A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.
An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is linked directly to the hydrolysis of ATP. The subclass includes those ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that transport organic ions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A chelating agent used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
A family of sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins that also transport organic ANIONS. They are low affinity phosphate transporters.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
A substance occurring in the urine of mammals and also in blood plasma as the normal metabolite of tryptophan. An increased urinary excretion of indican is seen in Hartnup disease from the bacterial degradation of unabsorbed tryptophan.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestinal symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Stable mercury atoms that have the same atomic number as the element mercury, but differ in atomic weight. Hg-196, 198-201, and 204 are stable mercury isotopes.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. This strain is a model for Wilson's Disease (see HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION).
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.
An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain stevioside and other sweet diterpene glycosides. The leaf is used for sweetening (SWEETENING AGENTS).
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Familial pseudoaldosteronism characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of hypertension with HYPOKALEMIA; ALKALOSIS; RENIN and ALDOSTERONE level decreases. It is caused by mutations in EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS beta and gamma subunits. Different mutations in the same EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS subunits can cause PSEUDOHYPOALDOSTERONISM, TYPE I, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Uricosuric that acts by increasing uric acid clearance. It is used in the treatment of gout.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. (1/946)

During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes.  (+info)

Cloning and functional characterization of a new multispecific organic anion transporter, OAT-K2, in rat kidney. (2/946)

We have isolated a cDNA coding a new organic anion transporter, OAT-K2, expressed specifically in rat kidney. The OAT-K2 cDNA had an open reading frame encoding a 498-amino acid protein (calculated molecular mass of 55 kDa) that shows 91% identity with the rat kidney-specific organic anion transporter, OAT-K1. Reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the OAT-K2 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the proximal convoluted tubules, proximal straight tubules, and cortical collecting ducts. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, OAT-K2 stimulated the uptake of hydrophobic organic anions, such as taurocholate, methotrexate, folate, and prostaglandin E2, although its homolog OAT-K1 transported methotrexate and folate, but not taurocholate and prostaglandin E2. In MDCK cells stably transfected with the OAT-K1 and OAT-K2 cDNAs, each transporter was localized functionally to the apical membranes and showed transport activity similar to that in the oocyte. Moreover, the efflux of preloaded taurocholate was also enhanced across the apical membrane in OAT-K2 transfectant. The taurocholate transport by OAT-K2-expressing cells showed saturability (Km = 10.3 microM). Several organic anions, bile acids, cardiac glycosides, and steroids had potent inhibitory effects on the OAT-K2-mediated taurocholate transport in the transfectant. These findings suggest that the OAT-K2 participates in epithelial transport of hydrophobic anionic compounds in the kidney.  (+info)

Muscle contractile activity increases fatty acid metabolism and transport and FAT/CD36. (3/946)

We have examined whether 1) fatty acid (FA) uptake, 2) FA transporter expression, and 3) FA metabolism are increased when the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle is increased. The oxidative capacities of red and white tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles were increased via chronic stimulation (10 Hz, 24 h/day for 7 days). The contralateral muscles served as controls. After 7 days of increased muscle activity 1) palmitate uptake by giant sarcolemmal vesicles was increased twofold (P < 0.05), 2) the expression of FA translocase (FAT)/CD36 was increased at both the mRNA (3.2- to 10-fold) and protein (3.4-fold) levels, and 3) palmitate oxidation and esterification into triacylglycerols and phospholipids were increased 1.5-, 2.7-, and 1.7-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). These data show that when the oxidative capacity of muscle is increased, there is a parallel increase in the rate of FA transport and FA transporters at the sarcolemmal membrane, which is associated with the enhanced expression of the membrane transporter FAT/CD36.  (+info)

Identification of the amine-polyamine-choline transporter superfamily 'consensus amphipathic region' as the target for inactivation of the Escherichia coli GABA transporter GabP by thiol modification reagents. Role of Cys-300 in restoring thiol sensitivity to Gabp lacking Cys. (4/946)

The Escherichia coli gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter GabP (gab permease) contains a functionally significant cysteine residue (Cys-300) within its consensus amphipathic region (CAR), a putative channel-forming structure that extends out of transmembrane helix 8 and into the adjoining cytoplasmic loop 8-9 of transporters from the amine-polyamine-choline (APC) superfamily. Here we show that of the five cysteine residues (positions 158, 251, 291, 300 and 443) in the E. coli GabP, Cys-300 is the one that renders the transport activity sensitive to inhibition by thiol modification reagents: whereas substituting Ala for Cys-300 mimics the inhibitory effect of thiol modification, substituting Ala at position 158, 251, 291 or 443 preserves robust transport activity and confers no resistance to thiol inactivation; and whereas the robustly active Cys-300 single-Cys mutant is fully sensitive to thiol modification, other single-Cys mutants (Cys at 158, 251, 291 or 443) exhibit kinetically compromised transport activities that resist further chemical inactivation by thiol reagents. The present study reveals additionally that Cys-300 exhibits (1) sensitivity to hydrophobic thiol reagents, (2) general resistance to bulky (fluorescein 5-maleimide) and/or charged {2-sulphonatoethyl methanethiosulphonate or [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulphonate} thiol reagents and (3) a peculiar sensitivity to p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS). The accessibility of PCMBS to Cys-300 (located midway through the lipid bilayer) might be related to the structural similarity that it shares with guvacine (1, 2,3,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid), a transported GabP substrate. These structural requirements for thiol sensitivity provide the first chemical evidence consistent with channel-like access to the polar surface of the CAR, a physical configuration that might provide a basis for understanding how this region impacts the function of APC transporters generally [Closs, Lyons, Kelly and Cunningham (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 20796-20800] and the gab permease particularly [Hu and King (1998) Biochem. J. 300, 771-776].  (+info)

PDZ-mediated interactions retain the epithelial GABA transporter on the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells. (5/946)

The PDZ target motifs located in the C-terminal end of many receptors and ion channels mediate protein-protein interactions by binding to specific PDZ-containing proteins. These interactions are involved in the localization of surface proteins on specialized membrane domains of neuronal and epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this PDZ protein-dependent polarized localization is still unclear. This study first demonstrated that the epithelial gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (BGT-1) contains a PDZ target motif that mediates the interaction with the PDZ protein LIN-7 in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and then investigated the role of this interaction in the basolateral localization of the transporter. It was found that although the transporters from which the PDZ target motif was deleted were still targeted to the basolateral surface, they were not retained but internalized in an endosomal recycling compartment. Furthermore, an interfering BGT peptide determined the intracellular relocation of the native transporter. These data indicate that interactions with PDZ proteins determine the polarized surface localization of target proteins by means of retention and not targeting mechanisms. PDZ proteins may, therefore, act as a sort of membrane protein sorting machinery which, by recognizing retention signals (the PDZ target sequences), prevents protein internalization.  (+info)

Multiple G protein-coupled receptors initiate protein kinase C redistribution of GABA transporters in hippocampal neurons. (6/946)

Neurotransmitter transporters function in synaptic signaling in part through the sequestration and removal of neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft. A recurring theme of transporters is that many can be functionally regulated by protein kinase C (PKC); some of this regulation occurs via a redistribution of the transporter protein between the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. The endogenous triggers that lead to PKC-mediated transporter redistribution have not been elucidated. G-protein-coupled receptors that activate PKC are likely candidates to initiate transporter redistribution. We tested this hypothesis by examining the rat brain GABA transporter GAT1 endogenously expressed in hippocampal neurons. Specific agonists of G-protein-coupled acetylcholine, glutamate, and serotonin receptors downregulate GAT1 function. This functional inhibition is dose-dependent, mimicked by PKC activators, and prevented by specific receptor antagonists and PKC inhibitors. Surface biotinylation experiments show that the receptor-mediated functional inhibition correlates with a redistribution of GAT1 from the plasma membrane to intracellular locations. These data demonstrate (1) that endogenous GAT1 function can be regulated by PKC via subcellular redistribution, and (2) that signaling via several different G-protein-coupled receptors can mediate this effect. These results raise the possibility that some effects of G-protein-mediated alterations in synaptic signaling might occur through changes in the number of transporters expressed on the plasma membrane and subsequent effects on synaptic neurotransmitter levels.  (+info)

Protein-mediated palmitate uptake and expression of fatty acid transport proteins in heart giant vesicles. (7/946)

Giant sarcolemmal vesicles were isolated from rat heart and hindlimb muscles for a) characterization of long-chain fatty acid transport in the absence of metabolism and b) comparison of fatty acid transport protein expression with fatty acid transport. Giant vesicles contained cytosolic fatty acid binding protein. Palmitate uptake was completely divorced from its metabolism. All palmitate taken up was recovered in the intravesicular cytosol as unesterified FA. Palmitate uptake by heart vesicles exhibited a K m of 9.7 nm, similar to that of muscle (K m = 9.7 nm). Vmax (2.7 pmol/mg protein/s) in heart was 8-fold higher than in muscle (0.34 pmol/mg protein/s). Palmitate uptake was inhibited in heart (55-80%) and muscle (31-50%) by trypsin, phloretin, sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO), or a polyclonal antiserum against the 40 kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm). Palmitate uptake by heart and by red and white muscle vesicles correlated well with the expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and fatty acid binding protein FABPpm, which may act in concert. The expression of fatty acid transport protein (FATP), was 10-fold lower in heart vesicles than in white muscle vesicles. It is concluded that long-chain fatty acid uptake by heart and muscle vesicles is largely protein-mediated, involving FAT/CD36 and FABPpm. The role of FATP in muscle and heart remains uncertain.  (+info)

Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters. (8/946)

1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from the changes in oocyte volume in response to osmotic gradients. The specific SGLT1 and GAT1 Lp values were obtained by measuring Lp in the presence and absence of blockers (phlorizin and SKF89976A). In the presence of the blockers, the Lp values of oocytes expressing SGLT1 and GAT1 were indistinguishable from the Lp of control oocytes. Passive Na+ transport (Na+ leak) was obtained from the blocker-sensitive Na+ currents in the absence of substrates (glucose and GABA). 2. Passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were blocked by phlorizin with the same sensitivity (inhibitory constant (Ki), 3-5 microM). When Na+ was replaced with Li+, phlorizin also inhibited Li+ and water transport, but with a lower affinity (Ki, 100 microM). When Na+ was replaced by choline, which is not transported, the SGLT1 Lp was indistinguishable from that in Na+ or Li+, but in this case water transport was less sensitive to phlorizin. 3. The activation energies (Ea) for passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were 21 and 5 kcal mol-1, respectively. The high Ea for Na+ transport is comparable to that of Na+-glucose cotransport and indicates that the process is dependent on conformational changes of the protein, while the low Ea for water transport is similar to that of water channels (aquaporins). 4. GAT1 also behaved as an SKF89976A-sensitive water channel. We did not observe passive Na+ transport through GAT1. 5. We conclude that passive water and Na+ transport through cotransporters depend on different mechanisms: Na+ transport occurs by a saturable uniport mechanism, and water permeation is through a low conductance water channel. In the case of SGLT1, we suggest that both the water channel and water cotransport could contribute to isotonic fluid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane.  (+info)

