Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Drainage, Postural: A rehabilitation therapy for removal of copious mucus secretion from the lung of patients with diseases such as CHRONIC BRONCHITIS; BRONCHIECTASIS; PULMONARY ABSCESS; or CYSTIC FIBROSIS. The patient's head is placed in a downward incline (so the TRACHEA is inferior to the affected area) for 15- to 20-minute sessions.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Drainage, Sanitary: A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Glaucoma Drainage Implants: Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Lymphoscintigraphy: Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Abdominal Abscess: An abscess located in the abdominal cavity, i.e., the cavity between the diaphragm above and the pelvis below. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.MiningHematoma, Subdural, Chronic: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations: Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Pancreaticojejunostomy: Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Pericardiocentesis: Puncture and aspiration of fluid from the PERICARDIUM.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Lymphocele: Cystic mass containing lymph from diseased lymphatic channels or following surgical trauma or other injury.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Seroma: Tumor-like sterile accumulation of serum in a tissue, organ, or cavity. It results from a tissue insult and is the product of tissue inflammation. It most commonly occurs following MASTECTOMY.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Liver Abscess, Pyogenic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to bacterial infection within the hepatic parenchyma. It can be caused by a variety of BACTERIA, local or disseminated from infections elsewhere such as in APPENDICITIS; CHOLECYSTITIS; PERITONITIS; and after LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
In the south, the soil is partially decayed organic material, while in warmer drier locations, the soil is moderately weathered ... Glaciation and permafrost in the soil have made drainage slow to non-existent, decreasing rates of decay. ... In other locations, the soil is frozen organic material. During the last ice age, the area was depressed by the weight of the ... Vegetation varies latitudinally, following the poor drainage patterns of the soil. Peat-covered lowlands are waterlogged for ...
Soil drainage and low soil pH may help to reduce the disease. Fertilizer regimen methods have been used to control against P. ... These fertilizers include organic materials that release ammonia, nitrous acid and amendments to reduce the pH to less than 4. ... is important to avoid very saturated soils as much as possible and one should work to prepare their soil for adequate drainage ... However, when a plant is allowed to sit in soil that is heavy and soggy for long periods of time, the chance of infection is ...
The soils are clayey, with a good lime content, poor in organic material, with a significant proportion of sizable elements ... which allows for good drainage. There are many authorised varieties, some traditional varieties and some of foreign origin: ...
The soils in these regions have a thick organic layer, often classified as a histic surface horizon, with sandy material at ... greater depths and poor drainage. Atlantic white cedar wetlands are acidic and there is little oxygen stored in the soil ... Too frequent or intense fires or flooding are damaging to seedlings stored in the top layer of soil and full-grown trees. C. ... It prefers habitats where the soil is saturated with water at least during the majority of the growing season. ...
In the cold acid waters of peat bogs there is little decomposition of organic material with the result that the dead sphagnum ... The acid soils and peat bogs are unsuitable for earthworms so species which usually feed on earthworms such as moles and the ... Sphagnum moss bogs are common where there is abundant rain and poor drainage. Cotton grass is a distinctive plant which grows ... The fertile alkaline soils support an abundance of wild flowers. Bluebells and primroses grow in the hedgerows in spring and ...
... or more of organic soil material in the upper 80 centimetres (31 in). Organic soil material has an organic carbon content (by ... hemic soil material), or peat (fibric soil material). Aquic conditions or artificial drainage are required. Typically, ... Acid sulfate soil Hydric soil Pedogenesis Pedology (soil study) Soil classification Soil type "Hydric Soils of Florida". ... In both the FAO soil classification and the USDA soil taxonomy, a histosol is a soil consisting primarily of organic materials ...
In addition to the mineral composition of soil, humus (organic material) also plays an important role in soil characteristics ... For example, the large particles, sand, determine aeration and drainage characteristics, while the tiniest, sub-microscopic ... Category:Types of soil Soil classification systems A Compendium of On-Line Soil Survey Information Soil Classification for Soil ... In terms of soil texture, soil type usually refers to the different sizes of mineral particles in a particular sample. Soil is ...
