Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.MethylaminesNitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.GlutaminaseDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Water SofteningBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Methionine SulfoximineManure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.AcetyleneNitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Trimethyl Ammonium Compounds: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.AminohydrolasesAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glutamate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Urea Cycle Disorders, Inborn: Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.CitrullinePlant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
N-H groups strongly interact with water, especially in ammonium ions. Consequently, the basicity of ammonia is enhanced by 1011 ... In organic chemistry, amines (/əˈmiːn, ˈæmiːn/,[1][2] UK also /ˈeɪmiːn/)[3] are compounds and functional groups that contain a ... substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d. e. h. y. d. r. a. t. i. o. n. h. e. a. t. N. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. C. O. ‖. −. R. ... Typically salts of ammonium compounds exhibit the following order of solubility in water: primary ammonium (RNH+. 3) , ...
Ammonium ions are formed with increasing acidity of dissolved ammonia in water. Ammonia is toxic to fish and humans. The ... In well aerated water, most of the mineral nitrogen is in the form of nitrate. See Major organic forms of nitrogen include ... The chemical structure for ammonia is NH3. Ammonia is highly soluble in water. Ammonia reacts with water (H2O) and forms the ... The percentage of ammonia increases with increasing alkalinity of dissolved ammonium in water. ...
Gaseous ammonia in contact with the water in the meat produces ammonium hydroxide. The ammonia sharply increases the pH and ... As of March 2012 there was no labeling of the product, and only a USDA Organic label would have indicated that beef contained ... The use of ammonia as an anti-microbial agent is approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and is included on the FDA's ... The use of ammonium hydroxide is included on the FDA's list of GRAS (generally recognized as safe) procedures, and is used in ...
... water and ammonia. Ammonium bicarbonate is produced by combining carbon dioxide and ammonia: CO2 + NH3 + H2O → (NH4)HCO3 Since ... It was obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, leather. In addition to ammonium ... Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes above about 36 °C into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water in an endothermic process and so ... This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and reverts to ammonium bicarbonate. Compositions containing ammonium ...
Ammonia, developed by red cabbage water. Copper sulfate, developed by sodium iodide, sodium carbonate, ammonium hydroxide or ... organic acids and the paper forms ester under heat) Milk (lactose dehydrates) Bodily fluids such as blood serum. Soap water ( ... Vinegar, is revealed by red cabbage water. Vinegar contains acetic acid that affects the pH indicator in red cabbage water. ... Developer fluids may be applied using a spray bottle, but some developers are in the form of vapor, e.g. ammonia fumes used to ...
... an organic nitrogen source) into ammonia. In water, ammonia becomes ammonium. This product is essential for nitrifying bacteria ... such as Nitrosococcus, which use the ammonia under aerobic conditions to make nitrite. http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/ ...
... nitrogen in ammonia (NH3-N) and in ammonium (NH4+-N) in the chemical analysis of soil, water, or waste water (e.g. sewage ... A.M.Y. Jaber; N.A. Mehanna; S.M. Sultan (2009). "Determination of ammonium and organic bound nitrogen by inductively coupled ... which converts the ammonium salt to ammonia. The amount of ammonia present, and thus the amount of nitrogen present in the ... the quantitative determination of nitrogen contained in organic substances plus the nitrogen in inorganic ammonia and ammonium ...
... (British spelling Ammonium sulphamate) is a white crystalline solid, readily soluble in water. It is ... It is a salt formed from ammonia and sulfamic acid. Ammonium sulfamate is distributed under the following tradenames, which are ... Several years ago the Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) (known as Garden Organic), published an article on ammonium ... Ammonium sulfamate (like other ammonium salts, e.g. Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, Ammonium sulfate) is a useful flame ...
Ammonium sulfate is formed in fine particulate matter when sulfuric acid (formed largely in cloud water) interacts with gas- ... For example, ozone forms in the atmosphere when nitrogen oxides interact with volatile organic compounds in the presence of ... "The Impact of Nonlocal Ammonia on Submicron Particulate Matter and Visibility Degradation in Urban Shanghai". Hindawi.com. ... phase ammonia. Meteorological conditions such as subsidence inversions, decrease the amount of fresh air available for dilution ...
