Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and other choline esters, playing crucial roles in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses and neuro-muscular junctions, and in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxic substances.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
Esterases are hydrolase enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds, converting esters into alcohols and acids, playing crucial roles in various biological processes including metabolism and detoxification.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as a acaricide.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
Cholinesterase reactivator used as an antidote in alkyl phosphate poisoning.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is the name of a country located in South Asia, known for its diverse landscapes and rich biodiversity.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
Cholinesterase reactivator occurring in two interchangeable isomeric forms, syn and anti.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.
A organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an anthelmintic, insecticide, and as a nematocide.
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
Cresols, also known as hydroxytoluene, are a group of phenolic compounds including ortho-cresol, meta-cresol, and para-cresol, which differ in the position of the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring.
Nitrophenols are organic compounds characterized by the presence of a nitro group (-NO2) attached to a phenol molecule, known for their potential use in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, but also recognized as environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (1/3078)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

The bystander effect in the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and its relationship to gap junctional communication. (2/3078)

The bystander effect (BSE) is an interesting and important property of the herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (hTK/GCV) system of gene therapy for cancer. With the BSE, not only are the hTK expressing cells killed upon ganciclovir (GCV) exposure but also neighboring wild-type tumor cells. On testing a large number of tumor cell lines in vitro, a wide range of sensitivity to bystander killing was found. Since transfer of toxic GCV metabolites from hTK-modified to wild-type tumor cells via gap junctions (GJ) seemed to be a likely mechanism of the BSE, we tested GJ function in these various tumors with a dye transfer technique and pharmacological agents known to affect GJ communication. We confirmed that mixtures of tumor cell resistant to the BSE did not show dye transfer from cell to cell while bystander-sensitive tumor cells did. Dieldrin, a drug known to decrease GJ communication, diminished dye transfer and also inhibited the BSE. Forskolin, an upregulator of cAMP did increase GJ, but directly inhibited hTK and therefore its effect on BSE could not be determined. We conclude that these observations further support port the concept that functional GJ play an important role in the BSE and further suggest that pharmacological manipulation of GJ may influence the outcome of cancer therapy with hTK/GCV.  (+info)

Comparison of two in vitro activation systems for protoxicant organophosphorous esterase inhibitors. (3/3078)

In order to perform in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by organophosphorous (OP) protoxicants, simple, reliable methods are needed to convert protoxicants to their esterase-inhibiting forms. Incubation of parathion or chlorpyrifos with 0.05% bromine solution or uninduced rat liver microsomes (RLM) resulted in production of the corresponding oxygen analogs of these OP compounds and markedly increased esterase inhibition in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Neither activation system affected cell viability or the activity of AChE or NTE in the absence of OP compounds. Although parathion and chlorpyrifos were activated by RLM, bromine activation required fewer steps and produced more esterase inhibition for a given concentration of chlorpyrifos. However, RLM activation of OP protoxicants produced metabolites other than oxygen analogs and may, therefore, be more relevant as a surrogate for OP biotransformation in vivo. This methodology makes the use of intact cells for in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by protoxicant organophosphate compounds a viable alternative to in vivo tests.  (+info)

Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir. (4/3078)

Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day.  (+info)

A phosphonate-induced gene which promotes Penicillium-mediated bioconversion of cis-propenylphosphonic acid to fosfomycin. (5/3078)

Penicillium decumbens is able to epoxidize cis-propenylphosphonic acid (cPA) to produce the antibiotic fosfomycin [FOM; also referred to as phosphonomycin and (-)-cis-1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid], a bioconversion of considerable commercial significance. We sought to improve the efficiency of the process by overexpression of the genes involved. A conventional approach of isolating the presumed epoxidase and its corresponding gene was not possible since cPA epoxidation could not be achieved with protein extracts. As an alternative approach, proteins induced by cPA were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The observation that a 31-kDa protein (EpoA) was both cPA induced and overaccumulated in a strain which more efficiently converted cPA suggested that it might take part in the bioconversion. EpoA was purified, its amino acid sequence was partially determined, and the corresponding gene was isolated from cosmid and cDNA libraries with oligonucleotide probes. The DNA sequence for this gene (epoA) contained two introns and an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 277 amino acids having some similarity to oxygenases. When the gene was subcloned into P. decumbens, a fourfold increase in epoxidation activity was achieved. epoA-disruption mutants which were obtained by homologous recombination could not convert cPA to FOM. To investigate the regulation of the epoA promoter, the bialaphos resistance gene (bar, encoding phosphinothricin acetyltransferase) was used to replace the epoA-coding region. In P. decumbens, expression of the bar reporter gene was induced by cPA, FOM, and phosphorous acid but not by phosphoric acid.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in J774 macrophages occurs in the cytoplasm and lysosomes. (6/3078)

The relationship of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis to the physical state of the cholesteryl ester in J774 murine macrophages was explored in cells induced to store cholesteryl esters either in anisotropic (ordered) inclusions or isotropic (liquid) inclusions. In contrast to other cell systems, the rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was faster in cells containing anisotropic inclusions than in cells containing isotropic inclusions. Two contributing factors were identified. Kinetic analyses of the rates of hydrolysis are consistent with a substrate competition by co-deposited triglyceride in cells with isotropic inclusions. In addition, hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters in cells with anisotropic droplets is mediated by both cytoplasmic and lysosomal lipolytic enzymes, as shown by using the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, and an inhibitor of neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase, umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. In cells containing anisotropic inclusions, hydrolysis was partially inhibited by incubation in media containing either chloroquine or umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. Together, chloroquine and umbelliferyl diethylphosphate completely inhibited hydrolysis. However, when cells containing isotropic inclusions were incubated with umbelliferyl diethylphosphate, cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was completely inhibited, but chloroquine had no effect. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a primarily lysosomal location for lipid droplets in cells with anisotropic droplets and both non-lysosomal and lysosomal populations of lipid droplets in cells with isotropic droplets. These results support the conclusion that there is a lysosomal component to the hydrolysis of stored cholesteryl esters in foam cells.  (+info)

Binding conformers searching method for ligands according to the structures of their receptors and its application to thrombin inhibitors. (7/3078)

AIM: To develop a method of finding binding conformers for ligands according to the three-dimensional structures of their receptors. METHODS: Combining the systematic search method of ligand with the molecular docking approach of ligand fitting into its receptor, we developed a binding conformer searching method for ligands. RESULTS: The binding conformers of phosphonopeptidyl thrombin inhibitors were recognized. The binding (interaction) energies between these inhibitors and thrombin were calculated with molecular mechanical method. CONCLUSION: Both of the total binding energies and steric binding energies have good correlations with the inhibitory activities of these thrombin inhibitors, demonstrating that our approach is reasonable. It can also be used to explain the inhibition mechanism of thrombin interacting with these inhibitors.  (+info)

Early short-term 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine treatment favorably alters the subsequent disease course in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn Rhesus macaques. (8/3078)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study disease pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at delaying disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that very early events of infection greatly determine the ultimate disease course, as short-term antiviral drug administration during the initial viremia stage significantly delayed the onset of AIDS. Fourteen newborn macaques were inoculated orally with uncloned, highly virulent SIVmac251. The four untreated control animals showed persistently high virus levels and poor antiviral immune responses; they developed fatal immunodeficiency within 15 weeks. In contrast, SIV-infected newborn macaques which were started on 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment at 5 days of age and continued for either 14 or 60 days showed reduced virus levels and enhanced antiviral immune responses. This short-term PMPA treatment did not induce detectable emergence of SIV mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to PMPA. Although viremia increased in most animals after PMPA treatment was withdrawn, all animals remained disease-free for at least 6 months. Our data suggest that short-term treatment with a potent antiviral drug regimen during the initial viremia will significantly prolong AIDS-free survival for HIV-infected infants and adults.  (+info)

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical substances that contain phosphorus bonded to organic compounds. They are used in various applications, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases), and solvents. In medicine, they are also used in the treatment of certain conditions such as glaucoma. However, organophosphorus compounds can be toxic to humans and animals, particularly those that affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Exposure to these compounds can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Organophosphate (OP) poisoning refers to the toxic effects that occur after exposure to organophosphate compounds, which are commonly used as pesticides, nerve agents, and plasticizers. These substances work by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. As a result, excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a wide range of symptoms.

The severity and type of symptoms depend on the dose, duration, and route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption). The primary manifestations of organophosphate poisoning are:

1. Muscarinic effects: Excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the parasympathetic nervous system results in symptoms such as narrowed pupils (miosis), increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, bronchorrhea (excessive respiratory secretions), diarrhea, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), and hypotension.
2. Nicotinic effects: Overstimulation of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction leads to muscle fasciculations, weakness, and paralysis. This can also cause tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.
3. Central nervous system effects: OP poisoning may result in headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, and respiratory depression.

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning includes decontamination, supportive care, and administration of antidotes such as atropine (to block muscarinic effects) and pralidoxime (to reactivate acetylcholinesterase). Delayed treatment can lead to long-term neurological damage or even death.

Organothiophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain carbon (organo-) and thiophosphorus bonds. Thiophosphorus refers to a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. These compounds have various applications, including use as plasticizers, flame retardants, insecticides (such as malathion and parathion), and nerve agents (such as sarin and VX). They can be synthesized through the reaction of organolithium or Grignard reagents with thiophosphoryl chloride. The general structure of these compounds is R-P(=S)Y, where R is an organic group, P is phosphorus, and Y is a group that determines the properties and reactivity of the compound.

Parathion is not a medical term, but a chemical one. It refers to a type of organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic and can be absorbed through the skin or ingested. Parathion works by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an overstimulation of the nervous system and can cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, convulsions, respiratory failure, and death. Although parathion is not used in medical treatments, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of its potential health effects, particularly in cases of accidental or intentional exposure.

Malathion is a type of organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for the control of various insect pests. It works by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which leads to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses, resulting in overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the insect.

In a medical context, malathion is also used as a topical treatment for head lice infestations. It is available in various forms, such as shampoos, lotions, and sprays, and works by killing the lice and their eggs on contact. However, it is important to follow the instructions carefully when using malathion products to avoid excessive exposure and potential health risks.