Soils containing large amounts of organic material tend to have the highest water retention abilities. These types of soils ... Drainage is the ability of water to move freely throughout the soil. The ideal circumstance is soil that can retain sufficient ... Soils heavy soils and those with high proportions of organic matter also have the potential to drain well if they having a ... Much like rocks, these tunnels give water a freer passageway through soil and contributes to its drainage. Because of the ...
The range of this soil can include organic materials like Kieselguhr and flint or inorganic materials like quartz. This soil ... It is a high absorbent soil that has average drainage ability. Hardpan - A dense layer of clay or other material that is ... Quartz - Common material found in most vineyard soils - especially sand and silt based soils. The high Soil pH of quartz can ... Volcanic soil - Soil that is derived from one of two volcanic activities. 1.) Vent-based soil is formed from rock material ( ...
... through heavy production of organic material) and cycle nutrients through soil Uses soil moisture more efficiently since it ... Optimal growing conditions for winter wheat include high-drainage soil with medium texture. Mid-quality soil nutrient content ... If used as cover crop, winter wheat prevents soil erosion over winter when many fields lie fallow and helps maintain topsoil ... weed varieties Can be grown as both cover crop and cash crop Easy to manage while still providing good yield Helps build soil ( ...
This means that in freely drained areas, soil base material is washed away, which leads to a higher concentration of organic ... Earthworms are important for creating small drainage channels in the soil and helping to move soil particles. No appreciable ... Most British soils are 2% to 5% organic and 95% to 98% mineral, but soils such as peat may contain up to 50% organic matter. In ... Soil Association: What is Organic?. Retrieved 19 June 2010. Soil Association: Soil Association response to the Food Standards ...
Survival of pathogens in waste materials, soil, or water, depends on many environmental factors including temperature, pH, ... organic matter content, moisture, exposure to light, and the presence of other organisms. Fecal material can be directly ... or drainage tiles. Risk of exposure to humans requires: (1) pathogens to survive and be present; (2) pathogens to recreate in ... direct deposition of fecal material into waters generally contribute higher concentrations of pathogens than material that must ...
... nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner.[3] It is used in farming and small scale sustainable, organic farming. ... Some systems use a windrow, which consists of bedding materials for the earthworms to live in and acts as a large bin; organic ... but require more drainage than wooden ones because they are non-absorbent. However, wooden bins will eventually decay and need ... Soil conditioner[edit]. Vermicompost can be mixed directly into the soil.. The dark brown waste liquid, or leachate, that ...
Soil organic carbon is divided between living soil biota and dead biotic material derived from biomass. Together these comprise ... which removes soil cover and leads to immediate and continuing losses of soil organic carbon. Tillage and drainage both expose ... Soils containing greater than 12 - 18% organic C are generally classified as organic soils. High levels of organic C develop in ... Carbonate minerals are the dominant form of soil carbon in desert climates. Soil organic carbon is present as soil organic ...
... and drainage are considered. Sites with loamy sand soils are especially appropriate for bioretention because the excavated soil ... which degrade petroleum-based products and other organic material. This layer acts in a similar way to the leaf litter in a ... Aeration and drainage of the planting soil are provided by the 0.5 m (20 in) deep sand bed. The ponding area provides a ... thus eliminating the cost of importing planting soil. An unstable surrounding soil stratum and soils with a clay content ...
Common filter packing materials include sawdust, wood chips, coir, bark, peat, and straw for organic packing. Gravel, quartz ... On removal, this humus can be applied to soil as an amendment to improve soil fertility and structure. Microorganisms present ... Alternatively the filter media might sit on a drainage layer of coarse gravel or pervious plastic drainage coil. Synthetic ... An annual application of dry organic materials on the top of the filter media may be required for secondary and tertiary ...
... and high altitude with low atmospheric pressure create an ecosystem that accumulates organic material in the soil that is able ... As the park straddles the continental divide, its western drainage, the Balao and Cañar link to the Pacific ocean. The modern ...
The soil profiles are designated by the letters A (topsoil), E (eluviated soil), B (subsoil) and C (parent material). In some ... It is found under a layer of organic material in the process of decomposition, which is usually 5 to 10 centimetres (1.97 to ... Others have shallow rooting zones and poor drainage due to subsoil cementation. A low pH further compounds issues, along with ... Podzol in soil profile Soil type Dimbleby GW (1962). The development of British heathlands and their soils. Oxford Forestry ...
