Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Inorganic salts or organic esters of phosphorous acid that contain the (3-)PO3 radical. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to the GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular levels of INOSITOL PHOSPHATES and free CALCIUM.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

A toxicokinetic model to assess the risk of azinphosmethyl exposure in humans through measures of urinary elimination of alkylphosphates. (1/724)

Azinphosmethyl (APM) is one of the most common insecticides used in fruit farming. The object of this paper is to develop a quick and practical test for assessing the risk for humans coming into contact with APM. It has been shown that the principal component of occupational and/or accidental exposure is through the skin (C. A. Franklin et al., 1981, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7, 715-731), but our approach is applicable to exposures via any route or a combination of routes. The method proposed in the present paper can accommodate a single-event exposure or repeated exposures over long periods. Urinary alkylphosphate (AP) metabolites are reliable bioindicators of the presence of APM in the body; they are easily accessible and can be used to estimate APM body burden. We developed a simple toxicokinetic model to link the time varying APM body burden to absorbed doses and to rates of elimination in the form of AP urinary metabolites. Using this model and data available in the literature, we are able to propose a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) for APM body levels and for corresponding absorbed doses. We have established that after a single exposure, the safe limit corresponding to the NOAEL is reached at a cumulative 0.215 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated in urine in the first 24 hours following the beginning of exposure. For repeated daily exposures at steady state, the corresponding urinary AP metabolite level is equal to a cumulative 0.266 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated per 24 hours.  (+info)

Mechanistic alternatives in phosphate monoester hydrolysis: what conclusions can be drawn from available experimental data? (2/724)

Phosphate monoester hydrolysis reactions in enzymes and solution are often discussed in terms of whether the reaction pathway is associative or dissociative. Although experimental results for solution reactions have usually been considered as evidence for the second alternative, a closer thermodynamic analysis of observed linear free energy relationships shows that experimental information is consistent with the associative, concerted and dissociative alternatives.  (+info)

EnvZ-independent phosphotransfer signaling pathway of the OmpR-mediated osmoregulatory expression of OmpC and OmpF in Escherichia coli. (3/724)

The Escherichia coli EnvZ-OmpR regulatory system is a paradigm of intracellular signal transduction mediated by the well-documented phosphotransfer mechanism, by which the expression of the major outer membrane proteins, OmpC and OmpF, is regulated in response to the medium osmolarity. Although it is clear that the EnvZ histidine(His)-kinase is the major player in the phosphorylation of OmpR, it has been assumed for some time that there may be an alternative phospho-donor(s) that can phosphorylate OmpR under certain in vitro and in vivo conditions. In this study, to address this long-standing issue, extensive genetic studies were done with certain mutant alleles, including delta envZ, delta(ackA-pta), and delta sixA, as well as delta ompR. Here, for the first time, genetic evidence is provided that, in addition to EnvZ, acetyl phosphate and an as yet unidentified sensor His-kinase can serve as alternative in vivo phospho-donors for OmpR, even in the envZ+ background. A model for the alternative phosphotransfer signaling pathway involved in the phosphorylation of OmpR is proposed.  (+info)

Vitamin B6 biosynthesis: formation of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate from 4-(phosphohydroxy)-L-threonine and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate by PdxA and PdxJ protein. (4/724)

In Escherichia coli the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is synthesised de novo by a pathway that is thought to involve the condensation of 4-(phosphohydroxy)-L-threonine and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose, catalysed by the enzymes PdxA and PdxJ, to form either pyridoxine (vitamin B6) or pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP). Here we show that incubation of PdxJ with PdxA, 4-(phosphohydroxy)-L-threonine, NAD and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate, but not 1-deoxy-D-xylulose, results in the formation of PNP. The PNP formed was characterised by (i) cochromatography with an authentic standard, (ii) conversion to pyridoxine by alkaline phosphatase treatment, and (iii) UV and fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, when [2-(14)C]1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate was used as a substrate, the radioactivity was incorporated into PNP. These results clarify the previously unknown role of PdxJ in the de novo PLP biosynthetic pathway. The sugar used as substrate by PdxJ is 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate rather than the previously assumed 1-deoxy-D-xylulose. The first vitamin B6 vitamer synthesised is PNP, and not pyridoxine.  (+info)

Conservation of nitrogen in cattle feedlot waste with urease inhibitors. (5/724)

Feedlot cattle normally retain less than 20% of their dietary nitrogen intake. Sixty to 80% of the nitrogen excreted is normally lost through volatilization of ammonia, which is primarily generated from urea. This loss of ammonia nitrogen pollutes the environment and creates an unfavorable ratio of nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) in the waste for crop growth. Two urease inhibitors, cyclohexylphosphoric triamide (CHPT) and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) were evaluated for their ability to reduce the rate of urea hydrolysis in beef cattle feedlot pens. Initially, a total of six pens were used, two pens per treatment, with approximately 70 cattle per pen, and a single topical application of CHPT or NBPT at 20 mg/kg of manure. Essentially no urea was found in untreated pens. However, with CHPT treatment, 2 g of urea/kg of dry manure accumulated by d 4, and all gradually disappeared by d 11; NBPT conserved 3 and 3.5 g of urea/kg by d 4 and 9, respectively, and it had disappeared by d 14 (treatment [trt] x day, P = .003). A second study involved application of NBPT weekly for 6 wk. This caused urea to accumulate to a peak concentration of 17 g/kg of manure by d 30 (trt x day2, P = .001). Once the treatment was stopped the urea concentration began to decrease. When the NBPT was applied weekly, the concentration of ammonia in the waste was less for the treated pens (trt x day, P = .01), the total nitrogen was greater (trt x day, P = .04), pH tended to be lower (trt x day, P = .10), and the total volatile acids were not different (trt x day, P = .51) from untreated pens. We concluded that urease inhibitors could be used to control ammonia emissions from animal wastes, prevent environmental damage, and produce a more balanced (N:P) fertilizer from manure.  (+info)

Calcium dependence of Pi phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase at low water content: water dependence of the E2-->E1 conversion. (6/724)

Enzymes entrapped in reverse micelles can be studied in low-water environments that have the potential of restricting conformational mobility in specific steps of the reaction cycle. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was incorporated into a reverse-micelle system (TPT) composed of toluene, phospholipids, Triton X-100 and varying amounts of water (0.5-7%, v/v). Phosphorylation of the Ca2+-ATPase by ATP required the presence of both water and Ca2+ in the micelles. No phosphoenzyme (EP) was detected in the presence of EGTA. Phosphorylation by Pi (inorganic phosphate) in the absence of Ca2+ was observed at water content below that necessary for phosphorylation by ATP. In contrast to what is observed in a totally aqueous medium, EP formed by Pi was partially resistant to dephosphorylation by Ca2+. However, the addition of non-radioactive Pi to the EP already formed caused a rapid decrease in radiolabelled enzymes, as expected for the isotopic dilution, indicating the existence of an equilibrium (E+Pi<-->EP). Phosphorylation by Pi also occurred in TPT containing millimolar Ca2+ concentrations in a range of water concentrations (2-5% v/v). The substrates p-nitrophenyl phosphate, acetyl phosphate, ATP and GTP increased the EP level under these conditions. These results suggest that: (1) the rate of conversion of the ATPase conformer E2 into E1 is greatly reduced at low water content, so that E2-->E1 becomes the rate-limiting step of the catalytic cycle; and (2) in media of low water content, Pi can phosphorylate both E1Ca and E2. Thus, the effect of enzyme hydration is complex and involves changes in the phosphorylation reaction at the catalytic site, in the equilibrium between E2 and E1 conformers, and in their specificity for substrates.  (+info)

Formation of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate from the acyl phosphate intermediate: a difference between the MurC and MurD synthetases of Escherichia coli. (7/724)

The mechanism of the Mur synthetases of peptidoglycan biosynthesis is thought to involve in each case the successive formation of an acyl phosphate and a tetrahedral intermediate. The existence of the acyl phosphates for the MurC and MurD enzymes from Escherichia coli was firmly established by their in situ reduction by sodium borohydride followed by acid hydrolysis, yielding the corresponding amino alcohols. Furthermore, it was found that MurD, but not MurC, catalyses the synthesis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate from the acyl phosphate, thereby substantiating its existence and pointing out a difference between the two enzymes.  (+info)

Stimulated activity of human topoisomerases IIalpha and IIbeta on RNA-containing substrates. (8/724)

Eukaryotic topoisomerase II is a dimeric nuclear enzyme essential for DNA metabolism and chromosome dynamics. Central to the activities of the enzyme is its ability to introduce transient double-stranded breaks in the DNA helix, where the two subunits of the enzyme become covalently attached to the generated 5'-ends through phosphotyrosine linkages. Here, we demonstrate that human topoisomerases IIalpha and IIbeta are able to cleave ribonucleotide-containing substrates. With suicide substrates, which are partially double-stranded molecules containing a 5'-recessed strand, cleavage of both strands was stimulated approximately 8-fold when a ribonucleotide rather than a deoxyribonucleotide was present at the scissile phosphodiester of the recessed strand. The existence of a ribonucleotide at the same position in a normal duplex substrate also enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated cleavage, although to a lesser extent. The enzyme covalently linked to the 5'-ribonucleotide in the cleavage complex efficiently performed ligation, and ligation occurred equally well to acceptor molecules terminated by either a 3'-ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide. Besides the enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated cleavage of ribonucleotide-containing substrates, cleavage of such substrates could be further stimulated by ATP or antitumor drugs. In conclusion, the observed in vitro activities of the human topoisomerase II isoforms indicate that the enzymes can operate on RNA or RNA-containing substrates and thus might possess an intrinsic RNA topoisomerase activity, as has previously been demonstrated for Escherichia coli topoisomerase III.  (+info)