The most common adverse drug reaction associated with statins is skeletal muscle toxicity, which can include myalgia (with and without elevated creatine kinase levels), muscle weakness, muscle cramps, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis.(1) Rhabdomyolysis, while rare, is of clinical concern because of the risk for death as a result of cardiac arrhythmia, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. While the underlying causes of statin-associated myopathy are not known, several hypotheses have been formulated, including those related to the biochemical pathway of cholesterol synthesis inhibition and statin metabolism.. SLCO1B1 encodes the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) influx transporter located on the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. OATP1B1 facilitates the hepatic uptake of statins as well as other endogenous compounds (eg, bilirubin). Changes in the activity of this transporter (eg, through genetic variations or drug-drug interactions) can increase the ...
Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
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Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1A2 gene.[1][2] This gene encodes a sodium-independent transporter which mediates cellular uptake of organic ions in the liver. Its substrates include bile acids, bromosulphophthalein, and some steroidal compounds. The protein is a member of the SLC21A family of solute carriers. Alternate splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms.[2] ...
Complete information for SLCO2A1 gene (Protein Coding), Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 2A1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for SLCO1B3 gene (Protein Coding), Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 1B3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Gene target information for Slco1a1 - solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 1a1 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
SLCO1A2 antibody (solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 1A2) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLCO1A2 pAb (GTX87607) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The herbal remedy St. Johns wort (SJW) is used in the treatment of mild depressive symptoms and is known for its drug-drug interaction potential when enhanced expression of CYP3A4 modifies clearance of concomitantly applied substrate drugs. Hyperforin is one constituent of SJW that alters CYP3A4 expression by activation of the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). However, little is known about the transmembrane transport of hyperforin. One membrane protein that modulates cellular entry of drugs is the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1. It was the aim of this study to test whether hyperforin interacts with this transport protein. Transport inhibition studies and competitive counterflow experiments suggested that hyperforin is a substrate of OATP2B1. This notion was validated by showing that the presence of OATP2B1 enhanced the hyperforin-induced PXR activation in cell-based luciferase assays. Moreover, in Caco-2 cells transcellular transport of the known OATP2B1 substrate ...
Selected publications:. Kanai,N Lu,R Satriano,J Bao,Y Wolkoff,AW Schuster,VL. Identification and characterization of a prostaglandin transporter. Science 268: 866-869, 1995.. Itoh,S Lu,R Bao,Y Morrow,JD Roberts,LJ Schuster,VL. Structural determinants of substrates for the prostaglandin transporter PGT. Mol Pharm 50: 736-742, 1996.. Lu,R Kanai,N Bao,Y Schuster,VL. Cloning, in vitro expression, and tissue distribution of a human prostaglandin transporter cDNA hPGT. J Clin Invest 98: 1142-1149, 1996.. Schuster,VL Lu,R Coca-Prados,M. Identification and characterization of a prostaglandin transporter widely-expressed in ocular and other secretory epithelia. Survey Ophthalmol 41: S41-S45, 1997.. Schuster,VL. Molecular mechanisms of prostaglandin transport. Ann Rev Physiol 60: 221-242, 1998.. Chan,B Satriano,JA Pucci,M Schuster,VL. Mechanism of PGE2 transport across the plasma membrane of HeLa cells and Xenopus oocytes expressing the prostaglandin transporter PGT. J Biol Chem 273: 6689-6697, ...
Interindividual variability in protein expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and multidrug resistance-linked P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or ABCB1 was quantified in frozen human livers (n = 64) and cryopreserved human hepatocytes (n = 12) by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method. Membrane isolation, sample workup, and LC-MS/MS analyses were as described before by our laboratory. Briefly, total native membrane proteins, isolated from the liver tissue and cryopreserved hepatocytes, were trypsin digested and quantified by LC-MS/MS using signature peptide(s) unique to each transporter. The mean ± S.D. (maximum/minimum range in parentheses) protein expression (fmol/µg of membrane protein) in human liver tissue was OATP1B1- 2.0 ± 0.9 (7), OATP1B3- 1.1 ± 0.5 (8), OATP2B1- 1 1.7 ± 0.6 (5), and P-gp- 0.4 ± 0.2 (8). Transporter expression in the liver tissue was comparable to that in the cryopreserved hepatocytes. ...
In the present study, we found that the C-1 carboxylic acid group was essential for optimal substrate binding to the FP receptor. Replacement of the carboxylic acid group by larger moieties with a similar pK a, such as acylsulfonamide and tetrazole, substantially decreased binding affinity. The prostaglandin transporter PGT, on the other hand, recognized a fairly wide range of anionic substrates at C-1. In contrast, insertion of cyclic substituents in the omega chain increased binding to the FP receptor but reduced affinity for PGT, and substitution for the 15-hydroxyl group produced only a modest reduction in FP receptor binding but eliminated binding by PGT.. Prostaglandins and thromboxanes bind to a number of structurally diverse molecules, such as their cell-surface receptors (EP, FP, IP, DP, and TP) (Breyer et al., 1996a), the prostaglandin transporter PGT (Itoh et al., 1996), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ (Forman et al., 1995; Kliewer et al., 1995), and ...
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Materials. FEX was a gift from Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Kansas City, MO). [3H]E1S (57.3 Ci/mmol) and [3H]E217βG (45.0 Ci/mmol) were purchased from PerkinElmer Life and Analytical Sciences (Boston, MA). [3H]CCK-8 (68.0 Ci/mmol) was purchased from GE Healthcare (Little Chalfont, Buckinghamshire, UK). Unlabeled E1S, CCK-8, and E217βG were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). All other chemicals were of analytical grade and commercially available.. Construction of Stably Transfected HEK293 Cells Expressing Human OATP2B1. The human OATP2B1 gene was isolated by polymerase chain reaction using ATCC IMAGE clone (I.D. 5752976) purchased from Summit Pharmaceuticals International Corp. (Tokyo, Japan). To obtain the full-length cDNA of the OATP2B1 gene, pCMV-SPORT6 vector containing OATP2B1 cDNA was digested with EcoRI and NotI. Then, cDNA fragment was ligated into EcoRI and NotI sites of the pcDNA3.1 (+) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). OATP2B1-expressing HEK293 cells were constructed by the ...
We characterized the interactions of various compounds with OAT-K1 and OAT-K2, kidney-specific organic anion transporters. By using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably transfected with OAT-K1 or OAT-K2 cDNA, the antitumor drug methotrexate, the mycotoxin ochratoxin A, endogenous organic anions (thyroid hormones, taurocholic acid, and conjugated steroids), and the antiretroviral drug zidovudine were shown to be substrates for these transporters. Although the apparent Michaelis constant (Km) values of methotrexate for OAT-K1 and OAT-K2 were 2.1 and 1.8 μM, respectively, 2.5 mM methotrexate inhibited only 20% of the 125I-thyroid hormones uptake via these transporters. In addition, 100 μM methotrexate did not have any effect on [3H]zidovudine uptake via OAT-K1 or OAT-K2. Similarly, several substrates caused little or no mutual inhibition at concentrations much higher than theirKm values for these transporters. Moreover, intracellular methotrexate trans-stimulated the OAT-K1- and OAT-K2-mediated ...
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a well known inhibitor of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) family transporters, causing a large number of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions in clinical situations. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effect of CsA on the hepatic uptake of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) in rats, focusing on a long-lasting inhibition. Twenty-one hours after the subcutaneous administration of CsA, the hepatic clearance of BSP was decreased. The liver uptake index study revealed that hepatic uptake of BSP was reduced in CsA-treated rats for at least 3 days. Comparison of uptake studies using isolated hepatocytes prepared from control and CsA-treated rats showed that hepatic uptake in CsA-treated rats was decreased. In primary cultured hepatocytes, after preincubation with CsA, the uptake of [3H]BSP was reduced even after removal of CsA from the incubation buffer although a preincubation time dependence was not observed. However, the expression of Oatp1a1 ...
3. Bodeman, C.E.; Dzierlenga, A.L.; Tally, C.M.; Mulligan, R.M.; Lake, A.D.; Cherrington, N.J.; McKarns, S.C. Differential Regulation of Hepatic Organic cation Transporter 1. Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1a4, Bile-Salt Export Pump, and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2.Transporter Expression in Lymphocyte-Deficient Mice Associates with Interleukin-6 Production. J Pharmacol Exp Ther., 2013, 347, 136-144 ...
Beyond their roles in generating nerve impulses, ion channels are important for many facets of cell biology, including swelling and osmotic stress responses. Sabirov and colleagues now report that the prostaglandin transporter SLCO2A1 is a central component of the ubiquitous Maxi‐Cl anion channel. These findings add to a growing number of transporters displaying ion channel activity and not only provide a molecular handle for future Maxi‐Cl physiological and biophysical studies, but also underscore general questions about the principles that underlie such transporter/channel dual‐use behavior.. See also: RZ Sabirov et al (November 2017) ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The second in a pair of articles on drug transporters, this article focuses on uptake transporters that actively pump drugs into cells.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions of crizotinib and gefitinib with organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1. T2 - gefitinib shows contradictory interaction with OATP1B3. AU - Sato, Toshihiro. AU - Ito, Hajime. AU - Hirata, Ayaka. AU - Abe, Takaaki. AU - Mano, Nariyasu. AU - Yamaguchi, Hiroaki. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2018/1/2. Y1 - 2018/1/2. N2 - 1. The drug-drug interaction (DDI) mediated by organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1 has a major impact on the hepatic clearance of drugs. The effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on OATPs have not been well studied. In the present study, we evaluated the contribution of OATPs to the hepatic uptake of crizotinib and gefitinib and the interaction of those TKIs with OATPs to estimate DDIs. 2. To clarify whether crizotinib and gefitinib were substrates for ...
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (OATP2A1, encoded by the SLCO2A1 gene), which was initially identified as prostaglandin transporter (PGT), is expressed ubiquitously in tissues and mediates the distribution of prostanoids, such as PGE, PGF, PGDand TxB. It is well known to play a key role in the metabolic clearance of prostaglandins, which are taken up into the cell by OATP2A1 and then oxidatively inactivated by 15-ketoprostaglandin dehydrogenase (encoded by HPGD); indeed, OATP2A1-mediated uptake is the rate-limiting step of PGEcatabolism. Consequently, since OATP2A1 activity is required for termination of prostaglandin signaling via prostanoid receptors, its inhibition can enhance such signaling. Read More ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and functional characterization of a new multispecific organic anion transporter, OAT-K2, in rat kidney. AU - Masuda, Satohiro. AU - Ibaramoto, Koji. AU - Takeuchi, Ayako. AU - Saito, Hideyuki. AU - Hashimoto, Yukiya. AU - Inui, Ken Ichi. PY - 1999/4/19. Y1 - 1999/4/19. N2 - We have isolated a cDNA coding a new organic anion transporter, OAT-K2, expressed specifically in rat kidney. The OAT-K2 cDNA had an open reading frame encoding a 498-amino acid protein (calculated molecular mass of 55 kDa) that shows 91% identity with the rat kidney-specific organic anion transporter, OAT, K1. Reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the OAT-K2 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the proximal convoluted tubules, proximal straight tubules and cortical collecting ducts. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, OAT-K2 stimulated the uptake of hydrophobic organic anions, such as taurocholate, methotrexate, folate, and prostaglandin E2, although its homolog ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Transport of estrone 3-sulfate mediated by organic anion transporter OATP4C1: Estrone 3-sulfate binds to the different recognition site for digoxin in OATP4C1. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Junji Umeno, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Motohiro Esaki, Atsushi Hirano, Takayuki Matsumoto, Kitazono T, A Hereditary Enteropathy Caused by Mutations in the SLCO2A1 Gene, Encoding a Prostaglandin Transporter., e1005581, 2015.11, Previously, we proposed a rare autosomal recessive inherited enteropathy characterized by persistent blood and protein loss from the small intestine as chronic nonspecific multiple ulcers of the small intestine (CNSU). By whole-exome sequencing in five Japanese patients with CNSU and one unaffected individual, we found four candidate mutations in the SLCO2A1 gene, encoding a prostaglandin transporter. The pathogenicity of the mutations was supported by segregation analysis and genotyping data in controls. By Sanger sequencing of the coding regions, 11 of 12 other CNSU patients and 2 of 603 patients with a diagnosis of Crohns disease were found to have homozygous or compound heterozygous SLCO2A1 mutations. In total, we identified recessive SLCO2A1 mutations located at seven ...
