Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Components of a cell.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Rod-shaped storage granules for VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR specific to endothelial cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Membrane-bound prokaryotic organelles of magnetotactic bacteria that contain chains of MAGNETITE crystals which orient the bacteria to geomagnetic fields.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A genus of microaerophilic, gram-negative bacteria that forms crystals of the mineral magnetite in special organelles called MAGNETOSOMES.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction characterized by unusual oculocutaneous albinism, high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms, and recurrent pyogenic infections. In many cell types, abnormal lysosomes are present leading to defective pigment distribution and abnormal neutrophil functions. The disease is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance and a similar disorder occurs in the beige mouse, the Aleutian mink, and albino Hereford cattle.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
'3,3'-Diaminobenzidine' is a chemical compound used as a substrate in histological staining techniques to visualize the presence of an enzyme or protein of interest in tissue samples.

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (1/2526)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (2/2526)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (3/2526)

In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect.  (+info)

Rational analyses of organelle trajectories in tobacco pollen tubes reveal characteristics of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. (4/2526)

To gain insight into the characteristics of organelle movement and the underlying actomyosin motility system in tobacco pollen tubes, we collected data points representing sequential organelle positions in control and cytochalasin-treated cells, and in a sample of extruded cytoplasm. These data were utilized to reconstruct approximately 900 tracks, representing individual organelle movements, and to produce a quantitative analysis of the movement properties, supported by statistical tests. Each reconstructed track appeared to be unique and to show irregularities in velocity and direction of movement. The regularity quotient was near 2 at the tip and above 3 elsewhere in the cell, indicating that movement is more vectorial in the tube area. Similarly, the progressiveness ratio showed that there were relatively more straight trajectories in the tube region than at the tip. Consistent with these data, arithmetical dissection revealed a high degree of randomlike movement in the apex, lanes with tip-directed movement along the flanks, and grain-directed movement in the center of the tube. Intercalated lanes with bidirectional movement had lower organelle velocity, suggesting that steric hindrance plays a role. The results from the movement analysis indicate that the axial arrangement of the actin filaments and performance of the actomyosin system increases from tip to base, and that the opposite polarity of the actin filaments in the peripheral (+-ends of acting filaments toward the tip) versus the central cytoplasm (+-ends of actin filaments toward to the grain) is installed within a few minutes in these tip-growing cells.  (+info)

Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5/2526)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

Surface proteins of gram-positive bacteria and mechanisms of their targeting to the cell wall envelope. (6/2526)

The cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria is a macromolecular, exoskeletal organelle that is assembled and turned over at designated sites. The cell wall also functions as a surface organelle that allows gram-positive pathogens to interact with their environment, in particular the tissues of the infected host. All of these functions require that surface proteins and enzymes be properly targeted to the cell wall envelope. Two basic mechanisms, cell wall sorting and targeting, have been identified. Cell well sorting is the covalent attachment of surface proteins to the peptidoglycan via a C-terminal sorting signal that contains a consensus LPXTG sequence. More than 100 proteins that possess cell wall-sorting signals, including the M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes, protein A of Staphylococcus aureus, and several internalins of Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified. Cell wall targeting involves the noncovalent attachment of proteins to the cell surface via specialized binding domains. Several of these wall-binding domains appear to interact with secondary wall polymers that are associated with the peptidoglycan, for example teichoic acids and polysaccharides. Proteins that are targeted to the cell surface include muralytic enzymes such as autolysins, lysostaphin, and phage lytic enzymes. Other examples for targeted proteins are the surface S-layer proteins of bacilli and clostridia, as well as virulence factors required for the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes (internalin B) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PspA) infections. In this review we describe the mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria and review the functions of known surface proteins.  (+info)

Rat liver GTP-binding proteins mediate changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and organelle fusion. (7/2526)

The variety of mitochondrial morphology in healthy and diseased cells can be explained by regulated mitochondrial fusion. Previously, a mitochondrial outer membrane fraction containing fusogenic, aluminum fluoride (AlF4)-sensitive GTP-binding proteins (mtg) was separated from rat liver (J. D. Cortese, Exp. Cell Res. 240: 122-133, 1998). Quantitative confocal microscopy now reveals that mtg transiently increases mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) when added to permeabilized rat hepatocytes (15%), rat fibroblasts (19%), and rabbit myocytes (10%). This large mtg-induced DeltaPsi increment is blocked by fusogenic GTPase-specific modulators such as guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), excess GTP (>100 microM), and AlF4, suggesting a linkage between DeltaPsi and mitochondrial fusion. Accordingly, stereometric analysis shows that decreasing DeltaPsi or ATP synthesis with respiratory inhibitors limits mtg- and AlF4-induced mitochondrial fusion. Also, a specific G protein inhibitor (Bordetella pertussis toxin) hyperpolarizes mitochondria and leads to a loss of AlF4-dependent mitochondrial fusion. These results place mtg-induced DeltaPsi changes upstream of AlF4-induced mitochondrial fusion, suggesting that GTPases exert DeltaPsi-dependent control of the fusion process. Mammalian mitochondrial morphology thus can be modulated by cellular energetics.  (+info)