Pralidoxime compounds are a type of antidote used to treat poisoning from organophosphate nerve agents and pesticides. These compounds work by reactivating the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is inhibited by organophosphates. This helps to restore the normal functioning of the nervous system and can save lives in cases of severe poisoning.

Pralidoxime is often used in combination with atropine, another antidote that blocks the effects of excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Together, these compounds can help to manage the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and prevent long-term neurological damage.

It is important to note that pralidoxime must be administered as soon as possible after exposure to organophosphates, as its effectiveness decreases over time. This makes rapid diagnosis and treatment crucial in cases of suspected nerve agent or pesticide poisoning.

Dichlorvos is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control a wide variety of pests in agricultural, residential, and industrial settings. Its chemical formula is (2,2-dichlorovinyl) dimethyl phosphate. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic clefts of nerve cells, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the pest.

Dichlorvos is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. Exposure to this chemical can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. It is classified as a Category I acute toxicant by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is listed as a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental persistence, dichlorvos is subject to strict regulations in many countries. It is banned or restricted for use in several jurisdictions, including the European Union, Canada, and some states in the United States. Where it is still allowed, it is typically used only under specific conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Chemical warfare agents are defined as chemical substances that are intended or have the capability to cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation, or sensory irritation through their toxic properties when deployed in a military theater. These agents can be in gaseous, liquid, or solid form and are typically categorized based on their physiological effects. Common categories include nerve agents (e.g., sarin, VX), blister agents (e.g., mustard gas), choking agents (e.g., phosgene), blood agents (e.g., cyanide), and incapacitating agents (e.g., BZ). The use of chemical warfare agents is prohibited by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the levels of acetylcholine in the brain increase, which can help to improve symptoms of cognitive decline and memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used to treat other medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness, and glaucoma, a condition that affects the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss. Some examples of cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

It's important to note that while cholinesterase inhibitors can help to improve symptoms in some people with dementia, they do not cure the underlying condition or stop its progression. Side effects of these drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased salivation. In rare cases, they may also cause seizures, fainting, or cardiac arrhythmias.

Paraoxon is the active metabolite of the organophosphate insecticide parathion. It functions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, which means it prevents the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. This leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a variety of symptoms such as muscle weakness, increased salivation, sweating, lacrimation, nausea, vomiting, and potentially fatal respiratory failure.

Paraoxon is also used in research and diagnostic settings to measure acetylcholinesterase activity. It can be used to determine the degree of inhibition of this enzyme by various chemicals or toxins, including other organophosphate compounds.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

Soman is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2(C=O)N(CH2)4SH. It is a potent nerve agent, a type of organic compound that can cause death by interfering with the nervous system's ability to regulate muscle movement. Soman is an odorless, colorless liquid that evaporates slowly at room temperature and is therefore classified as a "v-type" or "volatile" nerve agent. It is considered to be one of the most toxic substances known. Exposure to soman can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it can cause a range of symptoms including nausea, seizures, respiratory failure, and death.

Cholinesterase reactivators are a type of medication used to reverse the effects of certain types of poisoning, particularly organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, as well as nerve agents. These chemicals work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This can lead to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine and result in symptoms such as muscle weakness, seizures, and respiratory failure.

Cholinesterase reactivators, also known as oximes, work by reactivating the inhibited enzyme and allowing it to resume its normal function. The most commonly used cholinesterase reactivator is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is often administered in combination with atropine to treat organophosphate poisoning.

It's important to note that cholinesterase reactivators are not effective against all types of nerve agents or pesticides, and their use should be determined by a medical professional based on the specific type of poisoning involved. Additionally, these medications can have side effects and should only be administered under medical supervision.

Sarin is a potent and deadly nerve agent, a type of organic compound called a phosphoro-organic fluid. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid, which is also known as GB. Sarin is a human-made chemical warfare agent that is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.

Sarin works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions and synapses, causing uncontrolled muscle contractions, paralysis, respiratory failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

Exposure to Sarin can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Symptoms of exposure include runny nose, tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blurred vision, and confusion. Immediate medical attention is required for anyone exposed to Sarin, as antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime can be administered to counteract its effects.

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including flies, ticks, and mites in agriculture, livestock production, and public health. Trichlorfon works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in paralysis and death of the pest. It is important to note that trichlorfon can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by various governmental agencies to minimize potential risks.

Tritolyl phosphates are not a medical term, but rather a class of industrial chemicals. They are organophosphate esters made from the reaction of toluene with phosphoric acid. These chemicals have various uses, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, and hydraulic fluids.

Exposure to high levels of tritolyl phosphates can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, they are not typically considered a significant health concern at the low levels encountered in most occupational or environmental settings. There is no known medical condition specifically associated with "tritolyl phosphates."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Isoflurophate" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical or scientific literature. It is possible that there may be a spelling error or typo in the term you are looking for. If you meant "Isoflurane," which is a commonly used anesthetic in medical and surgical procedures, I can provide a definition for that.

Isoflurane: A volatile halogenated ether liquid used as an inhalational general anesthetic agent. It has a rapid onset and offset of action, making it useful for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Isoflurane is also known to have bronchodilatory properties, which can be beneficial in patients with reactive airway disease or asthma.

Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that play an essential role in the nervous system by regulating the transmission of nerve impulses. They work by breaking down a type of chemical messenger called acetylcholine, which is released by nerves to transmit signals to other nerves or muscles.

There are two main types of cholinesterases: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). AChE is found primarily in the nervous system, where it rapidly breaks down acetylcholine to terminate nerve impulses. BChE, on the other hand, is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver and plasma, and plays a less specific role in breaking down various substances, including some drugs and toxins.

Inhibition of cholinesterases can lead to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, which can result in excessive stimulation of nerve impulses and muscle contractions. This effect is exploited by certain medications used to treat conditions such as myasthenia gravis, Alzheimer's disease, and glaucoma, but can also be caused by exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

An antidote is a substance that can counteract the effects of a poison or toxin. It works by neutralizing, reducing, or eliminating the harmful effects of the toxic substance. Antidotes can be administered in various forms such as medications, vaccines, or treatments. They are often used in emergency situations to save lives and prevent serious complications from poisoning.

The effectiveness of an antidote depends on several factors, including the type and amount of toxin involved, the timing of administration, and the individual's response to treatment. In some cases, multiple antidotes may be required to treat a single poisoning incident. It is important to note that not all poisons have specific antidotes, and in such cases, supportive care and symptomatic treatment may be necessary.

Examples of common antidotes include:

* Naloxone for opioid overdose
* Activated charcoal for certain types of poisoning
* Digoxin-specific antibodies for digoxin toxicity
* Fomepizole for methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning
* Dimercaprol for heavy metal poisoning.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter, into choline and acetic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in regulating the transmission of nerve impulses across the synapse, the junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle fiber.

Acetylcholinesterase is located in the synaptic cleft, the narrow gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. When ACh is released from the presynaptic membrane and binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, it triggers a response in the target cell. Acetylcholinesterase rapidly breaks down ACh, terminating its action and allowing for rapid cycling of neurotransmission.

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase leads to an accumulation of ACh in the synaptic cleft, prolonging its effects on the postsynaptic membrane. This can result in excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors and overactivation of the cholinergic system, which may cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fasciculations, sweating, salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, bradycardia, and bronchoconstriction.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma. However, they can also be used as chemical weapons, such as nerve agents, due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system and cause severe toxicity.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters of choline, including butyrylcholine and acetylcholine. It is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, brain, and plasma. BChE plays a role in the metabolism of certain drugs and neurotransmitters, and its activity can be inhibited by certain chemicals, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Elevated levels of BChE have been found in some neurological disorders, while decreased levels have been associated with genetic deficiencies and liver disease.

Chlorpyrifos is a type of pesticide that belongs to the class of organophosphates. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and causes toxic effects in insects. Chlorpyrifos is used to control a wide variety of pests, including insects that infest crops, homes, and gardens. It is also used to protect wood from termites and other wood-boring insects.

Chlorpyrifos can be harmful to humans if it is ingested, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. Exposure to chlorpyrifos can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and muscle twitching. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and even death. Chlorpyrifos has been linked to developmental problems in children, including reduced IQ and attention deficit disorder. As a result, the use of chlorpyrifos in residential settings has been restricted in many countries.

Phosphoric triester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric triesters into corresponding alcohols and phosphates. These enzymes play a crucial role in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents, as well as in the metabolism of various endogenous compounds.

The term "phosphoric triester hydrolases" is often used interchangeably with "phosphotriesterases" or "organophosphorus hydrolases." These enzymes are characterized by their ability to cleave the P-O-C bond in phosphoric triesters, releasing a free alcohol and a diethyl phosphate moiety.

Phosphoric triester hydrolases have attracted significant interest due to their potential applications in bioremediation, biosensors, and therapeutics. However, it is important to note that the specificity and efficiency of these enzymes can vary widely depending on the structure and properties of the target compounds.

Organophosphates are a group of chemicals that include insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases. They work by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapse between nerves. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, confusion, and potentially death due to respiratory failure. Organophosphates are highly toxic and their use is regulated due to the risks they pose to human health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Houseflies" are not a medical condition or term. Houseflies (Musca domestica) are a species of fly that are commonly found in human habitats. They are often considered nuisance pests because they can contaminate food and spread diseases. However, they do have an important role in the ecosystem as decomposers. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Esterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in esters, producing alcohols and carboxylic acids. They are widely distributed in plants, animals, and microorganisms and play important roles in various biological processes, such as metabolism, digestion, and detoxification.

Esterases can be classified into several types based on their substrate specificity, including carboxylesterases, cholinesterases, lipases, and phosphatases. These enzymes have different structures and mechanisms of action but all share the ability to hydrolyze esters.

Carboxylesterases are the most abundant and diverse group of esterases, with a wide range of substrate specificity. They play important roles in the metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics, and lipids. Cholinesterases, on the other hand, specifically hydrolyze choline esters, such as acetylcholine, which is an important neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Lipases are a type of esterase that preferentially hydrolyzes triglycerides and plays a crucial role in fat digestion and metabolism. Phosphatases are enzymes that remove phosphate groups from various molecules, including esters, and have important functions in signal transduction and other cellular processes.

