson, C. , Murphy, M. and Hartley, R. (2020) Enhancing the Mitochondrial Uptake of Phosphonium Cations by Carboxylic Acid Incorporation. [Data Collection] ...
Tetrakis may refer to: Mathematics: Tetrakis hexahedron, an Archimedean dual solid, or a Catalan solid Tetrakis square tiling, a tiling of the Euclidean plane Chemistry: Tetrakis(acetonitrile)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate, a copper(I) coordination complex with the formula [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 Tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium(IV) (TDMAT) is a compound with the formula C8H24N4Ti Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC) is a phosphonium salt with the chemical formula [(CH2OH)4P]Cl Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), the chemical compound Pd[P(C6H5)3]4 Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0), the chemical compound with the formula Pt(P(C6H5)3) ...
Organophosphorus poisoning is treated using drugs that block the action of acetylcholine i.e. However, he developed massive melena 2 weeks after the ingestion of the organophosphorus pesticide, and received a total of 30 units of blood. Today, organophosphates make up about 50% of the killing agents in chemical pesticides. Several studies reported the problem of fake antimalarial drugs in the past. Symptoms include increased saliva and tear production, diarrhea, vomiting, small pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and confusion. Yamamoto I, Saito T, Honda Y et al (1999) Clinical feature and the management of insecticide intoxication. The flow for Post Publication Peer Review. MANAGEMENT In case of emergency , be ready with these items.. 15. 3 Many studies estimate that organophosphorus pesticides are responsible for around two-thirds of these deaths 5 -a total of 200 000 a year. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past ? Also, the absence of clear guidelines and definitive treatment due to ...
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TY - CONF. T1 - Modelling of Reactive Extraction of Lactic Acid with Organophosphorus Compounds. AU - Lux, Susanne. AU - Siebenhofer, Matthäus. PY - 2012/6/20. Y1 - 2012/6/20. M3 - (Old data) Lecture or Presentation. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of Imidazole C1- and C3-Ribonucleoside Phosphoramidites for Probing Catalytic Mechanism in Ribozyme. AU - Harusawa, Shinya. AU - Fujii, Kensuke. AU - Nishiura, Masayoshi. AU - Araki, Lisa. AU - Usami, Yoshihide. AU - Zhao, Zheng-yun. AU - Lilley, David M. J.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Synthesis of C4-linked imidazole N-pivaloyloxymethyl (P0M)-2-O-cyanoethylated (CE) C-1- and C-3-ribonucleoside phosphoramidites 1a and 1b is described. These phosphoramidite products were incorporated into RNA sequence through solid phase phosphoramidite approach, providing RNA with imidazole linked through different length to sugar residue, to study the mechanism of a ribozyme.. AB - Synthesis of C4-linked imidazole N-pivaloyloxymethyl (P0M)-2-O-cyanoethylated (CE) C-1- and C-3-ribonucleoside phosphoramidites 1a and 1b is described. These phosphoramidite products were incorporated into RNA sequence through solid phase phosphoramidite approach, providing RNA with imidazole ...
Disclosed are a styrene-based resin composite material in which a layer composed mainly of a curable phosphazene compound is formed on the surface of a molding material of a styrene-based polymer having a mainly syndiotactic configuration or a composition thereof, and also a magnetic recording medium characterized in that a magnetic layer containing the curable phosphazene compound as a binder on a support composed of the above polymer or a composition thereof, an over coated layer of a magnetic recording medium which contains the curable phosphazene compound and a lubricating layer of a magnetic recording medium which contains the curable phosphazene compound.
Page contains details about gold nanoparticle-loaded poly[(methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol))(2-diethylaminoethyl 4-aminobenzoate)phosphazene] nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and stroke. Superoxide (SO) is produced by NAD(P)H oxidase in the vasculature and reduces nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, which leads to increased blood pressure. The objective of this study was to determine whether targeting an anti-oxidant peptide to the vasculature would increase the anti-oxidant effect and reduce systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a model of genetic hypertension, the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). Vascular-targeting peptides CRPPR and CSGMARTKC were identified by phage display in mice. These peptides retain their selectivity across species and target the aorta (CRPPR) and cardiac vasculature (CSGMARTKC) in the SHRSP. These vascular-targeting peptides were linked to the anti-oxidant peptide gp91ds, which selectively inhibits assembly of NAD(P)H oxidase, thereby reducing SO production. SBP was determined for one week prior to treatment, followed by three weeks of study duration before ...
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A. N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-serine β-lactone.2 3 A 2-L, three-necked, round-bottomed flask is equipped with a magnetic stirring bar, an argon inlet adaptor, a low temperature thermometer, and a rubber septum (Note 1). The flask is charged with tetrahydrofuran (1.1 L) and triphenylphosphine (42.1 g, 160 mmol) (Note 2). The triphenylphosphine is dissolved with stirring, and the flask is cooled to −78°C with a dry ice-acetone bath maintained at that temperature (Note 3). Distilled diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD) (27.86 g, 160 mmol) is then added dropwise with a syringe over 10 min (Note 4). The resulting pale yellow solution is stirred at −75°C to −78°C for 10 min, at which point a milky slurry is obtained. The rubber septum on the flask is quickly replaced with a 1-L, pressure-equalizing dropping funnel containing a solution of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-serine (32.8 g, 160 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (240 mL), (Note 2) and (Note 5) which is then added dropwise to the mixture over 30 min. ...
(Z)-2-(4-Chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylideneamino)-6-ethoxy-4-phenylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile 1, when treated with either triphenylphosphine (4 equiv.) or polymer bound triphenylphosphine (5 equiv.) in dichloromethane at room temperature for 3 days affords 3‑amino-6-ethoxy-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-2,5-dicarbonitrile 2 in 60-62% yields.
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Principal Investigator:YAMAGUCHI Masahiko, Project Period (FY):2009-04-01 - 2015-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), Research Field:Chemical pharmacy
To treat the Organophosphorus Monomers g grade, the combination must See fermented and not stared as sexually Conveniently unlimited so that code and browser are delightfully ensure. In Full seconds, the side and learning requirements of non-profit cases think also sorry so for this browser. The METTLER TOLEDO Flash DSC intentionally is recent methods.
To construct modified RNA that form A-type duplex with photo-irradiation, a photocleavable a-methyl-2-nitropiperonyl (MeNP) group was introduced at O(6) position of guanosine. A guanosine phosphoramidite derivative containing the MeNP group was synthesized via regioselective 2-O-protection of 3,5-O-di(t-butyl)silanediylguanosine with TBDMS group. The MeNP group was found to be stable under conditions ...
DNA synthesis: Oligodeoxynucleotides were synthesized on a Cyclone Plus DNA Synthesizer (Millipore, Marlborough, MA) using standard phosphoramidite chemistry. Precursor phosphoramidites were purchased from PerSeptive Biosystems (Farmington, MA) or from Glenn Research (Sterling, VA). They were then purified using Oligo-Pure cartridges (Hamilton, Reno, NV) according to the manufacturers protocol. This was followed by 32P end-labelling, as previously described (Smith, et al. 1991). Mobility Shift Assays: Duplexes were formed by combining equimolar (20 µM) amounts of complementary strands in annealing buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, and 100 mM NaCl) then treating with 95°C for 5 minutes and 50°C for 60 minutes. The samples were allowed to cool to room temperature for 10 min. and were then stored on ice until needed. Methyltransferase Purification: M·HhaI was obtained via purification from E. coli RR1 containing the pSP72 plasmid (Promega, Madison, WI) carrying the entire HhaI ...
Codexis will use its enzyme evolution technology to improve the DNA polymerase enzymes Molecular Assemblies uses in enzyme-based DNA synthesis. Molecular Assemblies, one of C&ENs 10 Start-Ups to Watch in 2018, says its approach creates longer strands of DNA than current phosphoramidite chemistry does. Codexis will buy $1 million of Moleculars stock and could accumulate an ownership stake of over 10%.. ...
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The derivatization of nucleic acids with selenium is a useful approach to facilitate phase determination during three‐dimensional structural analysis by X‐ray crystallography
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphate starvation-independent 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid biodegradation in a newly isolated strain of Pseudomonas putida, NG2. AU - Ternan, Nigel. AU - Quinn, JP. PY - 1998/8. Y1 - 1998/8. N2 - A strain of Pseudomonas putida that utilized the biogenic organophosphonate 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid as sole carbon and energy, nitrogen and phosphorus source contained 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid: pyruvate aminotransferase and phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase) activities which were inducible by the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in the culture medium, regardless of the phosphate status of the cells. Neither of these activities were induced in either phosphate-free or phosphate-replete medium in the absence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid. Alkaline phosphatase activity was induced in phosphate limited medium, however, indicating a phosphate-starvation inducible response. In Enterobacter aerogenes IFO 12010, 2-aminoethylphosphonate : pyruvate aminotransferase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trifluoroacetylation of amines with trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of trichloroacetonitrile and triphenylphosphine. AU - Kim, Joong Gon. AU - Jang, Doo Ok. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Center for Bioactive Molecular Hybrids.. PY - 2010/1/27. Y1 - 2010/1/27. N2 - We developed a mild and convenient trifluoroacetylation process for amines using a combination of trichloroacetonitrile and triphenylphosphine. The reaction that we designed is applicable to the trifluoroacetylation of a wide variety of amines, including amines with stereogenic centers, which underwent trifluoroacetylation without racemization.. AB - We developed a mild and convenient trifluoroacetylation process for amines using a combination of trichloroacetonitrile and triphenylphosphine. The reaction that we designed is applicable to the trifluoroacetylation of a wide variety of amines, including amines with stereogenic centers, which underwent trifluoroacetylation without ...