Acidifying organic materials include peat or sphagnum peat moss.[32]. However, in high-pH soils with a high calcium carbonate ... This may be due to arid conditions, or poor internal soil drainage; in these situations most of the water that enters the soil ... "Soil pH". www.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 15 May 2017.. *^ Soil Survey Division Staff. "Soil survey manual. 1993. Chapter 3". Soil ... Factors affecting soil pH[edit]. The pH of a natural soil depends in the mineral composition of the parent material of the soil ...
Worms and other soil life also assist in building up the soil's structure, their tunnels providing aeration and drainage, and ... It is a long term process, and is reliant upon having plentiful organic matter to provide mulch material. It is also helpful to ... The act of aerating the soil also increases the rate of decomposition and reduces soil organic matter. Digging can also damage ... Historically the reasons for tilling the soil are to remove weeds, loosen and aerate the soil, and incorporate organic matter ...
... which carry suspended sediment washed from the eastern slopes of the Andes and organic material. Water levels rise by up to 12 ... The soil is fertile, composed of sediments that have accumulated in the present Holocene epoch and that are renewed by the ... The floodplain holds aquatic vegetation where drainage is poor, successional vegetation, forest mosaics and permanent swamp ...
They were soil color, organic content, soil structure, drainage, erodibility, and nature of subsoil. Soil provinces were ... Series at first were identified where the soils formed from the same accumulated parent material: glaciated, wind blown, ... These soil scientists characterized soils based on soil horizons of the soil profile. This recognized soils more on natural ... Soil series were soon to follow as groupings of soil types. By 1906 Miami soil series included 16 soil types from the glaciated ...
The material from composting toilets is a humus-like material, which can be suitable as a soil amendment for agriculture. ... A drainage system removes leachate. Otherwise, excess moisture can cause anaerobic conditions and impede decomposition. Urine ... Compost derived from these toilets has in principle the same uses as compost derived from other organic waste products, such as ... Bulking material also covers feces and reduces insect access. Absent sufficient bulking material, the material may become too ...
Composting allows the plants to transform and enrich the soil with organic matter, and also to return nutrients to the soil. ... Thus, relatively cooler composting is practiced, and plant materials are preferred over animal materials. Soil is often ... the soil will have greater drainage and aeration, which allows the roots to grow much deeper and reach more nutrients. Despite ... Without human waste recycling, however, nutrients and organic matter are constantly removed from the soil (as food that is ...
Further, extensive tile drainage has changed the soil's water content and hydrodynamics, and ongoing soil erosion results in ... Retreating glaciers deposited the parent material for soil in the form of till, i.e. unsorted sediment, about 10,000 years ago ... Wind-dropped loess and organic matter accumulated, resulting in deep levels[citation needed] of topsoil. Animals such as bison ... They flourished in areas with rich loess soils and moderate rainfall around 30-35 inches (700-900 mm) per year. To the east ...
Organic compounds or carbon fixation. Ferroglobus, Methanobacteria or Pyrolobus Organotrophs. Organic compounds Organic ... Baker, B. J; Banfield, J. F (2003). "Microbial communities in acid mine drainage". FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 44 (2): 139-152. ... Kostrikina NA; Zvyagintseva IS; Duda VI (1991). "Cytological peculiarities of some extremely halophilic soil archaeobacteria". ... all have the same genetic material.[86] Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated ...
And disposal of materials and products after their use can fill landfills, impact soil and water around poorly managed ... Low-emitting Materials and Products. Many adhesives, sealers, finishes, and coatings contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ... Design of sites to respect natural drainage patterns, minimize impermeable surfaces, maximize storm water infiltration, and ... Use Minimally Processed Materials Materials and products that are minimally processed (e.g., uncut stone, earth materials, wood ...
... which together give the soil profile its character. Click here to learn more ... The structure of a soil is the result of a number of different processes, ... Organic material and lime. Animal manure, intercrops, harvest residues etc. supply organic material to the soil. In the short ... Drainage. Drainage transports away excess water in the soil profile and thus dries out the soil. In this way, drainage helps to ...