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CAS number: 115-86-6. NIOSH REL: 3 mg/m3 TWA. Current OSHA PEL: 3 mg/m3 TWA. 1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL. 1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 3 mg/m3 TWA. Description of substance: Colorless, crystalline powder with a phenol-like odor.. LEL :. . Unknown. Original (SCP) IDLH*: No Evidence [*Note: Effective IDLH = 1,500 mg/m3 - see discussion below.]. Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence of an IDLH for triphenyl phosphate. AIHA [1970] reported that concentrations of triphenyl phosphate aerosol high enough to produce acute toxic effects in man have not been achieved. For this draft technical standard, therefore, respirators have been selected on the basis of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device. However, for some particulate substances for which no evidence of an IDLH exists, the determination of allowable respiratory protection based on protection factors may result in the assignment of respirators for concentrations that are not likely to ...
The report generally describes triphenyl phosphate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE market situation is overviewed;
GSK1349572 is an integrase inhibitor being developed for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) on behalf of Shionogi-ViiV HealthcareLLC. In HIV-infected patients where combination antiretroviral therapy is the standard of care, it is likely that it will be dosed with boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) including fosamprenavir/ritonavir (FPV/RTV or FPV/r). As FPV and RTV are modulators (induction as well as inhibition) of Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A which are the primary and secondary metabolic pathways of GKS1349572, it is likely that FPV/RTV will affect the pharmacokinetics (PK) of GSK1349572, therefore a drug interaction study is warranted and will be evaluated in Part A of this study. Part B will evaluate the effect of particle size of tablet variants on the PK of GSK1349572.. In Part A, approximately 12 subjects will receive GSK1349572 50mg every 24 hours (q24h) for 5 days (Treatment A). ...
Phenol, isopropylated, phosphate (3:1) is dually classified on the basis of triphenyl phosphate content for ecotoxicology. The PNECS presented within the dossier are for the substance where triphenyl phosphate is present at ,5%. When triphenyl phosphate is present at ,5%, it is the opinion of the registrant that the substance does not display ecotoxic properties, and is only subject to being potentially persistent Confirmation of this is provided in the associated study reports summarised in support of this registration. Derivation of PNEC for TPP at , 5% is attached below for reference. The following classifications are applicable: Triphenyl phosphate is present at ,5% On the basis of effects noted in fish and Daphnia, the substance is deemed to be classified according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 as: Aquatic Chronic 1; H410: Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects. Triphenyl phosphate is present at ,5% On the basis of effects noted in fish and Daphnia, the substance is deemed ...
The short-term LC50 or EC50 values are 0.15, 0.042 and ,0.1 mg/l, for fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae, respectively. All these toxicity values are well above the water solubility (11.2 ug/l) of isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDPP), indicating that acute toxicity is not expected at the limit of solubility. Poorly water soluble substances which do not exert acute toxicity at their limit of solubility may require a precautionary classification of R53 May cause long term adverse effects in the aquatic environment under the DSD and Chronic Category 4 under the CLP Regulations. However, this precautionary stance is not required for IDDPP as data are available to demonstrate that it is readily biodegradable. IDDPP is therefore not classified in respect of the environment under either Directive 67/548/EEC or Regulation 1272/2008/EC . ...
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Silver;diphenyl phosphate | C12H10AgO4P | CID 89672 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The report focuses on North America major leading industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The Cresyl Diphenyl Phosphate(CDP) industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects are assessed and overall research conclusions offered ...
Abstract : Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is a triester of phosphoric acid and phenol. It is commonly used as a fire-retardingagent and plasticizer for nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate. The present study was an attempt to evaluate the impact ofbiofield treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of TPP. The study was carried out in two groups i.e.control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. The control and treated samplesof TPP were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis(TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease incrystallite size (6.13%) of treated TPP that might be due to presence of strains and increase in atomic displacement from theirideal lattice positions as compared to control sample. DSC thermogram of treated TPP showed the increase in meltingtemperature (1.5%) and latent ...
Scientists conducted a study with a group of 24 women. 6 hours after painting their nails, most of the participants were displaying elevated levels of diphenyl phosphate - a derivative of triphenyl phosphate which is formed in the process of metabolism. 10 hours after the beginning of the experiment, the levels of diphenyl phosphate in the bodies of all participants rose to 7 times above the norm. These results are truly alarming.. ...
APV10017 was a pharmacokinetic study that evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of fosamprenavir/ritonavir (FPV/RTV) at reduced doses over 14 days in HIV-infected subjects with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (HI). Based on these data, two new regimens have recently been approved by the EMEA and FDA in these patient groups; FPV 700mg BID/RTV 100mg QD for those with mild HI (Child-Pugh score 4-6) and FPV 450mg BID/RTV 100mg QD for those with moderate HI (Child Pugh score 7-9). The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has requested longer-term safety data among this hepatically impaired HIV-infected population who have received the recently updated FPV/RTV dosing regimens.. An observational cohort study will be conducted using routinely collected data in three European HIV patient cohorts with a high proportion of hepatitis co-infected individuals. Patients who received FPV/RTV will be followed to address the following objectives.. Primary: To assess the ...
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A delayed peripheral neuropathy of the dying back or peripheral axonopathy variety predominates. Between 10 and 40 days after exposure, abrupt onset of flaccid paralysis is noted. This may be followed by lower extremity spasticity with clonus, hyperreflexia, hypertonus, and a peculiar spastic gait. In severe cases the full extent of paralysis may not be reached until after 2 to 3 months. Recovery is variable. Mortality is usually low and approximately 5% of victims may remain paralyzed. TOCP produced toxic effects on both male and female REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS when Long-Evans rats were given doses of 0 to 400 mg/kg by gavage prior to, and during breeding. Spermatotoxic effects, includes reduced motility, concentration, velocity, and abnormal morphology. Damage to ovarian and uterine tissue also 1999 ...
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
These results are particularly troubling since children, ages one to five, are in important stages of development and likely more sensitive to environmental chemicals, particularly those that affect their metabolism and hormones. ...
Dose: Growth: 0, .04, 0.63, .1, .16, .25, .4, .63, 1, 1.6, 2.5, 4, 6.3, 10, 16, 25, 40uMRepro: 0, 0.1, 0.16, 0.25, 0.4, 0.63, 1, 1.6, 2.5, 4.0, 6.3, 10, 16, 25, 40, 63, 100uMFeeding: 0, 10, 16, 25, 40, 63, 100, 160, 250, 400, 630, 1000uM ...
Reporter genes are a well-established method used to develop cell-based assays for testing drugs that inhibit targets involved in specific signaling pathways. Here, we introduce new PathHunter® Signaling Pathway Reporter Assays that utilize the industry-validated Enzyme Fragment Complementation (EFC) technology to detect reporter gene activity. Reporter cells with endogenous or heterologously introduced target receptors are used to readout signaling pathway activation, resulting in transcriptional activation of a reporter gene encoding a protein tagged with a small enzyme fragment. Reporter gene activity is measured by the addition of lysis buffer, luminescent enzyme substrate and the complementary larger enzyme fragment in an easy-to-use format. For example, an NF-κB reporter assay was developed and validated with CD40L to measure endogenous CD40 activation in U2OS cells. Another assay developed is the PathHunter Jurkat NFAT Pathway Reporter cell line, which measures T-cell activation but has ...
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View efficacy data from phase 3 clinical trials with SIVEXTRO® (tedizolid phosphate). Review the ESTABLISH 1 and ESTABLISH 2 trial design...
Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: CBST) announced today the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SIVEXTRO™ (tedizolid phosphate) for t
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
194798-83-9 - GHJWNRRCRIGGIO-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Fosfluconazole [INN:BAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Generic Name: Fosamprenavir calcium. Brand Name: Telzir. Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Inc.. Indications: HIV infection. Submission Type: New. Project Status: Complete. Date Recommendation Issued: June 16, 2005. Recommendation Type: List in a similar manner to other drugs in class. ...
Find information on Fosamprenavir (Lexiva) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
Find patient medical information for Fosamprenavir Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Fosamprenavir answers are found in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Exposure to organophosphates has acute effects on health, but evidence of chronic effects is unclear. Many people who have been occupationally exposed
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This SBIR project is in response to the call for the development of rapid and portable diagnostic tools for chemical threat exposure, suitable for use by emergency care providers in order to guide medical countermeasures. The broad objective of this proposal is to develop an extremely sensitive and selective biosensor device capable of detecting and discriminating proteins in human serum samples taken from personnel that have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of organophosphate-based nerve gas. This represents a novel approach in biomarker analysis because exposure to each different organophosphate (OP) chemical nerve agent results in a distinct protein fingerprint structure that can be identified, distinguished from other agents, and quantified. Using novel sensor thin polymer film technology, reporter domains will be customized with specific protein-recognition molecules that detect the OP poisoned proteins. This will make it possible to develop ...
This research report provides a concise analysis of the various important aspects of the global butylated triphenyl phosphate market. It presents a detailed overview of the market dynamics and the extent to which they impact the growth. It offers insights into the statistics related to the market at both global and regional levels. It takes into account the current scenario and historic data to derive trends of the market in the forthcoming years. It extensively covers tools such as market attractiveness analysis and Porters five force analysis that are useful in gauging the competitive environment of the market. It also profiles prominent players in the global butylated triphenyl phosphate market along with their latest development, revenue generation, business strategies, market shares, and contact information ...
This study focuses on the production side and consumption side of Tert Butylated Triphenyl Phosphate, presents the global Tert Butylated Triphenyl Phosphate market size by manufacturers, regions, type and application, history breakdown data from 2013
Quality Flame Retardant Additives manufacturers & exporter - buy 99% Pure Triphenyl Phosphate TPP Flame Retardant Additives , Cas 115-86-6 from China manufacturer.