Results Compared with NL, hepatic mRNA and protein levels of FAT/CD36 were significantly higher in patients with NAS (median fold increase 0.84 (range 0.15-1.61) and 0.66 (range 0.33-1.06), respectively); NASH (0.91 (0.22-1.81) and 0.81 (0.38-0.92), respectively); HCV G1 without steatosis (0.30 (0.17-1.59) and 0.33 (0.29-0.52), respectively); and HCV G1 with steatosis (0.85 (0.15-1.98) and 0.87 (0.52-1.26), respectively). In contrast to NL, FAT/CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in patients with NAFLD and HCV G1 with steatosis. A significant correlation was observed between hepatic FAT/CD36 expression index and plasma insulin levels, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and histological grade of steatosis in patients with NASH (r=0.663, r=0.735 and r=0.711, respectively) and those with HCV G1 with steatosis (r=0.723, r=0.769 and r=0.648, respectively). ...
Figure 6. [3H]PAH efflux studies on X. laevis oocytes that were injected with water (mock) or hOAT4-cRNA. Three days after cRNA or water injection, 46 nl of a 200-μM [3H]PAH solution was injected into the oocytes, and efflux of [3H]PAH was measured, providing oocyte Ringers solution, chloride-free oocyte Ringers solution, and chloride-free oocyte Ringers solution plus 500 μM ES. The efflux was calculated as percentage of 3H content recovered in the supernatant compared with the sum of total radioactivity recovered in the medium and that remaining in the oocytes at the conclusion of a 30-min efflux period at room temperature, where hOAT4-expressing oocytes in oocyte Ringers solution were set to 100%, Data are means ± SEM or three independent experiments with five to seven oocytes each. **P , 0.01. ...
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
BACKGROUND: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statin therapy results in substantial reductions in cardiovascular events, and larger reductions in cholesterol may produce larger benefits. In rare cases, myopathy occurs in association with statin therapy, especially when the statins are administered at higher doses and with certain other medications. METHODS: We carried out a genomewide association study using approximately 300,000 markers (and additional fine-mapping) in 85 subjects with definite or incipient myopathy and 90 controls, all of whom were taking 80 mg of simvastatin daily as part of a trial involving 12,000 participants. Replication was tested in a trial of 40 mg of simvastatin daily involving 20,000 participants. RESULTS: The genomewide scan yielded a single strong association of myopathy with the rs4363657 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within SLCO1B1 on chromosome 12 (P=4x10(-9)). SLCO1B1 encodes the organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP1B1, which has
anti-Solute Carrier Family 22 (Organic Anion Transporter), Member 8 (SLC22A8) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) ABIN909357 from antibodies-online
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a …
Affiliation:The University of Tokyo,Faculty of Medicine,Research Associate,医学部附属病院,助手, Research Field:応用薬理学・医療系薬学,General pharmacology,Kidney internal medicine,Pediatrics,Pediatrics, Keywords:エストロン硫酸,Na^+,近位尿細管性アシドーシス,パラアミノ馬尿酸,rBAT,オクラトキシンA,organic anion transporter2,organic anion transporter3,organic anion transporter1,BAT1, # of Research Projects:8, # of Research Products:9
The mechanism of release and the role of l-aspartate as a central neurotransmitter are controversial. A vesicular release mechanism for l-aspartate has been difficult to prove, as no vesicular l-aspartate transporter was identified until it was found that sialin could transport l-aspartate and l-glutamate when reconstituted into liposomes. We sought to clarify the release mechanism of l-aspartate and the role of sialin in this process by combining l-aspartate uptake studies in isolated synaptic vesicles with immunocyotchemical investigations of hippocampal slices. We found that radiolabeled l-aspartate was taken up into synaptic vesicles. The vesicular l-aspartate uptake, relative to the l-glutamate uptake, was twice as high in the hippocampus as in the whole brain, the striatum, and the entorhinal and frontal cortices and was not inhibited by l-glutamate. We further show that sialin is not essential for exocytosis of l-aspartate, as there was no difference in ATP-dependent l-aspartate uptake in ...
The transcellular transport of many compounds, which cannot readily cross the lipid bilayer, is mediated by drug uptake and efflux transporters. Human OATP1B1 and MRP2 have been implicated in the hepato-biliary transport of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Here, we have established epithelia …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of organic anion transporting polypeptide 3 (oatp3) in mouse brain parenchymal and capillary endothelial cells. AU - Ohtsuki, Sumio. AU - Takizawa, Takuya. AU - Takanaga, Hitomi. AU - Hori, Satoko. AU - Hosoya, Ken Ichi. AU - Terasaki, Tetsuya. PY - 2004/8/1. Y1 - 2004/8/1. N2 - Organic anion transporting polypeptide 3 (oatp3) transports various CNS-acting endogenous compounds, including thyroid hormones and prostaglandin E2, between extra- and intracellular spaces, suggesting a possible role in CNS function. The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression and localization of oatp3 in the mouse brain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that oatp3 mRNA is expressed in brain capillary-rich fraction, conditionally immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells, choroid plexus, brain and lung, but not in liver or kidney, where oatp1, 2 and 5 mRNAs were detected. Immunohistochemical analysis with anti-oatp3 antibody suggests that oatp3 protein is localized at the ...
This study was aimed at clarifying the gender differences in the urinary excretion of organic anions and the gene expression of organic anion transporters in rats. The renal clearance with regard to the plasma concentration (CLurine,p) of taurocholate, dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP), and zenarestat, all substrates and/or inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (Oatp1), was much higher in female than in male rats. The following results imply that the transport system(s) for the reabsorption of zenarestat across the luminal side exhibits a gender difference: 1) the renal uptake clearance assessed by an in vivo integration plot analysis of zenarestat from the blood side does not show any clear gender differences; 2) the renal clearance with regard to the kidney concentration (CLurine,k) of zenarestat in female rats was approximately 30 times higher than in male rats; and 3) both CLurine,p and CLurine,k were increased in male rats by the coinfusion of DBSP, which is an inhibitor of ...
BioAssay record AID 682056 submitted by ChEMBL: TP_TRANSPORTER: uptake (pH 5.0) of Estrone-3-sulfate at a concentration of 5.43 nM in OATP-B-expressing HEK293 cells.
This Na(+)-independent transporter mediates the organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3 and may play a signifiant role in regulating T4 flux into and out of the brain. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone-3-sulfate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) are transported with much lower efficiency ...
Aus pharmakologischer Sicht sind unter den Aufnahmetransportern Vertreter der organic anion transporting polypeptide-Familie (OATPs) von besonderem Interesse. Transporter dieser Familie besitzen nicht nur ein breites Substratspektrum endogener und exogener Substanzen, sondern sind auch in zahlreichen Geweben exprimiert. Gut untersucht ist dabei vor allem die Leber mit den vorwiegend hepatisch exprimierten Vertretern OATP1B1 und OATP1B3, während zur Expression und Funktion der OATPs in weiteren pharmakologischen Zielstrukturen, wie beispielsweise den Blutzellen oder auch der Blut-Hirn-Schranke, weit weniger bekannt ist. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es daher, ausgewählte OATP-Transporter hinsichtlich ihrer Expression, ihrem Interaktionspotential und der Funktion in der Blut-Hirn-Schranke und zwei Blutzellpopulationen zu charakterisieren. Dabei konnte zunächst die Expression des OATP2B1 und OATP1A2 in der Blut-Hirn-Schranke bestätigt und deren funktionelle Interaktion mit ausgewählten Dopaminrezeptor
Ramuan tradisional untuk obat asam urat adalah obat yang banyak dicari oleh wanita, dan pria yang berumur di atas 30 tahun, karena banyak yang terkena penyakit asam urat. bahkan sekarang di bawah umur 30 tahun sudah terkena asam urat akut. jika penyakit sudah parah akan mengakibatkan persendian tidak bisa bergerak. tetapi anda tidak usah khawatir, karena sekarang sudah muncul obat untuk asam urat herbal tradisional berkhasiat tinggi. obat asam urat yang alami ampuh dari dulu tradisional ini adalah salah satu obat herbal asam urat dan kolesterol menahun tradisional berkhasiat tinggi, dan obat asam urat herbal tradisional terbaik alami ampuh dari dulu. tidak hanya bisa dijadikan untuk obat asam urat dan testimoni penderita asam urat, tetapi bisa juga mengobati kolesterol tinggi ...
Ramuan tradisional untuk obat asam urat adalah obat yang banyak dicari oleh wanita, dan pria yang berumur di atas 30 tahun, karena banyak yang terkena penyakit asam urat. bahkan sekarang di bawah umur 30 tahun sudah terkena asam urat akut. jika penyakit sudah parah akan mengakibatkan persendian tidak bisa bergerak. tetapi anda tidak usah khawatir, karena sekarang sudah muncul obat untuk asam urat herbal tradisional berkhasiat tinggi. obat asam urat yang alami ampuh dari dulu tradisional ini adalah salah satu obat herbal asam urat dan kolesterol menahun tradisional berkhasiat tinggi, dan obat asam urat herbal tradisional terbaik alami ampuh dari dulu. tidak hanya bisa dijadikan untuk obat asam urat dan testimoni penderita asam urat, tetapi bisa juga mengobati kolesterol tinggi ...
Ramuan tradisional untuk obat asam urat adalah obat yang banyak dicari oleh wanita, dan pria yang berumur di atas 30 tahun, karena banyak yang terkena penyakit asam urat. bahkan sekarang di bawah umur 30 tahun sudah terkena asam urat akut. jika penyakit sudah parah akan mengakibatkan persendian tidak bisa bergerak. tetapi anda tidak usah khawatir, karena sekarang sudah muncul obat untuk asam urat herbal tradisional berkhasiat tinggi. obat asam urat yang alami ampuh dari dulu tradisional ini adalah salah satu obat herbal asam urat dan kolesterol menahun tradisional berkhasiat tinggi, dan obat asam urat herbal tradisional terbaik alami ampuh dari dulu. tidak hanya bisa dijadikan untuk obat asam urat dan testimoni penderita asam urat, tetapi bisa juga mengobati kolesterol tinggi ...
Ramuan tradisional untuk obat asam urat adalah obat yang banyak dicari oleh wanita, dan pria yang berumur di atas 30 tahun, karena banyak yang terkena penyakit asam urat. bahkan sekarang di bawah umur 30 tahun sudah terkena asam urat akut. jika penyakit sudah parah akan mengakibatkan persendian tidak bisa bergerak. tetapi anda tidak usah khawatir, karena sekarang sudah muncul obat untuk asam urat herbal tradisional berkhasiat tinggi. obat asam urat yang alami ampuh dari dulu tradisional ini adalah salah satu obat herbal asam urat dan kolesterol menahun tradisional berkhasiat tinggi, dan obat asam urat herbal tradisional terbaik alami ampuh dari dulu. tidak hanya bisa dijadikan untuk obat asam urat dan testimoni penderita asam urat, tetapi bisa juga mengobati kolesterol tinggi ...
Ramuan tradisional untuk obat asam urat adalah obat yang banyak dicari oleh wanita, dan pria yang berumur di atas 30 tahun, karena banyak yang terkena penyakit asam urat. bahkan sekarang di bawah umur 30 tahun sudah terkena asam urat akut. jika penyakit sudah parah akan mengakibatkan persendian tidak bisa bergerak. tetapi anda tidak usah khawatir, karena sekarang sudah muncul obat untuk asam urat herbal tradisional berkhasiat tinggi. obat asam urat yang alami ampuh dari dulu tradisional ini adalah salah satu obat herbal asam urat dan kolesterol menahun tradisional berkhasiat tinggi, dan obat asam urat herbal tradisional terbaik alami ampuh dari dulu. tidak hanya bisa dijadikan untuk obat asam urat dan testimoni penderita asam urat, tetapi bisa juga mengobati kolesterol tinggi ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human SLCO3A1 protein. SLCO3A1 (ABM82880.1, 1 a.a. ~ 692 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00028232-B01P) - Products - Abnova