Occurrence of prostasome-like membrane vesicles in equine seminal plasma. (8/2526)

Equine seminal plasma was shown to contain membrane vesicles that are similar to the well characterized prostasomes in human seminal plasma. Determination of nucleoside and nucleotide concentrations of these particles have shown that ATP, ADP and adenosine are the main components of the nucleotidic pool. 5' nucleotidase, endopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase i.v. activities have been found on the surface of the particles. The interaction between these prostasome-like vesicles and spermatozoa was demonstrated by electron micrograph scans which revealed the steps of a fusion-like process leading to mixing of the membranes. In addition, endopeptidase activity, a marker enzyme of these seminal vesicles that is normally absent from equine spermatozoa, was shown to be acquired by these cells after interaction with the vesicles. The addition of these vesicles to equine spermatozoa resulted in the modification of adenylate catabolism. Therefore, a role in stabilizing the energy charge of the spermatozoa thus allowing longer viability is proposed for these organelles.  (+info)

Autophagy is a cellular process in which cells break down and recycle their own damaged or unnecessary components. This process is essential for maintaining cellular health and function, as it helps to eliminate damaged organelles, misfolded proteins, and other cellular debris that can accumulate over time. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which engulf and sequester the targeted cellular components. These autophagosomes then fuse with lysosomes, which contain enzymes that break down the contents of the autophagosome into smaller molecules that can be recycled by the cell. Autophagy plays a critical role in a variety of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. It is also involved in the immune response, as it helps to eliminate intracellular pathogens and damaged cells. Dysregulation of autophagy has been implicated in a number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, such as nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules, across cell membranes and through the body's various transport systems. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, which is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. There are several mechanisms of biological transport, including passive transport, active transport, facilitated diffusion, and endocytosis. Passive transport occurs when molecules move down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Active transport, on the other hand, requires energy to move molecules against a concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion involves the use of transport proteins to move molecules across the cell membrane. Endocytosis is a process by which cells take in molecules from the extracellular environment by engulfing them in vesicles. In the medical field, understanding the mechanisms of biological transport is important for understanding how drugs and other therapeutic agents are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body. This knowledge can be used to design drugs that are more effective and have fewer side effects. It is also important for understanding how diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, affect the body's transport systems and how this can be targeted for treatment.

Cell fractionation is a technique used in the medical field to isolate specific cellular components or organelles from a mixture of cells. This is achieved by fractionating the cells based on their size, density, or other physical properties, such as their ability to float or sediment in a solution. There are several different methods of cell fractionation, including differential centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, and free-flow electrophoresis. Each method is designed to isolate specific cellular components or organelles, such as mitochondria, lysosomes, or nuclei. Cell fractionation is commonly used in research to study the function and interactions of different cellular components, as well as to isolate specific proteins or other molecules for further analysis. It is also used in clinical settings to diagnose and treat various diseases, such as cancer, by analyzing the composition and function of cells in tissues and fluids.

Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.

Kinesin is a type of motor protein that plays a crucial role in the movement of organelles and vesicles within cells. It uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, which are part of the cell's cytoskeleton. Kinesin is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and the maintenance of cell shape. In the medical field, kinesin is of interest because it has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as certain types of cancer.

In the medical field, cytoplasm refers to the gel-like substance that fills the cell membrane of a living cell. It is composed of various organelles, such as mitochondria, ribosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as various dissolved molecules, including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. The cytoplasm plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, protein synthesis, and cell division. It also serves as a site for various cellular activities, such as the movement of organelles within the cell and the transport of molecules across the cell membrane. In addition, the cytoplasm is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell and protecting it from external stressors, such as toxins and pathogens. Overall, the cytoplasm is a vital component of the cell and plays a critical role in its function and survival.

In the medical field, cytoplasmic granules refer to small, dense structures found within the cytoplasm of certain cells. These granules are often involved in various cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, metabolism, and signaling. There are many different types of cytoplasmic granules, each with its own unique function and composition. Some examples of cytoplasmic granules include: - Lysosomes: These are organelles that contain digestive enzymes and are involved in breaking down and recycling cellular waste. - Peroxisomes: These are organelles that contain enzymes involved in the breakdown of fatty acids and other molecules. - Endosomes: These are organelles that are involved in the internalization and processing of extracellular molecules. - Ribosomes: These are small structures that are involved in protein synthesis. Cytoplasmic granules can be visualized using various microscopy techniques, such as light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence and distribution of cytoplasmic granules can provide important information about the function and health of a cell.

Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs light energy, and use this energy to power the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are also responsible for producing oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis. In the medical field, chloroplasts are not typically studied or treated directly, but understanding the process of photosynthesis and the role of chloroplasts in this process is important for understanding plant biology and the role of plants in the environment.

Cell compartmentation refers to the physical separation of different cellular components and organelles within a cell. This separation allows for the efficient functioning of various cellular processes and helps to maintain cellular homeostasis. Each organelle has a specific function and is compartmentalized to allow for the proper execution of that function. For example, the mitochondria are responsible for energy production and are located in the cytoplasm, while the nucleus contains the genetic material and is located in the center of the cell. Cell compartmentation also plays a role in the regulation of cellular processes. For example, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for protein synthesis and folding, and its compartmentalization allows for the proper processing and transport of proteins within the cell. Disruptions in cell compartmentation can lead to various diseases and disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer.

In the medical field, cytoplasmic vesicles are small, membrane-bound sacs that are found within the cytoplasm of cells. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the transport of molecules and materials within the cell, the degradation of cellular waste, and the regulation of cellular signaling pathways. There are several different types of cytoplasmic vesicles, including endosomes, lysosomes, and exosomes. Endosomes are vesicles that are involved in the internalization and processing of extracellular molecules and materials. Lysosomes are vesicles that contain enzymes that are involved in the degradation of cellular waste and the breakdown of cellular components. Exosomes are vesicles that are released by cells and are involved in the communication between cells. Cytoplasmic vesicles play important roles in many different cellular processes and are involved in a wide range of diseases and conditions. For example, defects in the formation or function of cytoplasmic vesicles have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

Cytoplasmic streaming is a cellular process in which the cytoplasm, the gel-like substance that fills the cell, flows within the cell. This movement of the cytoplasm is driven by various cellular processes, such as the beating of microtubules or the movement of cilia and flagella. Cytoplasmic streaming plays an important role in the distribution of cellular components within the cell, as well as in the transport of nutrients and waste products. It is also thought to play a role in the movement of organelles within the cell, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. In the medical field, cytoplasmic streaming is studied in order to better understand the function and behavior of cells, and to develop new treatments for diseases that are caused by disruptions in cellular processes.

Cilia are hair-like structures that are found on the surface of many types of cells in the human body. They are typically long, thin, and covered in tiny hairs called microvilli. Cilia are important for a variety of functions, including moving fluids and particles around the body, sensing the environment, and helping to protect the body from infection. In the medical field, cilia are often studied in relation to a number of different conditions and diseases. For example, defects in the structure or function of cilia can lead to a condition called primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which is characterized by chronic respiratory infections and other symptoms. Cilia are also important for the proper functioning of the reproductive system, and defects in cilia can lead to infertility or other reproductive problems. In addition to their role in health and disease, cilia are also being studied for their potential use in a variety of medical applications. For example, researchers are exploring the use of cilia to develop new treatments for respiratory diseases, as well as for the delivery of drugs and other therapeutic agents to specific parts of the body.

The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and encloses the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane also contains various proteins, including channels, receptors, and transporters, which allow the cell to communicate with its environment and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. In addition, the cell membrane is studded with cholesterol molecules, which help to maintain the fluidity and stability of the membrane. The cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the cell, and it is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell division.

Axonal transport is the movement of molecules and organelles within the axons of neurons. It is a vital process for maintaining the proper functioning of neurons and the nervous system as a whole. Axonal transport occurs in two main directions: anterograde transport, which moves materials from the cell body towards the axon terminal, and retrograde transport, which moves materials from the axon terminal towards the cell body. There are two main types of axonal transport: fast axonal transport and slow axonal transport. Fast axonal transport is faster and moves larger molecules, such as mitochondria and synaptic vesicles, while slow axonal transport is slower and moves smaller molecules, such as proteins and RNA. Disruptions in axonal transport can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as traumatic brain injury and stroke.