Calyculins, highly cytotoxic polyketides, originally isolated from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx by Fusetani and co-workers, belong to the lithistid sponges group. These molecules have become interesting targets for cell biologists and synthetic organic chemists. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases play an essential role in the cellular signalling, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Calyculins express potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitory activity, and have therefore become valuable tools for cellular biologists studying intracellular processes and their control by reversible phosphorylation. Calyculins might also play an important role in the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2-diabetes mellitus. The fascinating structures of calyculins have inspired various groups of synthetic organic chemists to develop total syntheses of the most abundant calyculins A and C. However, with fifteen chiral centres, a cyano-capped tetraene unit, a
There are limited data on the appropriate dosing of antiretroviral drugs in patients with varying degrees of hepatic impairment.. Josep Mallolas presented a study evaluating fosamprenavir dosing and pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment. [15]. Thirteen subjects with mild hepatic impairment (Child Pugh score 5-6) received fosamprenavir 700 mg twice daily plus ritonavir 100 mg once daily (Group A). Ten subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child Pugh score 7-9) received fosamprenavir 300 mg twice daily (as the oral suspension) plus 100 mg of ritonavir once daily (Group B). Eight subjects with moderate hepatic impairment received fosamprenavir/ritonavir 700/100 mg once daily (Group C). Ten patients with normal hepatic function received fosamprenavir/ritonavir 700/100 mg twice daily (Group D/controls). All subjects underwent intensive pharmacokinetic studies (including measurement of unbound amprenavir concentrations at two time points) two weeks ...
Research Report on Global Tert Butylated Triphenyl Phosphate Market Professional Survey Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Looking for online definition of organophosphates in the Medical Dictionary? organophosphates explanation free. What is organophosphates? Meaning of organophosphates medical term. What does organophosphates mean?
63886-53-3 - XRESZUDRGQQLFF-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Phosphinic acid, diethyl-, anhydride with diethyl phosphate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The Effect of Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure and Other Factors Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders among Rice Farmers: A Path Analysis Evidence from Sukoharjo, Central Java
Fosamprenavir BASE CAS 226700-79-4 [(1S,2R)-3-[[(4-Aminophenyl)sulfonyl](2-methylpropyl)amino]-1-(phenylmethyl)-2-(phosphonooxy)propyl]carbamic acidC-[(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furanyl] ester Additional Names: (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl [(aS)-a-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(N1-isobutylsulfanilamido)ethyl]phenethyl]carbamate dihydrogen phosphate (ester) Manufacturers Codes: VX-175 Molecular Formula: C25H36N3O9PS Molecular Weight: 585.61 Percent Composition: C 51.27%, H 6.20%, N 7.18%, O 24.59%, P 5.29%, S 5.48% WO 9933815 PRODUCT PATENT Fosamprenavir Systematic (IUPAC) name {[(2R,3S)-1-[N-(2-methylpropyl)(4-aminobenzene)sulfonamido]-3-({[(3S)-oxolan-3-yloxy]carbonyl}amino)-4-phenylbutan-2-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid Clinical data Trade names Lexiva AHFS/Drugs.com monograph…
Mature dendritic cells (DC), activated lymphocytes, mononuclear cells and neutrophils express Compact disc83, a surface area protein apparently essential for effective DC-mediated activation of na?ve T-cells and T-helper cells, thymic T-cell maturation as well as the regulation of B-cell activation and homeostasis. mRNA-containing complexes; nonetheless it will regulate translation of Compact disc83 mRNA. Therefore, our data shed even more light on the complex process of post-transcriptional regulation Fosamprenavir Calcium Salt manufacture of CD83 expression. Interfering with this process may provide a novel strategy for inhibiting CD83, and thereby cellular immune activation. INTRODUCTION The Rabbit polyclonal to PAX9 transmembrane glycoprotein CD83 belongs to the Ig-superfamily and was shown to be highly expressed on mature dendritic cells (DC) (1C4), and moderately expressed on activated B and T lymphocytes (5C7), macrophages (8,9) and neutrophils (10). Thus, the CD83 Fosamprenavir Calcium ...
Temperature is one of the most important parameters for the performance, safety, and aging of lithium-ion batteries and has been linked to all main barriers for widespread commercial success of electric vehicles.. The aim of this thesis is to highlight the importance of temperature effects, as well as to provide engineering tools to study these.. The mass transport phenomena of the electrolyte with LiPF6 in EC:DEC was fully characterized in between 10 and 40 °C and 0.5 and 1.5 M, and all mass transport properties were found to vary strongly with temperature.. A superconcentrated electrolyte with LiTFSI in ACN was also fully characterized at 25 °C, and was found to have very different properties and interactions compared to LiPF6 in EC:DEC.. The benefit of using the benchmarking method termed electrolyte masstransport resistivity (EMTR) compared to using only ionic conductivity was illustrated for several systems, including organic liquids, ionic liquids, solid polymers, gelled polymers, and ...
Generic Name: Tedizolid phosphate. Brand Name: Sivextro. Manufacturer: Cubist Pharmaceuticals Canada, Inc.. Indications: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Submission Type: Pre-NOC. Project Status: Withdrawn. ...
Organophosphates (OPs) are chemical substances originally produced by the reaction of alcohols and phosphoric acid. In the 1930s, organophosphates were used as insecticides, but the German military developed these substances as neurotoxins in World War II.
Easy to read patient leaflet for Lexiva (Fosamprenavir Oral Suspension). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
At a time of growing debate over the safety and usefulness of flame retardants added to consumer products,1 new evidence is emerging about the breadth of human exposure to one of the most widely used of these compounds. Two new studies2,3 document the presence of the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) in dust from homes, offices, and automobiles. They also report some of the first data on urine levels of a metabolite of this flame retardant.. In recent years, animal studies have suggested that TDCPP is neurotoxic, an endocrine disruptor, and a reproductive toxicant.4,5,6 The National Research Council has reported TDCPP to be linked to cancer in rats,7 and the chemical is on Californias Proposition 65 list of substances known to cause cancer.8 However, its potential carcinogencity has not been classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the International Agency for Research on Cancer, or the National Toxicology Program.. TDCPP has long been a major flame ...
Organophosphates, which are made from phosphoric or phosphonic acid, are found in many kinds of insecticides, from lawn chemicals to flea and tick treatments. - Wag!
The COT has convened a Working Group to produce a draft COT statement, assessing whether there are long-term adverse neurological or neuropsychological effects from low-level exposure to organophosphates, insufficient to cause overt toxicity.
Oncogenic kinase activity is a common feature of nearly all cancers and kinases are major targets for therapeutic intervention. Pim kinases are deregulated in hematopoietic cancers including Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), as well as prostate cancer. While cancer cells can become dependent on Pim activity to sustain proliferation, in normal adult tissues, Pim kinase activity appears to be dispensable. These features make Pim kinases an attractive target for cancer therapy, however, their physiological roles have not been fully characterized. Using the reverse in-gel kinase assay (RIKA), we identified a battery of novel Pim substrates that are involved in mRNA splicing regulation. We hypothesized that Pim family kinases regulate mRNA splicing through phosphorylation of splicing factors. Microarray analysis revealed more than 10,000 splicing changes in AML cells treated with the highly selective small molecule Pim kinase inhibitor AZD1208. Using RT-PCR analysis, multiple AZD1208-induced splicing ...
And it gets worse. Injun Samurai, a regular commenter on the Salty Droid has been posting information on the toxicity of the chemicals in question, including organophosphates. As used in pesticides, theyre not much of a threat to humans, at least in the short term. Long term, theyre carcinogenic, like so much of what makes up the industrialized world. Youd have to ingest them... a lot of them to die suddenly. The punchline? None of the pesticides actually used by the Hamiltons at Angel Valley even contain organophosphates. No wonder Luis Li held up a jar of a pesticide he picked up at the hardware store that no one has claimed the Hamiltons have ever used. Reading off the labels of Just One Bite or Amdro -- which wasnt even used until 2010 -- wouldnt have afforded him the opportunity to name any organophosphates. The toxicity of the Hamiltons products is extremely low, as per Injun Samurai on this thread. His comments are well-researched, documented, and laced with just the right amount of ...
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SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2r1k.1. OpdA from Agrobacterium radiobacter with bound diethyl phosphate from crystal soaking with the compound- 1.9 A
Decreased Reelin Expression and Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure Alters Mouse Behavior and Brain Morphology. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23298182 Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism - reduction in the expression of the extracellular…
The global agricultural sector pervasively uses organophosphates and carbamates for production of pesticides, germicides and other chemicals that eradicate pests from crop yield. Apart from some having therapeutic functions, most of organophosphates and carbamates are highly poisonous for consumption and can even result into fatality.
Organophosphates are the most widely used insecticides today in agriculture, home, gardens, and veterinary practices.. People can be exposed to them by ingesting (eating or drinking) or breathing them or by getting them in your eyes or on your skin or by touching contaminated soils or water.. Some studies in adults and children have linked organophosphate exposure to lymphoma and leukemia. EWG says exposure has negative effects on brain development, behavior and fertility, and can affect testosterone levels.. ...
A. C. Hengge, T. Humphry*, M. Forconi, and N. H. Williams Altered Hydrolysis Mechanisms for a Metal-Complexed Phosphate Monoester and Diester. International Isotope Effects Conference, Uppsala. Sweden, June 22-27, 2003.. ...
Organophosphate poisoning in children - How can organophosphate poisoning be treated? Decontaminate. Atropine injection as soon as possible. Followed by supportive care. Person might need ventilator support for breathing until effects of OP provisioning wears off.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMlXhJevCV0 The Assadist narratives on the Khan Sheikhoun sarin gas incident of April 4, 2017 have fallen into two categories. The first, similar to that put forward around the East Ghouta attack of August 21, 2013, claims that it was a
sample_1: C-RcsC, [U-95% 15N], 1 ± 0.1 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_2: C-RcsC, [U-95% 13C; U-95% 15N], 1 ± 0.1 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_3: C-RcsC, [95% 15N]-ALA, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_4: C-RcsC, [95% 15N]-ASN, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_5: C-RcsC, [95% 15N]-ASP, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_6: C-RcsC, [95% 15N]-ARG, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_7: C-RcsC, [95% 15N]-CYS, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_8: C-RcsC, [95% 15N]-GLY, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_9: C-RcsC, [95% 15N]-SER, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 mM. sample_10: C-RcsC, [95% 15N]-THR, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM; Tris-HCl 33 ± 1 mM; NaCl 125 ± 5 mM; TCEP 1 ...
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SAN DIEGO, April 23, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Trius Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:TSRX) announced today that the results of a large, late-stage human study, called ESTABLISH 2, and multiple other clinical studies from its experimental antibiotic, tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), will be presented in poster and oral presentations at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (
Designed specifically for high performance scientific imaging, this range of excellent CMOS cameras represents outstanding value for money. And, the high-speed USB 2.0 interface means ease of installation on any computer.. Available with resolutions of 3, 5.2 or 9.1 Megapixels, all the cameras are supplied complete with a 0.5x C-mount adapter, with tube adapters to enable the adapter to fit eyepiece tubes 23mm, 30mm & 30.5mm diameter. Alternatively, the cameras may be fitted to the C-mount adapters offered by other microscope manufacturers.. A comprehensive software package is supplied free with each camera and provides a live image from the microscope or lens, making focusing and illumination set-up simple. A single click captures the image which can then be saved to disk in a wide range of file formats. The live image can be interactively adjusted to provide the optimum viewing and capture conditions, ideal for teaching and group discussion environments. The software also includes facilities ...