An economic simulation where you build up production chains as effectively as possible on a large scale terrain. You can choose from a large variety of wares and buildings to build up your production chain and use up to 4 types of transportation ...
S, the measurement of overall level of carbonyls of plasma proteins may be used as a surrogate marker of oxidative modification of VWF, as shown in the present
Hardly any effect .The absence of an association of buy GW0742 survival together with the far more frequent variants (like CYP2D6*4) prompted these
Herbal Online , Grosir Herbal Cirebon , Jual obat herbal , Madu , Habbatussauda , Minyak zaitun , Herbal Asam Urat , Obat Herbal ...
1998). "Mutations in the canilicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) gene, a novel ABC transporter, in patients ... This may cause a buildup of organic anions in the cytoplasm of the cells. Drugs that inhibit the MRP2 transporter can cause a ... 1999). "Genomic structure of the canalicular multispecific organic anion-transporter gene (MRP2/cMOAT) and mutations in the ATP ... 1997). "A mutation in the human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter gene causes the Dubin-Johnson syndrome" ( ...
Sekine T, Miyazaki H, Endou H (February 2006). "Molecular physiology of renal organic anion transporters". Am. J. Physiol. ...
Solute carrier family 22 member 8, or organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC22A8 ... Matsumoto S, Yoshida K, Ishiguro N, Maeda T, Tamai I (2007). "Involvement of Rat and Human Organic Anion Transporter 3 in the ... Windass AS, Lowes S, Wang Y, Brown CD (2007). "The Contribution of Organic Anion Transporters OAT1 and OAT3 to the Renal Uptake ... Bakhiya A, Bahn A, Burckhardt G, Wolff N (2003). "Human Organic Anion Transporter 3 (hOAT3) can Operate as an Exchanger and ...
"Squaramides as Potent Transmembrane Anion Transporters". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51: 4426-4430. doi:10.1002/anie.201200729.CS1 ... Squaramide is the organic compound with the formula O2C4(NH2)2. Not an amide in the usual sense, it is a derivative of squaric ... Squaramides refer to a large class of derivatives wherein some of the H's are replaced by organic substituents. Exploiting ... maint: uses authors parameter (link) Storer, R. Ian (2013). "Squaramide". e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis ...
Solute carrier family 17 (organic anion transporter), member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC17A3 gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: Solute carrier family 17 (organic anion transporter), member 3". Polasek O, Jeroncić I, Mulić R, Klismanic Z, ... protein encoded by this gene is a voltage-driven transporter that excretes intracellular urate and organic anions from the ... The longer isoform is a plasma membrane protein with transporter activity while the shorter isoform localizes to the ...
Takeda M, Tojo A, Sekine T, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H (December 1999). "Role of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) in ... Organic anions are secreted through the proximal tubular cells via unidirectional transcellular transport. The organic anions ... since it is actively taken up from the blood by the proximal tubular cells via an organic anion transporter (OAT) in the ... The cytotoxicity of cephaloridine is completely prevented by probenecid and several other inhibitors of organic anion transport ...
... organic anion/cation transporter), member 9". Zhou F, Hong M, You G (2007). "Regulation of human organic anion transporter 4 by ... 2005). "Human organic anion transporter 4 is a renal apical organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger in the proximal tubules". J. ... Shin HJ, Anzai N, Enomoto A, He X, Kim do K, Endou H, Kanai Y (Apr 2007). "Novel liver-specific organic anion transporter OAT7 ... Sun W, Wu RR, van Poelje PD, Erion MD (Apr 2001). "Isolation of a family of organic anion transporters from human liver and ...
Hsyu PH, Gisclon LG, Hui AC, Giacomini KM (January 1988). "Interactions of organic anions with the organic cation transporter ... Solute carrier family 22 (organic anion/cation transporter), member 12, also known as SLC22A12 and URAT1, is a protein which in ... "Entrez Gene: SLC22A12 solute carrier family 22 (organic anion/cation transporter), member 12". Enomoto A, Kimura H, ... "A common mutation in an organic anion transporter gene, SLC22A12, is a suppressing factor for the development of gout". ...
Solute carrier family 22 member 10 (SLC22A10), also known as organic anion transporter 5 (OAT5), is a protein that in humans is ... "Isolation of a family of organic anion transporters from human liver and kidney". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 283 (2): 417- ... Eraly SA; Nigam SK (2002). "Novel human cDNAs homologous to Drosophila Orct and mammalian carnitine transporters". Biochem. ...
An organic anion transporter is required for this transportation process. Recent studies show that the mitochondria respiratory ... Clark, BR; Capon, RJ; Lacey, E; Tennant, S; Gill, JH (2006). "Citrinin reisited: from monomers to dimers and beyond". Organic ... Citrinin crystals can hardly be dissolved in cold water, however in polar organic solvents and aqueous sodium hydroxide, sodium ...
2002). "Gender-specific and developmental influences on the expression of rat organic anion transporters". J. Pharmacol. Exp. ... 2003). "Stoichiometry of organic anion/dicarboxylate exchange in membrane vesicles from rat renal cortex and hOAT1-expressing ...
Eraly SA, Hamilton BA, Nigam SK (2003). "Organic anion and cation transporters occur in pairs of similar and similarly ...
... inhibits the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in vitro. It shows no ... Similarly, darolutamide shows no inhibition of a variety of other transporters (P-glycoprotein, MRP2, BSEP, OATs, OCTs, MATEs, ... Darolutamide is an inhibitor of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporter and can increase exposure to substrates ...
Eraly SA, Hamilton BA, Nigam SK (Jan 2003). "Organic anion and cation transporters occur in pairs of similar and similarly ... "organic cation transporter, novel, type 1"), but efficiency of transport for organic cations (e.g., tetraethylammonium) is very ... Xuan W, Lamhonwah AM, Librach C, Jarvi K, Tein I (Jun 2003). "Characterization of organic cation/carnitine transporter family ... Kawasaki Y, Kato Y, Sai Y, Tsuji A (Dec 2004). "Functional characterization of human organic cation transporter OCTN1 single ...
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC3 gene. The protein ... an organic anion transporter able to transport anti-cancer drugs". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (12): 6914-9. doi:10.1073/ ... "Differential modulation of the human liver conjugate transporters MRP2 and MRP3 by bile acids and organic anions". J. Biol. ... "Isolation of a novel human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, cMOAT2/MRP3, and its expression in cisplatin- ...
2002). "Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal transport of prostaglandins". J. ... 2002). "Interaction of human organic anion transporters 2 and 4 with organic anion transport inhibitors". J. Pharmacol. Exp. ... "Human renal organic anion transporter 4 operates as an asymmetric urate transporter". J Am Soc Nephrol. 18 (2): 430-9. doi: ... Sun W, Wu RR, van Poelje PD, Erion MD (2001). "Isolation of a family of organic anion transporters from human liver and kidney ...
... organic anion transporter), member 7". Cropp CD, Komori T, Shima JE, et al. (2008). "Organic anion transporter 2 (SLC22A7) is a ... 2002). "Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal transport of prostaglandins". J. ... 2002). "Interaction of human organic anion transporters 2 and 4 with organic anion transport inhibitors". J. Pharmacol. Exp. ... Sun W, Wu RR, van Poelje PD, Erion MD (2001). "Isolation of a family of organic anion transporters from human liver and kidney ...
Hsyu PH, Gisclon LG, Hui AC, Giacomini KM (January 1988). "Interactions of organic anions with the organic cation transporter ... Probenecid interferes with the kidneys' organic anion transporter (OAT), which reclaims uric acid from the urine and returns it ... If probenecid (an organic acid) is present, the OAT binds preferentially to it (instead of to uric acid), preventing ...
Enomoto A, Endou H (September 2005). "Roles of organic anion transporters (OATs) and a urate transporter (URAT1) in the ... In this process, the superoxide anion is produced as a by-product of several steps in the electron transport chain. ... Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of the superoxide anion into ... Peroxiredoxins are peroxidases that catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxides, as well as ...
In vitro studies have shown that lenvatinib inhibits organic anion transporters 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3). Sunitinib is ... Sunitinib is a substrate of P-glycoprotein and ABCG2 transporters. It acts as an inhibitor for both transporters, especially ...
Solute carrier family 22 member 25 (SLC22A25), also known as organic anion transporter UST6, is a protein that in humans is ... and human clarify the phylogeny of organic anion and cation transporters". Physiol. Genomics. 18 (1): 12-24. doi:10.1152/ ... "Identification of six putative human transporters with structural similarity to the drug transporter SLC22 family". Genomics. ... Eraly SA; Monte JC; Nigam SK (2004). "Novel slc22 transporter homologs in fly, worm, ...
Wada S, Tsuda M, Sekine T, Cha SH, Kimura M, Kanai Y, Endou H (September 2000). "Rat multispecific organic anion transporter 1 ... These include a fungal phosphate transporter PiPT, plant nitrate transporter NRT1.1, and the human glucose transporter GLUT1. ... encoding an anion transporter, is mutated in sialic acid storage diseases". Nature Genetics. 23 (4): 462-5. doi:10.1038/70585. ... encoding an organic cation transporter, is associated with rheumatoid arthritis". Nature Genetics. 35 (4): 341-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
"Multidrug-resistance protein 5 is a multispecific organic anion transporter able to transport nucleotide analogs". Proceedings ... has anion transporter activity but does not confer multidrug resistance when overexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells ... Cole SP (May 1999). "Re: Characterization of MOAT-C and MOAT-D, new members of the MRP/cMOAT subfamily of transporter proteins ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ...
Monte, J. C.; Nagle, M. A.; Eraly, S. A.; Nigam, S. K. (2004). "Identification of a novel murine organic anion transporter ... Lamhonwah, A. M.; Skaug, J.; Scherer, S. W.; Tein, I. (2003). "A third human carnitine/organic cation transporter (OCTN3) as a ... Solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 21 is a protein that in the house mouse is encoded by the ... "Solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 21". Retrieved 2011-12-11. "Indirect calorimetry data for ...
"A canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) antisense cDNA enhances drug sensitivity in human hepatic cancer ... "Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced ... Conjugated bilirubin is excreted into canalicular bile by way of the canalicular multispecific organic anion transport (C-MOAT ...
... acid binds to the organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), but this has probably no clinical relevance. Safinamide itself ... No other transporter affinities have been found in preliminary studies. Safinamide is eliminated, mainly (>90%) in form of its ... Another theoretical interaction is with drugs with affinity to the transporter protein ABCG2 (also known as BCRP), such as ...
This protein functions as a multispecific organic anion transporter, with oxidized glutathione, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and ... Because of its significant role in the transportation of organic anion molecules and recent association with multiple illnesses ... This asymmetry is specific to the C subfamily of ABC transporters and is generally not found in other transporters.ABCC1 is a ... The ABCC1 transporter protein is especially prevalent in neuroblastoma and cancer cells found in the lung, breast and prostate ...
... or multi-specific organic anion transporter B (MOAT-B), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC4 gene. ABCC4 acts as ... expressed multidrug resistance-associated protein/canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter-related transporter". ... Regulation of prostaglandin transporters in colorectalneoplasia. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1(2) 93-9. Gori I, Rodriguez Y, ... Ming X, Thakker DR (February 2010). "Role of basolateral efflux transporter MRP4 in the intestinal absorption of the antiviral ...
2009-06-01]. Kapitola SLCO1C1 solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 1C1. (po anglicky). ... Thyroid hormone transporters in health and disease. Thyroid, august 2005, roč. 15, čís. 8, s. 757 - 768. DOI: 10.1089/thy. ... 2009-06-01]. Kapitola Solute Carreir Family 16 (Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter), Member 2; SLC16A2. (po anglicky). ...
Enomoto, Atsushi; Endou, Hitoshi (2005). «Roles of organic anion transporters (OATs) and a urate transporter (URAT1) in the ...