An example of a weak base is ammonia. It does not contain hydroxide ions, but it reacts with water to produce ammonium ions and ... Howard Maskill (1985). The physical basis of organic chemistry. Oxford University Press, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-19-855192-8. ... For example, when ammonia is put in water, the following equilibrium is set up: K. b. =. [. N. H. 4. +. ]. [. O. H. −. ]. [. N ... Since bases are proton acceptors, the base receives a hydrogen ion from water, H2O, and the remaining H+ concentration in the ...
In addition to water and ammonia, the clouds in the atmospheres of the gas giant planets contain ammonium sulfides. The reddish ... Polysulfide polymers are insoluble in water, oils, and many other organic solvents. Because of their solvent resistance, these ... these anions have been obtained as organic salts, which are soluble in organic solvents. The energy released in the reaction of ... Organic polysulfides generally have the formulae RSnR, where R = alkyl or aryl. The alkali metal polysulfides arise by ...
For example, the limiting acid in liquid ammonia is the ammonium ion, which has a pKa value in water of 9.25. The limiting base ... Many carbon anions can be formed in liquid ammonia solution by the action of the amide ion on organic molecules (see sodium ... water, 15.74). Any acid which is a stronger acid than the ammonium ion will be a strong acid in liquid ammonia. This is the ... It appears that most acids which have a pKa value of less than 9 in water are indeed strong acids in liquid ammonia. However, ...
... the ammonium ion, NH+ 4, plays the same role in liquid ammonia as does the hydronium ion in water and the amide ion, NH− 2, is ... Patrick, Graham (2012). Instant Notes in Organic Chemistry. Taylor & Francis. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-135-32125-3. Holliday, A.K.; ... There is strong evidence that dilute aqueous solutions of ammonia contain negligible amounts of the ammonium ion H2O + NH3 ⥇ OH ... NH+ 4 and that, when dissolved in water, ammonia functions as a Lewis base. The reactions between certain oxides in non-aqueous ...
Liquid fertilizers comprise anhydrous ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonium nitrate or urea. ... The "organic fertilizer" products typically contain both some organic materials as well as acceptable additives such as ... "Radium and uranium in phosphate fertilizers and their impact on the radioactivity of waters". Water Research. 26 (5): 607-611. ... This ammonia is used as a feedstock for all other nitrogen fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and urea ( ...
An example of this is the reaction between ammonia and water to produce ammonium and hydroxide. In this reaction ammonia is the ... or its organic derivatives (amines). There are also bases that do not contain a hydroxide ion but nevertheless react with water ... Bases react with acids to neutralize each other at a fast rate both in water and in alcohol. When dissolved in water, the ... Strong bases hydrolyze in water almost completely, resulting in the leveling effect." In this process, the water molecule ...
It contains phenolic, aromatic, heterocyclic, and polycyclic organics, and inorganics including cyanides, sulfides, ammonium ... The water content in coke is practically zero at the end of the coking process, but it is often water quenched so that it can ... and ammonia. Various methods for its treatment have been studied in recent years. The white rot fungus Phanerochaete ... Syngas; water gas: a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, made by passing steam over red-hot coke (or any carbon-based char ...
... reaction with water. The reaction proceeds until most of the ammonia has been transformed to ammonium. This shift to the right ... Buffers have both organic and non-organic chemical applications. For example, besides buffers being used in lab processes, our ... On the other hand, ammonia is the conjugate base for the acid ammonium after ammonium has donated a hydrogen ion towards the ... is an acid because it donates a proton to the water molecule and its conjugate base is nitrate (NO− 3). The water molecule acts ...
... derived naturally from ammonia, and returned to ammonia via organic processes, in water or waste liquids. It is a measure used ... and ammonium bicarbonate. Household ammonia is a solution of NH3 in water (i.e., ammonium hydroxide) used as a general purpose ... Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous ... Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units ...
... and ammonium euchroate is obtained. The mixture may be separated by dissolving out the ammonium euchroate with water. Paramide ... By heating the ammonium salt of the acid to 150-160 °C while ammonia is evolved, a mixture of paramide (mellimide, molecular ... Brown, H.C., et al., in Baude, E.A. and Nachod, F.C., Determination of Organic Structures by Physical Methods, Academic Press, ... Mellitic acid may be prepared by warming mellite with ammonium carbonate, boiling off the excess of the ammonium salt, and ...