Esterases can also be used in industrial applications, such as in the production of biodiesel, detergents, and food additives. They are often produced by microbial fermentation or extracted from plants and animals. The use of esterases in biotechnology is an active area of research, with potential applications in biofuel production, bioremediation, and medical diagnostics.

Phosphoric acids are a group of mineral acids known chemically as orthophosphoric acid and its salts or esters. The chemical formula for orthophosphoric acid is H3PO4. It is a weak acid that partially dissociates in solution to release hydrogen ions (H+), making it acidic. Phosphoric acid has many uses in various industries, including food additives, fertilizers, and detergents.

In the context of medical definitions, phosphoric acids are not typically referred to directly. However, they can be relevant in certain medical contexts, such as:

* In dentistry, phosphoric acid is used as an etching agent to prepare tooth enamel for bonding with dental materials.
* In nutrition, phosphorus is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in many bodily functions, including energy metabolism, bone and teeth formation, and nerve function. Phosphoric acid is one form of phosphorus found in some foods and beverages.
* In medical research, phosphoric acids can be used as buffers to maintain a stable pH in laboratory experiments or as reagents in various analytical techniques.

Leptophos is a defunct organophosphate pesticide that was primarily used for controlling insects in agricultural settings. It is the active ingredient in the product Phosvel, which was manufactured by Stauffer Chemical Company. Leptophos has been banned in many countries due to its high toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Leptophos is classified as a Class IA - Extremely Hazardous pesticide, based on its acute toxicity. It inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an overaccumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body, causing symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and respiratory failure.

Leptophos has also been linked to developmental toxicity, reproductive effects, and genetic damage in laboratory studies. Therefore, its use is no longer permitted in most countries, and it is considered a dangerous chemical that requires careful handling and disposal.

Decontamination is the process of removing, inactivating or destroying harmful contaminants from a person, object, environment or substance. In a medical context, decontamination typically refers to the removal of pathogens, toxic chemicals, or radioactive substances from patients, equipment, or surfaces in order to prevent infection or illness.

There are different methods and techniques for decontamination depending on the type and extent of contamination. For example, mechanical cleaning (such as washing with soap and water), chemical disinfection (using antimicrobial agents), radiation sterilization (using ionizing radiation), and heat sterilization (using steam or dry heat) are some common methods used in medical settings to decontaminate surfaces, equipment, and supplies.

Decontamination is an important process in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as in emergency response situations involving hazardous materials or bioterrorism incidents. Proper decontamination procedures can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, reduce the risk of chemical or radiation exposure, and protect the health and safety of patients, healthcare workers, and the public.

Carbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain the carbamate functional group, which is a carbon atom double-bonded to oxygen and single-bonded to a nitrogen atom (> N-C=O). In the context of pharmaceuticals and agriculture, carbamates are a class of drugs and pesticides that have carbamate as their core structure.

Carbamate insecticides work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses of the nervous system. When this enzyme is inhibited, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft, leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately causing paralysis and death in insects.

Carbamate drugs are used for a variety of medical indications, including as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and psychotropic medications. They work by modulating various neurotransmitter systems in the brain, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Carbamates can also be used as anti- parasitic agents, such as ivermectin, which is effective against a range of parasites including nematodes, arthropods, and some protozoa.

It's important to note that carbamate pesticides can be toxic to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it's essential to follow all safety guidelines when handling or using these products.

Oximes are a class of chemical compounds that contain the functional group =N-O-, where two organic groups are attached to the nitrogen atom. In a clinical context, oximes are used as antidotes for nerve agent and pesticide poisoning. The most commonly used oxime in medicine is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is used to reactivate acetylcholinesterase that has been inhibited by organophosphorus compounds, such as nerve agents and certain pesticides. These compounds work by forming a bond with the phosphoryl group of the inhibited enzyme, allowing for its reactivation and restoration of normal neuromuscular function.

Pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling pests. Pests can be insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, or other organisms that can cause damage to crops, animals, or humans and their living conditions. The term "pesticide" includes all of the following: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, bactericides, and various other substances used to control pests.

It is important to note that while pesticides are designed to be toxic to the target pests, they can also pose risks to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow all label instructions and safety precautions when handling and applying pesticides.

Dimethoate is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide (a chemical that kills mites). Its chemical formula is C5H12NO3PS. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system in both insects and mammals, including humans. This leads to an overstimulation of the nervous system, causing a variety of symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure and death in severe cases.

Dimethoate is used to control a wide range of pests, including aphids, thrips, leafminers, and spider mites, on various crops such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, and ornamental plants. However, due to its toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans, it is important to use it with caution and follow all safety guidelines when handling and applying this chemical. It is also subject to regulations regarding its use and disposal in many countries.

Methyl parathion is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, causing nervous system excitation and ultimately damage or death in insects. However, it can also have toxic effects on mammals, including humans, if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It is classified as a highly hazardous pesticide by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its use is restricted or banned in many countries due to its high toxicity and environmental persistence.

Organothiophosphates are a class of organophosphorus compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more organic groups and one or more sulfur atoms. These compounds have various uses, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, and insecticides. The most well-known member of this group is the insecticide parathion. Organothiophosphates are also used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals.

It's important to note that some organothiophosphates have been associated with health risks, including neurotoxicity and potential developmental effects. Therefore, their use is regulated by various government agencies around the world.

Diazinon is a type of organophosphate insecticide that works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and results in overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and respiratory failure, which can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Diazinon is used to control a wide range of insect pests in agriculture, horticulture, and residential settings. However, it is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans, and its use is regulated by environmental and public health agencies around the world. Exposure to diazinon can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and can cause acute and chronic health effects depending on the level and duration of exposure.

In the medical field, diazinon poisoning is treated with atropine, which blocks the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and oximes, which reactivate acetylcholinesterase. Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and fluid replacement, may also be necessary in severe cases.

Insecticide resistance is a genetic selection process in insect populations that allows them to survive and reproduce despite exposure to insecticides. It's the result of changes in the genetic makeup of insects, which can be caused by natural selection when insecticides are used repeatedly. Over time, this leads to the prevalence of genes that provide resistance to the insecticide, making the pest control methods less effective. Insecticide resistance is a significant challenge in public health and agriculture, as it can reduce the efficacy of interventions aimed at controlling disease-carrying insects or protecting crops from pests.

Carboxylic ester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohols and carboxylates. This group includes several subclasses of enzymes such as esterases, lipases, and thioesterases. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and signal transduction. They are widely used in industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients.

Chlorfenvinphos is an organophosphate insecticide that has been used to control a wide variety of pests in agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure.

Chlorfenvinphos is highly toxic to both mammals and birds, and it can also have harmful effects on aquatic organisms. It has been banned or restricted in many countries due to its environmental persistence and potential health risks to humans. Exposure to chlorfenvinphos can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and symptoms of poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, and respiratory distress. Chronic exposure has been linked to neurological effects such as memory loss, decreased cognitive function, and peripheral neuropathy.

Pesticide residues refer to the remaining pesticide chemicals, including their metabolites and degradation products, that are present in or on food commodities or environmental samples after a pesticide application has ended. These residues can result from agricultural use, such as spraying crops to control pests, or from non-agricultural uses, like treating buildings for termite control.

Regulatory agencies establish maximum residue limits (MRLs) to ensure that the levels of pesticide residues in food and feed are below those that may pose a risk to human health. Monitoring programs are in place to check compliance with these MRLs, and enforcement actions can be taken if violations occur.

It's important to note that not all pesticide residues are harmful, as some pesticides degrade into harmless compounds over time or leave behind residues below levels of concern for human health. However, long-term exposure to even low levels of certain pesticide residues may still pose a risk and should be avoided when possible.

Aryldialkylphosphatases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of certain types of organophosphate compounds. Specifically, they break down compounds that contain an aryl (aromatic) group linked to two alkyl groups through a phosphorus atom. These enzymes play a role in the detoxification of these compounds in living organisms.

The medical definition of 'Aryldialkylphosphatase' is not commonly used, as it refers to a specific type of enzyme that is not typically discussed in a clinical context. However, understanding the function of these enzymes can be important for toxicologists and other researchers who study the effects of organophosphate compounds on living systems.

In the context of medicine, "chemistry" often refers to the field of study concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as their reactions with one another. It is a fundamental science that underlies much of modern medicine, including pharmacology (the study of drugs), toxicology (the study of poisons), and biochemistry (the study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms).

In addition to its role as a basic science, chemistry is also used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, clinical chemistry involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine to detect and measure various substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, and electrolytes, that can provide important information about a person's health status.

Overall, chemistry plays a critical role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new treatments, and improving diagnostic tests and techniques.

Chemical phenomena refer to the changes and interactions that occur at the molecular or atomic level when chemicals are involved. These phenomena can include chemical reactions, in which one or more substances (reactants) are converted into different substances (products), as well as physical properties that change as a result of chemical interactions, such as color, state of matter, and solubility. Chemical phenomena can be studied through various scientific disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, and physics.

Fenthion is a type of pesticide called an organophosphate insecticide. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine and ultimately results in nervous system dysfunction in insects. Fenthion can be used to control a variety of pests, including flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. However, it is also toxic to non-target organisms, including humans, and has been linked to various health effects such as neurological damage and cancer. As a result, the use of fenthion has been restricted or banned in many countries.

Poisoning is defined medically as the harmful, sometimes fatal, effect produced by a substance when it is introduced into or absorbed by living tissue. This can occur through various routes such as ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin. The severity of poisoning depends on the type and amount of toxin involved, the route of exposure, and the individual's age, health status, and susceptibility. Symptoms can range from mild irritation to serious conditions affecting multiple organs, and may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, seizures, or unconsciousness. Immediate medical attention is required in cases of poisoning to prevent severe health consequences or death.

Trimedoxime is an antidote drug that is used to treat poisoning by organophosphate chemicals, which are commonly found in pesticides and nerve agents. It works by reactivating the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is inhibited by these toxic compounds, thereby restoring the normal functioning of the nervous system.

Medically, trimedoxime is classified as an oxime, a type of compound that can reverse the effects of organophosphate poisoning. It is often used in combination with atropine, another antidote drug that blocks the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that accumulates in the body due to organophosphate poisoning.