Diverse bile acids are synthesized in the liver.[1] Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions ... Bile acids comprise about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol).[5] An increased ... Bile acids bind to some other proteins in addition to their hormone receptors (FXR and TGR5) and their transporters. Among ...
Dye, J. L. (1979). "Compounds of Alkali Metal Anions". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 18 (8): 587-598. doi:10.1002/anie.197905871. ... For example, lithium iodide (Li I) will dissolve in organic solvents, a property of most covalent compounds.[72] Lithium ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... 3 anion; due to the large size of the alkali metal cations, they are thermally stable enough to be able to melt before ...
... only the nitrogen atom of the diphenylamine moiety carries a positive charge and the blue dye molecule is an anion with an ... Various patents were subsequently taken out on the organic synthesis.[4][5][6] ...
Loop and thiazide diuretics are secreted from the proximal tubule via the organic anion transporter-1 and exert their diuretic ... Ali SS, Sharma PK, Garg VK, Singh AK, Mondal SC (Apr 2012). "The target-specific transporter and current status of diuretics as ... action by binding to the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter type 2 in the thick ascending limb and the Na(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter ...
The fat cells take up glucose through special glucose transporters (GLUT4), whose numbers in the cell wall are increased as a ... Metabolic: High anion gap *Ketoacidosis. *Diabetic ketoacidosis. *Alcoholic ketoacidosis. *Lactic. *Normal anion gap * ...
organic cation/anion/zwitterion transporter *SLC22A1. *SLC22A2. *SLC22A3. *SLC22A4. *SLC22A5. *SLC22A6. *SLC22A7 ... thiamine pyrophosphate transporter activity. • thiamine transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... glycoprotein-associated/light or catalytic subunits of heterodimeric amino-acid transporters *SLC7A5 ...
Enomoto A, Endou H (September 2005). "Roles of organic anion transporters (OATs) and a urate transporter (URAT1) in the ... Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of the superoxide anion into ... Peroxiredoxins are peroxidases that catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxides, as well as ... the superoxide anion is produced as a by-product of several steps in the electron transport chain.[62] Particularly important ...
A few ABCC family members, also known as MRP, have also been demonstrated to confer MDR to organic anion compounds. The most- ... Nickel Uptake Transporter (NiT) Methionine Uptake Transporter (MUT) 2.A.52 Nickel/Cobalt Uptake Transporter (NiCoT) 3.A.1.106 ... 3.A.1.17 Taurine Uptake Transporter (TauT) 3.A.1.18 Cobalt Uptake Transporter (CoT) 3.A.1.19 Thiamin Uptake Transporter (ThiT) ... 3.A.1.7 Phosphate Uptake Transporter (PhoT) 3.A.1.8 Molybdate Uptake Transporter (MolT) 3.A.1.9 Phosphonate Uptake Transporter ...
Dye, J. L.; Ceraso, J. M.; Mei Lok Tak; Barnett, B. L.; Tehan, F. J. (1974). "Crystalline Salt of the Sodium Anion (Na−)". J. ... Organic Chemistry (edisi ke-8). John Wiley & Sons, 2006. hlm. 272. ISBN 81-265-1050-1.. Pemeliharaan CS1: Menggunakan parameter ... Hal ini berlaku pada semua hewan oleh Na+/K+-ATPase, transporter aktif yang memompa ion melawan gradien, dan kanal natrium/ ... Armstrong, James (2011). General, Organic, and Biochemistry: An Applied Approach. Cengage Learning. hlm. 48-. ISBN 1-133-16826- ...
organic cation/anion/zwitterion transporter *SLC22A1. *SLC22A2. *SLC22A3. *SLC22A4. *SLC22A5. *SLC22A6. *SLC22A7 ... L-lysine transmembrane transporter activity. • amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... L-arginine transmembrane transporter activity. • basic amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. • high-affinity arginine ... L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity. • arginine transmembrane transporter activity. • ...
and glutamate anions in zwitterionic form, −OOC-CH(NH+. 3)-(CH. 2)2-COO−.[39] In solution it dissociates into glutamate and ... MSG is freely soluble in water, but it is not hygroscopic and is insoluble in common organic solvents (such as ether).[40] It ... "Glutamate Transporters in Neurologic Disease". 58 (3). pp. 365-370. Retrieved 2015-01-17 ...
a b c William H. Brown and Lawrence S. Brown (2008), Organic Chemistry (5th edition). Cengage Learning. p. 1041. ISBN ... In highly alkaline solutions the doubly negative anion −OOC-CH(NH. 2)-(CH. 2)2-COO− prevails. The radical corresponding to ... "Nonvesicular Release of Glutamate by Glial xCT Transporters Suppresses Glutamate Receptor Clustering In Vivo". Journal of ... The acid can lose one proton from its second carboxyl group to form the conjugate base, the singly-negative anion glutamate − ...
CLC transporters shuttle H+ across the membrane. The H+ pathway in CLC transporters utilizes two glutamate residues-one on the ... These halves come together to form the anion pore. The pore has a filter through which chloride and other anions can pass, but ... organic solute transport, cell migration, cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on sequence homology the chloride ... These water-filled pores filter anions via three binding sites-Sint, Scen, and Sext-which bind chloride and other anions. The ...
Transport is mediated by ATP binding cassette transporters. The human genome encodes 48 ABC transporters, that are used for ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... This image shows a 360-degree rotation of a single, gas-phase magnesium-ATP chelate with a charge of −2. The anion was ... ATP binding cassette transporterEdit. Transporting chemicals out of a cell against a gradient is often associated with ATP ...
... is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH. In its solid state, it is white and water-soluble. In its ... These intravenous fluids consist of sodium and potassium cations along with lactate and chloride anions in solution with ... including monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH, and oxidative capacity of tissues. The concentration ...
organic cation/anion/zwitterion transporter *SLC22A1. *SLC22A2. *SLC22A3. *SLC22A4. *SLC22A5. *SLC22A6. *SLC22A7 ... cation transmembrane transporter activity. • zinc ion binding. • protein binding. • zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity ... "Entrez Gene: SLC30A8 solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8".. *^ a b c Flannick, Jason; et al. (2014). "Loss-of ... Solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8, also known as SLC30A8, is a human gene[5] that codes for a zinc ...
organic cation/anion/zwitterion transporter *SLC22A1. *SLC22A2. *SLC22A3. *SLC22A4. *SLC22A5. *SLC22A6. *SLC22A7 ... "SLC11A3 iron transporter [Homo sapiens]". Protein - NCBI.. *^ Zohn IE, De Domenico I, Pollock A, Ward DM, Goodman JF, Liang X, ... Ferroportin-1, also known as solute carrier family 40 member 1 (SLC40A1) or iron-regulated transporter 1 (IREG1), is a protein ... February 2000). "A novel duodenal iron-regulated transporter, IREG1, implicated in the basolateral transfer of iron to the ...
organic cation/anion/zwitterion transporter *SLC22A1. *SLC22A2. *SLC22A3. *SLC22A4. *SLC22A5. *SLC22A6. *SLC22A7 ... Glucose transporter 1 (or GLUT1), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1), is ... The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is ... GeneReviews/NIH/UW entry on Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome. *Glucose+Transporter+Type+1 at the US National ...
The chloride ion /ˈklɔːraɪd/[3] is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−. It is formed when the element chlorine (a halogen) ... For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane (see IUPAC books) is an organic compound with a covalent C− ... Serum chloride levels are mainly regulated by the kidneys through a variety of transporters that are present along the nephron. ... Chloride is present in all body fluids,[8] and is the most abundant extracellular anion which accounts for around one third of ...
organic cation transmembrane transporter activity. • organic anion transmembrane transporter activity. • dopamine:sodium ... serotonin transporter (SERT), vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and organic cation transporters (OCT1, 2 and EMT) in ... secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity. • quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter ... GO:0022891 transmembrane transporter activity. • transporter activity. • acetylcholine transmembrane transporter activity. • ...
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1) codes for an organic anion-transporting polypeptide that is ...
Phytic acid (deprotonated phytate anion in the picture) is an antinutrient that interferes with the absorption of minerals from ... "Regulatory effects of Cu, Zn, and Ca on Fe absorption: the intricate play between nutrient transporters". Nutrients. 5 (3): ... "Tannins and Their Complex Interaction with Different Organic Nitrogen Compounds and Enzymes: Old Paradigms versus Recent ...
"The potential of flow-through microdialysis for probing low-molecular weight organic anions in rhizosphere soil solution". ... location of the selected tissue further allows for evaluation of extracellular concentration gradients due to transporter ... organic acids,[19] and low molecular weight nitrogen.[20] Given the destructive nature of conventional soil sampling methods,[ ... "The potential of microdialysis to monitor organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds in soil". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 43 ...
Here, Arsenate (AsO43−), an anion akin to inorganic phosphate may replace phosphate as a substrate to form 1-arseno-3- ... In addition, it blocks the glucose from leaking out - the cell lacks transporters for G6P, and free diffusion out of the cell ... Harden and Young deduced that this process produced organic phosphate esters, and further experiments allowed them to extract ... Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall ...
Because of the high polarity of the C-Na bonds, they behave like sources of carbanions (salts with organic anions). Some well- ... This is accomplished in all animals by Na+/K+-ATPase, an active transporter pumping ions against the gradient, and sodium/ ... Dye, J. L.; Ceraso, J. M.; Mei Lok Tak; Barnett, B. L.; Tehan, F. J. (1974). "Crystalline Salt of the Sodium Anion (Na−)". J. ... Armstrong, James (2011). General, Organic, and Biochemistry: An Applied Approach. Cengage Learning. pp. 48-. ISBN 978-1-133- ...
transporter activity. • sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity. • thyroid hormone transmembrane ... organic anion transport. • thyroid hormone transport. • sodium-independent organic anion transport. • transmembrane transport. ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B1 gene.[3][4] ... "Entrez Gene: SLCO1B1 solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 1B1".. *^ Carr DF, O'Meara H, Jorgensen AL, ...
response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of cell growth. • positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process. ... of the inner medullary portion of the collecting duct to urea by regulating the cell surface expression of urea transporters,[ ... Anion gap. *Arterial blood gas. *Winters' formula. *Buffering *Bicarbonate buffer system. *Respiratory compensation ...
Organic anion transporter polypeptide (IPR004156) *Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1 (IPR030764) ... Organic anion transporter polypeptide (IPR004156). Short name: OATP Overlapping homologous superfamilies *MFS transporter ... Molecular identification and characterization of novel members of the human organic anion transporter (OATP) family.. Biochem. ... This family consists of several eukaryotic Organic-Anion-Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs). Several have been identified mostly ...
... several families of multispecific organic anion transporters mediating the renal and hepatic elimination of organic anions and ... organic anion transporter) family, the founding member of which (OAT1) is the basolateral p-aminohippurate (PAH) transporter in ... and OCTN/carnitine transporters. OATs are multispecific organic anion transporters, the substrates of which include both ... The multispecific organic anion transporter (OAT) family.. Sekine T1, Cha SH, Endou H. ...
Organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4) can refer to either of these carrier proteins: Solute carrier family 22 member 9 (SLC22A9) ...
OAT1 functions as organic anion exchanger. When the uptake of one molecule of an organic anion is transported into a cell by an ... and the OAT1 transporter also grinds to a halt. The renal organic anion transporters OAT1, OAT3, OATP4C1, MDR1, MRP2, MRP4 and ... organic anion transporter), member 6". Sekine T, Miyazaki H, Endou H (February 2006). "Molecular physiology of renal organic ... role of basolateral transporter organic anion transporter 1". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 15 (8): 2023-31. doi:10.1097/01.ASN. ...