Rab GTP-binding proteins are a family of small GTPases that play a crucial role in regulating intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotic cells. They are involved in the transport of vesicles between different organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane. Rab proteins cycle between an active, GTP-bound state and an inactive, GDP-bound state, which is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). When bound to GTP, Rab proteins interact with effector proteins that mediate specific vesicle trafficking steps, such as vesicle tethering, docking, and fusion. Mutations in Rab proteins or their regulators have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and immune system disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of Rab proteins is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are a group of proteins that bind to microtubules, which are important components of the cytoskeleton in cells. These proteins play a crucial role in regulating the dynamics of microtubules, including their assembly, disassembly, and stability. MAPs are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and the maintenance of cell shape. They can also play a role in the development of diseases such as cancer, where the abnormal regulation of microtubules and MAPs can contribute to the growth and spread of tumors. There are many different types of MAPs, each with its own specific functions and mechanisms of action. Some MAPs are involved in regulating the dynamics of microtubules, while others are involved in the transport of molecules along microtubules. Some MAPs are also involved in the organization and function of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for the proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Overall, MAPs are important regulators of microtubule dynamics and play a crucial role in many cellular processes. Understanding the function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for diseases that are associated with abnormal microtubule regulation.

Dyneins are a family of large molecular motors that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and the maintenance of cell shape. They are composed of multiple protein subunits and use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, which are important structural components of the cell. Dyneins are found in most eukaryotic cells and are responsible for a variety of important functions. For example, dynein is involved in the transport of organelles and vesicles within the cell, and it plays a key role in the movement of cilia and flagella, which are hair-like structures that protrude from the surface of some cells and are involved in movement and sensory functions. Dyneins are also involved in the process of cell division, where they help to move the chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell during mitosis. In addition, dyneins are involved in the maintenance of cell shape and the organization of the cytoskeleton, which is the network of protein fibers that provides support and structure to the cell. Dyneins are important for many cellular processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the field of cell biology.

Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material, or DNA. It is typically located in the center of the cell and is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. The nucleus is responsible for regulating gene expression and controlling the cell's activities. It contains a dense, irregularly shaped mass of chromatin, which is made up of DNA and associated proteins. The nucleus also contains a small body called the nucleolus, which is responsible for producing ribosomes, the cellular structures that synthesize proteins.

Mitochondrial proteins are proteins that are encoded by genes located in the mitochondrial genome and are synthesized within the mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including energy production, cell growth and division, and regulation of the cell cycle. Mitochondrial proteins are essential for the proper functioning of the mitochondria, which are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell. Mutations in mitochondrial proteins can lead to a variety of inherited disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect multiple organ systems and cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological problems.

Myosin type V is a type of motor protein that is involved in the movement of organelles and vesicles within cells. It is a member of the myosin family of proteins, which are responsible for muscle contraction and other cellular movements. Myosin type V is characterized by its long tail, which contains two ATPase domains and a coiled-coil region. This tail is used to bind to actin filaments and generate force for movement. Myosin type V is found in a variety of cell types, including neurons, muscle cells, and immune cells, and is involved in a number of cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and the formation of cell junctions.

Protozoan proteins are proteins that are produced by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. Protozoa are found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the bodies of animals and humans. Protozoan proteins can be of interest in the medical field because some protozoa are pathogenic, meaning they can cause disease in humans and other animals. For example, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, produces a number of proteins that are important for its survival and replication within the host organism. Protozoan proteins can also be studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs to treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers are exploring the use of antibodies that target specific protozoan proteins to prevent or treat diseases caused by these organisms. In addition to their potential medical applications, protozoan proteins are also of interest to researchers studying the evolution and biology of these organisms. By studying the proteins produced by protozoa, scientists can gain insights into the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that underlie the biology of these organisms.

Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps that are found in the membranes of various organelles in eukaryotic cells, including the vacuoles, lysosomes, endosomes, and plasma membrane. These pumps are responsible for maintaining the acidic environment inside these organelles, which is essential for various cellular processes such as protein degradation, nutrient absorption, and immune response. V-ATPases consist of a complex of 14-16 subunits, including a catalytic subunit (V1) and a proton-translocating subunit (V0). The V1 subunit contains the ATPase activity, while the V0 subunit forms a proton channel that allows protons to flow from the cytoplasm to the lumen of the organelle. The energy from ATP hydrolysis is used to pump protons against their concentration gradient, creating a proton gradient that can be used to drive various cellular processes. In the medical field, V-ATPases are of interest because they are involved in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and lysosomal storage diseases. For example, V-ATPases have been shown to be upregulated in many types of cancer, and inhibitors of V-ATPases have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. Additionally, V-ATPases are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and inhibitors of V-ATPases have been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits in these conditions.