... (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. This process is the main outlet for the ... It is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. Perchlorate is a powerful oxidizer and ammonium is a good fuel. This ... Upon heating to 300 °C, the AP degrades the organic adhesive, breaking the cemented joint. Perchlorate itself confers little ... Like most ammonium salts, ammonium perchlorate decomposes before melting. Mild heating results in production of hydrogen ...
... treatment of concentrated solutions of ammonium salts with strong base gives ammonia. When ammonia is dissolved in water, a ... With the exception of the quaternary ammonium cations, the organic ammonium cations are weak acids. An example of a reaction ... ammonium chloride, and ammonium nitrate. Most simple ammonium salts are very soluble in water. An exception is ammonium ... The conversion of ammonium back to ammonia is easily accomplished by the addition of a strong base. Ammonium cation is found in ...
The ammonium salt is produced by reaction of P4S10 in liquid ammonia. Another way of visualising the structure is that it is ... P2S4− 6 These form water stable salts. The anion has an ethane like structure and contains a P-P bond. The formal oxidation ... J. Svara, N. Weferling, T. Hofmann "Phosphorus Compounds, Organic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH ... and related derivatives where organic groups are attached to one or more O or S. Thiophosphates feature tetrahedral phosphorus( ...
... derived naturally from ammonia, and returned to ammonia via organic processes, in water or waste liquids. It is a measure used ... Ammonia in solutionEdit. Main article: Ammonia solution. Ammonia and ammonium salts can be readily detected, in very minute ... Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous ... Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units ...
For example, all salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium are soluble in water, as are all nitrates and many sulfates - barium ... ammonium salts like ammonia) of the component ions. That slow, partial decomposition is usually accelerated by the presence of ... or organic, such as acetate (CH 3CO− 2); and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F−), or polyatomic, such as sulfate (SO2− 4). ... Ammonium NH+ 4 Calcium Ca2+ Iron Fe2+ and Fe3+ Magnesium Mg2+ Potassium K+ Pyridinium C 5H 5NH+ Quaternary ammonium NR+ 4, R ...
It is used as a precursor to other organic compounds as a masked source of ammonia. Phthalimide can be prepared by heating ... Alternatively, it may be prepared by treating the anhydride with ammonium carbonate or urea. It can also be produced by ... It is a sublimable white solid that is slightly soluble in water but more so upon addition of base. ... Phthalimide is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2NH. It is the imide derivative of phthalic anhydride. ...
Ammonium and derivativesEdit. Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium ... most alkali metal salts are soluble in water, a property which ammonium salts share.[171] Ammonium is expected to behave stably ... For example, lithium iodide (Li I) will dissolve in organic solvents, a property of most covalent compounds.[72] Lithium ... lake or other body of water, not the initial reaction of the metal with water (which tends to happen mostly under water).[75] ...
... free ammonia, solution in water, ACROS Organics 1L; Glass bottle Chemicals:Acids and Bases:Bases:Ammonium Hydroxide:General ... ammonium hydroxide,ammonia water,ammonia aqueous,aquammonia,aqua ammonia,ammonia, aqua,household ammonia,ammonium hydroxide ... ammonium hydroxide,ammonia water,ammonia aqueous,aquammonia,aqua ammonia,ammonia, aqua,household ammonia,ammonium hydroxide ... General Purpose Ammonium Hydroxide Solutions * Ammonium hydroxide, for analysis, 25% free ammonia, solution in water, ACROS ...
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; AMBIENT TEMPERATURE; AMMONIA; AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS; BCC LATTICES; ... 83, 4329 (1999)] is unique in that it has substitutional disorder of ammonia and water over the molecular sites of a body ... The route used to make the DMA structure from ammonia mono- and di-hydrates-compression at 170 K to 6 GPa followed by warming ... A high-pressure phase diagram formore » ammonia hemihydrate is proposed which has importance for planetary modelling.« less ...
p>Pollution & Process Monitoring is a UK manufacturer and supplier of water quality instrumentation especially for continuous ... Ion Selective Ammonia (gas sensing) electrodes, Ion Selective Ammonium ... ... Proam Ammonia Monitor for testing water quality. The ProAm Ammonia Monitor is a simple, compact on-line analyser designed ... Chemical & Agrochemical Pharmaceutical Food & Beverage Engineering Airports Power Water Sector (water and waste-water) ...