... you need to understand how to prepare soil for roses. The best soil to use when growing roses is loam. Loam is about 50... ... How to Prepare Soil for Roses. Roses add color and fragrance to any garden, but to get the most out of these plants, ... Add plenty of organic material to your soil. You can buy compost from garden centers or use grass clippings and leaves from ... Very organic soil is usually highly acidic and will have both good drainage and moisture retention. You may need to add lime to ...
Help your garden grow with our handy soil cultivation and management guide. ... Although your garden soil appears robust, it is a fragile living environment. ... Add plenty of well-rotted organic material.. *On very wet soils add a layer of sharp grit to improve drainage. ... Organic mulch: As frost and cold can cause more damage in these conditions, mulch with a 5cm layer of organic material such as ...
The best way to do this is by applying organic mulch around the tree. Mulch also helps the soil retain moisture. ... The ideal growing medium should contain large quantities of organic fibrous material. Mixes that contain composted bark are ... Poke a few drainage holes in the bottom of a half-gallon (2 L) cardboard milk carton. Cut the top off the carton, as well. ... The best soil for chestnut trees be well-draining and slightly acidic. *Chestnut trees thrive in deep, sandy loam soils. Soils ...
Not only is the soil difficult to work, it retains moisture due to poor drainage, creating a compacted soil that is a nearly ... You can correct a heavy clay soil by improving ... ... If gardening soil is too heavy, it presents several challenges ... You can correct a heavy clay soil by improving its soil drainage with organic material. By mixing organic material into the ... Not only is the soil difficult to work, it retains moisture due to poor drainage, creating a compacted soil that is a nearly ...
To improve soil drainage add organic material to soil, such as compost and aged manure. If your soil is too alkaline add sulfur ... Testing Soil. Test your soil for the pH and drainage. Most varieties of fruit grow best in well-drained, slightly acidic soil. ... Cover the hole with soil halfway and then fill the hole with water. This helps settle the soil around the roots so there will ... Make sure to remove all rocks and other obstacles from the soil. Loosen the roots and place the root ball in the hole. ...
Soils. The desert soil that covers most of the state lacks many organic materials but contains lime. Lack of adequate drainage ... Drainage. Utah contributes to three major drainage areas-the Colorado and Columbia rivers and the Great Basin. The Colorado and ... in the Great Basin has damaged surrounding soils with saline materials and alkali salts. The richest soils are in the centre of ... part of the Columbia River drainage. All of the river systems are important for their irrigation and power potential. ...
Add organic material to soil. This will increase the population of soil microbials and improve soil drainage capacity, which in ... Any roots not removed from the soil can continue to emit juglone until they completely decay, which could take years. ... However, when oxidized by compounds in the air and soil, hydrojuglone is transformed into a toxic allelochemical known as ... but avoid using this material as compost or mulch for other plants. In general, tree removal is not advised unless it is ...
Potting soil is to rich for these plants. Use a garden soil that is more coarse with organic material and even gravely. ... Be sure there are drainage holes in the pot.. 2. Give bougainvillea plants well-drained soil. Bougainvillia does not require ...
If you have heavy soil, adding humus - compost - or other organic material - will improve drainage. Gypsum is an excellent soil ... Lime may be added to acidic soils and sulfur may be added to alkaline soils. Have your soil tested before making any correction ... However, in extremely hot climates or with very light soils, cover rhizomes with up to one inch of soil. Tamp the soil firmly ... Garden Soil. Your beardless irises will thrive in a good garden loam with added organic matter such as humus or compost. An ...
However, we often amend Maine soils by adding organic matter, lime and/or fertilizer, in order to increase the productivity of ... Our native plants evolved in this system, and are well adapted to Maine soils. ... Most Maine soils are acidic, and have a somewhat depressed ability to hold and exchange nutrients used by plants. ... Ideally, a "good horticultural soil" contains 50% solid material (mostly mineral soil plus 5-10% organic matter) and 50% pore ...
30 percent organic material and 40 percent sand. This soil has the structure that supports good drainage, good aeration and ... Make sure that when you cover the roots with soil that the crown stays above the soil. If the crown is buried in the soil your ... Black Gold 1302040 8-Quart All Organic Potting Soil. Amazon Price: $16.99 $3.28 Buy Now. (price as of Feb 23, 2016) ... Potting Soil. Strawberries can grow in an average potting soil, but you will get the best performance from your plants if you ...