A statement on the appearance of the substance is taken from the test material section of a GLP-compliant study on the physico-chemical properties of the material (OConnor & Woolley 2011). It is considered suitable for use as the key study for this endpoint. Tris(triphenylphosphine) rhodium (I) chloride is a red/brown powder. Lide (2008) is reliable, peer-reviewed handbook and so can be considered reliable and suitable for use as supporting study for this endpoint. At 20ºC and 1013 hPa, tris(triphenylphosphine) rhodium (I) chloride is a red powder. ...
Bis(triphenylphosphine)iminiumhloride (CAS 2156-68-5) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on bis(triphenylphosphine)iminiumhloride
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GC Application #18326: European Organophosphorous Pesticides Mix # 1 on ZB-5MSi. Column used: Zebron™ ZB-5MSi, GC Cap. Column 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 µm, Ea Part#: 7HG-G018-11
New derivatives of cyclodextrins were prepared in order to determine the relative importance of the structural key elements involved in the degradation of organophosphorus nerve agents. To avoid a competitive inclusion between the organophosphorus substrate and the iodosobenzoate group, responsible for its degradation, the latter group had to be covalently bound to the cyclodextrin scaffold. Although the presence of the α nucleophile iodosobenzoate was a determinant in the hydrolysis process, an imidazole group was added to get a synergistic effect towards the degradation of the agents. The degradation efficiency was found to be dependent on the relative position of the heterocycle towards the reactive group as well as on the nature of the organophosphorus derivative.
Page contains details about bis(triphenylphosphonium) tetraphenylethene dibromide nanoaggregates . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
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Catalytic characteristics of hexahistidine-containing organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) and its enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes with poly-l-glutamic acid or poly-l-aspartic acid (His6-OPH/PLD50), hydrolyzing organophosphorous compounds, and N-acyl homoserine lactones were studied in the presence of various antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and rifampicin). The antibiotics at concentrations below 1 g·L−1 had a negligible inhibiting effect on the His6-OPH activity. Mixed inhibition of His6-OPH was established for higher antibiotic concentrations, and rifampicin was the most potent inhibitor. Stabilization of the His6-OPH activity was observed in the presence of antibiotics at a concentration of 0.2 g·L−1 during exposure at 25-41 °C. Molecular docking of antibiotics to the surface of His6-OPH dimer revealed the antibiotics binding both to the area near active centers of the enzyme subunits and to the region of contact between subunits of the dimer. Such interactions between
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A series of poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PLLA/PTMG) blend films were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in chloroform. Surface morphologies of the PLLA/PTMG blend films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PLLA/PTMG blend films were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests, and surface contact angle tests. It was revealed that the introduction of flexible PTMG could markedly modify the properties of the PLLA films.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolism of phosphonium choline by Rat-2 fibroblasts. T2 - Effects of mitogenic stimulation studied using 31P NMR spectroscopy. AU - Aiken, Nanci R.. AU - Szwergold, Enjamin S.. AU - Kappler, Francis. AU - Stoyanova, Radka. AU - Kuesel, Annette C.. AU - Shaller, Calvin. AU - Brown, Truman R.. PY - 1996/5/1. Y1 - 1996/5/1. N2 - Phospholipid turnover increases with both mitogenic stimulation and oncogenic transformation. Recent 31P nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of human tumors, animal tumor models and cell systems have reported elevated phosphomonesters with growth and oncogenic transformation, as well as changes in these levels associated with treatment. In order to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying these changes, we used a phosphonium analog of choline and 31P NMR spectroscopy to study choline metabolism in quiescent and mitogenically stimulated Rat-2 fibroblasts. Cell growth status of these cells has a significant effect on choline ...
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Phosphonates represent an important class of organophosphorus compounds. Their use as reagents in organic synthesis is prevalent, and there is a plethora of examples of biologically active compounds possessing the phosphonate moiety. To further our exploration of phosphonates as both reagents and biologically active compounds we have developed a one-flask protocol for the direct synthesis of phosphonates from benzylic and allylic alcohols. This transformation is unprecedented and is applicable to a range of substrates. Both electron rich and electron deficient benzylic alcohols react under the conditions developed. Furthermore, good yields are achieved when converting allylic alcohols to the corresponding allylic phosphonates. In at least one case, the one-flask protocol allows for phosphonate formation that was not achievable under the standard conditions. Bisphosphonates represent a significant subclass of phosphonates. Several nitrogenous bisphosphonates have found use in the clinic as treatments for
This page contains information on the chemical Glutaconic acid, 3-hydroxy-, dimethyl ester, dimethyl phosphate including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
TY - JOUR. T1 - 3′-methylphosphonate-modified oligo-2′-O-methylribonucleotides and their Tat peptide conjugates. T2 - Uptake and stability in mouse fibroblasts in culture. AU - Prater, Chrissy E.. AU - Miller, Paul S.. PY - 2004/5/1. Y1 - 2004/5/1. N2 - Antisense oligo-2′-O-methylribonucleotides and their methylphosphonate derivatives show high binding affinities for their complementary targets under essentially physiological conditions. Additionally, the methylphosphonate linkage is resistant to nuclease hydrolysis. Here we show that a single methylphosphonate internucleotide linkage at the 3′-end of an oligo-2′-O-methylribonucleotide is sufficient to prevent degradation by the 3′-exonuclease activity found in mammalian serum. Complexes formed between a cationic lipid, Oligofectamine, and 5′-[32P]-labeled methylphosphonate modified oligo2′-O-methylribonucleotides are taken up by mouse L929 fibroblasts in culture. The extent of uptake appears to be dependent upon the sequence of ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
This unit provides a modified phosphoramidite method to synthesize oligodeoxyribonucleotides onto a universal and reusable hydroxyl solid support thanks to the use of deoxyribonucleoside tert‐butyl and cyanoethyl phosphoramidites
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Previous research has shown that mitochondrial targeting of antioxidants could inhibit tumor cell proliferation (25, 26). Delocalized phosphonium cations were shown to exert antitumor activity in several tumor cell lines (35, 36). For example, it was recently reported that Mito-CP, but not CP, induced an increase in phosphorylated ERK1/2 in colon cancer cells (25). Furthermore, the selective toxicity of mitochondria-targeted vitamin-E succinate conjugated to TPP+ in tumor cells was attributed to enhanced mitochondrial localization and binding to complex 2 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (37). In other studies, selective targeting of tumor-specific cellular energy metabolism synergistically exacerbated cytotoxicity in cancer cells treated with antiglycolytic agents or with inhibitors of fatty acid β-oxidation (38). A metabolic shift to glycolysis occurs during antiangiogenic therapy with drugs (e.g., bevacizumab) that block VEGF in glioblastoma (39). Upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway ...
In this work, Cd(II) extraction in natural waters by organophosphorus extractants as organic phase, as well as its back-extraction in an acidic media, has been studied. Cadmium extraction behavior at natural waters pH conditions (values in the range 7-8) was studied with two different extractants and co-ions, obtaining the highest extraction efficiency when using 0.1M Cyanex 272 in kerosene as organic phase and 0.1 M NO3 − as co-ion. Once they were selected, the effect on the extraction efficiency of sample pH, buffer concentration, extraction time, Cyanex 272 concentration as well as back-extractant concentration, was studied. The presence of the main inorganic and organic ligands in the sample was also studied, observing that extraction efficiency was affected most significantly when chlorides were present, with a decrease of about 14%, proving negligible for the others. Under the selected conditions, spiked real samples were successfully analyzed ...
Liquid-Crystalline Phases of Phosphonium Salts with Three Long n-Alkyl Chains as Ordered Ionic Fluids Abdallah, D. J., Wauters, H.C., Kwait, D. C., Khetrapal, C. L., Nagana Gowda, G. A., Robertson, A., Weiss, R. G., In Ionic Liquids IIIB: Fundamental, Progress, Challenges and Opportunities (ACS Symposium Series 902), Rogers, R. D., Seddon, K. R., Eds., American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2005,Chap 21 (pp 303-320 ...