The cytoskeleton is a complex network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cytoplasm of a cell. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the shape and structure of the cell, as well as facilitating various cellular processes such as cell division, movement, and intracellular transport. The cytoskeleton is composed of three main types of protein filaments: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Microfilaments are the thinnest filaments and are involved in cell movement and muscle contraction. Intermediate filaments are slightly thicker than microfilaments and provide mechanical strength to the cell. Microtubules are the thickest filaments and serve as tracks for intracellular transport and as the structural framework for the cell. In addition to these three types of filaments, the cytoskeleton also includes various associated proteins and motor proteins that help to regulate and control the movement of the filaments. Overall, the cytoskeleton is a dynamic and essential component of the cell that plays a critical role in maintaining cellular structure and function.

Cytosol is the fluid inside the cytoplasm of a cell, which is the gel-like substance that fills the cell membrane. It is also known as the cytoplasmic matrix or cytosolic matrix. The cytosol is a complex mixture of water, ions, organic molecules, and various enzymes and other proteins that play important roles in cellular metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is the site of many cellular processes, including protein synthesis, energy production, and waste removal. The cytosol is also the site of many cellular organelles, such as the mitochondria, ribosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum, which are responsible for carrying out specific cellular functions.

Molecular motor proteins are a class of proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along a track or filament, such as microtubules or actin filaments. These proteins are essential for a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and muscle contraction. There are several types of molecular motor proteins, including myosins, kinesins, dyneins, and adenylate kinases. Myosins are responsible for muscle contraction, while kinesins and dyneins are involved in intracellular transport. Adenylate kinases are involved in energy metabolism. Molecular motor proteins are often referred to as "engines" of the cell because they use chemical energy to perform mechanical work. They are also important for the proper functioning of many cellular processes, and defects in these proteins can lead to a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, muscular dystrophy, and cancer.

Luminescent proteins are a class of proteins that emit light when they are excited by a chemical or physical stimulus. These proteins are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications, including imaging and diagnostics. One of the most well-known examples of luminescent proteins is green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was first discovered in jellyfish in the 1960s. GFP has since been widely used as a fluorescent marker in biological research, allowing scientists to track the movement and behavior of specific cells and molecules within living organisms. Other luminescent proteins, such as luciferase and bioluminescent bacteria, are also used in medical research and diagnostics. Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction that produces light, and it is often used in assays to measure the activity of specific genes or proteins. Bioluminescent bacteria, such as Vibrio fischeri, produce light through a chemical reaction that is triggered by the presence of certain compounds, and they are used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of these compounds in biological samples. Overall, luminescent proteins have proven to be valuable tools in the medical field, allowing researchers to study biological processes in greater detail and develop new diagnostic tests and treatments for a wide range of diseases.

Vesicular transport proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the movement of molecules and ions across cell membranes. These proteins are responsible for the formation, transport, and fusion of vesicles, which are small, membrane-bound sacs that carry cargo within the cell. There are two main types of vesicular transport proteins: vesicle budding proteins and vesicle fusion proteins. Vesicle budding proteins are responsible for the formation of vesicles, while vesicle fusion proteins are responsible for the fusion of vesicles with their target membranes. Vesicular transport proteins are essential for many cellular processes, including the transport of neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft, the transport of hormones and other signaling molecules, and the transport of nutrients and waste products within the cell. Mutations in vesicular transport proteins can lead to a variety of diseases, including neurological disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and certain types of cancer.

In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.

Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.

Chlorophyta is a phylum of green algae that are photosynthetic organisms. They are characterized by the presence of chlorophyll a and b, which allows them to convert sunlight into energy through photosynthesis. Chlorophyta includes a diverse range of species, such as seaweeds, freshwater algae, and land plants. In the medical field, Chlorophyta are not typically studied for their direct medical applications, but they are important for their role in the ecosystem and as a source of food and bioactive compounds. Some species of Chlorophyta have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial properties.

In the medical field, cellular structures refer to the basic building blocks of living organisms, which are cells. Cells are the smallest unit of life and are responsible for carrying out all the functions necessary for an organism to survive and thrive. There are many different types of cells in the body, each with its own unique structure and function. For example, muscle cells are long and thin and are responsible for contracting and relaxing to produce movement, while nerve cells have a branching structure that allows them to transmit signals throughout the body. In addition to cells, cellular structures also include tissues, organs, and organ systems. Tissues are groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function, such as muscle tissue or nervous tissue. Organs are made up of two or more tissue types and perform specific functions, such as the heart or liver. Organ systems are made up of multiple organs that work together to perform a complex function, such as the circulatory system or respiratory system. Understanding cellular structures is important in the medical field because many diseases and disorders are caused by problems with cells, tissues, organs, or organ systems. By studying cellular structures, medical professionals can better understand the underlying causes of these conditions and develop effective treatments.

In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.

Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins (LAMPs) are a family of proteins that are found on the surface of lysosomes, which are organelles within cells that are responsible for breaking down and recycling cellular waste. LAMPs are glycoproteins, which means that they are made up of both proteins and carbohydrates. They are characterized by their ability to bind to mannose, a type of sugar, and are involved in the regulation of lysosomal function. LAMPs have been studied in a variety of medical contexts, including their role in the immune response, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Blastocystis is a unicellular parasite that is commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. It is one of the most common parasites found in stool samples, and it is estimated to infect up to 1 billion people worldwide. Blastocystis is typically asymptomatic, but it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating in some individuals. The parasite has been classified into several subtypes based on genetic and morphological differences, and some subtypes have been associated with more severe symptoms. Blastocystis is typically diagnosed through stool analysis and is treated with antiparasitic medications.

In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are proteins that are produced by the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This yeast is commonly used in the production of bread, beer, and wine, as well as in scientific research. In the medical field, S. cerevisiae proteins have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some S. cerevisiae proteins have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, making them of interest for the development of new therapies.

Brefeldin A (BFA) is a naturally occurring macrolide compound that was first isolated from the fungus Brefeldia nivea. It is a potent inhibitor of the Golgi apparatus, a organelle in eukaryotic cells responsible for sorting, packaging, and transporting proteins and lipids to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell. In the medical field, BFA is used as a tool to study the function and dynamics of the Golgi apparatus and other intracellular organelles. It is often used in cell biology research to visualize and analyze the transport of proteins and lipids through the Golgi apparatus and to study the role of the Golgi apparatus in various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and signaling. BFA is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and to develop safe and effective treatments based on BFA.

DNA, Mitochondrial refers to the genetic material found within the mitochondria, which are small organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular molecule that is separate from the nuclear DNA found in the cell nucleus. Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, meaning that a person inherits their mtDNA from their mother. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is diploid (contains two copies of each gene), mtDNA is haploid (contains only one copy of each gene). Mutations in mitochondrial DNA can lead to a variety of inherited disorders, including mitochondrial disorders, which are a group of conditions that affect the mitochondria and can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological problems.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant species that is widely used as a model organism in the field of plant biology. It is a member of the mustard family and is native to Europe and Asia. Arabidopsis is known for its rapid growth and short life cycle, which makes it an ideal model organism for studying plant development, genetics, and molecular biology. In the medical field, Arabidopsis is used to study a variety of biological processes, including plant growth and development, gene expression, and signaling pathways. Researchers use Arabidopsis to study the genetic basis of plant diseases, such as viral infections and bacterial blight, and to develop new strategies for crop improvement. Additionally, Arabidopsis is used to study the effects of environmental factors, such as light and temperature, on plant growth and development. Overall, Arabidopsis is a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant biology and has important implications for agriculture and medicine.

Adaptor Protein Complex 3 (AP-3) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the sorting and transport of proteins and lipids within cells. It is composed of four subunits: μ1A, μ1B, μ2A, and μ2B, which are encoded by different genes. AP-3 is involved in the sorting of cargo molecules destined for lysosomes, endosomes, and the plasma membrane. It recognizes specific sorting signals on the cargo molecules and mediates their binding to vesicles that transport them to their final destinations. Mutations in the genes encoding AP-3 subunits have been associated with several human diseases, including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, and a form of retinitis pigmentosa. These diseases are characterized by defects in the immune system, bleeding disorders, and vision problems, respectively.

Centrifugation, density gradient is a laboratory technique used to separate cells, particles, or molecules based on their density. The sample is placed in a centrifuge tube and spun at high speeds, causing the particles to separate into layers based on their density. The heaviest particles settle at the bottom of the tube, while the lightest particles float to the top. This technique is commonly used in medical research to isolate specific cells or particles for further analysis or study. It is also used in the diagnosis of certain diseases, such as blood disorders, and in the purification of biological samples for use in medical treatments.

Cell biology is a branch of biology that focuses on the study of cells, their structure, function, and behavior. In the medical field, cell biology plays a crucial role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases and developing new treatments. Cell biology involves the study of various aspects of cells, including their structure, organization, and function. This includes the study of organelles, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the cytoskeleton, which provides support and shape to the cell. In the medical field, cell biology is used to understand the underlying mechanisms of diseases, such as cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases. This involves studying the behavior of cells in healthy and diseased states, as well as the interactions between cells and their environment. Cell biology is also used in the development of new treatments for diseases. For example, researchers use cell biology to study the effects of drugs on cells, and to develop new drugs that target specific cellular processes. Overall, cell biology is a fundamental field of study in medicine, providing insights into the basic mechanisms of health and disease, and informing the development of new treatments and therapies.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.