Organic anion transporters (OATs) play an essential role in the elimination of numerous endogenous and exogenous organic anions ... Several families of multispecific organic anion and cation transporters, including OAT family transporters, have recently been ... Organic anion transporter family: current knowledge.. Anzai N1, Kanai Y, Endou H. ... the renal secretory and reabsorptive pathway for organic anions and is also involved in the distribution of organic anions in ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for ... Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2Add BLAST. 1527. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... organic anion transmembrane transporter activity Source: ProtIncTraceable author statementi*9738950 ... May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for ...
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1. Details. Name. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1. O94956. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name ...
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3. Details. Name. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3. Q9NPD5. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name ...
Solute carrier organic anion transp.... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1 (Solute carrier family 21 ... bile acid transmembrane transporter activity Source: Ensembl. *sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family memberUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,Q3V1K7,Q3V1K7_MOUSE Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Slco2b1 PE=1 SV=1 ...
International biotechnology industry analysis, data and networking focused on translation, research, development, regulation, commercialization, partnering and funding.
Potently Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters 1 (Slc22a6) and 3 (Slc22a8) ... Active Hydrophilic Components of the Medicinal Herb Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) Potently Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters 1 ...
ABCC drug efflux pumps and organic anion uptake transporters in human gliomas and the blood-tumor barrier. Bronger, H., König, ... Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) is a drug uptake transporter known for broad substrate specificity, ... Expression of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) and of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP- ... Localization of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the rat and human ciliary body epithelium. Gao, B., Huber, R.D., ...
SLCO1A2, solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC ... J:66643 Walters HC, et al., Expression, transport properties, and chromosomal location of organic anion transporter subtype 3. ...
What is Organic anion transporter F? Meaning of Organic anion transporter F medical term. What does Organic anion transporter F ... Looking for online definition of Organic anion transporter F in the Medical Dictionary? Organic anion transporter F explanation ... Organic anion transporter F , definition of Organic anion transporter F by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... redirected from Organic anion transporter F) SLCO1C1. A gene on chromosome 12p12.2 that encodes a protein which mediates Na+- ...
... solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity sodium-independent organic anion transport sodium-independent organic anion ... thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity sodium-independent organic anion transport sodium-independent organic anion ... plasma membrane integral component of plasma membrane sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity ...
... solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 5A1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... of plasma membrane sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity sodium-independent organic anion ... of plasma membrane sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity sodium-independent organic anion ...
organic anion transporter. hOAT. human organic anion transporter. OAT-K1. OAT-K2, renal organic anion transporter 1 and 2. ... Characterization of Methotrexate Transport and Its Drug Interactions with Human Organic Anion Transporters. Michio Takeda, ... Characterization of Methotrexate Transport and Its Drug Interactions with Human Organic Anion Transporters. Michio Takeda, ... Characterization of Methotrexate Transport and Its Drug Interactions with Human Organic Anion Transporters. Michio Takeda, ...
Potential Drug Interactions Mediated by Renal Organic Anion Transporter OATP4C1. Toshihiro Sato, Eikan Mishima, Nariyasu Mano, ... Potential Drug Interactions Mediated by Renal Organic Anion Transporter OATP4C1 Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
What is Sodium-independent organic anion transporter E? Meaning of Sodium-independent organic anion transporter E medical term ... What does Sodium-independent organic anion transporter E mean? ... Sodium-independent organic anion transporter E explanation free ... Looking for online definition of Sodium-independent organic anion transporter E in the Medical Dictionary? ... Sodium-independent organic anion transporter E , definition of Sodium-independent organic anion transporter E by Medical ...
Mutations in the canilicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) gene, a novel ABC transporter, in patients with ... Ito K, Oleschuk CJ, Westlake C, Vasa MZ, Deeley RG, Cole SP: Mutation of Trp1254 in the multispecific organic anion transporter ... Showing Protein Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (HMDBP01658). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter. ...
... organic anion transporter; hOAT1, human organic anion transporter 1; Gly-Sar, glycylsarcosine; PAH, para-aminohippuric acid; ... INTERACTIONS OF AMOXICILLIN AND CEFACLOR WITH HUMAN RENAL ORGANIC ANION AND PEPTIDE TRANSPORTERS. Meng Li, Gail D. Anderson, ... INTERACTIONS OF AMOXICILLIN AND CEFACLOR WITH HUMAN RENAL ORGANIC ANION AND PEPTIDE TRANSPORTERS. Meng Li, Gail D. Anderson, ... INTERACTIONS OF AMOXICILLIN AND CEFACLOR WITH HUMAN RENAL ORGANIC ANION AND PEPTIDE TRANSPORTERS. Meng Li, Gail D. Anderson, ...
The first step in secretion, uptake of organic anions across the basolateral membrane of tubule cells, is... ... Organic anions of diverse chemical structures are secreted in renal proximal tubules. ... is mediated for the polyspecific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), which exchanges extracellular organic anions for ... Ullrich, K. J. (1997) Renal transporters for organic anions and organic cations. Structural requirements for substrates. J. ...
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (691 aa, ~76 kDa) is encoded by the human SLCO1B1 gene. This protein ... Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 1b1. Known as: Solute Carrier Family 21 (Organic Anion Transporter), ... A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (691 aa, ~76 kDa) is encoded by the human SLCO1B1 gene. This protein ...
In addition to the OATs, several multispecific organic anion transporters, e.g., organic anion-transporting polypeptides and ... the transport properties of the luminal organic anion transporter(s) are under debate; the luminal anion transporter may be an ... Characterization of Organic Anion Transporter 2 (SLC22A7): A Highly Efficient Transporter for Creatinine and Species-Dependent ... Despite such accumulated knowledge about the organic anion transporters in the kidney, the contribution of each transporter in ...
Showing Protein Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (HMDBP05558). IdentificationBiological properties ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 MGLLPKLGVSQGSDTSTSRAGRCARSVFGNIKVFVLCQGLLQLCQLLYSAYFKSSLTTIE ... Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Schuster VL: Cloning, in vitro expression, and tissue distribution of a human prostaglandin transporter ... Lu R, Schuster VL: Molecular cloning of the gene for the human prostaglandin transporter hPGT: gene organization, promoter ...
A human clone homologous to rat canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) was found and designated human ... A Human Canalicular Multispecific Organic Anion Transporter (cMOAT) Gene Is Overexpressed in Cisplatin-resistant Human Cancer ... A Human Canalicular Multispecific Organic Anion Transporter (cMOAT) Gene Is Overexpressed in Cisplatin-resistant Human Cancer ... A Human Canalicular Multispecific Organic Anion Transporter (cMOAT) Gene Is Overexpressed in Cisplatin-resistant Human Cancer ...
Organic Anion Transporter), Member 8 (SLC22A8) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) ABIN909357 from antibodies-online ... anti-Solute Carrier Family 22 (Organic Anion Transporter), Member 8 (SLC22A8) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) from antibodies-online ... Itemanti-Solute Carrier Family 22 (Organic Anion Transporter), Member 8 (SLC22A8) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) ... anti-Solute Carrier Family 22 (Organic Anion Transporter), Member 8 (SLC22A8) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) ...
... several families of organic ion transporters have been identified, among which the organic anion transporter (OAT) family ... 2005) Human organic anion transporter hOAT3 is a potent transporter of cephalosporin antibiotics, in comparison with hOAT1. ... 2006) Decreased renal organic anion secretion and plasma accumulation of endogenous organic anions in OAT1 knock-out mice. J ... organic anion transporter. PAH. para-aminohippuric acid. PBS. phosphate-buffered saline. *Copyright © 2014 by The American ...
Function of both sinusoidal and canalicular transporters controls the concentration of organic anions within hepatocytes. ... Function of both sinusoidal and canalicular transporters controls the concentration of organic anions within hepatocytes. ... Function of both sinusoidal and canalicular transporters controls the concentration of organic anions within hepatocytes. ... Function of both sinusoidal and canalicular transporters controls the concentration of organic anions within hepatocytes ...
  • The multispecific organic anion transporter (OAT) family. (nih.gov)
  • During the last decade, molecular cloning has identified several families of multispecific organic anion transporters mediating the renal and hepatic elimination of organic anions and, most recently, the OAT (organic anion transporter) family, the founding member of which (OAT1) is the basolateral p-aminohippurate (PAH) transporter in the renal proximal tubule. (nih.gov)
  • OATs are multispecific organic anion transporters, the substrates of which include both endogenous (e.g. cyclic nucleotides, prostaglandins, urate, dicarboxylates) and exogenous anions (various anionic drugs and environmental substances). (nih.gov)
  • Several families of multispecific organic anion and cation transporters, including OAT family transporters, have recently been identified by molecular cloning. (nih.gov)
  • 1999) Immunohistochemical localization of multispecific renal organic anion transporter 1 in rat kidney. (springer.com)
  • A cDNA encoding a multispecific organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) was isolated from a human kidney cDNA library. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A human clone homologous to rat canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) was found and designated human cMOAT. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) was isolated from rat kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • In the liver, the organic anion-transporting polypeptide ( 3 ) and the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) ( 4 , 5 ) have been identified. (asnjournals.org)
  • 18 ) identified the novel multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) from rat kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • There has been a recent interest in the broader physiological importance of multispecific drug transporters of the SLC and ABC transporter families. (ucsd.edu)
  • The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), also termed MRP2, is a recently identified ATP-binding cassette transporter. (elsevier.com)
  • Multidrug-resistance protein 5 is a multispecific organic anion transporter able to transport nucleotide analogs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The liver multispecific organic anion transporter, NLT or OAT2. (tcdb.org)
  • 2] "Identification of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 expressed predominantly in the liver. (tcdb.org)
  • The organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) also known as solute carrier family 22 member 6 (SLC22A6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC22A6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with OAT3, OAT1 mediates the uptake of a wide range of relatively small and hydrophilic organic anions from plasma into the cytoplasm of the proximal tubular cells of the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • OAT1 functions as organic anion exchanger. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the uptake of one molecule of an organic anion is transported into a cell by an OAT1 exchanger, one molecule of an endogenous dicarboxylic acid (such as glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc.) is simultaneously transported out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the supply of dicarboxylates is depleted, the OAT1 transporter can no longer function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of a sodium gradient across the cell membrane, the NaDC3 cotransporter ceases to function, intra-cellular dicarboxylates are depleted, and the OAT1 transporter also grinds to a halt. (wikipedia.org)