Designed specifically for high performance scientific imaging, this range of excellent CMOS cameras represents outstanding value for money. And, the high-speed USB 2.0 interface means ease of installation on any computer.. Available with resolutions of 3, 5.2 or 9.1 Megapixels, all the cameras are supplied complete with a 0.5x C-mount adapter, with tube adapters to enable the adapter to fit eyepiece tubes 23mm, 30mm & 30.5mm diameter. Alternatively, the cameras may be fitted to the C-mount adapters offered by other microscope manufacturers.. A comprehensive software package is supplied free with each camera and provides a live image from the microscope or lens, making focusing and illumination set-up simple. A single click captures the image which can then be saved to disk in a wide range of file formats. The live image can be interactively adjusted to provide the optimum viewing and capture conditions, ideal for teaching and group discussion environments. The software also includes facilities ...
Animal tests show that small, single doses of organophosphates on a critical day of development can cause hyperactivity and permanent changes in neurotrans
Organizations: Contaminant fate processes Variables: dissolved_organic_carbon Keywords: monitoring pesticides metabolites Substances: 1-Methyl-Benzotriazole (HXQHRUJXQJEGER-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-piperazin (VHFVKMTVMIZMIK-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (KKIMDKMETPPURN-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 2 -2 -Difluorodeoxyuridin (FIRDBEQIJQERSE-QPPQHZFASA-N) Filter Results ...
Variables: dissolved_oygen dissolved_organic_carbon Keywords: pesticides metabolites Substances: 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (KKIMDKMETPPURN-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 1-Methyl-Benzotriazole (HXQHRUJXQJEGER-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 1-Hydroxy-Benzotriazole (ASOKPJOREAFHNY-UHFFFAOYSA-N) Filter Results ...
Organophosphates and carbamates[edit]. Organophosphates are another large class of contact insecticides. These also target the ... Organophosphate insecticides and chemical warfare nerve agents (such as sarin, tabun, soman, and VX) work in the same way. ... Organophosphates have a cumulative toxic effect to wildlife, so multiple exposures to the chemicals amplifies the toxicity.[12] ... Organophosphates interfere with the enzymes acetylcholinesterase and other cholinesterases, disrupting nerve impulses and ...
"Organophosphates." Occupational Neurotoxicology. By Lucio G. Costa. N.p.: CRC LLC, 1998. 87-89. Print. Ruiz J, Blanche H, James ... PON was identified as an enzyme having organophosphates as its substrates. Reports of the geographic differences in population ... anti-microbial and organophosphate-hydrolyzing properties. Two of the most important known roles that Paraoxonases plays are in ... it lacks the ability to hydrolyze some of the organophosphate metabolites. Paraoxonase 3 is similar to type 1 in activity but ...
TEPP and other organophosphates are the most widely used pesticides in the U.S. due to their effectiveness and relative small ... Organophosphates are hydrolyzed and broken down so easily, that the residual period is approximately 48 hours for TEPP. That is ... "Organophosphates". Toxipedia. Gilbert, S. Retrieved 2016-02-28. "TEPP , C8H20O7P2 - PubChem". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ... Tetraethyl pyrophosphate, abbreviated TEPP, is an organophosphate compound with the formula [(C2H5O)2P(O)]2O. It is the ...
... (TCP), is a mixture of three isomeric organophosphate compounds most notably used as a fire retardant and ... Organophosphates And Health. World Scientific. 2001. p. 159. ISBN 1783261439. "The Jake Walk Effect". Moonshine. Neurotoxicity ... This intermediate is able to inhibit neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and results in the classic organophosphate-induced ... Petroianu, G.A. (December 2016). "Neuropathic organophosphates: from Scrugham, Heim and Lorot to Jake leg paralysis". Die ...
Irreversible: Organophosphates: 2-Ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyl cyclohexyl methylphosphonate. *Acephate. *Armine. *Azinphos- ...
InChI=1S/C48H74O14.C47H72O14/c1-11-25(2)43-28(5)17-18-47(62-43)23-34-20-33(61-47)16-15-27(4)42(26(3)13-12-14-32-24-55-45-40(49)29(6)19-35(46(51)58-34)48(32,45)52)59-39-22-37(54-10)44(31(8)57-39)60-38-21-36(53-9)41(50)30(7)56-38;1-24(2)41-27(5)16-17-46(61-41)22-33-19-32(60-46)15-14-26(4)42(25(3)12-11-13-31-23-54-44-39(48)28(6)18-34(45(50)57-33)47(31,44)51)58-38-21-36(53-10)43(30(8)56-38)59-37-20-35(52-9)40(49)29(7)55-37/h12-15,19,25-26,28,30-31,33-45,49-50,52H,11,16-18,20-24H2,1-10H3;11-14,18,24-25,27,29-30,32-44,48-49,51H,15-17,19-23H2,1-10H3/b13-12+,27-15+,32-14+;12-11+,26-14+,31-13+/t25-,26-,28-,30-,31-,33+,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39-,40+,41-,42-,43+,44-,45+,47+,48+;25-,27-,29-,30-,32+,33-,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39+,40-,41+,42-,43-,44+,46+,47+/m00/s1 ...
Irreversible: Organophosphates: 2-Ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyl cyclohexyl methylphosphonate. *Acephate. *Anatoxin-a(S) ...
Irreversible: Organophosphates: 2-Ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyl cyclohexyl methylphosphonate. *Acephate. *Guanitoxin. *Armine. * ...
... has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 months. The FDA has assigned it as pregnancy category B. Animal studies have shown no effects on fertility or teratogenicity, but studies in humans have not been performed. The excretion of permethrin in breastmilk is unknown, and breastfeeding is recommended to be temporarily discontinued during treatment.[11] According to the Connecticut Department of Public Health, permethrin "has low mammalian toxicity, is poorly absorbed through the skin, and is rapidly inactivated by the body. Skin reactions have been uncommon."[14] Excessive exposure to permethrin can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, excessive salivation, shortness of breath, and seizures. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe overdose may be confirmed by measurement of permethrin in serum or blood plasma.[15] Permethrin does not present any ...
Organophosphate Dicrotophos toxicity duration is about one week.[46] highly toxic Dichlorvos[47] DDVP, Vapona Organophosphate ... Organophosphate highly toxic Monocrotophos[57] Azodrin Organophosphate Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if ... Organophosphate Moderately toxic Diazinon[44] Spectracide Organophosphate Sale of diazinon for residential use was discontinued ... Organophosphate 16 hours highly toxic Omethoate Organophosphate Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees ...
GV (IUPAC name: 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate) is an organophosphate nerve agent. GV is a part of ...
Irreversible: Organophosphates: 2-Ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyl cyclohexyl methylphosphonate. *Acephate. *Anatoxin-a(S) ...
Irreversible: Organophosphates: Acephate. *Anatoxin-a(S). *Azinphos-ethyl. *Azinphos-methyl. *BAY-29952 ...
... , named after Gerhard Schrader, is an obsolete organophosphate insecticide.[1] Schradan itself is a weak cholinesterase ...
Irreversible: Organophosphates: 2-Ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyl cyclohexyl methylphosphonate. *Acephate. *Guanitoxin. *Armine. * ...
Irreversible: Organophosphates: 2-Ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyl cyclohexyl methylphosphonate. *Acephate. *Armine. *Azinphos- ...
... (GE), also known as EA-1209[2], is an organophosphate nerve agent of the G-series. It's the ethylphosphonofluoridate ...
Some organophosphates not listed under "Irreversible" below. *Carbamates *Physostigmine. *Neostigmine. *Pyridostigmine. * ...
... has low acute toxicity in laboratory animals. It is rapidly hydrolyzed to benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol is subsequently metabolized to benzoic acid. The conjugates of benzoic acid (hippuric acid and the glucuronide of benzoic acid) are rapidly eliminated in urine.[1] When given in large doses to laboratory animals, benzyl benzoate can cause hyperexcitation, loss of coordination, ataxia, convulsions, and respiratory paralysis.[10] Benzyl benzoate can be a skin irritant when used as a topical scabicide.[7] Overdose can result in blistering and hives or a rash can occur as an allergic reaction.[12][13] As an excipient in some testosterone-replacement injectable medications, benzyl benzoate has been reported as a cause of anaphylaxis in a case in Australia.[14] Bayer includes this report in information for health professionals and recommends that physicians "should be aware of the potential for serious allergic reactions" to preparations of this type.[9] In ...
Organophosphates: Alkylene phosphonic acids. Inorganic Compounds: Acids and accompanying salts Sodium chloride, used in ...
Organophosphate linker. -. 1. Long History[edit]. Estradiol acetate is relatively recent to the market, having been first ...
... is an organophosphate, consisting of a phthalimide and a dithiophosphate ester, with two methyl groups. The structure ... Phosmet is a phthalimide-derived, non-systemic, organophosphate insecticide used on plants and animals. It is mainly used on ... Research on phosmet's (and other organophosphate/chlorine insecticides) effect on the placenta indicate that phosmet has been ... However, more research is needed on the consequences of phosmet and other organophosphates on placenta physiopathology. In ...
The organophosphates prepared on the largest scale are the zinc dithiophosphates, as additives for motor oil. Several million ... 47-73 in: Chambers, J.E., Levi, P.E. (eds.), Organophosphates: Chemistry, Fate, and Effects. Academic Press, San Diego, ISBN ... a branch of biochemistry that often relies on organophosphorus probes to interrogate enzyme activities Organophosphates Bihar ...
... symptoms of organophosphate poisoning can be used to identify victims of organophosphate poisoning. These symptoms are not ... Ingestion of organophosphates as residues on food rarely reaches clinically relevant doses. CID 10107 from PubChem [REFS. 1995 ... King, Andrew M.; Aaron, Cynthia K. (February 2015). "Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning". Emergency Medicine Clinics of ... Impact of Chlorfenvinphos, an organophosphate insecticide on human blood mononuclear cells (in vitro). Pesticide Biochemistry ...
... who has studied organophosphate poisoning. Organophosphates are not banned from use, but require licensing for use. Zinc ... Pesticides containing organophosphates can be fatal to dogs. "Disulfoton is an example found in rose care products." "They're ... Than, Ker (July 18, 2013). "Organophosphates: A Common But Deadly Pesticide". National Geographic. Archived from the original ...
From 1935 tick resistance to arsenic led to the use of other chemicals in dips; initially DDT, then organophosphates, and ...
"Organophosphate Report" (PDF). Aerotoxic Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2018. Rayment, Sean (18 July ...
... organophosphate insecticides (T60.0†); sarin and other nerve gases; tetraethyllead (T56.0†); aniline (T65.3†); acetone and ...
"Organophosphate Report" (PDF). Aerotoxic Association.[permanent dead link] "Nerve gas death was 'unlawful'". BBC News. 15 ...
Organophosphate poisoning by commercial insecticides such as sheep dip, weed killers, and flea treatment preparations for pets ... Lotti M, Moretto A (2005). "Organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy". Toxicol Rev. 24 (1): 37-49. doi:10.2165/00139709- ...
Table of laboratory methods panels for Insecticides (Organophosphates). Chemical. Specimen Type. 2-Isopropyl-4-methyl-6- ... Distribution and determinants of urinary biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rican pregnant women ... An Observational Study to Evaluate Associations Between Low-Level Gestational Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and ...
Table of laboratory methods panels for Flame Retardants (Organophosphates). Chemical. Specimen Type. ... Variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites among pregnant women in ... and four other organophosphates in human urine by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass ...
In the 1930s, organophosphates were used as insecticides, but the German military developed these substances as neurotoxins in ... Organophosphates (OPs) are chemical substances originally produced by the reaction of alcohols and phosphoric acid. ... encoded search term (Organophosphates) and Organophosphates What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... Therapeutic uses of organophosphates. Several organophosphate agents are being tried therapeutically. Cholinesterase inhibition ...