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The substitution of trimethylphosphine for triphenylphosphine in {eta}{sup 5}-cyclopentadienyl-bis-triphenylphosphinecobalt(I), 1, to form {eta}{sup 5}-cyclopentadienyltrimethylphosphinetriphenylphosphinecobalt(I) was studied at -60°C in an NMR spectrometer. Kinetic measurements show the process to be first order in 1 and zero order in PMe{sub 3}; added PPh{sub 3} strongly inhibits the reaction rate. This information indicates the reaction proceeds by rapid reversible phosphine dissociation through the unsaturated CpCo(PPh{sub 3}) intermediate. The rate for generation of that intermediate, k{sub 1}, is 1.15 x 10{sup -3} sec{sup -1} while the ratio of rate constant k{sub 2} (for conversion of intermediate to products) to k{sub -1} (return to starting materials) is 4 at -60°C. Possible structures for CpCo(L) are discussed in light of recent indications that the linear structure has an open-shell electronic configuration.
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Bis(dimethylgyloximato)(phenylacetylido)(triphenylphosphine)rhodium(III) dichloromethane, [Rh(C4H7N2O2)2(C8H5)(C18H15P)] CH2Cl2. ___________________________________________________________. M. Dunaj-Jurco, I. Potocn k, M. Ludwig, D. Steinborn, Current ...
Two studies are available to assess the inhibition of microbial activity by the active substance THPS. These studies were performed on the THPS in solution. The relevant results were expressed as main ingredient (100% active substance). A respiration inhibition test (Mead, 1998) and a nitrification inhibition test (Mead, 2002) were performed. Both studies are of reliability 1. The study leading to the lowest EC50 value has been defined as key study (Mead, 1998). The results of the available studies, expressed as main ingredient, are presented below: ...
3-Cyanovinylcarbazole Phosphoramidite (CNVK) When 3-cyanovinylcarbazole nucleoside (CNVK) is incorporated into an oligonucleotide, very rapid photo cross-linking to the complementary strand can be induced at one wavelength and rapid reversal of the cross-
Phosphate is an inorganic anion of phosphoric acid OP(OH)3 There are also organophosphorus compounds with the formula OP(OR)3 ...
11410376] Biosynthesis of the orthosomycin antibiotic avilamycin A: deductions from the molecular analysis of the avi biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tu57 and production of new antibiotics. (Chem Biol. , 2001 ...
11410376] Biosynthesis of the orthosomycin antibiotic avilamycin A: deductions from the molecular analysis of the avi biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tu57 and production of new antibiotics. (Chem Biol. , 2001 ...
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Collins, DJ; Drygala, PF; Swan, JM (1983). "Organophosphorus compounds. XIX. Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydro-1 H-1,2-benzazaphosphole ... Maier, Ludwig (October 1991). "Organic Phosphorus Compounds 98.1Synthesis and Properties of N-Methylaminomethylphosphonic Acid ...
... s (R 1R 2C 2PY 1Y+ 2) are a series of organophosphorus compounds containing unsaturated three-membered ring ... "Organophosphorus Compounds; 122. Alkylation of 1H-Phosphirenes with Triflates - Synthesis of λ5σ4-1H-Phosphirenium Cations". ... Reminiscent of π-ligand exchange in coordination compounds, a phosphirenium ion may undergo alkyne exchange with other alkynes ...
Organophosphorus flame retardants have been detected in wastewater in Spain and Sweden, and some compounds do not appear to be ... Organophosphorus compounds. This class includes organophosphates such as triphenyl phosphate (TPP), resorcinol bis( ... Mineral flame retardants are typically additive while organohalogen and organophosphorus compounds can be either reactive or ... In one important class of flame retardants, compounds contain both phosphorus and a halogen. Such compounds include tris(2,3- ...
Cohen JA, Oosterbaan RA, Berends F (1967). "[81] Organophosphorus compounds". Enzyme Structure. Methods in Enzymology. 11. pp. ... This compound is a potent inhibitor of cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5, the enzyme that degrades the signalling molecule ... These predictions are then tested and one of these tested compounds may be a novel inhibitor. This new inhibitor is then used ... In the past the only way to discover these new inhibitors was by trial and error: screening huge libraries of compounds against ...
Fonnum, F.; Sterri, S.H. (1981). "Factors modifying the toxicity of organophosphorus compounds including soman and sarin". ... Jokanović, M. (2001-09-25). "Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds". Toxicology. 166 (3): 139-160. doi:10.1016/s0300- ... Soman is an organophosphorus nerve agent with a mechanism of action similar to Tabun. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholine ... As soman is closely related to compounds such as sarin, indications for a soman poisoning are relatively similar. One of the ...
Dictionary of organophosphorus compounds. London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 0-412-25790-4. Biochemical, Biochemische und ...
Dictionary of organophosphorus compounds. London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 0-412-25790-4. Type strain of Streptomyces ...
Jokanović, Milan (2001-09-25). "Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds". Toxicology. 166 (3): 139-160. doi:10.1016/ ... "Structure-Activity Relationships of the Organophosphorus Anticholinesterase Agents, Historical development of organophosphorus ... In the meantime, organophosphorus chemistry has really started developing with the help of A. W. von Hofmann, Carl Arnold ... The compound hydrolyzes rapidly. TEPP is a very good insecticide to aphids, mites, spiders, mealybugs, leafhoppers, lygus bugs ...
Pedersen B. S., Scheibye S., Nilson N, H,, Lawesson S. O. (1978). "Studies on Organophosphorus Compounds .10. Synthesis of ... Lawesson undertook a general survey of the reactivity of organic compounds with this reagent. It is often named after him as ...
Scheibye, S.; Kristensen, J.; Lawesson, S.-O. (1979). "Studies on organophosphorus compounds XXVII. Synthesis of thiono-, ... "Studies on organophosphorus compounds XX. syntheses of thioketones". Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg. (87): 223-228. doi:10.1002/bscb. ... "Studies on organophosphorus compounds XXXI. Synthesis of thiolactams and thioimides". Nouveau Journal de Chimie. 1980 (4): 47. ... As Lawesson's reagent has a strong and unpleasant smell, it is best to prepare the compound within a fume-hood and to treat all ...
Augustinsson K-B; Heimburger G (1954). "Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. II. Analysis of reaction products ... Augustinsson K-B; Heimburger G (1954). "Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. IV. Specificity studies". Acta Chem ... Augustinsson K-B; Heimburger G (1954). "Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. I. Occurrence of enzymes ... At least one compound, Chelating agent is known to inhibit this enzyme. As of late 2007, 16 structures have been solved for ...
Singh BK, Walker A (May 2006). "Microbial degradation of organophosphorus compounds". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 30 (3): 428-71 ... Organophosphate is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. They can be ... The enzyme phosphotriesterase hydrolyzes organophosphate compounds by cleaving the triester linkage in the substrate. The ... Singh BK (February 2009). "Organophosphorus-degrading bacteria: ecology and industrial applications". Nature Reviews. ...
"Studies on organophosphorus compounds XXXI. Synthesis of thiolactams and thioimides". Nouveau Journal de Chimie. 1980 (4): 47. ...
Cohen, J.A.; Oosterbaan, R.A.; Berends, F. (1967). "[81] Organophosphorus compounds". Enzyme Structure. Methods in Enzymology. ... This compound is a potent inhibitor of cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5, the enzyme that degrades the signalling molecule ... In the past the only way to discover these new inhibitors was by trial and error: screening huge libraries of compounds against ... These natural toxins include some of the most poisonous compounds known. Artificial inhibitors are often used as drugs, but can ...
... is the organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C 4H 9) 3. Abbreviated or PBu 3, it is a tertiary ... "Phosphine in the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds". Russian Chemical Reviews. 68 (3): 215-227. doi:10.1070/ ... Jürgen Svara, Norbert Weferling and Thomas Hofmann "Phosphorus Compounds, Organic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... the compound is usually handled under an inert atmosphere. The phosphine is also easily alkylated. For example, benzyl chloride ...
Diphosphene is a type of organophosphorus compound that has a phosphorus-phosphorus double bond, denoted by R-P=P-R'. These ... doi:10.1016/s0003-2670(03)00996-6. Yoshifuji, Masaaki (2017-03-01). "Sterically protected organophosphorus compounds of unusual ... A borylzinc chloride was prepared by from a bulky boryl-lithium compound. This nucleophilic borylzinc compound could attack the ... Normally, compounds with the empirical formula RP exist as rings. However, like other multiple bonds between heavy main-group ...
... is the organophosphorus compound with the formula P(CH2CH2CN)3. It is white solid that is air stable ... Trofimov, Boris A.; Arbuzova, Svetlana N.; Gusarova, Nina K. (1999). "Phosphine in the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds ... The compound has been the subject of much research. For example, it is an effective reagent for the desulfurization of organic ...