Adding the same organic material will also help to lighten the texture of dense clay soil and improve the soils drainage. In ... If your planting bed soil is sandy and doesnt retain water well, incorporating up to 4 inches of composted organic material ... Dig it approximately 6 inches into the soil.. Planting Process. In Missouri, plant strawberries as soon as the soil is workable ... and they also prefer slightly acidic soil, with a pH level between 5.3 and 6.5. If your soil pH is higher than that, which is ...
The most common signs of poor drainage are that standing water develops and only disappears through evaporation, that moss will ... By adding humus - decomposing organic material - to loam, a person can further improve the soil and better facilitate drainage. ... By adding humus - decomposing organic material - to loam, a person can further improve the soil and better facilitate drainage. ... The main factor involved in soil drainage is soil texture, which refers to the size of the particles in the soil. Generally, ...
So, you may want to consider removing a few inches and replacing with good topsoil, or mixing in plenty of organic material. ... Re: Yard Drainage problem!! I am in no way an expert,thats why i use this site,but i would think adding top soil is the last ... Re: Yard Drainage problem!! Maybe, maybe not. What you need to do is dig out one of the dead spots and find out what the soil ... Re: Yard Drainage problem!! An option to regrading and trucking in a lot of dirt to get a proper grade would be to dig out the ...
Peas need good drainage in soil that is high in organic material. They produce earlier in sandy soil, but yield a heavier, ... later crop if grown in clayey soil. Plant peas directly in the garden 2 inches deep and 1 to 2 inches apart. Dont let the soil ... Plant peas as soon as the soil can be worked in spring: about six weeks before the average date of last frost. ...
Adding these organic materials to your garden helps improve almost any soil. When added to clay soil, it facilitates drainage ... In sandy soil, it improves the structure and water retention. If you decide to use any type of organic matter in your garden, ... Make sure it is dispersed evenly throughout soil; if not done so, the fertilizer can burn the root system and potentially kill ... Be careful NOT to over-fertilize, and make sure you thoroughly water all plant material directly after fertilizing. Also avoid ...
Drainage is key, so include perlite, sand, etc. Forest dwellers, like ferns, prefer soils with ample organic material (compost ... Deep, moist soil sites? Dry rocky pockets? You will need to do your best to mimic these conditions for your potted plants. ... Organic Fertilizer. Growing Mock Orange. Turn your Oak leaves into Wildflowers. Protecting Salmon in your Neighbourhood. Plants ... I generally top dress my containers each spring with a mix of leaf mulch and compost or Sea Soil, and the occasional dose of ...
Astilbes prefer rich, organic type soil. Organic material such as compost enriches the soil and adds drainage. If your shady ... Occasionally amending the soil with compost or fertilizing with an organic product or fertilizer high in phosphorus is also ... Place the astilbe plants into the soil, keeping the crown at the same level as the top of the soil. Water well when planting ... Amend the soil 8 to 12 inches deep so that the roots of astilbe flowers have plenty of room to develop. ...
Under-home grade cleaned of all vegetation and organic material. *Sloped for proper drainage ... Load bearing soil density. *Penetrometer test results. *Mainrail frame blocks - size and placement ...
... also works well to improve drainage and should be used in addition to organic material, not as a substitute. Sandy soils also ... For heavy clay soil, mix a 2-inch layer of composted pine bark or other organic material into the top 10 inches before planting ... For more information, see HGIC 1652, Soil Testing and HGIC 1650, Changing the pH of Your Soil. ... All ferns prefer well-drained soil high in organic matter. ... Complete organic fertilizers also work very well. Always follow ...
The range of this soil can include organic materials like Kieselguhr and flint or inorganic materials like quartz. This soil ... It is a high absorbent soil that has average drainage ability. Hardpan - A dense layer of clay or other material that is ... Quartz - Common material found in most vineyard soils - especially sand and silt based soils. The high Soil pH of quartz can ... Volcanic soil - Soil that is derived from one of two volcanic activities. 1.) Vent-based soil is formed from rock material ( ...