In the 1930s, organophosphates were used as insecticides, but the German military developed these substances as neurotoxins in ... Organophosphates (OPs) are chemical substances originally produced by the reaction of alcohols and phosphoric acid. ... encoded search term (Organophosphates) and Organophosphates What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ... Organophosphates Medication. Updated: Nov 29, 2016 * Author: Frances M Dyro, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA ...
... we examine the symptoms of poisoning from organophosphate, a form of insecticide. We also look at the risks and treatment ... However, organophosphates can also be present in food products such as wheat, flour, and cooking oil. The use of ant and roach ... Organophosphates may also be present in food, due to the spraying of crops, for example. However, research suggests that foods ... Organophosphate poisoning symptoms can range from mild to severe and vary widely depending on the type and degree of exposure. ...
New Research Calls for a Phase-Out of Organophosphate Pesticides. Average annual tonnes of OP pesticides used in agriculture, ... Exposure to harsh pesticides like organophosphates is linked to symptoms of neurobehavioral issues in children. New research ... New neuroimaging testing shows how prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides changes the development of childrens brains ...
Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates (OPs). Organophosphates are used as insecticides, medications, ... Organophosphate poisoning has been reported at least since 1962. The symptoms of organophosphate poisoning include muscle ... beginning with the organophosphates. As part of that process, in 1999 the EPA announced a ban the use of organophosphate ... organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND ...
Organophosphates and carbamates. Organophosphates are organic compounds that contain phosphorus, while carbamates are salts or ... In different ways, organophosphates and carbamates tend to cause the nervous system to stop working properly. Some are used in ...
For some time there has been a head-louse infestation, treated ,with Organo-phosphates. Im very unhappy with two aspects of ... Head lice and Organo-phosphates.. Brian Hiestand hiestand.2 at pop.service.ohio-state.edu Sun Dec 8 11:04:14 EST 1996 *Previous ... Head lice and Organo-phosphates. ,Date: Sun, 08 Dec 1996 11:43:12 +0100 ,Organization: GooseIsland ,Lines: 8 ,Message-ID: , ... Malathion is the only organophosphate allowed for this use in the US, is one o fthe least toxic OP preparation, and is more ...
Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), also called organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), is a ... "Cholinesterase Inhibitors - Organophosphate-Induced Delayed Neuropathy (OPIDN)". ATSDR - Environmental Medicine & Environmental ... as a result of acute or chronic organophosphate poisoning. A striking example of OPIDN occurred during the 1930s Prohibition ... "New insights into the organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 381: 153-154. doi: ...
Organophosphate Poisoning. The day before she fell ill she had sponged her dogs and cat with an organophosphate insecticide and ... Organophosphate or carbamate toxicity is a common poisoning of small animals. Organophosphate and carbamate toxicity is ... Organophosphate pesticides. Organophosphates as a class have become the most frequently used pesticides because of their rapid ... Organophosphate poisoning in urban Zimbabwe. Organophosphates are the most commonly used pesticides in Zimbabwe, yet there are ...
Chapter 1. Organophosphates: Application, Effects on Human Health and Removal. (Vladan J. Anićijević and Tamara D. Lazarević- ... In this compilation, the authors present progress in research concerning protection from organophosphates activity, as well as ... Chapter 2. Electrochemical Biosensors for Organophosphate Pesticide Detection. (Nebojša I. Potkonjak, Department of Chemical ...
This topic contains 7 study abstracts on Organophosphates indicating they may contribute to Hypothyroidism, Thyroid Diseases, ... Organophosphate flame retardants and bisphenol A in childrens urine in Hong Kong: has the burden been underestimated?Aug 04, ... Organophosphate pesticide exposure has been associated with thyroid hormone changes in human subjects.Feb 15, 2010. ... Diseases : Hypothyroidism, Lead Poisoning, Pesticide-Induced Toxicity: Organophosphates. Problem Substances : Chlorpyrifos, ...
This topic contains 7 study abstracts on Organophosphates indicating they may contribute to Hypothyroidism, Thyroid Diseases, ... Organophosphate pesticide exposure has been associated with thyroid hormone changes in human subjects.Feb 15, 2010. ... Diseases : Hypothyroidism, Lead Poisoning, Pesticide-Induced Toxicity: Organophosphates. Problem Substances : Chlorpyrifos, ... Diseases : Chemically-Induced Liver Damage, Pesticide-Induced Toxicity: Organophosphates, Pesticide Toxicity Pharmacological ...
Organophosphates indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Fermented Foods and Beverages, Kimchi, and ... Organophosphate pesticides may be associated with decreased sperm counts and motility and altered reproductive hormone levels. ... 15 Abstracts with Pesticide-Induced Toxicity: Organophosphates Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Diseases : Hypothyroidism, Lead Poisoning, Pesticide-Induced Toxicity: Organophosphates. Problem Substances : Chlorpyrifos, ...
Accepted Manuscript: Sub-Equimolar Hydrolysis and Condensation of Organophosphates. Title: Sub-Equimolar Hydrolysis and ...
Suicide and exposure to organophosphate insecticides: Cause or effect?. Bibliographic information. Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p. ... and of human and animal studies of central nervous system toxicity related to organophosphate (OP) pesticides. Suicide rates ...
Remove all clothing from and gently cleanse patients suspected of organophosphate exposure with soap and water because ... organophosphates are hydrolyzed readily in aqueous solutions with a high pH. Cons... more ... Drugs & Diseases , Emergency Medicine , Organophosphate Toxicity Q&A What is the process for decontamination from ... Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review. Int J Occup ...
1987) Organophosphate Poisoning and its Treatment by Oximes. In: Dun N.J., Perlman R.L. (eds) Neurobiology of Acetylcholine. ... Hopff, W.H., Riggio, G. and Waser, P.G., 1984b, Blockade of Acetylcholine Synthesis in Organophosphate Poisoning, Toxicol, and ... Cholinergic Receptor Fluoro Phosphate Organophosphate Poisoning Frog Neuromuscular Junction Iontophoretical Application These ... We will report here on the kinetics and distribution of another organophosphate, 32P-diisopropyl-fluorophosphonate (DFP) ( ...
Organophosphates, the pesticides blamed for killing at least 25 children in India, are widely used around the world. This is ... Organophosphates attack the nervous system and inhibit signaling between nerves and muscles, often leading to asphyxiation. ... While we currently understand the dangers associated with organophosphate exposure, they were marketed as safe when they were ... Despite these adverse health effects, organophosphates are still in use, and low persistent levels are allowed on harvested ...
What is organophosphates? Meaning of organophosphates medical term. What does organophosphates mean? ... Looking for online definition of organophosphates in the Medical Dictionary? organophosphates explanation free. ... organophosphates. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to organophosphates: pyrethroids ... and diagnosed with organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN).. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy: a case ...
However, these enzymes can be inhibited by other organophosphates!. Mode of action: in the body they are converted by the MFO ...
... what about corn laced with organophosphates vs corn thats been genetically modified to generate organophosphates in the ... I wonder if the people in India most likely to be exposed to organophosphates in India are also the people most likely to be ... As a layperson, Im pretty sure Id rather eat corn laced with Bt than corn with organophosphates rinsed off. ... Organophosphates are used in agriculture, homes, gardens and veterinary practices; however, in the past decade, several notable ...
Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning in Infants and Children Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning in Infants and Children. Robert J. Zwiener and Charles M. Ginsburg ... Most patients had a prompt response to therapy; however, two patients with organophosphate toxicity required multiple doses of ... The clinical and laboratory features of moderate to severe organophosphate and carbamate toxicity in 37 infants and children ...
As part of its ongoing review of existing organophosphate (OP) tolerances under the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), EPA has ... Organophosphate Pesticides; Reassessment of Diazinon Non-Contributor Tolerances. A Notice by the Environmental Protection ... As part of its ongoing review of existing organophosphate (OP) tolerances under the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), EPA has ...
... Tatjana Momić,1 Tamara Lazarević Pašti,1 ... The adsorption of organophosphate pesticide dimethoate on AuNSs and AuNRs was investigated in aqueous solution at room ... J. S. Van Dyk and B. Pletschke, "Review on the use of enzymes for the detection of organochlorine, organophosphate and ... Previously it was published that various organophosphate pesticides malathion, parathion, chlorpyrifos, and dimethoate were ...
Case Definition: Nerve Agents or Organophosphates. *Toxic Syndrome Description: Nerve Agent and Organophosphate Pesticide ... Note: The actual clinical manifestations of an exposure to a nerve agent or an organophosphate pesticide may be more variable ... Nerve agents are chemical warfare agents that have the same mechanism of action as OP organophosphate pesticides insecticides. ... care workers and public health officials to recognize an unknown or suspected exposure to a nerve agent or an organophosphate ( ...
Organophosphate Insecticides - Diakyl Phosphate Metabolites - Urine (OPD_E) Data File: OPD_E.xpt First Published: May 2012. ...
Stone, W. B.: Poisoning of wild birds by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. N.Y. Fish Game J.26, 37 (1979).Google ... Dieter, M. P., and J. L. Ludke: Studies on combined effects of organophosphates and heavy metals in birds. I. Plasma and brain ... Food consumption in songbirds exposed to organophosphates may be reduced significantly up to 12 hr after exposure ceases ... that anorexia and physiological condition may be important factors in mortality of wild birds exposed to organophosphates. ...
... sometimes also called organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a rare, delayed neurotoxic effect, which occurs ... OPIDN, sometimes also called organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a rare, delayed neurotoxic effect, which ...
  • In the 1930s, organophosphates were used as insecticides, but the German military developed these substances as neurotoxins in World War II. (medscape.com)
  • Organophosphates are chemicals that feature in agricultural products, such as herbicides, pesticides, and insecticides. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Organophosphates are used as insecticides, medications, and nerve agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organophosphate compounds vary greatly in their toxic capabilities and have the advantage over other types of insecticides in that they produce little or no tissue residues. (factbites.com)
  • Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are commonly used for small animals as flea and tick powders, sprays, foggers, shampoos and dips, flea collars, and formerly, as systemic insecticides . (factbites.com)
  • Since all organophosphate and carbamate insecticides have the same mechanism of action and can be long-lasting, the effects of multiple exposures (for example: flea dip, flea powder, flea collar, and home and lawn flea treatment) are additive. (factbites.com)
  • Hummingbirds and bumble bees exposed to neonicotinoid and organophosphate insecticides in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Suicide and exposure to organophosphate insecticides: Cause or effect? (ilo.org)
  • Nerve agents are chemical warfare agents that have the same mechanism of action as OP organophosphate pesticides insecticides. (cdc.gov)
  • The Organophosphates Profile uncovers exposure to these pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides to determine if avoidance and detoxification are needed for optimal health. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • Organophosphate pesticides/insecticides are nerve agents that inactivate an important enzyme which is essential to nerve function. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • In terms of significance, Organophosphate insecticides hold approximately 30% of the market share in the global insecticides' market by types. (medgadget.com)