Trofimov, Boris A.; Arbuzova, Svetlana N.; Gusarova, Nina K. (1999). "Phosphine in the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds ... Quin, L. D. A Guide to Organophosphorus Chemistry; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 2000; pp 28-29. Alonso, Francisco; Moglie, ...
Chapter 10 of The chemistry of organophosphorus compounds. Volume 4, Ter- and quinque-valent phosphorus acids and their ... 1996) Black, R. M.; Harrison, J. M. (2009). "The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents". PATai's Chemistry of ... Black R.M., Harrison J.M. The chemistry of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents. ...
Balali-Mood, Mahdi (January 2008). "Neurotoxic disorders of organophosphorus compounds and their managements". Arch Iran Med. ... Toxins include organophosphate compounds which have been used as pesticides and as chemical agents in warfare. The poison can ... lead to further damage to the body such as a neurodegenerative disorder called organophosphorus induced delayed polyneuropathy ...
The chemistry of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents. Chapter 10 of The chemistry of organophosphorus compounds. Volume 4 ... The chemistry of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents. Chapter 10 of The chemistry of organophosphorus compounds. Volume 4 ... Methylfluorophosphonylcholine (MFPCh) is an extremely toxic chemical compound related to the G-series nerve agents. It is an ... However, despite its high toxicity, methylfluorophosphonylcholine is a relatively unstable compound and degrades rapidly in ...
The protein is also the target for neurodegeneration induced by organophosphorus compounds and chemical warfare agents. ... Johnson MK (October 1969). "The delayed neurotoxic effect of some organophosphorus compounds. Identification of the ... results from poisoning with neuropathic organophosphorus compounds that irreversibly inhibit NTE. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Glynn P, Read DJ, Guo R, Wylie S, Johnson MK (July 1994). "Synthesis and characterization of a biotinylated organophosphorus ...
Costa, Lucio G. (Dec 7, 2017). "Organophosphorus Compounds at 80: Some Old and New Issues". Toxicological Sciences. 162 (1): 24 ... The prominence of this compound is still a subject of research and the structural similarity of this compound to adenosine 3',5 ... They all start with a triol group, but differ in the phosphorus-containing compounds. The main function of IPTBO is to block ... IPTBO and other similar compounds are all derivatives of 2,6,7-trioxa-phospabicyclo[2,2,2]octane, with the most toxic ones ...
2014) Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorus Compounds, Springer. ISBN 978-1447156253 Franca, Tanos; Kitagawa, ... Mass spectral studies of organophosphorus compounds related to CWC". Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 30 (24): 2585- ... "Fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention ... "Fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention ...
... is an organophosphorus compound with the formula Ph3PCH2. It is the parent member of the ... The compound is usually described as a combination of two resonance structures: Ph3P+CH2− ↔ Ph3P=CH2 ...
Diisopropyl fluorophosphate IPTBO Edmundson R. Dictionary of Organophosphorus Compounds. pp 435-436. ISBN 9780412257902 Hart GJ ... Neopentylene fluorophosphate, also known as NPF or neopentylene phosphoryl fluoridate, is an organophosphate compound that is ...
... s or organophosphorothioates are a subclass of organophosphorus compounds. Many of these compounds are used ... Sulfur Bond Formation in Organophosphorus Compounds". Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis. 362 (14): 2801-2846. doi:10.1002/adsc. ... These compounds are the basis of antisense therapy, e.g., the drugs fomivirsen (Vitravene), Oblimersen, Alicaforsen, and ... Generally these compounds feature tetrahedral phosphorus(V) centers. Classically, thiophosphates would include a P=S double ...
... is an organophosphorus compound. Abbreviated t-BuCP, it was the first example of an isolable ... 2-additions of halogenated compounds. Organolithium compounds and enophiles can also react with C-P triple bonds, along with [2 ... Nixon, John F. "Coordination chemistry of compounds containing phosphorus-carbon multiple bonds." Chem. Rev. 1988, 88, 1327. ... "Molecular structures of phosphorus compounds : Part IX. Gas-phase structure of 2,2-dimethylpropylidynephosphine." Journal of ...
... are usually organophosphorus compounds with the formula R2POH. They are pyramidal in structure. Phosphorus is ... compounds with the formula R3PO cannot tautomerize. The situation is different for the secondary and primary phosphine oxides, ... OPR2H Even the pentafluorophenyl compound P(C6F5)2OH is unstable with respect to the phosphine oxide. Although phosphinous ...
Amides are also chemical compounds. They are made by reacting carboxylic acids like acetic acid with amines. There are many ... Nitro compound. *Nitroso compound. *Organophosphorus. *Oxime. *Peroxide. *Phosphonous and Phosphonic acid. *Pyridine derivative ...
Raymond S. Horvath (June 1972), Microbial Co-Metabolism and the Degradation of Organic Compounds in Nature, Bacteriological ...
Complexes of other organophosphorus ligands[edit]. The popularity and usefulness of phosphine complexes has led to the ... Coordination compounds. Hidden categories: *CS1 errors: missing periodical. *Pages with citations lacking titles ... 5 Complexes of other organophosphorus ligands *5.1 Complexes of primary and secondary phosphines ... popularization of complexes of many related organophosphorus ligands.[3] Complexes of arsines have also been widely ...
... (DDE) is a chemical compound formed by the loss of hydrogen chloride (dehydrohalogenation) ... Hejmej, Anna; Kotula-Balak, Magorzata; Bilinsk, Barbara (2011). "Antiandrogenic and Estrogenic Compounds: Effect on Development ... These compounds cause egg shell thinning in susceptible species, which leads to the birds' crushing their eggs instead of ...
Nitro compound. *Nitroso compound. *Organophosphorus. *Oxime. *Peroxide. *Phosphonous and Phosphonic acid. *Pyridine derivative ...
Related compounds. DDE, DDT, mitotane, perthane Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard ...
"Insecticide resistance resulting from sequential selection of houseflies in the field by organophosphorus compounds". Bulletin ... The pair of large compound eyes almost touch in the male, but are more widely separated in the female. They have three simple ... Head of a female housefly with two large compound eyes and three ocelli ...
Aromatic compounds. Benzene is one of the best-known aromatic compounds as it is one of the simplest and most stable aromatics. ... organophosphorus chemistry and organosilicon chemistry. ... compounds and unsaturated compounds exist as cyclic derivatives ... Aliphatic compounds. Main article: Aliphatic compound. The aliphatic hydrocarbons are subdivided into three groups of ... Converting individual petroleum compounds into different types of compounds by various chemical processes led to organic ...
It is an organophosphorus compound, specifically a phosphonate, which acts by inhibiting the plant enzyme 5- ... Glycine is then reacted with this phosphonate to yield glyphosate, and its name is taken as a contraction of the compounds used ... According to the National Pesticide Information Center fact sheet, glyphosate is not included in compounds tested for by the ... Selection for this program is based on a compound's prevalence of use and does not imply particular suspicion of endocrine ...
These drugs deplete the active form of the vitamin by inhibiting the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase and thus the recycling of the inactive vitamin K epoxide back to the active reduced form of vitamin K. The drugs are structurally similar to vitamin K and act as competitive inhibitors of the enzyme. The term "vitamin K antagonist" is a misnomer, as the drugs do not directly antagonise the action of vitamin K in the pharmacological sense, but rather the recycling of vitamin K. Vitamin K is required for the proper production of certain proteins involved in the blood clotting process. For example, it is needed to carboxylate specific glutamic acid residues on prothrombin. Without these residues carboxylated, the protein will not form the appropriate conformation of thrombin, which is needed to produce the fibrin monomers that are polymerized to form clots.[1] The action of this class of anticoagulants may be reversed by administering vitamin K for the duration of the anticoagulant's residence in ...
In chemistry, alcohol is a general term which refers to many organic compounds used in industry and science as reagents, ... Nitro compound. *Nitroso compound. *Organophosphorus. *Oxime. *Peroxide. *Phosphonous and Phosphonic acid. *Pyridine derivative ...
Organocopper, organotin, organosilicon, organoboron, organophosphorus, organocerium and organosulfur compounds are frequently ... In allyl lithium compounds, the lithium cation coordinates to the face of the carbon π bond in an η-3 fashion instead of a ... For aromatic compounds, the position of lithiation is also determined by the directing effect of substituent groups. Some of ... In heteroaromatic compounds, metalation usually occurs at the position ortho to the heteroatom. See lithium-halogen exchange ( ...
... is the ISO common name[3] for an organic compound that is used as a pesticide.[1] It is a pyrethroid, a class of ... The US patent covering the parent compound expired in November 2002.[12] Tefluthrin was registered for sale in the European ... Related insects share this susceptibility to the compound, including pests such as springtails, symphylids, millipedes, pygmy ... The latter was a novel compound when tefluthrin was invented[8] and the choice of routes to it has been discussed.[9] ...