It's important to note that trimedoxime should only be administered under medical supervision and in accordance with established protocols for treating organophosphate poisoning. Improper use of this drug can lead to serious adverse effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term or concept. Sri Lanka is an island country located in the Indian Ocean, south of India. It is known for its diverse landscapes ranging from rainforests and arid plains to highlands and sandy beaches.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Azinphosmethyl is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control various pests in agriculture. Its chemical formula is C6H12NO6PS. It works by inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that is crucial for the proper functioning of the nervous system. This leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which can result in a variety of symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure.

Azinphosmethyl is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, and it can pose significant risks to human health if not handled properly. Exposure to this chemical can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it can cause a range of adverse health effects, including headaches, nausea, dizziness, and respiratory problems. Long-term exposure has been linked to more serious health issues such as neurological damage and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

Due to its high toxicity and potential risks to human health, the use of azinphosmethyl is regulated by various governmental agencies around the world. In the United States, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified azinphosmethyl as a restricted-use pesticide, which means that it can only be applied by certified applicators who have received special training in its safe use.

Fenitrothion is a type of organophosphate pesticide that is used to control a wide variety of insects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in nervous system dysfunction in insects.

Fenitrothion is used to control pests in agricultural settings, as well as in public health programs to combat vectors of diseases such as mosquitoes and lice. However, it can also have toxic effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and has been linked to a variety of health problems, including neurological damage and cancer. As a result, its use is regulated in many countries, and there are restrictions on the amount that can be applied and the circumstances under which it can be used.

Carboxylesterase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohol and carboxylate products. These enzymes are widely distributed in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and plasma. They play important roles in detoxification, metabolism, and the breakdown of xenobiotics (foreign substances) in the body.

Carboxylesterases can also catalyze the reverse reaction, forming esters from alcohols and carboxylates, which is known as transesterification or esterification. This activity has applications in industrial processes and biotechnology.

There are several families of carboxylesterases, with different substrate specificities, kinetic properties, and tissue distributions. These enzymes have been studied for their potential use in therapeutics, diagnostics, and drug delivery systems.

Neurotoxicity syndromes refer to a group of conditions caused by exposure to neurotoxins, which are substances that can damage the structure or function of the nervous system. Neurotoxicity syndromes can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems and may cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type and severity of the exposure.

Symptoms of neurotoxicity syndromes may include:

* Headache
* Dizziness
* Tremors or shaking
* Difficulty with coordination or balance
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Vision problems
* Memory loss or difficulty concentrating
* Seizures or convulsions
* Mood changes, such as depression or anxiety

Neurotoxicity syndromes can be caused by exposure to a variety of substances, including heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and arsenic), pesticides, solvents, and certain medications. In some cases, neurotoxicity syndromes may be reversible with treatment, while in other cases, the damage may be permanent.

Prevention is key in avoiding neurotoxicity syndromes, and it is important to follow safety guidelines when working with or around potential neurotoxins. If exposure does occur, prompt medical attention is necessary to minimize the risk of long-term health effects.

Obidoxime chloride is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as oximes. It is used as an antidote for nerve agent and organophosphate poisoning. Obidoxime works by reactivating the inhibited acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is essential for normal functioning of the nervous system. This enzyme can be inhibited by nerve agents and organophosphates, leading to an overstimulation of the nervous system that can result in symptoms such as muscle weakness, seizures, respiratory failure, and death.

Obidoxime is administered intravenously and works by breaking down the bond between the nerve agent or organophosphate and the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, allowing the enzyme to function normally again. It is important to note that obidoxime should be administered as soon as possible after exposure to a nerve agent or organophosphate in order to be effective.

It's important to mention that Obidoxime Chloride is not used frequently and only in specific situations, it requires medical supervision and administration by trained healthcare professionals.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Phosmet is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide, which means it is used to kill insects and mites. It works by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called cholinesterase, leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and ultimately causing nervous system failure in the pest.

Phosmet has a wide range of uses, including controlling pests on fruits, vegetables, nuts, and ornamental plants, as well as on animals such as dogs and livestock. It can be applied as a spray, dust, or fog, and it is absorbed through the skin and respiratory system of both the target pests and any individuals who come into contact with it.

Like other organophosphate pesticides, phosmet can have harmful effects on human health if not used properly. It can cause acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and muscle weakness, and in severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and death. Chronic exposure has been linked to neurological damage, including memory loss and decreased cognitive function.

It is important to follow all safety precautions when using phosmet or any other pesticide, including wearing protective clothing, washing contaminated skin and clothing, and avoiding re-entry into treated areas until the recommended safety interval has passed.

Coumaphos is an antiparasitic agent, specifically a type of chemical called an organophosphate. It works by inhibiting the action of certain enzymes in insects and other parasites, which leads to their death. Coumaphos is used as a topical treatment for lice and scabies infestations in humans, and it is also used in veterinary medicine to control internal and external parasites in livestock and pets.

It's important to note that coumaphos is highly toxic and can cause serious health effects if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Acetylthiocholine is a synthetic chemical compound that is widely used in scientific research, particularly in the field of neuroscience. It is the acetylated form of thiocholine, which is a choline ester. Acetylthiocholine is often used as a substrate for enzymes called cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE).

When Acetylthiocholine is hydrolyzed by AChE, it produces choline and thioacetic acid. This reaction is important because it terminates the signal transduction of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the synapse between neurons. Inhibition of AChE can lead to an accumulation of Acetylthiocholine and acetylcholine, which can have various effects on the nervous system, depending on the dose and duration of inhibition.

Acetylthiocholine is also used as a reagent in the Ellman's assay, a colorimetric method for measuring AChE activity. In this assay, Acetylthiocholine is hydrolyzed by AChE, releasing thiocholine, which then reacts with dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) to produce a yellow color. The intensity of the color is proportional to the amount of thiocholine produced and can be used to quantify AChE activity.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

There is no standard medical definition for "health food" as it can be subjective and may vary. However, health food generally refers to foods that are considered beneficial to one's health due to their high nutritional value or low levels of unhealthy components such as added sugars, saturated fats, and artificial ingredients.

These foods often include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Some people may also consider certain fortified or functional foods, such as those with added vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients, to be health foods. However, it's important to note that the term "health food" is not strictly regulated, so claims about the health benefits of certain foods should be evaluated critically and supported by scientific evidence.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Carbaryl is a carbamate pesticide that is used to control a wide variety of insects, including fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes. It works by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called cholinesterase, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system in insects. This leads to paralysis and death of the pests. Carbaryl is also used in some veterinary products to treat parasitic infestations. It can be found in various forms, such as powders, granules, and solutions, and can be applied to plants, animals, and indoor/outdoor surfaces. However, it can be harmful to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow the label instructions carefully when using carbaryl products.

Metaraminol is a synthetic vasoconstrictor and sympathomimetic agent, which is primarily used in clinical medicine to raise blood pressure in hypotensive states. It is a direct-acting alpha-adrenergic agonist, with some mild beta-adrenergic activity as well.

Metaraminol works by stimulating the alpha-adrenergic receptors in the smooth muscle of blood vessels, causing them to contract and narrow, leading to an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and systolic blood pressure. It also has a positive inotropic effect on the heart, increasing its contractility and stroke volume.

The drug is administered intravenously, and its effects are usually rapid in onset but short-lived, typically lasting for 5 to 10 minutes. Common side effects of metaraminol include hypertension, reflex bradycardia, arrhythmias, headache, anxiety, and tremors. It should be used with caution in patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and other cardiovascular conditions.

Gastric lavage, also known as stomach pumping, is a medical procedure where the stomach's contents are emptied using a tube that is inserted through the mouth or nose and into the stomach. The tube is then connected to suction, which helps remove the stomach contents. This procedure is often used in emergency situations to treat poisonings or overdoses by removing the toxic substance before it gets absorbed into the bloodstream. It can also be used to empty the stomach before certain surgeries or procedures.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for "Nerium." However, Nerium is a genus of plants in the dogwood family, and its most common species is Nerium oleander, also known as oleander. Oleander is a toxic plant that can cause serious health problems if ingested or touched. Its symptoms include nausea, vomiting, seizures, irregular heartbeat, and even death in severe cases. It's essential to keep oleander away from children, pets, and livestock and seek immediate medical attention if any part of the plant is accidentally ingested.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Chemical terrorism is the use or threatened use of chemicals, typically in the form of toxic gases or liquids, with the intent to cause harm, death, disruption, or fear among a population. This type of terrorism falls under the broader category of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and can pose significant risks to public health and safety. Chemical agents used in terrorist attacks can range from industrial chemicals that are easily accessible, such as chlorine and ammonia, to more sophisticated and deadly nerve agents like sarin and VX. The effects of chemical terrorism can be immediate and catastrophic, causing mass casualties and long-term health consequences for survivors. Preparation, response, and recovery efforts require a coordinated effort among local, state, and federal agencies, as well as the medical community, to effectively mitigate the impact of such attacks.

Dealkylation is a chemical process that involves the removal of an alkyl group from a molecule. In the context of medical and biological sciences, dealkylation often refers to the breakdown of drugs or other xenobiotics (foreign substances) in the body by enzymes.

Dealkylation is one of the major metabolic pathways for the biotransformation of many drugs, including chemotherapeutic agents, opioids, and benzodiazepines. This process can result in the formation of more polar and water-soluble metabolites, which can then be excreted from the body through the urine or bile.

Dealkylation can occur via several mechanisms, including oxidative dealkylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as non-oxidative dealkylation mediated by other enzymes. The specific dealkylation pathway depends on the structure of the substrate and the type of enzyme involved.

Monoacylglycerol lipases (MAGLs) are a type of enzyme that play a role in the metabolism of lipids, specifically by breaking down monoacylglycerols into glycerol and free fatty acids. Monoacylglycerols are formed during the digestion of dietary fats and are also produced endogenously as a result of the breakdown of complex lipids.

MAGLs are widely distributed throughout the body, but are particularly abundant in tissues that utilize large amounts of fatty acids for energy, such as the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In addition to their role in lipid metabolism, MAGLs have been implicated in various physiological processes, including inflammation, pain perception, and cancer.