  • Organophosphates - organic phosphate compounds commonly found in lawn and garden products such as insecticides - can be dangerous, even fatal, to our pets. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Organophosphate poisoning or toxicity occurs when an animal or person is overexposed to insecticides containing organophosphates. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • The lack of sensors to perform discrete and real-time in-situ measurement/detection of organophosphates (OPs) in the field has limited the ability to routinely monitor these highly neurotoxic but widely used pesticides/insecticides. (epa.gov)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates are commonly used as insecticides (see table Symptoms and Treatment of Specific Poisons ). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Organophosphates are organic phosphate compounds commonly found in insecticides used in lawn and garden or flea and tick treatments, such as flea collars. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Although organophosphates and carbamates are the most widely applied insecticides and are associated with mass killing of birds, little is known of their sublethal effects. (highbeam.com)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates are the most widely used classes of insecticides in industrialized nations and are heavily applied in developing nations where their use is usually much less well monitored (Pimentel and Levitan 1991). (highbeam.com)
  • The environmental consequences of delayed effects and embryotoxicity for bird populations in areas exposed to organophosphate insecticides, such as malathion, are obvious. (nel.edu)
  • Organophosphate insecticides bind to and inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in accumulation of acetylcholine. (vetstream.com)
  • Spontaneous reversal of enzyme inhibition by organophosphate insecticides can occur depending on the compound involved. (vetstream.com)
  • Organophosphate insecticides are very widely used as pesticides. (vetstream.com)
  • Not unless they were sprayed with an organophosphate, which are mostly in insecticides. (healthtap.com)
  • Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from head of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides was developed from Ellman reaction and analyzed by spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm. (fao.org)
  • Organophosphate compounds are commonly used as insecticides in rural areas and powerful warfare agents by military personnel. (ijpsonline.com)
  • This is why organophosphates are poisonous, and also why they are effective insecticides (4) . (acsh.org)
  • Insecticides still play a major role in the control of this mosquito, especially the organophosphate (OP) temephos which was the sole larvicide recommended for use in drinking water for a long period (Chavasse & Yap 1997). (scielo.br)
  • Effects of organophosphate insecticides on the cholinergic receptors of frog skeletal muscle. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Organophosphate compounds (OPC) have become the primary choice as insecticides and are widely used across the world. (figshare.com)
  • As the result of the extensive use and high contamination of organophosphate (OP) insecticides in agricultural products and the environment, especially in developing countries, a simple and convenient means for OP detection and screening was investigated. (thescipub.com)
  • These agents reactivate cholinesterases inactivated by phosphorylation due to exposure to organophosphates. (medscape.com)
  • Reduced bone formation after exposure to organophosphates. (medscape.com)
  • Exposure to organophosphates can be harmful. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Patients with non-life-threatening symptoms due to carbamate poisoning or with questionable exposure to organophosphates and no symptoms may be considered for discharge after adequate decontamination and observation for six hours. (factbites.com)
  • For example, a 2010 study in California showed that prenatal exposure to organophosphates increased the risk of neurological disorders in children. (organic-center.org)
  • Results of a study by Dr Nicola Cherry and colleagues from the University of Manchester "provide support for those who believe that repeated exposure to organophosphates may cause chronic ill health. (prohealth.com)
  • Exposure to organophosphates has acute effects on health, but evidence of chronic effects is unclear. (prohealth.com)
  • The results provide support for those who believe that repeated exposure to organophosphates may cause chronic ill health. (prohealth.com)
  • Most exposure to organophosphates occurs from ingestion through the food supply. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • Some studies have reported short-term changes in behavior of birds sickened by acute exposure to organophosphates (Grue et al. (highbeam.com)
  • Methods for measurements and the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils among flying personnel in the aviation industry are described. (diva-portal.org)
  • OBJECTIVES To investigate the hypothesis that chronic low level exposure to organophosphates (OPs) in sheep dips is related to clinically detectable measures of polyneuropathy. (bmj.com)
  • The COT has convened a Working Group to produce a draft COT statement, assessing whether there are long-term adverse neurological or neuropsychological effects from low-level exposure to organophosphates, insufficient to cause overt toxicity. (food.gov.uk)
  • Urine levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides were measured in a subsample of NHANES participants 6 through 59 years of age who were selected to be representative of the U.S. population. (factbites.com)
  • Few data exist in Latin America concerning the association between organophosphate (OP) urinary metabolites and the consumption of fruits and vegetables and other exposure risk variables in schoolchildren. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers sampled the urine of 268 mothers early in their pregnancies to test for DAP levels - levels of metabolites produced when the body breaks down organophosphate pesticides. (organic-center.org)
  • Organophosphate compounds cause acute toxicity and cholinergic crisis by acetylcholinesterase inhibiton. (factbites.com)
  • Organophosphates cause acute symptoms by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase[9]. (factbites.com)
  • Organophosphate toxicity is due to the ability of these compounds to inhibit acetylcholinesterase at cholinergic junctions of the nervous system. (factbites.com)
  • Organophosphates reversibly bind to and inactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine and leading to an excess of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses . (factbites.com)
  • The mechanism of toxicity of the organophosphate pesticides is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase , which catalyzes the deacetylation of acetylcholine . (factbites.com)
  • Organophosphate pesticides irreversibly inactivate acetylcholinesterase, which is essential to nerve function in insects, humans, and many other animals. (selectscience.net)
  • Organophosphates are agents that bind to acetylcholinesterase and inhibit its action of normally hydrolyzing acetylcholine 2, 5 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Organophosphates shut down acetylcholinesterase-the enzyme that deactivates the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (acsh.org)
  • Deactivation of acetylcholinesterase by an organophosphate. (acsh.org)
  • Evidence for occurrence of an organophosphate-resistant type of acetylcholinesterase in strains of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the target of a major pesticide family, the organophosphates, which were extensively used as control agents of sea lice on farmed salmonids in the early 1990s. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Organophosphates have been documented as neurotoxic and are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. (springer.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody AE-2 modulates carbamate and organophosphate inhibition of fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The principal toxicity of acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is the disruption of neurotransmission through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This article looks at organophosphate poisoning, how to recognize it, the risk factors, and what to do if poisoning occurs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Organophosphate poisoning symptoms can range from mild to severe and vary widely depending on the type and degree of exposure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Organophosphate poisoning can occur if a person is exposed to the chemicals in high doses or over a long time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The authors note that organophosphates are one of the most common causes of poisoning globally due to their low cost and easy availability. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates (OPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Organophosphate poisoning occurs most commonly as a suicide attempt in farming areas of the developing world and less commonly by accident. (wikipedia.org)
  • In those who have organophosphate poisoning the primary treatments are atropine, oximes such as pralidoxime, and diazepam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organophosphate poisoning has been reported at least since 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). (wikipedia.org)
  • Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), also called organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), is a neuropathy caused by killing of neurons in the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord, as a result of acute or chronic organophosphate poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of organophosphate poisoning are recalled using the mnemonic "SLUDGE", for salivation , lacrimation , urination , defecation , gastrointestinal upset, and emesis . (factbites.com)
  • The majority of organophosphate poisoning occurs by accidental or occupational exposure, but poisoning may also be due to suicide attempts, homicide attempts, or chemical warfare. (factbites.com)
  • Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning is relatively common in pets and livestock. (factbites.com)
  • Pregnancy: Patients have been successfully treated after organophosphate poisoning in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with atropine and palidoxime with delivery of healthy newborns. (factbites.com)
  • Acute organophosphate poisoning in university hospital emergency room patients. (medscape.com)
  • Jayawardane P, Dawson AH, Weerasinghe V, Karalliedde L, Buckley NA, Senanayake N. The spectrum of intermediate syndrome following acute organophosphate poisoning: a prospective cohort study from Sri Lanka. (medscape.com)
  • Features of myocardial injury in severe organophosphate poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • Acid-base interpretation can be the predictor of outcome among patients with acute organophosphate poisoning before hospitalization. (medscape.com)
  • Organophosphate poisoning in the developed world-a single centre experience from here to the millennium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A study was conducted on the patients of acute organophosphate poisoning, admitted in Department of Medicine, LLR Hospital, Kanpur. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conclusion: Independent predictors of mortality in patients with organophosphate poisoning as bradycardia, age, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase level and acidosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Peter JV, Moran JL, Graham P. Oxime therapy and outcomes in human organophosphate poisoning: an evaluation using meta-analytic techniques. (medscape.com)
  • Eisenkraft A, Gilat E, Chapman S, Baranes S, Egoz I, Levy A. Efficacy of the bone injection gun in the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • Professor of Medicine Karl-Heinz Krause, Geneva/Switzerland says: "This statement is misleading as long-term consequences of organophosphates poisoning include organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder. (innovations-report.com)
  • The organophosphate poisoning scandal still refuses to go away - largely thanks to the determination of campaigners such as Tom Rigby and Brenda Sutcliffe, and in Parliament, the efforts of the Countess of Mar, Lord Tyler, Lord Rooker and, more recently, Andy Burnham. (warmwell.com)
  • In extreme situations, organophosphate poisoning can lead to seizures or even death-so if you think your pet has been overexposed to an insecticide, contact your veterinarian immediately! (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • In order to determine if your dog has organophosphate poisoning, your veterinarian will perform a complete history and physical examination. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • The most important thing to know about organophosphate poisoning is that it can be prevented. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • This case report reiterates the likelihood of symptoms and signs of parkinsonism developing following organophosphate poisoning. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, a limited number of case studies are available describing extrapyramidal manifestations after acute organophosphate poisoning such as dystonia, 1 2 rest tremor, 2 cog wheel rigidity, 2 and choreoathetosis. (bmj.com)