Inorganic compounds. *Aluminium phosphide. *Boric acid. *Chromated copper arsenate. *Copper(II) arsenate ...
The compound is used as a mixture of four stereoisomers. Its two stereoisomeric centers are at the phenyl- and the hydroxyl- ...
A nitrile is a chemical compound with a -C=N functional group. ... Organophosphorus. *Oxime. *Peroxide. *Phosphonous and ...
This covalent linkage prevents migration and leaching of the organophosphorus compound. Bio-derived materialsEdit. Interest in ... Chain extenders (f = 2) and cross linkers (f ≥ 3) are low molecular weight hydroxyl and amine terminated compounds that play an ... Polyurethanes are in the class of compounds called reaction polymers, which include epoxies, unsaturated polyesters, and ... Polyols can be polyether polyols, which are made by the reaction of epoxides with an active hydrogen containing compounds. ...
Quin, L. D. (2000). A Guide to Organophosphorus Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 978-0-471-31824-8. .. ... Structural studies by electron diffraction reveal that phosphorine is a planar aromatic compound with 88% of the aromaticity of ... Phosphorine undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions like ordinary aromatic compounds: bromination, acylation, and so on ...
Richard C. Ropp (31 December 2012). Encyclopedia of the Alkaline Earth Compounds. Newnes. pp. 231-. ISBN 978-0-444-59553-9.. ... Calcium phosphide (CP) is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca3P2. It is one of several phosphides of calcium, being ...
This article about an organic compound is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
The compound has extremely high affinity to the open-form ryanodine receptor, a group of calcium channels found in skeletal ...
Chemical compound. Cypermethrin Names IUPAC name [Cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl]3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2- ...
Crystal Structures of Acetylcholinesterase in Complex with Organophosphorus Compounds Suggest that the Acyl Pocket Modulates ...
A ketone is an organic compound that has a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom (this is called carbonyl functional ... Nitro compound. *Nitroso compound. *Organophosphorus. *Oxime. *Peroxide. *Phosphonous and Phosphonic acid. *Pyridine derivative ...
Organosulfur compounds are also efficient hydroperoxide decomposers, with thioethers being particularly effective against long- ... Schwetlick, Klaus; Habicher, Wolf D. (October 1995). "Organophosphorus antioxidants action mechanisms and new trends". ... Schwetlick, K. (1 January 1983). "Mechanisms of antioxidant action of organic phosphorus compounds". Pure and Applied Chemistry ... Flame retardants are a broad range of compounds that improve fire resistance of polymers. Examples include aluminium hydroxide ...
Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely-related compounds. The major component (77%) is the p,p' isomer (pictured above ... Hejmej A, Kotula-Balak M, Bilinsk B (2011). "Antiandrogenic and Estrogenic Compounds: Effect on Development and Function of ... and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately ... "Verbindungen von Chloral mit Brom- und Chlorbenzol" [Compounds of chloral with bromo- and chlorobenzene]. Berichte der ...
a naturally occurring compound found in sesame seeds Synthetic[edit]. Phenol. the parent compound, used as a disinfectant and ... Aryldialkylphosphatase (also known as organophosphorus hydrolase, phosphotriesterase, and paraoxon hydrolase) uses an aryl ... a compound with an intense raspberry smell Salicylic acid. precursor compound to Aspirin (chemical synthesis is used in ... In plants, VirA is a protein histidine kinase which senses certain sugars and phenolic compounds. These compounds are typically ...
These compounds are nonpersistent sodium channel modulators and are less toxic than organophosphates and carbamates. Compounds ... copper and fluorine compounds. Contact insecticides can also be organic insecticides, i.e. organic chemical compounds, ... Many organic compounds are produced by plants for the purpose of defending the host plant from predation. A trivial case is ... DDT was introduced to replace lead and arsenic-based compounds, which were in widespread use in the early 1940s.[24] ...
Organophosphorus compounds. *Phosphate - OP(OR)3, such as triphenyl phosphate. *Phosphate conversion coating ... 3 and are found in many compounds. Biochemistry of phosphatesEdit. In biological systems, phosphorus is found as a free ... Compounds such as substituted phosphines have uses in organic chemistry, but do not seem to have any natural counterparts. ...
These compounds are some of the most thermally stable organophosphorus compounds. Compounds with the formula [PR4+]X− comprise ... and thus phosphorus compounds and nitrogen compounds have many similar properties. The definition of organophosphorus compounds ... organophosphorus chemistry @ users.ox.ac.uk; @ www.chem.wisc.edu NMR predictor for organophosphorus compound chemical shifts ... Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus. They are used primarily in pest control as an ...
... *Framework for Assessing Health Impacts of ... Interaction Profile for Mixtures of Insecticides: Pyrethroids, Organophosphorus Compounds, and Carbamates. (Draft for Public ... Mixtures of Insecticides: Pyrethroids, Organophosphorus Compounds, and Carbamates. ...
Determination of various organophosphorus compounds has been achieved by integrating biocomponents with different transducers. ... The present review describes the specifications of most of the electrochemical Organophosphorus biosensors reported till date. ... compounds as pesticides and insecticides leading to adverse effect on human population and live stock. There is a great need to ... associated with new sensing techniques has led to remarkable innovations in the design and construction of organophosphorus ...
... compounds may be near their practical limits, a new approach using enzymes as bioscavengers has... ... Inasmuch as the traditional pharmacological approaches to protection against organophosphorus (OP) ... Inasmuch as the traditional pharmacological approaches to protection against organophosphorus (OP) compounds may be near their ... Comparison of Cholinesterases and Carboxylesterase as Bioscavengers for Organophosphorus Compounds. In: Doctor B.P., Taylor P ...
4.1 Organophosphorus compounds. Neurotoxic chemical warfare agents are essentially organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) that ... 2. Black, R. M.; Harrison, J. M. In The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Compounds, Vol 4, Ter- and Quinque- phosphorus Acids and ... Organophosphorus compounds are organic substances which contain a phosphoryl (P=O) or a thiophosphoryl (P=S) bond.72 They are ... 4. Organophosphorus Compounds as Neurotoxic Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs). ...
Compounds, Organophosphorus , Compounds, Organopyrophosphorus , Organopyrophosphorus Compounds Definition Organic compounds ... 1100 50 compound (11aS)-. 8-. hydroxy-. 7-. methoxy-. 1,2,3,11a-. tetrahydro-. 5H-. pyrrolo(2,1-. c)(1,4)benzodiazepin-. 5- ... Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.. ...
Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS. ... Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. ... Organophosphorus Compounds. Subscribe to New Research on Organophosphorus Compounds Organic compounds that contain phosphorus ... 04/01/2011 - "Hospital based studies from various parts of Nepal have shown that poisoning with organophosphorus compounds is ...
... of phosphorus in inorganic material and organophosphorus compounds Dipterex, Isopestox and Parathion is described, The method ... Determination of small amounts of phosphorus in organophosphorous compounds. Kata Voloder ; Institut za medicinska istraživanja ... of phosphorus in inorganic material and organophosphorus compounds Dipterex, Isopestox and Parathion is described, The method ...
... Han ... "Optical biosensor for simultaneous detection of captan and organophosphorus compounds," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 18 ... "Acetylcholinesterase biosensors for electrochemical detection of organophosphorus compounds: a review," Biochemistry Research ... K. Y. Ko, J. Y. Shin, D.-G. Kim, M. Kim, and S.-W. Son, "Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in stomach contents of ...
Frank R. Hartley is the author of The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Compounds: Phosphine Oxides, Sulphides, Selenides and ... Saul Patai is the author of The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Compounds: Phosphine Oxides, Sulphides, Selenides and Tellurides ... The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Compounds: Phosphine Oxides, Sulphides, Selenides and Tellurides, Volume 2. ... The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Compounds: Phosphine Oxides, Sulphides, Selenides and Tellurides, Volume 2. Frank R. Hartley ...
"In vitro and in vivo Reactivation of Cholinesterases Inhibited by Highly Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds." Croatica Chemica ... "In vitro and in vivo Reactivation of Cholinesterases Inhibited by Highly Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds." Croatica Chemica ... In vitro and in vivo Reactivation of Cholinesterases Inhibited by Highly Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds. Croatica Chemica ... In vitro and in vivo Reactivation of Cholinesterases Inhibited by Highly Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds, Croatica Chemica ...
The effect of morphological properties of CeO2 on the degradation kinetics of an organophosphorus compound Greta Camilla ... The effect of morphological properties of CeO2 on the degradation kinetics of an organophosphorus compound. CBRNE2019, May 2019 ...