Inhibition of MAGL activity has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, further research is needed to fully understand the role of MAGLs in these processes and to determine the safety and efficacy of MAGL inhibitors as drugs.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

Cresols are a group of chemical compounds that are phenolic derivatives of benzene, consisting of methyl substituted cresidines. They have the formula C6H4(OH)(\_3CH3). There are three isomers of cresol, depending on the position of the methyl group: ortho-cresol (m-cresol), meta-cresol (p-cresol), and para-cresol (o-cresol). Cresols are used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and preservatives in various industrial and commercial applications. They have a characteristic odor and are soluble in alcohol and ether. In medical terms, cresols may be used as topical antiseptic agents, but they can also cause skin irritation and sensitization.

Nitrophenols are organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a phenyl ring (aromatic hydrocarbon) and one or more nitro groups (-NO2). They have the general structure R-C6H4-NO2, where R represents the hydroxyl group.

Nitrophenols are known for their distinctive yellow to brown color and can be found in various natural sources such as plants and microorganisms. Some common nitrophenols include:

* p-Nitrophenol (4-nitrophenol)
* o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol)
* m-Nitrophenol (3-nitrophenol)

These compounds are used in various industrial applications, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, they can also be harmful to human health and the environment, as some nitrophenols have been identified as potential environmental pollutants and may pose risks to human health upon exposure.

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is an advanced technique used in analytical chemistry for the preparation and extraction of samples. It's not exclusively a medical term, but it does have applications in clinical and medical research. Here's a definition:

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-free sample preparation technique that integrates sampling, extraction, concentration, and cleanup into a single step. It involves the use of a fused-silica fiber, which is coated with a thin layer of a stationary phase, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or polyacrylate. This fiber is exposed to the sample matrix, allowing the analytes (compounds of interest) to be adsorbed or absorbed onto the coating. After the extraction step, the fiber is then inserted into a gas chromatograph or high-performance liquid chromatograph for analysis. SPME is widely used in various fields, including environmental monitoring, food analysis, and biomedical research, due to its simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. In the medical field, it can be applied for the analysis of drugs, metabolites, or other compounds in biological samples such as blood, urine, or tissue.

Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) is a sample preparation technique used in analytical chemistry and clinical laboratory medicine. It is a miniaturized version of traditional liquid-liquid extraction, which involves the separation of analytes from a sample matrix based on their partitioning between two immiscible liquids.

In LPME, a small volume (microliters to nanoliters) of an organic extractant phase is placed in a micro-syringe or contained within a porous membrane or hollow fiber. This extractant phase is then introduced into a larger sample solution, where analytes partition from the aqueous sample matrix into the organic phase due to their higher solubility in the organic solvent. After equilibrium has been reached, the extractant phase is withdrawn and analyzed for the presence of the target analytes using various analytical techniques such as gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or mass spectrometry (MS).

LPME offers several advantages over traditional liquid-liquid extraction, including reduced solvent consumption, lower cost, shorter analysis time, and higher enrichment factors. It is commonly used for the preconcentration and cleanup of environmental, biological, and clinical samples prior to analysis.

Immobilized enzymes refer to enzymes that have been restricted or fixed in a specific location and are unable to move freely. This is typically achieved through physical or chemical methods that attach the enzyme to a solid support or matrix. The immobilization of enzymes can provide several advantages, including increased stability, reusability, and ease of separation from the reaction mixture.

Immobilized enzymes are widely used in various industrial applications, such as biotransformations, biosensors, and diagnostic kits. They can also be used for the production of pharmaceuticals, food additives, and other fine chemicals. The immobilization techniques include adsorption, covalent binding, entrapment, and cross-linking.

Adsorption involves physically attaching the enzyme to a solid support through weak forces such as van der Waals interactions or hydrogen bonding. Covalent binding involves forming chemical bonds between the enzyme and the support matrix. Entrapment involves encapsulating the enzyme within a porous matrix, while cross-linking involves chemically linking multiple enzyme molecules together to form a stable structure.

Overall, immobilized enzymes offer several advantages over free enzymes, including improved stability, reusability, and ease of separation from the reaction mixture, making them valuable tools in various industrial applications.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

'Culex' is a genus of mosquitoes that includes many species that are vectors for various diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, and avian malaria. They are often referred to as "house mosquitoes" because they are commonly found in urban environments. These mosquitoes typically lay their eggs in standing water and have a cosmopolitan distribution, being found on all continents except Antarctica. The life cycle of Culex mosquitoes includes four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Both male and female adults feed on nectar, but only females require blood meals to lay eggs.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

The medical definition of 'charcoal' is referred to as activated charcoal, which is a fine, black powder made from coconut shells, wood, or other natural substances. It is used in medical situations to absorb poison or drugs in the stomach, thereby preventing their absorption into the body and reducing their toxic effects. Activated charcoal works by binding to certain chemicals and preventing them from being absorbed through the digestive tract.

Activated charcoal is generally safe for most people when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as black stools, constipation, and regurgitation of the charcoal. It should be used under medical supervision and not as a substitute for seeking immediate medical attention in case of poisoning or overdose.

It's important to note that activated charcoal is different from regular charcoal, which is not safe to consume and can contain harmful chemicals or substances.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

"Agricultural Workers' Diseases" is a term used to describe a variety of health conditions and illnesses that are associated with agricultural work. These can include both acute and chronic conditions, and can be caused by a range of factors including exposure to chemicals, dusts, allergens, physical injuries, and biological agents such as bacteria and viruses.

Some common examples of Agricultural Workers' Diseases include:

1. Pesticide poisoning: This can occur when agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of pesticides or other chemicals used in farming. Symptoms can range from mild skin irritation to severe neurological damage, depending on the type and amount of chemical exposure.
2. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers can be exposed to a variety of dusts and allergens that can cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and farmer's lung. These conditions are often caused by prolonged exposure to moldy hay, grain dust, or other organic materials.
3. Musculoskeletal injuries: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries due to the physical demands of their job. This can include back pain, repetitive strain injuries, and sprains and strains from lifting heavy objects.
4. Zoonotic diseases: Agricultural workers who come into contact with animals are at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases, which are illnesses that can be transmitted between animals and humans. Examples include Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis.
5. Heat-related illnesses: Agricultural workers who work outside in hot weather are at risk of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Prevention of Agricultural Workers' Diseases involves a combination of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and training to help workers understand the risks associated with their job and how to minimize exposure to hazards.

Nervous system diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. These diseases can affect various functions of the body, such as movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. They can be caused by genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or tumors. Examples of nervous system diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, stroke, and neuroinfections like meningitis and encephalitis. The symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe and debilitating.

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as Vitamin B7 or Vitamin H. It is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in metabolism, particularly in the synthesis and breakdown of fatty acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Biotin plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy skin, hair, nails, nerves, and liver function. It is found in various foods such as nuts, seeds, whole grains, milk, and vegetables. Biotin deficiency is rare but can occur in people with malnutrition, alcoholism, pregnancy, or certain genetic disorders.

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

Muscarinic antagonists, also known as muscarinic receptor antagonists or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps to regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

Muscarinic antagonists work by binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract. By blocking the action of acetylcholine at these receptors, muscarinic antagonists can produce a range of effects depending on the specific receptor subtype that is affected.

For example, muscarinic antagonists may be used to treat conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airways and reducing bronchoconstriction. They may also be used to treat conditions such as urinary incontinence or overactive bladder by reducing bladder contractions.

Some common muscarinic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and tiotropium. It's important to note that these drugs can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and confusion, especially when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time.

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a method used in analytical chemistry and biochemistry to extract, separate, or clean up specific components from a complex matrix, such as a biological sample. It involves the use of a solid phase, typically a packed bed of sorbent material, held within a cartridge or column. The sample mixture is passed through the column, and the components of interest are selectively retained by the sorbent while other components pass through.

The analytes can then be eluted from the sorbent using a small volume of a suitable solvent, resulting in a more concentrated and purified fraction that can be analyzed using various techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), or mass spectrometry.

The solid phase used in SPE can vary depending on the nature of the analytes and the matrix, with different sorbents offering varying degrees of selectivity and capacity for specific compounds. Commonly used sorbents include silica-based materials, polymeric resins, and ion exchange materials.

Overall, solid-phase extraction is a powerful tool in sample preparation, allowing for the isolation and concentration of target analytes from complex matrices, thereby improving the sensitivity and selectivity of downstream analytical techniques.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a low boiling point and easily evaporate at room temperature. They can be liquids or solids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde, which are found in many household products, including paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; cleaning supplies; pesticides; building materials and furnishings; office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper; and glues and adhesives.

VOCs can cause both short- and long-term health effects. Short-term exposure to high levels of VOCs can cause headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, and memory problems. Long-term exposure can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Some VOCs are also suspected or known carcinogens.