  • The renal organic anion transporters OAT1, OAT3, OATP4C1, MDR1, MRP2, MRP4 and URAT1 are expressed in the S2 segment of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • OAT1, OAT3, and OATP4C1 transport small organic anions from the plasma into the S2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step in secretion, uptake of organic anions across the basolateral membrane of tubule cells, is mediated for the polyspecific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), which exchanges extracellular organic anions for intracellular α-ketoglutarate or glutarate. (springer.com)
  • Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The immunogold method showed no labeling for OAT1 in the cytoplasmic vesicles, suggesting that OAT1 may not move together with organic anions into the cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • 19 ) also identified a renal organic anion transporter, the amino acid sequence of which is 100% identical to that of OAT1. (asnjournals.org)
  • There was no significant sequence homology between OAT1 and the organic anion-transporting polypeptide, but OAT1 showed weak identity (38%) to organic cation transporter 1 ( 20 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • OAT1 possessed the same characteristics as the organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger, which has been predicted by physiologic studies to be at the basolateral membrane of proximal tubules. (asnjournals.org)
  • The first step most likely is mediated by the basolateral organic anion uptake transporters OAT1 and OAT3, which have recently been shown to transport urate ( 4 , 13 ). (physiology.org)
  • Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) is the para -aminohippurate (PAH) transporter in the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Untargeted metabolomics on the plasma and urine from wild-type and organic anion transporter-1 (Oat1/Slc22a6) knockout mice identified a number of physiologically important metabolites, including several not previously linked to Oat1-mediated transport. (nih.gov)
  • Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and 3 (OAT3) are highly expressed in the kidney and play a key role in the renal elimination of substrate drugs. (peerj.com)
  • Construction and Evaluation of an Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)-Centered Metabolic Network. (ucsd.edu)
  • Here, a novel multi-tiered systems biology approach was used to predict metabolites and signaling molecules potentially affected by the in vivo deletion of organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1, Slc22a6, originally NKT), a major kidney-expressed drug transporter. (ucsd.edu)
  • The fact that OAT1 can affect many systemic biological pathways suggests that drug-metabolite interactions (DMI) need to be considered beyond simple competition for the drug transporter itself and may explain aspects of drug-induced metabolic syndromes. (ucsd.edu)
  • Our approach should provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of OAT1 and other drug transporters implicated in metabolic diseases like gout, diabetes and CKD. (ucsd.edu)
  • We aimed to analyze the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 5′ regulatory region of the human organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) gene with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (elsevier.com)
  • Renal tubular cells with the-475 SNP had increased OAT1 expression, which resulted in increased transportation of organic anion toxins into cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, we charted comprehensively the differences in inhibitory action of various immunosuppressive agents against the 4 key renal anion transporters, and we provide evidence that immunosuppressant drugs can modulate OAT1-, OAT3-, MRP2-, and MRP4-mediated transport of MTX to different extents. (ru.nl)
  • As examples, the transporters OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) are perhaps the major multi-specific transporters of small molecule organic anionic drugs handled by the kidney 6 , 7 . (nature.com)
  • Prostaglandin transporter (PGT) proteins are also considered to be OATP family members. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Tamai I, Nezu J, Uchino H, Sai Y, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A. Molecular identification and characterization of novel members of the human organic anion transporter (OATP) family. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporter family and drug disposition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular identification and characterization of novel members of the human organic anion transporter (OATP) family. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A rapid screening system has been established to extract novel candidates that exhibit potent inhibition of the transport of fluorescent substrate by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • Using expression cloning in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we have isolated a cDNA encoding a rat liver organic anion-transporting polypeptide (oatp). (unibas.ch)
  • Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP)2B1 Contributes to Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Anticancer Drug SN-38, Active Metabolite of Irinotecan Hydrochloride. (beds.ac.uk)
  • [email protected]#The characteristics of T1 relaxation values and the expression levels of organic anion transport system (OATP) and multidrug resistance protein carrier (MRP) on hepatocyte surface membrane were quantitatively studied to evaluate liver function in normal C57BL/6 mice with gadoxetic disodium-enhanced MRI. (bvsalud.org)
  • Organic anion transporting polypeptides of the OATP/ SLC21 family: phylogenetic classification as OATP/ SLCO superfamily, new nomenclature and molecular/functional properties. (genome.jp)
  • Adaptive changes in manifestation of liver bilirubin transporters in both hereditary and acquired cholestatic liver diseases-down-regulation of the canalicular multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP2 manifestation and up-regulation of sinusoidal MRP3 expression-explain the impairment of liver bilirubin uptake and excretion [18-22]. (neuroart2006.com)
  • OATs show weak structural similarity to organic cation transporters (OCTs) and OCTN/carnitine transporters. (nih.gov)
  • Burckhardt, G. and Wolff, N. A. (2000) Structure of renal organic anion and cation transporters. (springer.com)
  • However, the classical renal organic anion transporters, which have been extensively investigated physiologically and pharmacologically, are distinct from these hepatic organic anion transporters. (asnjournals.org)
  • This family consists of several eukaryotic Organic-Anion-Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Organic anion transporters can be arranged in OATs (organic anion transporters), OATPs (organic anion transporting polypeptides) and multiple drug resistance-associated proteins MRPs. (primacyt.services)
  • Purpose: Organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are sinusoidal membrane transporters mediating liver uptake of a wide range of substrates including conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, xenobiotics and drugs. (neuroart2006.com)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include transporter activity and prostaglandin transmembrane transporter activity . (genecards.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 12p12.2 that encodes a protein which mediates Na+-independent high-affinity transport of organic anions (e.g., thyroxine and rT3) and lower-affinity transport of other substrates (e.g., triiodothyronine, 17-beta-glucuronosyl oestradiol, oestrone-3-sulfate and sulfobromophthalein). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we show that the renal apical organic anion efflux transporter human multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), but not apical MRP2, mediates ATP-dependent urate transport via a positive cooperative mechanism ( K m of 1.5 ± 0.3 mM, V max of 47 ± 7 pmol·mg −1 ·min −1 , and Hill coefficient of 1.7 ± 0.2). (physiology.org)
  • Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 (Organic Anion Transporter 4 Like Protein or Renal Specific Transporter or RST or Urate Anion Exchanger 1 or SLC22A12) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016', provides in depth analysis on Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 (Organic Anion Transporter 4 Like Protein or Renal Specific Transporter or RST or Urate Anion Exchanger 1 or SLC22A12) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 (Organic Anion Transporter 4 Like Protein or Renal Specific Transporter or RST or Urate Anion Exchanger 1 or SLC22A12), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • A combination of proteomics, RNAi screening, and reconstitution approaches identifies prostaglandin transporter SLC02A1 as a core component of the maxi‐anion channel, thus illustrating the ability of a transporter protein to moonlight as an ion channel. (embopress.org)
  • Polymorphisms in the gene encoding this protein are associated with impaired transporter function. (nih.gov)
  • See the reference protein sequence for solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1 isoform 2 (NP_001239460.1). (beds.ac.uk)
  • SLCO2A1 (Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 2A1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The SLCO1B3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3, or OATP1B3. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The OAT-K2 cDNA had an open reading frame encoding a 498-amino acid protein (calculated molecular mass of 55 kDa) that shows 91% identity with the rat kidney-specific organic anion transporter, OAT, K1. (elsevier.com)
  • Organic anion transporter protein (OATP1B1) encoded by SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism (388A>G) & susceptibility in gallstone disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • Organic anion transport protein 1B1 (OATP1B1) is a major transporter protein for bile salt uptake in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts . (bvsalud.org)
  • Imaging Myelin Basic Protein expression in a model of remyelination by Magnetic Resonance Imaging using an Organic Anion Transporter Protein gene reporter system. (cam.ac.uk)
  • It belongs to the MRP (multidrug resistance protein) subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family [ PMID: 21103974 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) has been shown as a transporter responsible for renal handling of gut microbiota products which are involved in the progression of metabolic disorder. (clinsci.org)
  • Expression of organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) mRNA in TR-BBB cells was induced by treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), an AR ligand, and this induction was suppressed by flutamide. (elsevier.com)
  • The objective of the current study was to examine the kinetics of amoxicillin and cefaclor interactions with human renal transporters human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1), human peptide transporter 1 (hPepT1), and human peptide transporter 2 (hPepT2) in detail, both as substrates and as inhibitors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These transporters have multispecificity for substrates and mediate the transport of various anionic substances in the liver ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • We therefore examined the ability of probenecid (p-[dipropylsulfamoyl]benzoic acid), which blocks organic anion transport across many epithelia, to inhibit efflux of Lucifer Yellow, and found that this drug inhibited this process in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. (rupress.org)
  • Removing molecules out of a cell need ATP-dependent efflux pumps, whereas for the transport in the reverse direction uptake transporter for the import of ions and nutrients, for example, glucose is expressed in the cell membrane. (primacyt.services)
  • Among the ABC transporters, especially BCRP (ABCG2) and several MRP/ABCC subfamily members (MRP1, MRP4, MRP8) are expressed in the brain and known to efflux conjugated steroids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Basolateral organic anion transporters (OATs) and apical multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) contribute to the active tubular uptake and urinary efflux of these drugs, respectively. (ru.nl)
  • With regard to the apical efflux transporters, mycophenolic acid, cyclophosphamide, hydrocortisone, and tacrolimus inhibited MRP2 and MRP4, whereas mitoxantrone and dexamethasone stimulated [(3)H]-MTX transport by both transporters. (ru.nl)
  • It is a cyclic nucleotide organic anion transporter, mediating the efflux of a variety of organic anions, including certain monophosphate nucleotide metabolites such as cGMP and cAMP, and certain purine analogues [ PMID: 21740521 , PMID: 10840050 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • On concomitant administration with drugs, botanical supplements may modulate drug metabolism or/and interact with transporters, resulting in their interaction with drugs [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • According to blast screening and functional annotation, 20.2% and 20.9% of genes were related to metabolism proteins, 9% and 3.6% to transporters and channels, 16% and 6.3% to transcription factors, 19% and 17.2% to hypothetical proteins, and finally 24.1 and 17.2% to unknown genes, from the down- and up-regulated libraries, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Find bioassays for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drug molecules including cytotoxicity, transporter/permeability, metabolism and activity assays as well as hepatocytes and cell lines for ADME. (selectscience.net)