In the medical field, an axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell (neuron) that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body towards other neurons, muscles, or glands. The axon is covered by a myelin sheath, which is a fatty substance that insulates the axon and helps to speed up the transmission of electrical signals. Axons are responsible for transmitting information throughout the nervous system, allowing the brain and spinal cord to communicate with other parts of the body. They are essential for many bodily functions, including movement, sensation, and cognition. Damage to axons can result in a variety of neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and peripheral neuropathy. Treatments for these conditions often focus on preserving and regenerating axons to restore normal function.

Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.

The actin cytoskeleton is a complex network of protein filaments, including actin filaments, that extends throughout the cytoplasm of cells. It plays a crucial role in maintaining cell shape, facilitating cell movement, and enabling intracellular transport. The actin cytoskeleton is dynamic, constantly undergoing assembly and disassembly in response to changes in the cell's environment. It is composed of actin monomers, which polymerize to form filaments, and a variety of associated proteins that regulate filament assembly, stability, and function. Disruptions in the actin cytoskeleton can lead to a range of cellular abnormalities and diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and immune system dysfunction.

Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Actins are a family of globular, cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cell shape and motility. They are found in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, muscle contraction, and intracellular transport. Actins are composed of two globular domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are connected by a flexible linker region. They are capable of polymerizing into long, filamentous structures called actin filaments, which are the main component of the cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are dynamic structures that can be rapidly assembled and disassembled in response to changes in the cellular environment. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the formation of cellular structures such as the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic cortex, and the contractile ring during cell division. In addition to their role in maintaining cell shape and motility, actins are also involved in a number of other cellular processes, including the regulation of cell signaling, the organization of the cytoplasm, and the movement of organelles within the cell.

Decapodiformes is a taxonomic order of marine crustaceans that includes the mantis shrimp, stomatopods. These animals are characterized by their elongated bodies, large compound eyes, and powerful claws. They are found in shallow marine waters around the world and are known for their ability to use their claws to capture and kill prey. In the medical field, Decapodiformes are not typically studied or treated, as they are not directly related to human health. However, some species of mantis shrimp are used in research to study the mechanisms of visual perception and the evolution of complex eyes.

Centrioles are cylindrical structures found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are composed of microtubules and play a crucial role in cell division, particularly during the formation of the mitotic spindle. In the medical field, centrioles are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions. For example, mutations in genes that regulate centriole biogenesis have been linked to cancer, ciliopathies, and other genetic disorders. Additionally, centrioles are important for the proper functioning of immune cells and have been implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases. Overall, the study of centrioles is an active area of research in the medical field, with potential implications for the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of diseases.

Apicomplexa is a phylum of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that includes parasites such as Plasmodium (which causes malaria), Toxoplasma (which can cause toxoplasmosis), and Cryptosporidium (which can cause cryptosporidiosis). These organisms are characterized by the presence of an apical complex, which is a structure at the tip of the cell that contains organelles such as microtubules, rhoptries, and micronemes. The apical complex is used by the organism to attach to and invade host cells.

Potassium iodide (KI) is a medication that is used to protect the thyroid gland from the harmful effects of radioactive iodine. It is typically prescribed to people who live in areas where there is a risk of exposure to radioactive iodine, such as after a nuclear accident or in areas where the soil is contaminated with radioactive iodine. KI works by saturating the thyroid gland with non-radioactive iodine, which prevents it from absorbing radioactive iodine. This helps to protect the thyroid gland from damage and reduces the risk of thyroid cancer. KI is usually taken as a pill, and the dose and duration of treatment depend on the level of radiation exposure and the individual's age and health. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking KI to ensure that it is effective and safe.

Propylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, and viscous liquid that is commonly used as a solvent, humectant, and preservative in various medical products. It is a synthetic compound that is derived from propene, a hydrocarbon. In the medical field, propylene glycol is used in a variety of applications, including as a diluent for injectable medications, as a carrier for topical medications, and as an ingredient in medical devices such as catheters and tubing. It is also used as a stabilizer for vaccines and as a preservative for eye drops and other ophthalmic solutions. Propylene glycol is generally considered safe for use in medical products, although it can cause irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals. It is also flammable and should be handled with care.

Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.

In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.

Acridine Orange is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used in medical research and diagnostics. It is a cationic dye that binds to nucleic acids, specifically to double-stranded DNA and RNA, with high affinity. When Acridine Orange is added to a sample containing nucleic acids, it stains the nucleic acids bright orange, making them easily visible under a fluorescent microscope. Acridine Orange is often used as a stain in cytology to visualize cellular structures, such as chromosomes and nucleoli, in fixed and stained cells. It is also used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific nucleic acid sequences, such as in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays. In addition, Acridine Orange has been used as an antiviral agent against certain viruses, such as herpes simplex virus and influenza virus. However, it is important to note that Acridine Orange is a mutagen and carcinogen, and its use should be carefully controlled and monitored to minimize potential risks to human health.