It is important to properly use, store, and dispose of products that contain VOCs to minimize exposure. Increasing ventilation by opening windows and doors or using fans can also help reduce exposure to VOCs.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Hafner, Michael; Wegemann, Thomas; Regitz, Manfred (1993). "Organophosphorus Compounds; 72. 1 The Tri- tert -butylcyclopropenyl ... One compound, ArP=C=CPh2 (Ar =Mes*) was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This compound showed ... In compounds with the antisymmetric form X=C=Y, IR stretching bands are observed in the 1600-2300 cm−1 region. However, the IR ... In similar compounds containing a C=C=N skeleton, there is a very strong band present within the 1600 - 2300 cm−1 region. The ...
Collins, DJ; Drygala, PF; Swan, JM (1983). "Organophosphorus compounds. XIX. Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydro-1 H-1,2-benzazaphosphole ... Maier, Ludwig (October 1991). "Organic Phosphorus Compounds 98.1Synthesis and Properties of N-Methylaminomethylphosphonic Acid ...
... s (R 1R 2C 2PY 1Y+ 2) are a series of organophosphorus compounds containing unsaturated three-membered ring ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Organophosphorus compounds, Cations, Quaternary ... "Organophosphorus Compounds; 122. Alkylation of 1H-Phosphirenes with Triflates - Synthesis of λ5σ4-1H-Phosphirenium Cations". ... Reminiscent of π-ligand exchange in coordination compounds, a phosphirenium ion may undergo alkyne exchange with other alkynes ...
Organophosphorus flame retardants have been detected in wastewater in Spain and Sweden, and some compounds do not appear to be ... Organophosphorus compounds. This class includes organophosphates such as triphenyl phosphate (TPP), resorcinol bis( ... Mineral flame retardants are typically additive, while organohalogen and organophosphorus compounds can be either reactive or ... In one important class of flame retardants, compounds contain both phosphorus and a halogen. Such compounds include tris(2,3- ...
In organic chemistry, Wittig reagents are organophosphorus compounds of the formula R3P=CHR', where R is usually phenyl. They ...
Cohen JA, Oosterbaan RA, Berends F (1967). "[81] Organophosphorus compounds". Enzyme Structure. Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 11 ... A common treatment for erectile dysfunction is sildenafil (Viagra). This compound is a potent inhibitor of cGMP specific ... In many cases, allosteric, substrate competitive compounds result in conformational changes to the enzyme that change the ... Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 5-24. ISBN 978-0-08-054310-9. ...
... are usually organophosphorus compounds with the formula R2POH. They are pyramidal in structure. Phosphorus is ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)88307-0. (Functional groups, Organophosphorus compounds). ... compounds with the formula R3PO cannot tautomerize. The situation is different for the secondary and primary phosphine oxides, ... OPR2H Even the pentafluorophenyl compound P(C6F5)2OH is unstable with respect to the phosphine oxide. Although phosphinous ...
Fonnum, F.; Sterri, S.H. (1981). "Factors modifying the toxicity of organophosphorus compounds including soman and sarin". ... Jokanović, M. (2001-09-25). "Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds". Toxicology. 166 (3): 139-160. doi:10.1016/s0300- ... Soman is an organophosphorus nerve agent with a mechanism of action similar to Tabun. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholine ... As soman is closely related to compounds such as sarin, indications for a soman poisoning are relatively similar. One of the ...
ISBN 0-8493-7765-X. edited; Edmundson, compiled by R.S. (1988). Dictionary of organophosphorus compounds. London: Chapman and ...
Dictionary of organophosphorus compounds. London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 0-412-25790-4. {{cite book}}: ,last1= has generic name ...
Jokanović, Milan (2001-09-25). "Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds". Toxicology. 166 (3): 139-160. doi:10.1016/ ... "Structure-Activity Relationships of the Organophosphorus Anticholinesterase Agents, Historical development of organophosphorus ... In the meantime, organophosphorus chemistry has really started developing with the help of A. W. von Hofmann, Carl Arnold ... The compound hydrolyzes rapidly. TEPP is an insecticide to aphids, mites, spiders, mealybugs, leafhoppers, lygus bugs, thrips, ...
Pedersen B. S., Scheibye S., Nilson N, H,, Lawesson S. O. (1978). "Studies on Organophosphorus Compounds .10. Synthesis of ... Lawesson undertook a general survey of the reactivity of organic compounds with this reagent. It is often named after him as ...
Scheibye, S.; Kristensen, J.; Lawesson, S.-O. (1979). "Studies on organophosphorus compounds XXVII. Synthesis of thiono-, ... "Studies on organophosphorus compounds XX. syntheses of thioketones". Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg. 87 (3): 223-228. doi:10.1002/bscb. ... "Studies on organophosphorus compounds XXXI. Synthesis of thiolactams and thioimides". Nouveau Journal de Chimie. 1980 (4): 47. ... Lawesson's reagent (LR) is a chemical compound used in organic synthesis as a thiation agent. Lawesson's reagent was first made ...
Augustinsson K-B; Heimburger G (1954). "Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. II. Analysis of reaction products ... Augustinsson K-B; Heimburger G (1954). "Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. IV. Specificity studies". Acta Chem ... Augustinsson K-B; Heimburger G (1954). "Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. I. Occurrence of enzymes ... At least one compound, chelating agent is known to inhibit this enzyme. As of late 2007, 16 structures have been solved for ...
Singh BK, Walker A (May 2006). "Microbial degradation of organophosphorus compounds". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 30 (3): 428-71 ... Organophosphate is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. They can be ... The enzyme phosphotriesterase hydrolyzes organophosphate compounds by cleaving the triester linkage in the substrate. The ... Singh BK (February 2009). "Organophosphorus-degrading bacteria: ecology and industrial applications". Nature Reviews. ...
3, p. 332 Shabana, R.; Scheibye, S.; Clausen, K.; Olesen, S.O.; Lawesson, S.-O. (1980). "Studies on organophosphorus compounds ...
... is an organophosphorus compound. Abbreviated t-BuCP, it was the first example of an isolable ... 2-additions of halogenated compounds. Organolithium compounds and enophiles can also react with C-P triple bonds, along with [2 ... Nixon, John F. "Coordination chemistry of compounds containing phosphorus-carbon multiple bonds." Chem. Rev. 1988, 88, 1327. ... "Molecular structures of phosphorus compounds : Part IX. Gas-phase structure of 2,2-dimethylpropylidynephosphine." Journal of ...
Organophosphorus(III) compounds effect gentle dechlorinations. The products are alkenes and phosphorus(V). Alkaline earth ... It is also used occasionally in the synthesis of organic compounds, e.g. as pharmaceuticals. Dechlorination is a well- ...
... is an organophosphorus compound. It is highly toxic. "METHYL PHENKAPTON , CAMEO Chemicals , NOAA". ... Methoxy compounds, Thiophosphoryl compounds, Chloroarenes, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... parathion hydrolase from Azohydromonas australica and its high effectiveness in the degradation of various organophosphorus ...
The name "phosphine" was first used for organophosphorus compounds in 1857, being analogous to organic amines (NR3). The gas ... organo-nitrogen compounds), "arsine" (organo-arsenic compounds), and "stibine" (organo-antimony compounds). NIOSH Pocket Guide ... Trofimov, Boris A.; Arbuzova, Svetlana N.; Gusarova, Nina K. (1999). "Phosphine in the Synthesis of Organophosphorus Compounds ... Phosphine is a precursor to many organophosphorus compounds. It reacts with formaldehyde in the presence of hydrogen chloride ...
Diphosphene is a type of organophosphorus compound that has a phosphorus-phosphorus double bond, denoted by R-P=P-R'. These ... doi:10.1016/s0003-2670(03)00996-6. Yoshifuji, Masaaki (2017-03-01). "Sterically protected organophosphorus compounds of unusual ... A borylzinc chloride was prepared by from a bulky boryl-lithium compound. This nucleophilic borylzinc compound could attack the ... Organophosphorus compounds, Functional groups, Pages that use a deprecated format of the chem tags). ...
"Phosphine in the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds". Russian Chemical Reviews. 68 (3): 215-227. doi:10.1070/ ... The method is used in the synthesis of organic compounds. Cyanoethylation entails addition of protic nucleophiles to ...
... is the organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C 4H 9) 3. Abbreviated or PBu 3, it is a tertiary ... "Phosphine in the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds". Russian Chemical Reviews. 68 (3): 215-227. Bibcode:1999RuCRv..68.. ... Jürgen Svara, Norbert Weferling and Thomas Hofmann "Phosphorus Compounds, Organic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... the compound is usually handled under an inert atmosphere. The phosphine is also easily alkylated. For example, benzyl chloride ...
... is the organophosphorus compound with the formula P(CH2CH2CN)3. It is white solid that is air stable ... Trofimov, Boris A.; Arbuzova, Svetlana N.; Gusarova, Nina K. (1999). "Phosphine in the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds ... The compound has been the subject of much research. For example, it is an effective reagent for the desulfurization of organic ...
... s are organophosphorus compounds with the formula PRnH3−n, where R is an organic substituent. These compounds ... "Phosphine in the Synthesis of Organophosphorus Compounds". Russian Chemical Reviews. 68 (3): 215-227. Bibcode:1999RuCRv..68.. ... The use of organophosphorus-based nucleophiles is typical. For example, lithium diphenylphosphide is readily methylated with ... ISBN 978-0-470-66627-2. G.M. Kosolapoff; L. Maier (1972). Organic Phosphorus Compounds, Volume 1. New York, N. Y.: John Wiley. ...
Trofimov, Boris A.; Arbuzova, Svetlana N.; Gusarova, Nina K. (1999). "Phosphine in the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds ... Quin, L. D. A Guide to Organophosphorus Chemistry; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 2000; pp 28-29. Alonso, Francisco; Moglie, ... Svara, Jürgen; Weferling, Norbert; Hofmann, Thomas (2006). "Phosphorus Compounds, Organic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorus Compounds , SpringerLink. www.springer.com. (All articles with dead external ... Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorous Compounds. Springer, 2014. https://www.imna.ir/news/602901/%D8%A8%D8%B1%DA% ... Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds. Springer, 2015. Biological Toxins and Bioterrorism. Springer 2015. ... Practical Guide for Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Casualties Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds , ...
"Nerve Agents - Lethal organo-phosphorus compounds inhibiting cholinesterase". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical ... Some of the chemicals from this class of compounds formed a new group of nerve agents called V Agents. The British Government ... The toxicity of these substances had not passed unnoticed by the British Government, as some of the compounds had already been ... Calderbank, Alan (1978). "Chapter 6: Organophosphorus Insecticides". In Peacock, F.C. (ed.). Jealott's Hill: Fifty years of ...
... is a selenium-containing organophosphorus compound. It's the precursor to selenophos, the ... January 1967). "Selenophosphorus Compounds as Powerful Cholinesterase Inhibitors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (1): 115- ... Organophosphorus compounds, Organoselenium compounds). ...
Chapter 10 of The chemistry of organophosphorus compounds. Volume 4, Ter- and quinque-valent phosphorus acids and their ... 1996) Black, R. M.; Harrison, J. M. (2009). "The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents". PATai's Chemistry of ... Black R.M., Harrison J.M. The chemistry of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents. ...
... *Selected Metallic Ions Identified in Waste ... Interaction Profile for Mixtures of Insecticides: Pyrethroids, Organophosphorus Compounds, and Carbamates. Atlanta, GA: U.S. ...