  • However, there was no clear relation between poisoning and extrapyramidal symptoms due to chronic organophosphate exposure and, in addition, numerous episodes of acute intoxication. (bmj.com)
  • Oximes are used to counteract the effects of organophosphate poisoning, but they do not readily cross the BBB. (healthpartners.com)
  • For these reasons we examined intranasal administration of oximes in an animal model of severe organophosphate poisoning to determine their effectiveness in reducing mortality and seizure-induced neuronal degeneration. (healthpartners.com)
  • Using the paraoxon model of organophosphate poisoning, we administered the standard treatment (intramuscular pralidoxime plus atropine sulphate) to all animals and then compared the effectiveness of intranasal application of obidoxime (OBD) to saline in the control groups. (healthpartners.com)
  • The addition of intranasally administered oximes to the current treatment regimen for organophosphate poisoning would improve efficacy, reducing both brain damage and mortality. (healthpartners.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Organophosphate And Carbamate Poisoning - Pipeline Review, H2 2015', provides an overview of the Organophosphate And Carbamate Poisoning's therapeutic pipeline. (marketresearch.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Organophosphate And Carbamate Poisoning, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (marketresearch.com)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates are common causes of poisoning and poison-related deaths worldwide. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Long-term, persistent sequelae of organophosphate poisoning may include cognitive deficits or parkinsonism . (merckmanuals.com)
  • Hashemian AM, Vafadar E, Salarirad M, Fadavi H (2015) Bilateral Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma Following Acute Poisoning with Organophosphate. (omicsonline.org)
  • Acute bilateral angle closure glaucoma is reported as side effect of many drugs but this shows it was occurred after injection of atropine for poisoning with organophosphate pesticide. (omicsonline.org)
  • In developing countries, organophosphate poisoning is one of the most common substance to commit suicide. (omicsonline.org)
  • Glaucoma is one of the complications of organophosphate poisoning which could result during treatment with atropine . (omicsonline.org)
  • Here we present a case report of bilateral acute glaucoma following poisoning with organophosphate and injection of Atropine. (omicsonline.org)
  • There are no accurate figures about the incidence of Organophosphate poisoning. (omicsonline.org)
  • Addition of Ketamine to Standard-of-Care Countermeasures for Acute Organophosphate Poisoning Improves Neurobiological Outcomes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning by examining self-reported acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure among farmers in Nepal. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The definition of symptoms was based on WHO's standardized list of clinical presentations of acute organophosphate poisoning. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Organophosphate poisoning is an important cause of acute neurological dysfunction and respiratory distress. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Organophosphate poisoning is common, often as a result of suicidal ingestion (acute high-level exposure) or occupational exposure to pesticides (chronic low-level exposure) 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Acute organophosphate poisoning leads to three distinct sequential neurological syndromes. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In acute organophosphate poisoning, there is overactivation of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, resulting in the acute muscarinic and nicotinic syndromes, as described above 2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Organophosphate insecticide poisoning in cattle may occur in various circumstances. (vetstream.com)
  • This form of organophosphate poisoning is characterized by distal degeneration of axons of both the peripheral and central nervous systems and involves phosphorylation and then aging of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) in peripheral nerves. (vetstream.com)
  • How can organophosphate poisoning be treated? (healthtap.com)
  • What are the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning? (healthtap.com)
  • What happens when you get organophosphate poisoning? (healthtap.com)
  • What signs would you expect to observe if organophosphate poisoning? (healthtap.com)
  • Hi doctors, can you tell me what is organophosphate poisoning? (healthtap.com)
  • Can you get organophosphate poisoning from morning glory seeds? (healthtap.com)
  • How does organophosphate poisoning cause muscular paralysis? (healthtap.com)
  • When administering Succinylcholine for intubation on a semi-conscious trauma pt with organophosphate poisoning, is there a dosage adjustment? (healthtap.com)
  • What is the Physiological basis of muscle "twitching" in Organophosphate poisoning? (healthtap.com)
  • How to describe poisoning by organophosphates and pesticides? (healthtap.com)
  • Can Galantamine Act as an Antidote for Organophosphate Poisoning? (ijpsonline.com)
  • The mortality rate caused by organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still high, even the standard treatment such as atropine and oxime improves a lot. (ovid.com)
  • Organophosphates are organic compounds that contain phosphorus, while carbamates are salts or esters of carbamic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. (factbites.com)
  • The term organophosphate should strictly be reserved for an ester of phosphoric acid or one of its higher compounds (such as pyrophosphoric acid. (factbites.com)
  • We show that suspensions of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles modified with a common antidote, 2-pralidoxime (PAM), its polymeric analog, poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-phenacyloxime-co-acrylic acid), or poly(N-vinylimidazole-co-acrolein oxime-co-acrylic acid) (PImAA) catalyze the hydrolysis of organophosphate (OP) compounds such as diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) or insecticide diethyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (paraoxon) serving as models of the warfare nerve agents, at neutral pH. (ct-si.org)
  • Organophosphate-based compounds (OPs) represent a significant threat to warfighters (nerve agents) and civilian populations (pesticides). (rti.org)
  • Organophosphates, organophosphonates (henceforth jointly abbreviated as OP) and carbamates are typical anticholinergic compounds which are widely known as pesticides or nerve agents [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results have also indicated that the use of efficient methods for extracting these enzymes, their kinetic characterization and determination of sensitivity differences between AChE and BChE to organophosphate compounds, are essential for precision ChE activity levels reported in environmental monitoring program interpretation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Currently organophosphate compounds constitute one of the largest families of chemical compounds that are used for pest control, mainly for better crop yield worldwide. (springer.com)
  • In order to implement bioremediation approach, proper understanding of microbial metabolism of these organophosphates compounds is of extreme importance. (springer.com)
  • Microbial metabolism of OP compounds can be carried out catabolically (with organophosphates serving either as a sole source for C, N, or P) or co-metabolically (in the presence of other compounds, mainly carbohydrates). (springer.com)
  • Organophosphate polyneuropathy: pathogenesis and prevention. (medscape.com)
  • OPIDN, sometimes also called organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a rare, delayed neurotoxic effect, which occurs 1-5 weeks after severe toxicity from some cholinesterase inhibitors. (cdc.gov)
  • The mechanism underlying organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy is not well understood, but is thought to be independent to the functioning of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, and may be due to inhibition of the enzyme neurotoxic esterase instead 2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • In different ways, organophosphates and carbamates tend to cause the nervous system to stop working properly. (cdc.gov)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates, although different structurally, both inhibit cholinesterase activity. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates are absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates cause similar initial findings characterized by acute muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic toxidromes (see table Common Toxic Syndromes ). (merckmanuals.com)
  • We conducted standard insecticide susceptibility testing across western Kenya and found that the Anopheles gambiae mosquito has acquired high resistance to pyrethroids and DDT, patchy resistance to carbamates, but no resistance to organophosphates. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies on combined effects of organophosphates or carbamates and morsodren in birds. (usgs.gov)
  • Present results show that AE-2 decreases the rate of inhibition of FBS AChE by the positively charged organophosphate amiton-p-toluene sulfonate and the positively charged carbamates pyridostigmine and neostigmine but accelerates inhibition of FBS AChE by the neutral organophosphates paraoxon and diisopropylfluorophosphate. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Malathion is the only organophosphate allowed for this use in the US, is one o fthe least toxic OP preparation, and is more ovicidal than Nix or Kwell. (bio.net)
  • This allowed the fast, simple and highly-efficient enrichment of trace levels of the widely used organophosphate insecticide malathion, which is also an accepted simulant for the potent nerve-agent VX. (rsc.org)
  • These methods were used to extract a mixture of malathion, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (explosive marker), 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, carbaryl (insecticide), dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide), atrazine (herbicide) and permethrin (insecticide) in synthetic air. (rsc.org)
  • B) Mortality rates associated with DDT (organochlorine), bendiocarb (carbamate), and malathion (organophosphate). (cdc.gov)
  • Toxicity hazard of organophosphate insecticide malathion identified by in vitro methods. (nel.edu)
  • Organophosphate flame retardants and bisphenol A in children's urine in Hong Kong: has the burden been underestimated? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Background: A reduction in the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) because of human health concerns may result in an increased use of and human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). (harvard.edu)
  • Prenatal Exposure to a Common Organophosphate Insecticide Delays Motor Development in a Mouse Model of Idiopathic Autism. (autismweb.com)
  • This study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely diffused organophosphate insecticide endowed with developmental neurotoxicity at sub-toxic doses, in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse strain, a validated model of idiopathic autism that displays several behavioral traits relevant to the autism spectrum. (autismweb.com)
  • These results provide a link between early prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides via the mother and observable changes at birth that may alter how the body breaks down sugars, potentially contributing to obesity later in life. (organic-center.org)
  • Nail technicians are occupationally exposed to certain phthalates, phthalate alternatives, and organophosphate esters. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Many organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been reported to primarily partition to particles in the atmosphere. (muni.cz)
  • We measured the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate esters (OPEs), and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in stickleback, and found that BDE-47 and -99, tri(n-butyl) phosphate (TNBP), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), were the most abundant contaminants. (illinois.edu)
  • Chronic central nervous system effects of acute organophosphate pesticide intoxication. (medscape.com)
  • Acute and reversible parkinsonism due to organophosphate pesticide intoxication: five cases. (medscape.com)
  • Studies have shown that years after acute intoxication with organophosphates , memory and cognitive functions might be defective and vibrotactile sensitivity might be decreased, indicating the presence of peripheral neuropathy, although neurologic examination and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were normal[17-20]. (factbites.com)