  • Since the numbering of different OATPs in particular species was based originally on the order of discovery, similarly numbered OATPs in humans and rats did not necessarily correspond in function, tissue distribution and substrate specificity (in spite of the name, some OATPs also transport organic cations and neutral molecules) so a scheme of using digits for rat OATPs and letters for human ones was introduced [ PMID: 10873595 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In addition, the methotrexate transporter OATK is closely related to OATPs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Such interactions may result in serious undesired effects and changed drug efficacy, therefore, some studies on interaction between botanical supplement ingredients and drug transporters such as P-gp and OATPs are described here, suggesting that the interaction between botanical supplements and the drug transporters is clinically significant. (mdpi.com)
  • mRNA for these hepatic organic anion transporters has also been detected in the kidney, and the transporters may have roles in the transport of the anionic conjugates of lipophilic compounds ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 20q13.33 that encodes an Na+-independent transporter of organic anions-e.g., thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine), rT3 and taurocholate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The SLCO2B1 gene encodes an organic anion transporter. (moldiag.com)
  • This gene encodes a liver-specific member of the organic anion transporter family. (nih.gov)
  • This locus encodes a member of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide family of membrane proteins. (creative-biogene.com)
  • This gene encodes a prostaglandin transporter that is a member of the 12-membrane-spanning superfamily of transporters. (genecards.org)
  • SLCO1B1 encodes the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) influx transporter located on the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. (testcatalog.org)
  • Human cMOAT may function as a cellular cisplatin transporter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Identification of a novel gene family encoding human liver-specific organic anion transporter LST-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results are consistent with previous physiologic data showing that organic anions, including para -aminohippurate, are taken up by the basolateral Na + -independent organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger and excreted at S2 segments. (asnjournals.org)
  • Organic anions, including para -aminohippurate (PAH), are taken up into proximal tubule cells from the peritubular plasma by an organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger on the basal membrane ( 1 , 2 , 13 , 14 , 15 ) and are excreted into the urinary fluid through the apical membrane ( 1 , 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Organic anion transporters (OATs) play an essential role in the elimination of numerous endogenous and exogenous organic anions from the body. (nih.gov)
  • We offer a broad portfolio of transporter assays for OATs. (primacyt.services)
  • Oats serve as transporters for the removal of xenobiotics. (primacyt.services)
  • OATS organic anion transporters are hepatic transporters for uptake of drugs and bile salt on the basolateral membrane. (primacyt.services)
  • Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Organic anions, including endogenous compounds and xenobiotics such as drugs, peptides, toxins, and their metabolites, are secreted by organic anion transporters of the liver and kidney ( 1 , 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The pharmacokinetics of cetirizine, a nonsedating antihistamine, is profoundly affected by transporter-mediated membrane transport in the kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • We have isolated a cDNA coding a new organic anion transporter, OAT-K2, expressed specifically in rat kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • By cross-tissue co-expression network analysis, the gut, liver, and kidney (GLK) formed highly connected tissue-specific clusters of SLC transporters, ABC transporters, and DMEs. (nature.com)
  • Using the GLK network and known ADME genes, we built a tentative gut-liver-kidney "remote sensing and signaling network" consisting of SLC and ABC transporters, as well as DMEs and regulatory proteins. (nature.com)
  • That many of the OAT-transported metabolites (e.g., tryptophan derivatives transported across the gut, bile acids, uremic solutes and uremic toxins of chronic kidney disease) are modified by phase I and phase II DMEs (e.g., sulfation, glucuronidation) before being transported by the kidney suggests intimate connections between transporters and DMEs in the gut, liver and kidney. (nature.com)
  • OATP1B1: organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1. (fda.gov)
  • Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1: a genetically polymorphic transporter of major importance for hepatic drug uptake. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 3] "Functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 2 in LLC-PK1 cells. (tcdb.org)
  • Excreting organic ions through proximal tubular cells is a unidirectional process involving two distinct transport steps, including the uptake of charged hydrophilic xenobiotics into the cells from the blood across the basolateral membrane, followed by extrusion across the apical membrane into the urine for elimination ( Pritchard and Miller, 1993 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, we aimed to investigate the transport mechanism of levocetirizine, the pharmacologically active enantiomer of cetirizine, via human organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4) expressed in the apical membrane of renal proximal tubules and the basal plasma membrane of placental syncytiotrophoblasts. (elsevier.com)
  • Drug transporters are increasingly recognized as a key determinant of drug disposition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Together, the findings are compatible with the hypothesized role of drug transporters in remote inter-organ and inter-organismal communication (the Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis, Nigam SK. (ucsd.edu)
  • Because most patients with type 2 diabetes receive more than one drug and inhibition of drug transporters has been recognized as a new mechanism underlying drug-drug interactions, we tested the hypothesis of whether oral antidiabetic drugs can inhibit the transport mediated by hepatic uptake transporters. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is now well established that drug transporters are major determinants of drug disposition and effects ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, inhibition or induction of drug transporters are newly recognized mechanisms of drug-drug interactions ( 3 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis argues that an ADME gene-centered network-including SLC and ABC "drug" transporters, "drug" metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), and regulatory genes-is essential for inter-organ communication via metabolites, signaling molecules, antioxidants, gut microbiome products, uremic solutes, and uremic toxins. (nature.com)
  • The SLCO (former SLC21) superfamily of transporters. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In particular, we showed that hOAT2 (SLC22A7), a member of the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily, was a facilitative transporter for cGMP and other guanine nucleotides. (umn.edu)
  • MDR1, MRP2, MRP4 and URAT1 then transports these organic anions from the cytoplasm of the S2 cells into the lumen of the proximal convoluted tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen-induced cholestasis results in a down-regulation of all basolateral organic anion transporters. (unibas.ch)
  • To examine associations between acute ischemic stroke (AIS) outcome and allelic variants of the TH metabolizing enzymes deiodinase type 1-3 (DIO1-3) and membrane transporting organic anion polypeptide C1 (OATP1C1). (cdc.gov)
  • Organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4) can refer to either of these carrier proteins: Solute carrier family 22 member 9 (SLC22A9) Solute carrier family 22 member 11 (SLC22A11) This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). (wikipedia.org)
  • For SLC transport studies, we use TransportoCells to assess if your test article is a substrate and/or inhibitor of uptake transporters in line with the latest regulatory guidance for develop-ment of new investigational drugs. (corning.com)
  • Lu R, Schuster VL: Molecular cloning of the gene for the human prostaglandin transporter hPGT: gene organization, promoter activity, and chromosomal localization. (hmdb.ca)
  • Translation experiments in vitro indicated that the transporter was indeed glycosylated and that its polypeptide backbone had an apparent molecular mass of 59 kDa. (unibas.ch)
  • Molecular physiology of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Germline genetic variation in an organic anion transporter polypeptide associated with methotrexate pharmacokinetics and clinical effects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Methotrexate Pathway, Pharmacokinetics . (genecards.org)
  • It is a member of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • By subjecting proteins isolated from bleb membranes rich in Maxi‐Cl activity to LC‐MS/MS combined with targeted siRNA screening, CRISPR/Cas9‐mediated knockout, and heterologous overexpression, we identified the organic anion transporter SLCO2A1, known as a prostaglandin transporter (PGT), as a key component of Maxi‐Cl. (embopress.org)
  • Transporters are proteins carrying endogenous compounds or xenobiotics across biological membranes. (primacyt.services)
  • The Transporters are membrane transport proteins for the transport of organic anions across the sinusoidal membrane of cells. (primacyt.services)
  • Especially sulfated steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) depend on transporter proteins to cross membranes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Renal proximal convoluted tubules have an important role, i.e. , to excrete organic anions, including numerous drugs and endogenous substances. (asnjournals.org)
  • The organic anion-transporting polypeptide is located on the sinusoidal membrane of the liver and transports several organic anions with different chemical structures, such as bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, conjugated steroid hormones, and ochratoxin A ( 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, this review focuses on DHEAS/PregS membrane transporters in the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, regulating the expression levels and functions of these membrane transporters might improve cholestasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • C:Â p.V174A), which is found in *5, *15, and *17, interferes with localization of the transporter to the plasma membrane, and can lead to increased systemic statin concentrations. (testcatalog.org)
  • König J, Cui Y, Nies AT, Keppler D. Localization and genomic organization of a new hepatocellular organic anion transporting polypeptide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Structure, function and brain localization of neurotransmitter transporters. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antibodies were raised against seven of these neurotransmitter transporters and their cytochemical localization in the mouse brain was studied. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Impaired sodium-dependent uptake of bile acids has been associated with diminished expression of a basolateral Na(+)/bile acid cotransporter (Ntcp), whereas sodium-independent uptake is maintained despite a down-regulation of the organic anion transporter Oatp1. (unibas.ch)
  • The basolateral renal organic anion transporter (PAH transporter) of the proximal tubules also has wide substrate specificity, including drugs and toxins ( 1 , 2 , 16 , 17 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Schuster VL: Cloning, in vitro expression, and tissue distribution of a human prostaglandin transporter cDNA(hPGT). (hmdb.ca)
  • Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (691 aa, ~76 kDa) is encoded by the human SLCO1B1 gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Adjusting for age, race, sex, and methotrexate regimen, the most significant associations were with SNPs in the organic anion transporter polypeptide, SLCO1B1. (cdc.gov)
  • MRP5 acts as a selective transporter of cGMP in pituitary cells [ PMID: 16614078 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Organic anion transporters play important roles in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body. (nih.gov)
  • A) Inhibition of hOAT4-mediated 6-CF uptake was performed using 50 μM 6-CF with or without 500 μM of several organic anions. (asnjournals.org)
  • A mutual inhibition study suggests that the same transporter is responsible for the uptake of PCG and PAH by isolated rat CP. (aspetjournals.org)