Medical information for Organophosphorous compounds Poison on Pediatric Oncall ... Varies between 25mg to 1gm for different compounds. Fatal Period : 1/2 to 3 hours. Mechanism of action : They are irreversible ... Cholinesterase reactivators: oxime compounds are used, eg. Diacetyl monoxime, pralidoxime chloride, pralidoxime iodide, ...
Extraction of niobium and tantalum isotopes using organophosphorus compounds - Part I - Extraction of carrier-free metal ...
Organophosphorus Compounds - Phosphines PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * DNA Analogues Modified at the ...
D. W. Hutchinson, J. A. Miller, and B. J. Walker, in Organophosphorus Chemistry, ed. D. W. Hutchinson and J. A. Miller, The ...
Enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are classified as organophosphorus acid ... Title: Novel protein targets for organophosphorus compounds. Richards P, Johnson M, Ray D, Walker C Ref: Chemico-Biological ... The in vivo effects of the organophosphorus compound (OPC) paraoxon (POX) on blood coagulation of mini pigs were assessed by ... Meeting Report for: The 3rd International Meeting on Esterases Reacting with Organophosphorus Compounds. The 3rd International ...
Hafner, Michael; Wegemann, Thomas; Regitz, Manfred (1993). "Organophosphorus Compounds; 72. 1 The Tri- tert -butylcyclopropenyl ... One compound, ArP=C=CPh2 (Ar =Mes*) was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This compound showed ... In compounds with the antisymmetric form X=C=Y, IR stretching bands are observed in the 1600-2300 cm−1 region. However, the IR ... In similar compounds containing a C=C=N skeleton, there is a very strong band present within the 1600 - 2300 cm−1 region. The ...
Organophosphorus compounds. Phosgene. *Specific Gravity:. 1.66. *Vapor Pressure:. 18 mm Hg. *Volatility:. 55,700 mg/m3 at 32°F ...
Organophosphorus compounds are known to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This occurs when the OPC phosphorylates ... Firstly, is the information which I have found thus far correct? Secondly, If an organophosphorus AChE inhibitor which already ... His answer also suggests that OP compounds that contain hydroxyl groups would indeed cause instant aging of inhibited ...
Carbon-phosphorus and oxygen-phosphorus bond formation: new methodologies for the preparation of organophosphorus compoundsShow ... Carbon-phosphorus and oxygen-phosphorus bond formation: new methodologies for the preparation of organophosphorus compounds. ... alkynes and aryl compounds with H-phosphinates is described.^The system utilizing catalytic Mn(OAc)2 either neat or in DMSO, is ... tautomerization of phosphinylidene compounds and the structural influences that effect the thermodynamic and kinetic properties ...
Part 1 (ricin, thallium compounds and organophosphorus compounds) in 2021, #1 (90) ... Effect of organophosphorus compounds on the factors of mice congenital immunity / T. S. Zaporozhets, L. A. Ivanushko, A. K. ... Organophosphorous compounds (OPCs) is a large group of chemical substances that represent esters, amides or thiol derivatives ... Main metabolites of organophosphorus compounds detected in human blood for biomonitoring [by Manel Araoud, 19]. ...
Computational study of the aromaticity and antiaromaticity of cyclic organophosphorus compounds containing a single phosphorus ...
Peripheral neurotoxicity in workers exposed to inorganic mercury compounds. Arch Environ Health. 1987 Jul-Aug. 42(4):181-4. [ ... Clinical presentations of selected neurotoxic compounds. Bleeker ML, Hansen JA, eds. Occupational Neurology and Clinical ...
Neurological syndromes of organophosphorus compounds. Jamal GA. Jamal GA. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 1997 Aug;16(3):133-70 ... Long term neurotoxic effects of organophosphate compounds. Jamal GA. Jamal GA. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 1995 Summer;14(2 ... Low level exposures to organophosphorus esters may cause neurotoxicity. Jamal GA, Hansen S, Julu PO. Jamal GA, et al. ...
Organophosphorous compounds. Metrifonate Interactions. Back to Top. This is not a complete list of Metrifonatedrug interactions ...
Identification of Organophosphorous (OP) Compounds in the Vomitus of op Intoxicated Patients & investigation of Organ Specific ...
Axial-to-central transfer of chirality is shown to provide ready access to various classes of P-chirogenic compounds that are ... Phosphorus compounds with unique chirality due to the presence of a P-stereocentre are obtained through stereoselective ... Mater. 22, 567-576 (2012). This article describes the application of organophosphorus compounds in materials chemistry. ... 1: Stereoselective C-P coupling of a phosphoramidite and an aryl halide or triflate to produce useful P-chiral compounds.. © ...
Cohen JA, Oosterbaan RA, Berends F (1967). "[81] Organophosphorus compounds". Enzyme Structure. Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 11 ... "In Gupta RC (ed.). Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 5-24. ISBN ... A common treatment for erectile dysfunction is sildenafil (Viagra).[100] This compound is a potent inhibitor of cGMP specific ... In many cases, allosteric, substrate competitive compounds result in conformational changes to the enzyme that change the ...
Organophosphorus compounds; Author Keywords: Sandwich ELISA; Organophosphorylated; butyrylcholinesterase; Butyrylcholinesterase ...
Dichlorvos is a member of a group of chemicals called organophosphorus compounds. Some of these chemicals are extremely harmful ...
Organophosphorus Compounds); 0 (Phenyl-P adhesion promoting monomer); 0 (Phosphoric Acids); 0 (Polymethacrylic Acids); 0 (Re ... Organophosphorus Compounds/chemistry, Orthodontic Brackets, Phosphoric Acids/chemistry, Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry, Resin ...
Science of Synthesis Category 5 comprises 9 volume s and covers compounds with one carbon-heteroatom bond e.g. alcohols; ... Organophosphorous Compounds. This category presents the methods for the synthesis of organic compounds organized according to ... Organophosphorus Compounds (incl. RO-P and RN-P) (TOC). Mathey (Preface). 2008. ... Compounds with One-Heteroatom Bond e.g. Alcohols; Peroxides; Sulfides, Selenides, and Tellurides; Amines, Ammonium Salts, ...
Electrochemical Biosensors for Determination of Organophosphorus Compounds: Review (Review) Anjum Gahlaut, Ashish Gothwal, Anil ...
synthesis of organophosphorus compounds and macrocyclic ligands. Bojdys, Michael J.. Organic Chemistry. [email protected]. ...
A second goal is to develop synthetic methodology in order to investigate novel organophosphorus compounds as pharmaceuticals. ... Finally the application of organophosphorus compounds to materials science is also currently being investigated. ... These compounds are often readily studied by NMR, IR and X-ray crystallography and are forever throwing-up surprises. ... By clicking on our dedicated website you can read a lot more about our research into Organophosphorus Chemistry and its many ...
Research Interests: Synthesis and Applications of Chiral Organophosphorous Compounds; Catalytic Applications of Metallacycles; ... Research Interests: Organometallics: new compounds, structures and reactivity patterns; Application of organometallic compounds ... Research Interests: Novel main group compounds; Applications in catalysis, e.g. CO2 functionalization, hydroboration, transfer ...
Assessment of the state of pollution of Mediterranean Sea by organophosphorous compounds. MAP Technical Reports Series no. 58. ... Intermediate syndrome in organophosphorus poisoning: A prospective study. Crit. Care Med., 21: 1706-1711.. PubMedDirect Link ... Due to their high insecticidal activity, low environmental persistence and moderate toxicity, the OP compounds are the most ... more than 100 different OP compounds have been synthesized and are extensively used worldwide (Buyukokuroglu et al., 2008). ...
Organophosphorous compounds, fine chemicals for APIs, polymerisation reactions and polymer production. We have no restrictions ... Argus Chemicals has expertise in areas including organophosphorous compounds, precious metals catalysts, fine chemicals for ... including organophosphorous compounds, precious metals catalysts, fine chemicals for APIs, polymerisation reactions and the ... Originally, and on a lab-scale basis, the company began to produce rare and unobtainable compounds not generally found in ...
... than any other organophosphorus compound. Even so, it was confined to three of the seven groups within the dietetic range, ... III.-Organophosphorus pesticide residues in the total diet. Pestic. Sci., 1: 10-13 Elkins, E.R. Lamb, F.C., Farrow, R.P., Cook ...
  • During the last two decades, organophosphorus pesticides are directly the main reason of acute and chronic poisoning with pesticides among the agricultural workers, among population following household use as insecticides, as well as following accidental or deliberate use that requires emergency medical care, precise diagnostics, effective treatment, and prediction of consequences of intoxication [4, 6, 8-11]. (kiev.ua)
  • The illegal practice of combining organophosphates (OPs) with other compounds such as carbamates and pyrethroids, creating 'street pesticides', is common in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Street pesticides' are illegally compounded from agricultural pesticides and other compounds. (scielo.org.za)
  • Afterwards, those chlorine atoms are displaced by organic (carbon-containing) molecules, creating a wide variety of organophosphorus compounds such as those found in pesticides. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Jokanović M. Neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus pesticides and possible association with neurodegenerative diseases in man: A review. (aaem.pl)
  • By the end of Phase I, we will design and build a sensor with proven ability to sense salt, inorganic ions, pesticides, and organophosphorus compounds at or below their minimum exposure limits in water temperatures from 4 °C to 49 °C in environment temperature from ---33 °C to 52 °C. (sbir.gov)
  • Long term neurotoxic effects of organophosphate compounds. (nih.gov)
  • Organophosphate (OP) compounds are widely used and include some of the most toxic chemical agents. (scialert.net)
  • This compound group is populated from lists of organophosphorous / organophosphate flame retardants from multiple commercial and academic sources. (pharosproject.net)
  • This compound group is populated from combined lists of organophosphorous flame retardants and only includes those that are organophosphate esters. (pharosproject.net)
  • anjay A, Siddheshwar V, Sheshrao S. The Clinico-Demographic Study of Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Organophosphate Compound Poisoning at Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural India. (aaem.pl)
  • The main reason for this disadvantage is a lack of methodology for the synthesis of phosphorus compounds in which the chirality at the phosphorus atom can be readily controlled during carbon-phosphorus (C-P) bond formation. (nature.com)
  • This category presents the methods for the synthesis of organic compounds organized according to the functional group or groups prepared in the product. (thieme.de)
  • Moving outside the confines of traditional and proven phosphine chemistry, we seek to use experimental and computational methodology to aid the design and synthesis of phosphorus compounds with high impact applications or which test false assumptions. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • We aim to establish the routine use of primary phosphines, a class of compound generally thought to be extremely hazardous. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Objective: analysis and summary of the literature data and own studies on the possibility of using biomarkers of exposure and effect of organophosphorus compounds (OPCs), determination of immunological biomarkers of the effect under exposure to OPCs that cause delayed neurotoxicity (DN). (kiev.ua)
  • These categories address all tion to cleaning validation and the resolution of atypical types of toxicological endpoints, including carcinogenic- extraneous matter investigations for relatively unstudied ity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and developmental compounds in APIs and finished pharmaceutical prod- toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 95% of this activity is inhibited in assays where substrate has been added to a preincubated mixture of tissue with the non-neuropathic organophosphorus compound (OP) paraoxon (O,O'-diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate): residual activity includes soluble neuropathy target esterase (S-NTE) which, by definition, is considered resistant to long-term progressive (covalent) inhibition by paraoxon. (inrae.fr)