These spores find a home on organic materials such as a piece of rotting wood and start to grow, sending out thin filaments ... working, eating and decomposing organic matter. in the soil. Fungal fruiting structures release tiny spores that are easily ... Mushrooms are usually found in areas of poor water drainage. New sod lawn installations and newly reseeded lawns require ... Remove cores at least ¼" to 1 inch in diameter deeper than the fungal mat penetrates the soil. Determine the depth of this mat ...
From simple DIY tests to more extensive soil analysis, a multitude of resources exist that will boost your vegetable gardens ... And, a healthy population of earthworms is the sign of a garden with sufficient organic material to grow garden vegetables well ... Drainage test One of the most important elements in suitable garden soil is its drainage. If the soil retains too much water, ... In the case of extremely well-drained soil, the water may be gone within minutes. Poor drainage is most often seen in soils ...
  • Earthworms eat plant remains and mix them into the soil as they munch their way through the soil profile. (vaderstad.com)
  • Overall, this means that a plant cover on soil builds up the soil structure, while a bare soil without growing plants breaks it down. (vaderstad.com)
  • Cropping system affects the soil structure and the placement of plant residues determines whether to employ conventional or minimal tillage or even direct drilling. (vaderstad.com)
  • Ensure the soil where you plant your roses has a pH of around 6.5, which is slightly acidic. (wikihow.com)
  • Take a shortcut and use a bag of good grade potting soil in which to plant your roses. (wikihow.com)
  • Make sure that each chestnut tree you plant has 40 feet (12.2 m) (12 m) of free soil space in all directions to allow for adequate growing room. (wikihow.com)
  • Plant peas as soon as the soil can be worked in spring: about six weeks before the average date of last frost. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Be careful NOT to over-fertilize, and make sure you thoroughly water all plant material directly after fertilizing. (landcarevic.net.au)
  • In Missouri, plant strawberries as soon as the soil is workable in the spring, typically in March or early April . (ehow.com)
  • Poorly drained soils are a leading cause of plant problems in the landscape. (clemson.edu)
  • Therefore, before placing the first plant in the ground it is important to take steps to assure adequate drainage. (clemson.edu)
  • Apply recommended amount for plant per label directions in the soil at time of planting or at least during the first growing season. (backyardgardener.com)
  • If the drainage time is less than 4 hours, you can plant most vegetables without problem. (grit.com)
  • The degradation of the physical soil properties has considerable consequence on plant growth, yield and quality of crops, regardless the soil plant nutrient. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Increase of the proportion of any fraction makes the soil more or less suitable for plant growth. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • We examined chemical changes from leaf tissue to soil organic matter (SOM) to determine the persistence of plant chemistry into soil aggregate fractions. (springer.com)
  • The soils beneath Cheirodendron inherited a greater lipid signal composed of cutin and suberin biomarkers whereas the soils beneath Dicranopteris contained greater aromatic biomarker content, possibly derived from plant lignins. (springer.com)
  • This study indicates that although plant-derived OM is processed vigorously, species-specific biomarkers and compound class differences persist into these soils and that differences in plant chemical properties may influence soil development even after considerable reworking of plant litter by microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • The infection progresses down the stem to the soil surface, killing the plant. (ortho.com)
  • The fungus persists indefinitely in the soil and spreads from plant to plant on contaminated tools and in splashing water. (ortho.com)
  • Lastly, the organisms known as decomposers, mostly fungi and bacteria, break down plant and animal material and return it to the environment in a form that can be used again by plants in a constantly renewed cycle. (britannica.com)
  • Once the soil is prepared, wait for the air and soil to warm to plant your tomatoes. (chron.com)
  • Planting too early when the soil is still cool and the nights are chilly can stress the plant and delay your harvest. (chron.com)
  • It will provides all nutrient important for plant growth It helps in drainage and lower the pH of the soil. (google.com)
  • In organic gardening, however, these cultural practices are of central importance and constitute the first line of defense against both plant disease and garden pests. (ibiblio.org)
  • Prevention and/or Treatment of Plant & Soil Disease by cultural practices, deals with the use of specific cultural practices to prevent or correct specific disease problems. (ibiblio.org)