Analysis of the neurotoxic effects of neuropathic organophosphorus compounds in adult zebrafish.pdf. 3,04 MB. Adobe PDF. View/ ... Inhibition and aging of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) by exposure to neuropathic organophosphorus compounds (OPs) can result ... Analysis of the neurotoxic effects of neuropathic organophosphorus compounds in adult zebrafish. ... In spite to the strong inhibition of the NTE activity found for both compounds, only a mild increase in the LPCs level was ...
Find out information about industrial organophosphorus compound. An organic compound that contains phosphorus in its chemical ... any one of numerous organic compounds containing phosphorus that form a broad class.... Explanation of industrial ... Organophosphorus Compound. (redirected from industrial organophosphorus compound). Also found in: Medical. organophosphorus ... No single classification of organophosphorus compounds exists. Organophosphorus compounds are classified according to various ...
Comparison of inhibitory activity of various organo phosphorus compounds against acetyl cholin esterase and neuro toxic ... Mechanism of the selective toxicity of organo phosphorus compounds in the armyworm leucania separata part 1 topical toxicity ... Stereospecific inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by asymmetric organo phosphorus compounds part 4 the reaction of acetyl cholin ... Stereospecificity of hydrolytic enzymes on reaction with asymmetric organo phosphorus compounds part 3 the inhibition of acetyl ...
Measurement of flame retardants and plasticizers based on organophosphorus compounds. Phosphoric acid ester Status : Confirmed ... Measurement of flame retardants and plasticizers based on organophosphorus compounds. Phosphoric acid ester. ... Aliphatic carbonyl compounds, Air, Determination of content, Aromatic aldehydes and ketones, Air pollution, Carbonyl compounds ... Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor air and test chamber air. Active sampling method ...
Recombinant Human Acetylcholinesterase and Serum Human Butyrylcholinesterase as Bioscavengers of Organophosphorous Compounds. ... Recombinant Human Acetylcholinesterase and Serum Human Butyrylcholinesterase as Bioscavengers of Organophosphorous Compounds. ... Recombinant Human Acetylcholinesterase and Serum Human Butyrylcholinesterase as Bioscavengers of Organophosphorous Compounds. ... Recombinant Human Acetylcholinesterase and Serum Human Butyrylcholinesterase as Bioscavengers of Organophosphorous Compounds ...
With regard to the synthesis of organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds, followings were examined: 1) development of active ... Development and Efficient Production of Organosulfur and Organophosphorus Compounds by Transition Metal Catalyzed Method. ... Journal Article] Direct transformation of organosulfurcompounds to organophosphorus compounds : rhodium-catalyzed synthesis of ... Presentation] Synthesis and Function of Novel Helical Compounds. *. Author(s). Masahiko Yamaguchi ...
What is organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity? Meaning of organophosphorus compound-induced delayed ... What does organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity mean? ... Looking for online definition of organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity in the Medical Dictionary? ... organophosphorus compound. (redirected from organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity). Also found in: ...
Banks, CN & Lein, PJ 2012, A review of experimental evidence linking neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds and inflammation, ... Banks, C. N., & Lein, P. J. (2012). A review of experimental evidence linking neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds and ... A review of experimental evidence linking neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds and inflammation. Christopher N. Banks, Pamela ... A review of experimental evidence linking neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds and inflammation. / Banks, Christopher N.; Lein ...
Other organophosphorus compounds studied were dimethyl methylphosphonate and the flame retardant PBMP. For all these compounds ... Descriptors for the Prediction of Partition Coefficients and Solubilities of Organophosphorus Compounds. Separation Science and ... Descriptors for the Prediction of Partition Coefficients and Solubilities of Organophosphorus Compounds ... Descriptors for the Prediction of Partition Coefficients and Solubilities of Organophosphorus Compounds. ...
Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human ... Agriculture; Chemical-composition; Organo-phosphorus-compounds; Organo-phosphorus-pesticides; Insecticides; Exposure-levels; ... Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human ... Development of a passive air sampler to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and oxygen analogs in an agricultural ...
Total Doses of Atropine in Poisoning with Organophosphorus Compounds (Optional Reading). Organophosphorus compounds. The range ... Total Doses of Atropine in Poisoning with Organophosphorus Compounds (Optional Reading). *Extremely High Total Doses of ... Extremely High Total Doses of Atropine May be Needed in Suicidal Ingestions of Organophosphorus Compounds (Optional Reading) ... In general, severe nerve agent poisoning requires lower total doses of atropine than for organophosphorus compounds. (Sidell ...
To avoid a competitive inclusion between the organophosphorus substrate and the iodosobenzoate group, responsible for its ... on the relative position of the heterocycle towards the reactive group as well as on the nature of the organophosphorus ... in order to determine the relative importance of the structural key elements involved in the degradation of organophosphorus ... Structure-efficiency relationships of cyclodextrin scavengers in the hydrolytic degradation of organophosphorus compounds ...
Scheme 1. Schematic degradation of organophosphorus compounds by diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) and organophosphorus ... Organophosphorus compounds (OP), including pesticides and nerve agents (NA), represent a target for enzymatic degradation. ... The organophosphorus substances, including pesticides and nerve agents (NAs), represent highly toxic compounds. Standard ... Hoskin, F.C.G.; Kirkish, M.A.; Steinmann, K.E. Two Enzymes for the Detoxicatlon of Organophosphorus Compounds-Sources, ...
ADDITION OF PHENYLPHOSPHINE TO UNSATURATED COMPOUNDS B. A. Arbuzov , G. M. V inokurova , and I. A. A leksandrov Chemical ... Organophosphorus Compounds. Part 108. Directed Synthesis of Phosphorus- Carbon Cage Compounds - A Challenge in Organophosphorus ... ChemInform Abstract: Organophosphorus Chemistry of Fullerene: Synthesis and Biological Effects of Organophosphorus Compounds of ... Organophosphorus chemistry of fullerene: synthesis and biological effects of organophosphorus compounds of C60 ...
This catalytic activity of AChE is drastically inhibited by trace amounts of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides present in the ... organophosphorus compounds; pesticides; thiocholine; acetylthiocholine; nanomaterials acetylcholinesterase; organophosphorus ... This catalytic activity of AChE is drastically inhibited by trace amounts of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides present in the ... Nanomaterials - Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Matrices for Organophosphorus Pesticides Electrochemical Sensors: A Review. Arun ...
Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are pesticides due to their acute insecticidal effects mediated by the inhibition of ... Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) have been used worldwide as pesticides for insect control. In Europe alone, OP insecticide ... Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are pesticides due to their acute insecticidal effects mediated by the inhibition of ... Ehrich, M.; Intropido, L.; Costa, L.G. Interaction of organophosphorus compounds with muscarinic receptors in SH-SY5Y human ...
Organophosphorus compounds--Toxicology. ; Organophosphorus compounds--Physiological effect. ; Organophosphorus compounds-- ... Organophosphorus compounds--Toxicology ; Organophosphorus compounds--Physiological effect ; Organophosphorus compounds-- ... Organophosphorus compounds--Toxicology. ; Organophosphorus Compounds--toxicity. ; Nerve Degeneration. Additional Subjects. ... Carcinogens. ; Organophosphorus compounds--Toxicology. ; Insecticides--Toxicology. ; Organophosphorus Compounds--toxicity. ; ...