... waters from a coke oven battery wherein ammonia-containing waste water or ammonia-containing vapor obtained by means of ammonia ... separation from the waste water are mixed with flue gas from the coke oven battery and sprayed into a NOx reactor at an ... A process for the elimination of ammonia in waste ... Oxidation of ammonium ions and organic carbon in wastewaters. ... A process for the elimination of ammonia in waste waters from a coke oven battery wherein ammonia-containing waste water or ...
N-H groups strongly interact with water, especially in ammonium ions. Consequently, the basicity of ammonia is enhanced by 1011 ... In organic chemistry, amines (/əˈmiːn, ˈæmiːn/,[1][2] UK also /ˈeɪmiːn/)[3] are compounds and functional groups that contain a ... substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d. e. h. y. d. r. a. t. i. o. n. h. e. a. t. N. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. C. O. ‖. −. R. ... Typically salts of ammonium compounds exhibit the following order of solubility in water: primary ammonium (RNH+. 3) , ...
Ammonium and ammonia concentration parameters in water bodies. Particulate total and organic carbon concentrations in the water ... Particulate total and organic nitrogen concentrations in the water column. Bacteria generic abundance in water bodies. ... 1 Surface water sample collected by a bucket on a rope. Temperature of the water column. ... Nitrate concentration parameters in the water column. Plankton abundance per unit volume of the water column. Nitrite ...
In January 2001 the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute realized that the high water flow in the river Gota Alv, ... Ammonium and ammonia concentration parameters in water bodies; Air pressure; Air temperature; Cloud cover height and extent; ... Salinity of the water column; Dissolved total and organic nitrogen concentrations in the water column; Dissolved total or ... organic phosphorus concentration in the water column; Temperature of the water column; Phytoplankton taxonomic volume in water ...
The ammonia reacts and binds with soil constituents such as organic matter and clays. It reacts with water to form ammonium ( ... As pH goes above 7.3, the equilibrium between ammonium and ammonia results in increased free ammonia (the percentage as ammonia ... Ammonia dissolves readily in water, but it is held or retained in soil by clay and organic matter. The problem with dry soil ... This is chemical reaction of ammonia with water and causes an initial alkaline pH in the ammonia retention zone (pH can ...
p>Pollution & Process Monitoring is a UK manufacturer and supplier of water quality instrumentation especially for continuous ... The ammolytplus 700 IQ is an in-line, ion selective ammonium sensor designed for use within waste-water. The sensor is part of ... Proam Ammonia Monitor for testing water quality. The ProAm Ammonia Monitor is a simple, compact on-line analyser designed ... Thames Water purchase Proam ammonia monitor for final effluent monitoring. Our Proam ammonia monitor has been selected for ...
The second approach consisted in the direct measure of the 15N-enrichment of ammonium (NH4+) and dissolved organic N (DON) ... and dissolved organic N (DON) following the 15N2 incubations. The N2 released as DN accounted for ~0 - 20 % and ~1 % of the N2 ... The second approach consisted in the direct measure of the 15N-enrichment of ammonium (NH4+) ... in marine, estuarine and fresh waters: an adaptation of the ammonia diffusion method for samples with low ammonium ...
It is used as a precursor to other organic compounds as a masked source of ammonia. Phthalimide can be prepared by heating ... Alternatively, it may be prepared by treating the anhydride with ammonium carbonate or urea. It can also be produced by ... It is a sublimable white solid that is slightly soluble in water but more so upon addition of base. ... Phthalimide is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2NH. It is the imide derivative of phthalic anhydride. ...
4.83 Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) is a common fertilizer that can he produced by the reaction of ammonia (NH3) ... ... Organic Chemistry. New World monkeys _____. a. lack a tail b. are bipedal c. live only in Africa d. are dry-nosed primates e. ... The temperature scale by which water boils at 212. °. is the Fahrenheit scale. On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32. ° ... 9 - Heating the water in a 55-gallon water heater...Ch. 9 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions For problem 45, calculate...Ch. 9 - For ...
By stripping to water vapor, there is liberation of ammonia in an alkaline medium and its dosage is performed by acidimetry. ... TN was determined by the modified Kjeldahl method [29]. The mineralisation of soil organic nitrogen as ammonium sulfate was ... T. Yamashita, H. Flessa, B. John, M. Helfrich, and B. Ludwig, "Organic matter in density fractions of water-stable aggregates ... D. W. Nelson and L. E. Sommers, "Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matte," in Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical ...