  • There is now an appreciation that combinations of plant materials contribute to the overall content and working of the garden's ecosystem. (ibiblio.org)
  • Then don't water again, depending on type of plant, size and age, local weather, microclimate siting of the plant, and time of year, until the top portion of the soil is dry. (phoenixbonsai.com)
  • Burning" occurs when types or amounts of certain substances in the soil draw a large amount of moisture out of both the soil AND the plant that is growing in that soil. (phoenixbonsai.com)
  • In the evening, physically pick them off plant or soil and drop in a jar. (drearth.com)
  • When sowing seeds directly into the soil, you should plant approximately 10 seeds per foot. (gilmour.com)
  • For both spring and summer bulbs, start watering when the flower buds first appear on the plant if the soil is dry. (vermontwildflowerfarm.com)
  • Down the road, when you go to plant something in these outlying areas of the yard, you realize the soil is completely different from the easy to work loamy soil around the house. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Do not plant the firecracker fern in heavy clay or sand without amending the soil first. (sfgate.com)
  • Soak the soil around the base of the plant right after planting. (sfgate.com)
  • The results provided on your soil test report reflect the properties of the sample you submitted and the testing procedures used by the University of Massachusetts Soil and Plant Tissue Testing Laboratory. (umass.edu)
  • Soil pH is one of the most important and most often overlooked factors affecting plant growth. (garden.org)
  • We spray insecticides over our fields and bury them in our soils (when we plant pesticide-coated seeds). (standpointmag.co.uk)
  • In fact, a good composting and cover-cropping program, which recycles all unused plant material, can probably-unaided-maintain the fertility of an established, productive organic garden. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Noack, Angela G. 2000-09-01 00:00:00 This review highlights the ubiquity of black carbon (BC) produced by incomplete combustion of plant material and fossil fuels in peats, soils, and lacustrine and marine sediments. (deepdyve.com)
  • During this time, the AKTC and Sites International established a large off-site plant nursery to provide the park's landscape materials. (sasaki.com)
  • Protect your investment in landscape plant materials by giving them their optimal soil conditions. (naturehills.com)
  • Sites that display the Plant Sentry protection badge are protected from consumers buying and nurseries shipping material carrying invasive pests and diseases. (naturehills.com)
  • In well-drained, well-aerated soils in a cool, temperate climate such as Britain, the exchange of gases is normally rapid enough to maintain adequate oxygen levels for plant growth. (bigga.org.uk)
  • Here is a brief overview of soil and plant selection to get you off on the right fairy foot. (plowhearth.com)
  • Potting soil is engineered to have everything that a plant needs to keep the plant healthy. (plowhearth.com)
  • Of this, 95% is either dead or plant-root material, leaving only 5% as other organic/biota. (icr.org)
  • Properly aggregated soil is more stable, less prone to erosion, and more plant friendly. (teraganix.com)
  • Improving stressed soil and replenishing soil that has been damaged by over fertilization, pesticides or fungicides, will greatly boost plant growth and health. (teraganix.com)
  • People have been adding things to poor soil to promote healthy plant growth for centuries. (teraganix.com)
  • You can generate your own soil conditioner with material from home, to boost plant growth and performance. (teraganix.com)
  • Plant development at or near the soil surface that results in lateral spreading by rhizomes and/or stolons. (ncsu.edu)
  • Acid mine drainage remediation options: a review. (psu.edu)
  • Management of tailings ponds to promote the growth of micro-algae that sustain populations of bacteria that reduced the production of acid mine drainage. (psu.edu)
  • A review of passive systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage. (psu.edu)
  • Acid Mine Drainage composition and the implications for its impact on lotic systems. (psu.edu)
  • Chemical precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage, - Matlock, Howerton, et al. (psu.edu)
  • ACTIVE TREATMENT: Generally active treatment involves many chemicals as neutralising agent to the source of acid mine drainage or directly addition to the receiving stream that has been polluted. (psu.edu)
  • The answer is acid mine drainage. (waterencyclopedia.com)
  • Specifically, in the first visit, the high school student saw acid mine drainage from an old mine that had been worked with crude equipment, likely producing no more than a couple tons of ore a day. (waterencyclopedia.com)
  • Acid mine drainage from this old mine was not significant enough to negatively affect the creek. (waterencyclopedia.com)