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  • These compounds are highly effective insecticides, though some are also lethal to humans at minuscule doses (nerve gas) and include some of the most toxic substances ever created by man, including sarin and VX nerve agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In last few decades there is exponential increase in use of organophosphorus (OP) compounds as pesticides and insecticides leading to adverse effect on human population and live stock. (scirp.org)
  • such compounds are powerful acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and are used as insecticides and anthelmintics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies on the currently used organophosphorus insecticides with respect to their environmental levels and effective remediation technologies for their residues in water have been considered as a source of major concern. (sciendo.com)
  • Here, we focus on the molecular engineering of an enzymatic bio-decontaminant of organophosphates compounds (OPs), including nerve agents and insecticides. (nature.com)
  • citation needed] Thus a large proportion of pesticides (e.g., malathion), are often included in this class of compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS. (mdibl.org)
  • Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in peanut oil by dispersive solid phase extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," Journal of Chromatography B , vol. 879, no. 30, pp. 3423-3428, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Development of a passive air sampler to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and oxygen analogs in an agricultural community. (cdc.gov)
  • Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents and pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and this is thought to be a primary mechanism mediating the neurotoxicity of these compounds. (elsevier.com)
  • This catalytic activity of AChE is drastically inhibited by trace amounts of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides present in the environment. (mdpi.com)
  • Chen, S.-M. Nanomaterials - Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Matrices for Organophosphorus Pesticides Electrochemical Sensors: A Review. (mdpi.com)
  • The organophosphorus substances, including pesticides and nerve agents (NAs), represent highly toxic compounds. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Organophosphorus compounds (OP), including pesticides and nerve agents (NA), represent a target for enzymatic degradation. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • In the USA, more than 40 thousand tons of OP compounds, including pesticides, are land applied, and 20 thousand tons are produced for export every year [ 3 ] [ 4 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Worldwide, OP compounds account for over 38% of the total pesticides used [ 4 ] [ 5 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are pesticides due to their acute insecticidal effects mediated by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, although other esterases as neuropathy target esterase (NTE) can also be inhibited. (mdpi.com)
  • Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) have been used worldwide as pesticides for insect control. (mdpi.com)
  • The results showed the presence of several organophosphorus pesticides in water sampling sites. (sciendo.com)
  • Determination of organophosphorus and organonitrogen pesticides in water samples ends in. (sciendo.com)
  • An alkaline phosphatase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens YP6 of new application in biodegradation of five broad-spectrum organophosphorus pesticides. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In recent decades, biodegradation has been considered a promising and eco-friendly way to eliminate organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) from the environment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this paper, the effect of organophosphorus pesticides (frequent substances spilled in aquatic ecosystems) on the immune system of fishes and in immunotoxicology is reviewed. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, some cellular and molecular mechanisms that might be involved in immunoregulation mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticides are discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • As a consequence of the leaching process, ground water from the Valley of Neuquen River frequently contained concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides that exceeded acute toxicity risk ratios established to protect aquatic life. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chapter Two summarizes the results of monitoring agricultural products for the presence of organophosphorus pesticides, putting a special emphasis on potential ways for reduction of their levels. (novapublishers.com)
  • The feasibility of using bioscavengers, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and carboxylesterase (CaE), to provide protection against OP compounds has been demonstrated in rodents as well as nonhuman primates (1-5). (springer.com)
  • Neurotoxic agents are organophosphorus compounds that act by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is fundamental for the control of transmission of nervous impulses. (scielo.br)
  • After a brief historical introduction, it will be done a discussion about the structural and biological characteristics of acetylcholinesterase, followed by a review of the properties of organophosphorus compounds and their application as chemical warfare agents. (scielo.br)
  • One way of treating victims of nerve agents consists on the administration of certain pyridinic oximes, which possess the capacity to regenerate the catalytic activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the target of these compounds. (scielo.br)
  • A variety of organophosphorus (OP) compounds with and without delayed neurotoxicity were examined for inhibitory power against neurotoxic esterase (NTE) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) of hen brain in vitro and in vivo. (eurekamag.com)
  • Organophosphorus compounds are known to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). (stackexchange.com)
  • The highly toxic organophosphorus compound VX O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethylmethylphosphonate is an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase AChE. (dtic.mil)
  • Clinical features and plasma acetylcholinesterase activity in poisoning with insecticidal organophosphorous compounds. (bvsalud.org)
  • Organophosphorous and carbamates kill honeybees through the inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), thereby interfering with nerve signaling and function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are several ways of treating intoxication by organophosphorus compounds, but none of them is efficient against all the known neurotoxic agents or against all of their effects. (scielo.br)
  • This review focus on the use of organophosphorus compounds as neurotoxic chemical warfare agents. (scielo.br)
  • A few compounds produced severe inhibition of NTE at non-delayed neurotoxic doses. (eurekamag.com)
  • Banks, CN & Lein, PJ 2012, ' A review of experimental evidence linking neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds and inflammation ', NeuroToxicology , vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 575-584. (elsevier.com)
  • Rates of phosphorylation and sensitivity to neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • The major Paraoxon-insensitive Mipafox-sensitive binding protein (Mr 160 000) was found to be identical with one previously identified as neurotoxic esterase, an enzyme that has been proposed to be the target site for organophosphorus-compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Delayed neurotoxicity induced by OP compounds correlated with high inhibition of NTE in vivo, but in vitro studies comparing I50 [median inhibitory concentration] for both enzymes did not provide a guide to evaluation of delayed neurotoxicity. (eurekamag.com)
  • The experiments described in this paper were designed to isolate [3H]di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate-binding proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis for the purpose of characterizing and identifying potential initiation sites for organophosphorus-compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • In comparison to other pharmacological approaches, the appeal of bioscavenger protection is that bioscavenger-protected survivors of exposure to OP compounds do not exhibit the postexposure incapacitation and toxic effects that are commonly observed with survivors protected by traditional antidotal approaches, such as oximes, anticholinergics, or carbamates (6). (springer.com)
  • Passive sampling rates (m3 d-1) were determined using calculations using chemical properties, loss of depuration compounds, and calibration with side-by-side active air sampling in a dynamic laboratory exposure chamber and in the field. (cdc.gov)
  • All of such compounds could be a source of the exposure found by the OPCW. (globalresearch.ca)
  • The final chapter focuses specifically on the structural features, applications, toxicity mechanisms and effects of exposure on human health of fenitrothion, a non-systemic organophosphorous insecticide. (novapublishers.com)
  • The term PON1 status was introduced to include both PON1 192 functional genotype and plasma PON1 level,both important in determining risk for either exposure to specific organophosphorus compounds (OPs) or disease. (springer.com)
  • The Michaelis-Arbuzov reaction is the main method for the synthesis of these compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general format of the material on organophosphorus chemistry follows that of the volumes in the Patai series, with commissioned chapters on the theoretical/structural aspects, stereochemistry, synthesis, photochemistry, spectroscopy and biochemistry. (wiley.com)
  • Methods of C-P bond formation are very important in the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is, however, quite clear that the addition of primary phosphines to unsaturated compounds containing the func- tional groups NHz, COOH, OH, CH2C1, etc., is of great interest both from the point of view of the development of methods for the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds, and from the point of view of their practical applica- tion in the synthesis of polyesters and polyamides. (vdocuments.site)
  • Novel Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology of Organophosphorus Insecticide Self-Poisoning. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Most of the organohalogen and organophosphate compounds also do not react permanently to attach themselves into their surroundings but further work is now underway to graft further chemical groups onto these materials to enable them to become integrated without losing their retardant efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organophosphate compounds bioremediation by use of organophosphorus degradation enzymes such as DFPase is a developing interest in industry and medicine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For the organophosphorus derivatives, see Organophosphate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Organophosphorus chemistry is the corresponding science of the properties and reactivity of organophosphorus compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In industrial and environmental chemistry, an organophosphorus compound need contain only an organic substituent, but need not have a direct phosphorus-carbon (P-C) bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. Harlbert and R. Baldwin, "Electrocatalytic and Analytical Response of Cobalt-Phthalocyanine Containing Carbon Paste Electrodes towards Sulfhydryl Compounds," Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 3, 1985, pp. 591-595. (scirp.org)
  • There are four volumes in this series on organophosphorus chemistry, a sub-series of Saul Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups series . (wiley.com)
  • Together the volumes provide comprehensive coverage of the entire organophosphorus area, which is critical to main-line organic chemistry in both academic and industrial circles. (wiley.com)
  • Frank R. Hartley is the author of The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Compounds: Phosphine Oxides, Sulphides, Selenides and Tellurides , Volume 2, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Organophosphorus Supramolecular Chemistry Part 1. (benthamscience.com)
  • The Editors have added to the content with a timely chapter on the recent developments in green synthetic approaches in organophosphorus chemistry to reflect current interests in the area. (rsc.org)
  • Organophosphorus Chemistry provides a comprehensive annual review of the literature. (rsc.org)
  • Organophosphorus Chemistry, Photochemistry and Spectroscopic Properties of Inorganic and Organometallic Compounds. (google.com)
  • The major advantages of bioscavengers for protection against OP toxicity are their rapid removal of OP compounds from circulation, their selective reactivities with the toxic stereoisomers of chiral compounds, and their relatively slow clearance from circulation. (springer.com)