  • Levy-Khademi F, Tenenbaum AN, Wexler ID, Amitai Y. Unintentional organophosphate intoxication in children. (medscape.com)
  • Such long term toxicity of organophosphates may even occur in the absence of documented acute intoxication and such cases might be much more frequent than fatal acute intoxications. (innovations-report.com)
  • 1 however, tremors, dysarthria, cogwheel rigidity, and mask-like facies are unusual accompaniments following organophosphate intoxication. (bmj.com)
  • 2 However, Davis et al (1978) suggested that agricultural workers may be at risk for the late development of parkinsonism in a crop duster with numerous episodes of acute organophosphate intoxication and chronic organophosphate exposure. (bmj.com)
  • To our knowledge, no patient has previously been documented presenting with the complete picture of transient severe parkinsonism including bradyphrenia, rigidity, rest tremor, akinesia, impairment of speech and swallowing, and salivation after acute organophosphate intoxication and, in addition, having a marked improvement after treatment with amantadine. (bmj.com)
  • In this paper, we present the case of a 27-year-old male patient who was admitted to our clinic with bilateral drop foot and spastic paraplegia after the ingestion of organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and diagnosed with organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A few organophosphates (eg, chlorpyrifos, triorthocresyl phosphate) may cause an axonal neuropathy that begins 1 to 3 weeks after exposure. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Organophosphates attack the nervous system and inhibit signaling between nerves and muscles, often leading to asphyxiation. (organic-center.org)
  • Organophosphates phosphorylate cholinesterase and thus irreversibly inhibit it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Organophosphates inhibit acetocholinesterase, which is responsible for recycling actetocholine. (healthtap.com)
  • The organophosphates octamethyl pyrophosphoramide, Bidrin, and phosphoric acid 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl ester inhibit the membrane voltage response of frog sartorius muscles to carbamylcholine in a manner expected of either a slowly reversing competitive inhibitor or a noncompetitive inhibitor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The Organophosphates Profile is a urine test that identifies a patients prolonged exposed to organophosphate pesticides. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides. (nih.gov)
  • Long-term change in feeding behavior was produced by organophosphate insufficient to induce outward illness or to depress brain AChE activity. (highbeam.com)
  • AChE insensitive to organophosphate chemotherapeutants has been identified as a major resistance mechanism in numerous arthropod species, and in this study, target-site resistance was confirmed in the crustacean Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer isolated from several fish-farming areas in Norway and Canada. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Some organophosphates were tried in the treatment of parkinsonism. (medscape.com)
  • Single case study: possible organophosphate-induced parkinsonism. (bmj.com)
  • 2-4 Only one study describes a case of possible organophosphate induced parkinsonism. (bmj.com)
  • Organophosphate pesticides degrade rapidly by hydrolysis on exposure to sunlight, air, and soil, although small amounts can be detected in food and drinking water. (selectscience.net)
  • Organophosphate hydrolysis rates had no effect on ALS survival. (neurology.org)
  • Our findings suggest that the influence of PON1 polymorphisms on ALS susceptibility is not due to reduced organophosphate hydrolysis. (neurology.org)
  • Some of the hydrolysis intermediates (such as 4-nitrophenol and trichloropyridinol) of these organophosphates are more toxic and environmentally mobile (due to greater water solubility) and therefore more dangerous. (springer.com)
  • The metabolic conversion of organophosphates to CO 2 and H 2 O (i.e., complete mineralization) is carried out through three main processes such as degradation, conjugation, and rearrangements that involves reactions like oxidation, hydrolysis, and reduction, all mediated through the enzyme-mediated pathways. (springer.com)
  • This hydrolysis step is most critical as it reduces the toxicity of organophosphates. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, muscle tissues ChE sensitivity to methyl‐paraoxon (MP) organophosphate (OP) pesticide was evaluated by determining the inhibition kinetic constants (IKC) for progressive irreversible inhibition from muscle ChE by MP, as well as, the IC50 for 30 min for each species. (environmental-expert.com)
  • However, a surprising phenomenon was observed when a model organophosphate paraoxon was assayed. (mdpi.com)
  • Due to their toxicity, persistence, and adverse effects, some organophosphates (like parathion and methyl parathion) were classified and registered as extremely hazardous by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US EPA (US Environmental Protection agency) and have been banned in many countries. (springer.com)
  • The three major types of PTE are reported so far, such as organophosphate hydrolase (OPH), methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH), and organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA) encoded by opd , mpd , and opaA genes, which are either located on plasmid or on chromosomal DNA. (springer.com)
  • Other uses of organophosphates include nerve gas, such as Sarin, and the production of plastics and solvents. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dr Cherry in comments, said: "The study was set up to test a clear hypothesis, that those whose genes produced a less efficient enzyme would, if exposed to organophosphates, be more likely to become ill. (prohealth.com)
  • The organophosphate substances operate by hindering the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase, which in turn causes nervous and respiratory damages leading to the pest's death. (medgadget.com)
  • Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. (nih.gov)
  • A potentiometric enzyme electrode for the direct measurement of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents was developed. (epa.gov)
  • It is also an organophosphate (OP) insecticide-detoxifying enzyme. (ovid.com)
  • Organophosphates (OPs) are chemical substances originally produced by the reaction of alcohols and phosphoric acid. (medscape.com)
  • The clinical and laboratory features of moderate to severe organophosphate and carbamate toxicity in 37 infants and children are presented. (aappublications.org)
  • Concurrent association of UVR-B to organophosphate pesticide produced more severe lesions microscopically, although this has not been so apparent macroscopically. (scielo.br)
  • The effects of three organophosphate pesticides, i.e. monocrotophos, dichlorvos, and phosphamidon on respiration in rat brain and liver tissue slices have been studied. (portlandpress.com)
  • From the mid-1990s the organophosphates dichlorvos and azamethiphos were seriously compromised by the development of resistance. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As long ago as 1951, the 1951 Zuckerman Report's scientific findings had drawn links between organophosphates and the nerve agents used in chemical weapons. (warmwell.com)
  • Susceptibility to organophosphate toxicity varies greatly among individuals of any species and can be increased by frequent repeated mild exposure which results in greater susceptibility due to exhaustion of the body's store of cholinesterase . (factbites.com)
  • Pyrethroid and DDT Resistance and Organophosphate Susceptibility among Anopheles spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Study sites (circles) for discerning the presence of pyrethroid and DDT resistance and organophosphate susceptibility among Anopheles spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Emerged adults were fed with 10% sucrose solution, and 2- to 5-day-old females were used to determine insecticide susceptibility by using the standard World Health Organization (WHO) insecticide susceptibility tube test http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241505154/en/ . (cdc.gov)
  • Combining p-methyl DL and NWH with LLINs could provide significant epidemiological benefits against a vector population which is resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to organophosphates. (openaire.eu)
  • The 56 year old male patient ingested an unknown dose of the organophosphate demeton-S-methyl-sulphone (Metasystox R) in a suicide attempt. (bmj.com)
  • As part of its ongoing review of existing organophosphate (OP) tolerances under the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), EPA has determined that 26 tolerances for diazinon can be reassessed at this time. (federalregister.gov)
  • diazinonoxon, the active metabolite of diazinon, an organophosphate often used in sheep dip chemicals in the UK, is hydrolysed more slowly by the R than the Q alloenzyme. (prohealth.com)
  • Organophosphates are also toxic to plants and insects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prevention efforts include banning very toxic types of organophosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers calculated the odds ratios for polymorphisms in the gene regulating paraoxonase, and therefore the ability to break down toxic organophosphates. (prohealth.com)
  • It is thought that worldwide, approximately 3 million people are exposed to toxic levels of organophosphates, including approximately 2 million hospitalisations for suicidal ingestion 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Use of old products where the original organophosphate insecticide has decomposed to a more toxic compound. (vetstream.com)
  • Because organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used for the control of agricultural pests and of arthropod disease vectors commercially, residentially, and institutionally, large numbers of people throughout the world are routinely exposed to OPs, many at toxic levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A literature review was performed of mortality and morbidity studies related to suicide among pesticide-exposed populations, and of human and animal studies of central nervous system toxicity related to organophosphate (OP) pesticides. (ilo.org)
  • The broad objective of this proposal is to develop an extremely sensitive and selective biosensor device capable of detecting and discriminating proteins in human serum samples taken from personnel that have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of organophosphate-based nerve gas. (sbir.gov)
  • Acetylecholinesterase-based biosensor electrodes for organophosphate pesticide detection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Brazil, decades of dengue vector control using organophosphates and pyrethroids have led to dissemination of resistance. (scielo.br)
  • This may indicate that the organophosphate binding sites are near the cholinergic binding site since both d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium are competitive inhibitors of cholinergic agonists and d-tubocurarine is the larger compound. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Organophosphates, however, can irreversibly bind to cholinesterase. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Organophosphates from pesticides can be hazardous to the neurological development of children and babies in the womb, producing lower IQs. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • Though organophosphates degrade rapidly when exposed to sunlight, air, and soil, chronic toxicity can still occur as these chemicals are used on food crops, orchards, and food storage centers. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • Acute poisonings with organophosphate pesticides occur often. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, galantamine can be considered as an effective therapeutic agent in management of organophosphate toxicity. (ijpsonline.com)
  • There are reported approximately 20,000 organophosphate exposures per year, although it is estimated that as few as 1% of field worker illness from pesticide exposure is reported. (factbites.com)
  • Organophosphate pesticide exposure has been associated with thyroid hormone changes in human subjects. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Organophosphate pesticide exposure may adversely effect the thyroid. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The results caution against using median lethal dietary concentrations for other than ranking chemicals based on their relative toxicity, particularly in establishing safe environmental levels, and suggest that anorexia and physiological condition may be important factors in mortality of wild birds exposed to organophosphates. (springer.com)
  • The administration of vitamin B complex (in combination with a steroid) early before clinical signs of organophosphates exposure are manifest is effective in alleviating neuropathy. (greenmedinfo.com)