  • The following winter, the mine workings and former ponds filled up with water from rainfall and began producing acid mine drainage (AMD) as the ore reacted with the water. (waterencyclopedia.com)
  • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is essentially the same process as ARD only greatly magnified. (waterencyclopedia.com)
  • To determine what type of soil is present, a person can pick up and squeeze a handful of soil that has been watered a day prior. (wisegeek.com)
  • The type of soil you have is important because (as previously mentioned) if it's less pervious you have to accommodate that. (thisoldhouse.com)
  • This type of soil includes anthracite, coal, lignite and peat. (wikipedia.org)
  • What type of soil do you have? (garden.org)
  • Highly adaptable, they can grow in almost any type of soil, though their preference will be soil with a neutral pH (7.0) and one that is rich in organic matter. (gardenharvestsupply.com)
  • In a world of heavy machinery, intensive agriculture, blanket forestry and insensitive land drainage and development - compounded, of course, by the impacts of accelerating climate change - stringent safeguards and constant vigilance are necessary to ensure we maintain and improve the best of our natural inheritance. (countrylife.co.uk)
  • A coarser soil mix is used here to aid drainage, which is very important in our climate. (phoenixbonsai.com)
  • Sunday relies on a combination of soil data, historical climate data and satellite imagery that, according to Lewis, is clear enough to see spots and patches in the grass. (gearpatrol.com)
  • When water is drained from the peat soil, the carbon in the peat soil is turned into CO2 and emitted into the atmosphere causing climate change. (environmentalpaper.org)
  • Highly developed countries or regions in temperate areas, such as the Netherlands, cope with soil subsidence by building dykes and pump-operated drainage systems, but this is impossible in Malaysia or Indonesia", explained Marcel Silvius, Programme Head for Climate Smart Land Use at Wetlands International. (environmentalpaper.org)
  • The analytical methods used by the laboratory were developed for climate and soil types common to New England and the Northeastern U.S. It is important to recognize that the values obtained when a soil sample is analyzed are of little use as raw analytical data. (umass.edu)
  • The raised bed is good for drainage which worked great in a rainy climate, but now I'm in a drier one. (motherearthnews.com)
  • If you have intense heat and a dry climate, even for short periods, the top few inches of soil can be a devastatingly harsh place to live. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Additional recommendations include the absence of oxidising manganese or iron ions, avoidance of carbon-containing materials and ensuring a uniform, well drained fill. (assda.asn.au)
  • Avoid carbon-containing ash in contact with metals in soils. (assda.asn.au)
  • Peat soils are made up of 10% accumulated organic material (carbon) and 90% water. (environmentalpaper.org)
  • This carbon loss reduces the peat volume and thus causes the peat soil to subside. (environmentalpaper.org)
  • Technically, the term organic describes substances that contain carbon. (garden.org)
  • The future of natural sinks has to be soil carbon under crops and grasslands, because the potential area is huge, and doesn't have to be increased. (realclimate.org)
  • As examples, BC may represent a significant sink in the global carbon cycle, affect the Earth's radiative heat balance, be a useful tracer for Earth's fire history, build up a significant fraction of carbon buried in soils and sediments, and carry organic pollutants. (deepdyve.com)
  • oil palm plantations, which threatens their globally The soil respiration decreased exponentially with significant carbon sequestration capacity. (deepdyve.com)
  • Agriculture is also a "sink" for sequestering carbon, which might offset GHG emissions by capturing and storing carbon in agricultural soils. (everycrsreport.com)
  • Carbon captured and stored in U.S. agricultural soils partially offsets these emissions, sequestering about one-tenth of the emissions generated by the agriculture sector, but less than 1% of all U.S. emissions annually. (everycrsreport.com)
  • Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen are absorbed from the air and water while all the rest come from the soil. (ottawa.ca)
  • 2009 ), with an estimated average of 0.4 kg P ha year −1 leached from Sweden's agricultural soils (Bergström et al. (springer.com)
  • Soil quality is not limited to agricultural soils, although most soil quality work has been done in agricultural systems. (igi-global.com)
  • Metal-enriched biochar, applied as an adsorptive layer below the topsoil, has the potential to reduce P losses from medium- to high-P organic soils but appear to be less useful in mineral soils. (springer.com)
  • Many standard management practices used on mineral soils are also applicable to organic soils so they are not discussed in detail. (fao.org)
  • However, in extremely hot climates or with very light soils, cover rhizomes with up to one inch of soil. (irises.org)