Binds ammonia, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, Phosphate. Removes unwanted yellowness and organic pollutants. Ultra Carb-L. Ultra- ... Ultra-Phos also removes unwanted organic compounds and yellowness. In tanks with high organic load (yellowish water) it may ... Water Conditioners.. Fauna marin have a long line of water conditioners, here we will jsut sample a few.. Ultra Power Phos. ... of water. After 14 days the dose can be increased up to 100 gr per 200 L / 50 gal. of water, do NOT overdose!. Check phosphate ...
Ammonium. (Non-toxic). +. ↔. Ammonia. (Toxic). +. This balance depends on the pH value of the water. If there is an increase in ... Microorganisms decompose dead organic biomass in the course of mineralisation. The nutrients can originate directly from the ... 2 - Ammonium and ammonia. Ammonium/ammonia is the first inorganic nitrogen compound that occurs when decomposing protein and it ... Ammonium/ammonia is also released through mineralisation of biomass. A constant low ammonium/ammonia content is important for ...
... and to this were mixed 2524 g of ammonium bicarbonate and 1738 g of aqueous ammonia of 25% to prepare an ammonium carbonate ... To the non-aqueous solution formed by dissolving the metal alkoxide in the organic solvent is added water so as to allow the ... 7. Washing with Water. The resulting nitrided alloy powder was put into ion exchange water (5 liters); thus, the reaction ... 7. Washing with Water. The resulting product was put into ion exchange water (5 liters); thus, the reaction product was ...
In the presence of ammonia, secondary aerosols often take the form of ammonium salts; i.e. ammonium sulfate and ammonium ... Organic matter (OM) can be either primary or secondary, the latter part deriving from the oxidation of VOCs; organic material ... The failure of the Indian Monsoon has been linked to the suppression of evaporation of water from the Indian Ocean due to the ... Organic matter and elemental carbon together constitute the carbonaceous fraction of aerosols. Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs ...
It is noteworthy that partition coefficients for NH3 between water and organic solvents (k = 0.045 to 0.01) (29) and the ... Ammonia acquisition in enteric bacteria: Physiological role of the ammonium/methylammonium transport B (AmtB) protein. Eric ... ammonium/methylammonium transport B;. MEP,. methylammonium/ammonium permease;. kb,. kilobase;. GDH,. glutamate dehydrogenase. ... Ammonia acquisition in enteric bacteria: Physiological role of the ammonium/methylammonium transport B (AmtB) protein ...
... ammonia-based compounds such as ammonia water, ammonium carbonate and ammonium hydrogen carbonate. These may be used ... into the organic phase. ,,Organic Phase,, [0043] The organic phase contains at least the metal extractant, preferably contains ... into the organic phase. ,,Organic Phase,, [0064] The organic phase contains at least the metal extractant, preferably contains ... selectively extracting the palladium into the first organic phase. ,,First Organic Phase,, [0094] The first organic phase ...
Soluble in water, liquid ammonia and alcohol. Applications. Ammonium formate is widely used in various organic reactions like ... It is also used to prepare formic acid insitu as well as used to store formic acid by making it as an ammonium salt. ... Chem., 60, 4922 (1995). Ammonium formate was found to be a more active H donor than either sodium formate or formic acid in the ... IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing ...
... particularly organic nitrogen and ammonia, should be considered as potential nitrate sources. Primary sources of organic ... The primary inorganic nitrates which may contaminate drinking water are potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate both of which ... Water. Introduction Most nitrogenous materials in natural waters tend to be converted to nitrate, so all sources of combined ... During NP production by under-water wire explosions, water decomposition (e.g. electrolysis) may occur. This would result in ...
... of the soil when determining how much anhydrous ammonia to apply. ... Anhydrous means "no water." When anhydrous ammonia is applied in the soil, it reacts with water to form ammonium. In essence, ... "The initial reactions with water, organic matter and clays limit the mobility of ammonia and help retain nitrogen that ... When anhydrous ammonia (NH3) is applied in the soil, ammonia reacts with organic matter; clay; and most important, it dissolves ...