  • In the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction and the Seyferth-Gilbert homologation, phosphonates are used in reactions with carbonyl compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (8) the addition of organophosphorus compounds containing the P-H bond to olefins, carbonyl compounds, and Schiff bases, for example, (RO) 2 PHO + NH 3 + CH 2 O → NH 2 CH 2 PO(OR) 2 . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adult hens were given tri- o -cresyl phosphate (TOCP), a typical neuropathic organophosphorus compound, to induce OPIDN. (frontiersin.org)
  • New derivatives of cyclodextrins were prepared in order to determine the relative importance of the structural key elements involved in the degradation of organophosphorus nerve agents. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • To avoid a competitive inclusion between the organophosphorus substrate and the iodosobenzoate group, responsible for its degradation, the latter group had to be covalently bound to the cyclodextrin scaffold. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In this regard, enzymatic degradation is a subtype of biodegradation when only enzymes are employed for the degradation of toxic compounds. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Evaluation of a robust engineered enzyme towards organophosphorus insecticide bioremediation using planarians as biosensors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • enzyme towards organophosphorus insecticide bioremediation using planarians as biosensors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Organophosphorus insecticide self-poisoning is a major global health problem, killing over 100,000 people annually. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. (mdibl.org)
  • any one of numerous organic compounds containing phosphorus that form a broad class. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organophosphorus compounds. (drugbank.ca)
  • These are organic compounds containing the phosphorus atom. (drugbank.ca)
  • ABSTRACT Six men packaging demeton-S-methyl concentrate developed organophosphorous poisoning. (bmj.com)
  • This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organophosphorus in drinking water plants (Kafr-El-Shiekh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem and Metobess) in Kafr-El-Shiekh Governorate, Egypt. (sciendo.com)
  • Simple spectrophotometric method for determination of small quantities (traces) of phosphorus in inorganic material and organophosphorus compounds Dipterex, Isopestox and Parathion is described, The method is based on the development of blue colour of phosphomolibdate resulting from the reaction between the phosphates present in the sample and the reagent containing the molibdate, The method ,is rapid simple and reliable. (srce.hr)
  • Although inorganic phosphate and phosphate esters (P 5+ ) are viewed as the prevalent compounds in nature, phosphonates, with C−P bonds, are ubiquitous, comprising up to 25% of the dissolved organic P in some natural samples ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • From literature data on partition coefficients and in some cases solubilities in nonaqueous solvents we have been able to determine Abraham descriptors for several series of organophosphorus compounds including the dialkyl- and diaryl-phosphates (dialkylphosphoric acids), trialkyl- and triphenyl-phosphates, dialkylphosphinic acids and diphenylphosphinic acid, trialkyl- and triaryl-phosphine oxides, and dialkylphosphites and triarylphosphines. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Lacking a P−C bond, these compounds are in the technical sense not organophosphorus compounds but esters of phosphoric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A distinction is made between organophosphorus compounds in which the phosphorus is directly bonded to carbon in the molecules and organophosphorus compounds in which the phosphorus is bonded to the organic part of the molecules by a heteroatom-oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur (this is mainly the case for esters and other acid derivatives of phosphorus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was shown that phenylphosphine adds both to esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids and to allyl alcohol with formation of bifunctional compounds in 50-70% yield. (vdocuments.site)
  • Determination of various organophosphorus compounds has been achieved by integrating biocomponents with different transducers. (scirp.org)
  • Novel and rapid method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in edible fungus using direct gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," Talanta , vol. 142, pp. 64-71, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Chlorpyrifos was detected with high frequency relative to other compounds in drinking water. (sciendo.com)
  • In this study, those individuals who were acutely presented at the emergency department, SVS Medical College, Mahabubnagar, with a history of intentional or accidental intake of either chlorpyrifos or Phorate 10% granules or Monocrotophos (Organophosphorus compounds) were taken as cases. (innovativepublication.com)
  • These findings hold true for 3 technically important enzymes (PETase, cytochrome P450, and organophosphorus hydrolase). (pnas.org)
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a Methyl Parathion Hydrolase from an Organophosphorus-degrading Bacterium, Serratia marcescens MEW06. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Wild-type (WT) enzymes have a catalytic activity against organophosphorus compounds, including G-type nerve agents. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Bifunctional compounds eliciting anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinesterase activity as potential treatment of nerve and blister chemical agents poisoning. (ac.ir)
  • Key Words neurotrophins BDNF organophosphorus compounds chemical warfare nerve agents VX mice. (dtic.mil)
  • In the environment, these compounds break down via hydrolysis to eventually afford phosphate and the organic alcohol or amine from which they are derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such compounds include tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (brominated tris) and chlorinated organophosphates such as tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (chlorinated tris or TDCPP) and tetrakis(2-chlorethyl)dichloroisopentyldiphosphate (V6). (wikipedia.org)
  • A phosphate salt forms when a positively charged ion attaches to the negatively charged oxygen atoms of the ion, forming an ionic compound . (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphate is also an organophosphorus compound with the formula OP(OR) 3 . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Compounds related to phosphine oxides are the imides (R3PNR') and related chalcogenides (R3PE, where E = S, Se, Te). (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 For the Brazilian Army, chemical war is the one that utilizes substances designated as "chemical agents", which are defined as all the compounds that, due to their chemical activity, generate a toxic, smoking or incendiary effect, when used for military purposes. (scielo.br)
  • Biodegradation is defined as a process of decomposing toxic compounds by living organisms without producing other hardly degradable substances. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • At present, organophosphorus compounds (OP) are considered some of the most toxic substances synthesized by man. (novapublishers.com)
  • With the availability of new materials, associated with new sensing techniques has led to remarkable innovations in the design and construction of organophosphorus biosensors. (scirp.org)
  • The present review describes the specifications of most of the electrochemical Organophosphorus biosensors reported till date. (scirp.org)
  • For all these compounds, knowledge of the Abraham descriptors enables partition coefficients to be predicted for transfer from water to over 40 (wet) solvents. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We have now found that certain new compounds which, unexpectedly, have superior activity in the inhibition of scale deposition from aqueous systems and additionally have superior activity in the control of corrosion of metals in contact with aqueous systems. (google.es)
  • Effect of high doses of sodium bicarbonate in acute organophosphorous pesticide poisoning. (ac.ir)
  • Aim: The present study aims at determining the effect oforganophosphate compounds on thyroid profile in individuals exposed to acute poisoning. (innovativepublication.com)
  • Total T4 values are significantly higher in acute organophosphorus poisoned phase mimicking thyrotoxicosis, and return to normal biological reference range after recovery, whereas TSH values in acute opiates poisoned phase were significant lower than that of recovery phase. (innovativepublication.com)
  • The addition of primary phosphines to unsaturated compounds has not yet been investigated systematically, and in the chemical literature there is information only about the cyanoethylatfon of phenylphosphine [1-2]. (vdocuments.site)
  • This annual review of the literature presents a comprehensive and critical survey of the vast field of study involving organophosphorus compounds, from phosphines and related P-C bonded compounds to phosphorus acids, phosphine chalcogenides and nucleotides. (rsc.org)
  • Coverage includes phosphines and their chalcogenides, phosphonium salts, low coordination number phosphorus compounds, penta- and hexa-coordinated compounds, tervalent phosphorus acids, nucleotides and nucleic acids, ylides and related compounds, and phosphazenes. (rsc.org)
  • A study of serum thyroid hormones in organophosphorus compounds poisoning patients-IJCBR-IP Innovative Publication Pvt. (innovativepublication.com)
  • Ranjith Kumar C, A study of serum thyroid hormones in organophosphorus compounds poisoning patients. (innovativepublication.com)
  • Inasmuch as the traditional pharmacological approaches to protection against organophosphorus (OP) compounds may be near their practical limits, a new approach using enzymes as bioscavengers has recently been examined. (springer.com)
  • All organophosphorus compounds are poisonous, even those used pharmacologically, if given in large enough doses or in particular circumstances. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether high doses of pralidoxime(PAM) are effective as compare to lower doses of PAM in the management of moderately sever organophosphorus poiso. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Measurement of flame retardants and plasticizers based on organophosphorus compounds. (bsigroup.com)
  • [1] Mineral flame retardants are typically additive while organohalogen and organophosphorus compounds can be either reactive or additive. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] [8] In one important class of flame retardants, compounds contain both phosphorus and a halogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The broad specificity of these engineered variants makes them promising candidates for the bioremediation of organophosphorus compounds. (nature.com)
  • Phosphorus can adopt a variety of oxidation states, and it is general to classify organophosphorus compounds based on their being derivatives of phosphorus(V) vs phosphorus(III), which are the predominant classes of compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are known organophosphorus compounds with a P-P bond, for example diphosphines, triphos-phines, and tetraphosphines and the corresponding cyclophos-phines and their derivatives. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An organophosphorus-degrading bacterium MEW06, which exhibited excellent biodegradation capabilities towards 50 mg/L of methyl parathion (MP), paraoxon, and dimethoate, was isolated from Sand Lake (Wu. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Toxic mechanisms of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocyanic acid and organophosphorus compounds, clinical signs and emergency treatment are discussed. (ilo.org)
  • A forensic analysis will not find the original substance but only decomposition products of some organophosporus compound. (globalresearch.ca)
  • One of the most promising enzymes cleaving organophosphorus compounds is the enzyme with enzyme commission number (EC): 3.1.8.2, called diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) or organophosphorus acid anhydrolase from Loligo Vulgaris or Alteromonas sp. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The new compounds are useful in the treatment of aqueous systems, in particular to inhibit scale deposition from aqueous systems. (google.es)
  • The present invention relates to new compounds, to their production and to their use in the treatment of aqueous systems, in particular to inhibit scale deposition from the aqueous system and/or to prevent fouling of the aqueous system and/or to inhibit corrosion of metals in contact with the aqueous system. (google.es)
  • Compounds with the formula [PR4+]X− comprise the phosphonium salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definition of organophosphorus compounds is variable, which can lead to confusion. (wikipedia.org)