  • Halogenated organophosphorus compounds include tris-chloropropyl-phosphate (TCPP), tris-chloroethyl-phosphate, and tris dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCPP) (BMU, 2000). (pops.int)
  • Organophosphorus compounds are known to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). (stackexchange.com)
  • Organophosphorus compounds irreversibly bind to acetylcholinesterase (AChE), rendering this enzyme non-functional. (scielo.org.za)
  • Due to their high insecticidal activity, low environmental persistence and moderate toxicity, the OP compounds are the most favored insecticides. (scialert.net)
  • By clicking on our dedicated website you can read a lot more about our research into Organophosphorus Chemistry and its many wonders! (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The main objective of my research group is to understand organophosphorus chemistry, with its multitude of applications in biology and catalysis always at the forefront of our minds. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The recent study, conducted by Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT ) chemistry professor Christopher Cummins and one of his graduate students, Daniel Tofan, shows a new way to attach phosphorus to organic compounds by first splitting the phosphorus with ultraviolet light. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Such a synthetic approach to organophosphorus compounds is indeed urgent, since the old chlorine-based phosphorus chemistry has a lot of undesirable consequences on our environment. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • The public health importance of organophosphorus poisoning is reflected in the huge number of deaths due to suicidal and accidental toxicity from these compounds [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A scientific rationale is provided for estimating acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) for compounds with limited or no toxicity information to support pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. (cdc.gov)
  • To provide practical guidance for handling situations where relatively unstudied compounds with limited or no toxicity data are encountered, recommendations are provided on ADI values that correspond to three categories of compounds: (1) com- pounds that are likely to be carcinogenic, (2) compounds that are likely to be potent or highly toxic, and (3) compounds that are not likely to be potent, highly toxic or carcinogenic. (cdc.gov)
  • Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies, Insectidices: organic phosphorous compounds and carbamates, 2019: 1409-1420. (aaem.pl)
  • 1970) found malathion more often than any other organophosphorus compound. (inchem.org)
  • Reported chemical substitutes (see indent 1) currently used in Europe comprise the group of (a) organophosphorus compounds, (b) inorganic fire retardants and (c) nitrogen containing compounds (Danish EPA, 1999). (pops.int)
  • The group of organic tin compounds identified by OSPAR for priority action comprises mono-, di-, tri and tetrabutyl and triphenyl tin compounds. (pharosproject.net)
  • We developed a general strategy for preparing chiral phosphorus compounds that have a stereocentre at the phosphorus atom, so called P-chirogenic phosphorus compounds (Fig. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • After 12 hours of UV exposure, Cummins found that a compound called a tetra-organo diphosphane had formed, which includes two atoms of phosphorus attached to two molecules of the organic compound. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Proof of this is our online catalogue, where there is a broad variety of product categories and expertise, including organophosphorous compounds, precious metals catalysts, fine chemicals for APIs, polymerisation reactions and the production of polymers for coating, on a pilot-plant scale and in weights of hundreds of kilograms. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Argus Chemicals has expertise in areas including organophosphorous compounds, precious metals catalysts, fine chemicals for APIs, polymerisation reactions and the production of polymers for coating. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Organophosphorus pesticide residues in the total diet. (inchem.org)
  • The invention belongs to technical field of pesticide, relate to a kind of Pesticidal combination that contains furans worm hydrazides and amides compound. (google.com)
  • Axial-to-central transfer of chirality is shown to provide ready access to various classes of P-chirogenic compounds that are key to catalysis and drug development. (nature.com)
  • Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. (hindawi.com)
  • Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. (hindawi.com)
  • We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. (hindawi.com)
  • These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. (hindawi.com)
  • Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia, accounting for 40% of the estimated 500,000 suicide related deaths annually [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Results: 440 number of poisoning cases amongst which Organophosphorus compound poisoning were 98 and poisoning happened while traveling is 32 cases. (ispub.com)
  • A study to assess the utility of peradeniya organophosphorous poisoning (POP) scale, poisoning severity score (PSS) and glasgow coma scale (GCS) in predicting severity and treatment outcome in acute organophosphorous poisoning. (aaem.pl)
  • Chapter 4 details the development of manganese-promoted intermolecular and intramolecular additions of alkenes, alkynes and aryl compounds with H-phosphinates is described. (tcu.edu)
  • Phosphorus compounds with unique chirality due to the presence of a P-stereocentre are obtained through stereoselective catalytic cross-coupling of phosphoramidites and aryl halides. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Stereoselective C-P coupling of a phosphoramidite and an aryl halide or triflate to produce useful P-chiral compounds. (nature.com)
  • This book aims to explore how nanomaterials are used to cleanse polluted soils (organic compounds and heavy metal-contaminated soils) through various nanomaterials-based techniques (chemical/physical/biological techniques and their integrations). (researchandmarkets.com)
  • As brominated flame retardants only account for about 15% of the global flame retardant consumption, principally a large number of compounds may be considered as alternatives (OSPAR, 2001). (pops.int)
  • Compound groups are groups of chemicals that share structural or chemical features. (pharosproject.net)
  • This compound group is populated by taking the more general compound group and subtracting the chemicals found in the relevent Annex. (pharosproject.net)
  • They synthesized over 2,000 compounds including the highly toxic ethyl dimethyl phosphoramidate (tabun) and later the even more lethal propan-2-yl methylphosphonofluoridate, which they named sarin in honor of the team members who discovered it. (medpagetoday.com)
  • They were combined to form the toxic compound immediately before or in the process of firing the ammunition. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Organophosphorus (OP) forms an important class of toxic compounds. (bmmj.org)
  • The focus of highly toxic, and (3) compounds that are not likely to this paper is to recommend ADIs, based on the ``thresh- be potent, highly toxic or carcinogenic. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to present the clinical manifestation and cholinesterase level changes in intoxication with organophosphorus compounds in patients. (aaem.pl)
  • While the results of this procedure are currently satisfactory, it is both wasteful and dangerous - chlorine gas was used as a chemical weapon during World War I. Therefore chemists have been trying to find new ways to bind phosphorus to organic compounds without using chlorine. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Organophosphorous compounds (OPCs) is a large group of chemical substances that represent esters, amides or thiol derivatives of phosphorous, alkyl phosphorous, thiophosphoric and thiophosphonic acids. (kiev.ua)
  • Importantly, we found that a range of P-chirogenic phosphorus compounds and their derivatives can be synthesized as virtually single enantiomers. (nature.com)
  • Many of the phosphaallenes Klöcker and coworkers synthesized spontaneously decomposed into less-desired products, but the newly reported synthetic method did allow for the isolation of some highly reactive compounds that had not been isolated previously. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, despite the importance of chiral phosphorus compounds, a major disadvantage to their use is that expensive and complicated synthetic routes are needed to access them and stereoselectivity is often poor. (nature.com)
  • The flexibility of the method is demonstrated by the fact that distinct stereoisomers of chiral phosphorus compounds can be formed by simply changing the order of steps in the synthetic sequence. (nature.com)
  • This report describes two cases sharing this atypical manifestation, but due to different compounds. (hindawi.com)
  • These compounds are often readily studied by NMR, IR and X-ray crystallography and are forever throwing-up surprises. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Chapter 2 describes the study of the P(III) to P(V) tautomerization of phosphinylidene compounds and the structural influences that effect the thermodynamic and kinetic properties to favor the more reactive P(III) species. (tcu.edu)
  • This compound group has not yet been assigned a structural definition. (pharosproject.net)
  • Originally, and on a lab-scale basis, the company began to produce rare and unobtainable compounds not generally found in commercial catalogues. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Organic phosphorus compounds which are available as halogenated or non-halogenated substances can serve asalternatives for use in ABS plastics. (pops.int)
  • The ready access to both mirror image forms (enantiomers) of the starting material and the easy recycling of the BINOL auxiliary group adds to the practicality of our method for generating P-chirogenic phosphorus compounds. (nature.com)
  • Compound groups are useful because in some cases, lists will instead identify a group of structurally similar compounds (such as lead compounds) as all having the same hazard. (pharosproject.net)
  • The table below indicates how each compound group is populated, and what is the status of its population. (pharosproject.net)
  • This compound group was populated by a manual search. (pharosproject.net)
  • This compound group is populated by its subgroups. (pharosproject.net)
  • The MIT research group has been looking for ways to break P4 into P2 in hopes of attaching the smaller phosphorus molecule to organic compounds. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Organophosphorus-based extractants are the most common extractant group used for the solvent extraction of REEs. (researchgate.net)
  • The insecticidal composition contains an active ingredient A and an active ingredient B, wherein the active ingredient A may be furan tebufenozide, and the active ingredient B may be any one of the following compounds: flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole, and a weight ratio of the active ingredient A to the active ingredient B ranges from 1:60 to 60:1. (google.com)
  • We have developed a general, divergent and highly stereoselective route for synthesizing phosphorus compounds with a P-stereocentre. (nature.com)
  • Compounds with One-Heteroatom Bond e.g. (thieme.de)
  • A collaboration using both computational and experimental methods, show that electron withdrawing groups such as phenyl stabilize the tautomerization of phosphinylidene compounds. (tcu.edu)
  • The Pharos staff is in the process of establishing and populating compound groups, and associating warnings from the hazard lists with them. (pharosproject.net)
  • The technique presented in the paper cannot be applied to produce the quantities needed for large-scale production of phosphorus compounds. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • According to Fig. 1-a, Fe, Al, Ca, and Ti containing compounds constituted the major phases of the sample. (researchgate.net)