Acidification will trap ammonia as ammonium in the colon and will alter colonic bacterial flora. Alteration of intestinal ... Lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide, is hydrolyzed in the colon to organic acids that increase fecal water loss osmotically and ... Concentrations of blood ammonia are not well correlated with severity of hepatic encephalopathy, and ammonia levels may be ... Blood which has been stored for 24 hours contains 170 ug of ammonia/dL, and ammonia concentrations will continue to increase ...
Root Zone Water Table (Saturated) Unsaturated Zone Manure (Ammonia, Organic N) NO3-N- N2 gas denitrification NO3-N- Organic N ... 4. nitrification Organic Nitrogen DenitrificationLeaching Volatilization Nitrate NO3 - Ammonium NH4 + N2 or N2O Plant Uptake ... Organic N Plant & Microbial Residues Vadose Zone Groundwater Irrigation: Ammonia, Total N Ammonia Ammonia Soil Organic Matter ... Water Table (Saturated) Nitrate (NO3-N-) Atmospheric N2 gas Soil Nitrate (NO3 --N) Organic N Ammonia (NH4 +-N) Nitrate (NO3-N ...
  • A new class of metal-exchanged, metal-impregnated zeolite catalysts has been prepared for the oxidation of halogenated organics including chlorinated, fluorinated and chloro/fluoro hydrocarbons. (google.com)
  • A process for making the catalysts and a process for the oxidation of the halogenated organics are disclosed which occur at relatively low temperatures, from about 100 C. to about 650 C., and at pressures near atmospheric and for residence times from about 0.01 seconds to about 20 seconds. (google.com)
  • The chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicates the amount of oxygen which is needed for the oxidation of all organic substances in water and is thus an important indicator for water analysis. (lar.com)
  • Ammonia also takes part in oxidation and reduction reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Another major application is its conversion to explosives, because nitric acid is made via oxidation of ammonia. (bionity.com)
  • Ammonia is a pungent gas that irritates the eyes and respiratory system and can reduce re-sistance to infection in poultry. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Here is a table showing the varying levels of ammonia against ammonium. (theaquariumwiki.com)
  • The causes of these inflammation reactions are multifactorial, but the main causes are high levels of ammonia (NH3) and overly damp litter. (ithaka-journal.net)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of ammonia vapor as adults may receive larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of ammonia vapor found nearer to the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • Organic matter, measured as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and total ammonium, are key indicators of the oxygen content of water bodies. (europa.eu)
  • In the presence of a catalyst (e.g., platinum) it is oxidized in air to form water and nitric oxide, NO. It reduces hot-metal oxides to the metal (e.g., cupric oxide to copper). (encyclopedia.com)
  • An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water along the coast where freshwater from rivers mixes with saltwater from the ocean. (hindawi.com)
  • 2019. Photo-degradation and ammonification of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates compared to freshwater . (umd.edu)
  • When you select "Aquarium Freshwater" and "Water", the app calculates the current CO2 content in the water resulting from the measured pH and KH values, as an extra bonus. (jbl.de)
  • Depending on the analysis result of „Aquarium Freshwater" and „Garden Pond", you will receive individualized recommendations about which JBL products will help you to set the ideal/optimal water values. (jbl.de)
  • A process for the elimination of ammonia in waste waters from a coke oven battery wherein ammonia-containing waste water or ammonia-containing vapor obtained by means of ammonia separation from the waste water are mixed with flue gas from the coke oven battery and sprayed into a NOx reactor at an elevated. (google.com)
  • reacting in a second catalyst bed the minor portion of the waste fluid stream with the reaction product of the first catalyst bed for converting a further amount of ammonia in the waste fluid stream and NO x in the flue gas into a nitrogen and water vapor waste gas, and removing said waste gas from said reactor. (google.com)
  • Persons whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid ammonium hydroxide can secondarily contaminate response personnel by direct contact or through off-gassing ammonia vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • Soil organic matter (SOM) is a fundamental attribute of soil quality [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A quality laboratory will be able to assess the present levels of major plant nutrients, micronutrients, soil pH, soil textural analysis, soil organic matter as well as contaminants. (farmingmagazine.com)
  • Living and dead organic matter also provide actively-cycled reservoirs of N. Soil organic matter (humus) is a substantial and relatively stable N reservoir in temperate climates. (uiuc.edu)
  • Ammonium formate was found to be a more active H donor than either sodium formate or formic acid in the catalytic hydrogenolysis of aryl chlorides. (alfa.com)