Protein sorting signals are specific amino acid sequences within a protein that serve as instructions for directing the protein to its proper location within a cell or to a specific organelle within the cell. These signals are recognized by receptors or chaperones within the cell, which then guide the protein to its destination. Protein sorting signals are critical for proper protein function and localization within the cell, and defects in these signals can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders. Examples of protein sorting signals include the signal peptide, which directs proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum for processing and secretion, and the nuclear localization signal, which directs proteins to the nucleus for gene regulation.

Acid phosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate esters in the presence of acid. It is found in a variety of tissues and cells throughout the body, including bone, liver, and white blood cells. In the medical field, acid phosphatase levels can be measured in blood, urine, and other body fluids as a diagnostic tool for various conditions, such as bone disorders, liver disease, and certain types of cancer. High levels of acid phosphatase may indicate the presence of bone resorption, liver damage, or cancer, while low levels may indicate bone formation or certain types of anemia.

Nocodazole is a type of chemotherapy drug that is used to treat certain types of cancer. It works by interfering with the formation of microtubules, which are important components of the cell's cytoskeleton. This can cause the cancer cells to stop dividing and eventually die. Nocodazole is typically administered intravenously and is used to treat a variety of cancers, including ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia. It may also be used to treat other conditions, such as abnormal bleeding or to prevent the growth of blood vessels in tumors.

GTP phosphohydrolases are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) into guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). These enzymes play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein synthesis, and cell division. In the medical field, GTP phosphohydrolases are of particular interest because they are involved in the regulation of many signaling pathways that are implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, the enzyme Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP) is a GTP phosphohydrolase that regulates the activity of Rho GTPases, which are involved in cell migration, cytoskeletal organization, and cell proliferation. Mutations in RhoGAP have been implicated in several human cancers, including breast cancer and glioblastoma. Other examples of GTP phosphohydrolases that are of medical interest include the enzyme GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for heterotrimeric G proteins, which regulates the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the enzyme dynamin, which is involved in endocytosis and autophagy. Mutations in these enzymes have been implicated in various diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Tubulin is a protein that is essential for the formation and maintenance of microtubules, which are structural components of cells. Microtubules play a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and the maintenance of cell shape. In the medical field, tubulin is of particular interest because it is a key target for many anti-cancer drugs. These drugs, known as tubulin inhibitors, work by disrupting the formation of microtubules, which can lead to cell death. Examples of tubulin inhibitors include paclitaxel (Taxol) and vinblastine. Tubulin is also involved in the development of other diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In these conditions, abnormal tubulin dynamics have been implicated in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and other pathological hallmarks of the diseases. Overall, tubulin is a critical protein in cell biology and has important implications for the development of new treatments for a variety of diseases.

Ciliophora is a phylum of single-celled eukaryotic organisms that are characterized by the presence of hair-like structures called cilia on their cell surface. These cilia are used for movement, feeding, and sensation. In the medical field, Ciliophora are important because some species of ciliates can cause infections in humans and animals. For example, the parasite Entamoeba histolytica can cause amoebic dysentery, which can lead to severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and in severe cases, death. Other species of ciliates can cause respiratory infections, skin infections, and infections of the urinary tract. In addition, ciliates are also used in medical research as model organisms to study cell biology, genetics, and evolution. They are also used in environmental monitoring to assess water quality and to study the effects of pollutants on aquatic ecosystems.

Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). These enzymes play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, muscle contraction, and ion transport. In the medical field, ATPases are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions. For example, mutations in certain ATPase genes have been linked to inherited disorders such as myopathy and neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, ATPases are often targeted by drugs used to treat conditions such as heart failure, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Overall, ATPases are essential enzymes that play a critical role in many cellular processes, and their dysfunction can have significant implications for human health.

Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) is a rare, inherited disorder that affects the immune system and causes a variety of symptoms. It is caused by mutations in the CHS1 gene, which is responsible for producing a protein called LYST that is involved in the functioning of lysosomes, organelles in cells that help break down and recycle waste materials. In CHS, the LYST protein is not functioning properly, leading to the accumulation of large, abnormal lysosomes in various cells throughout the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including recurrent infections, bleeding disorders, and neurological problems. Some of the specific symptoms of CHS can include: - Recurrent infections, particularly of the respiratory tract, skin, and gastrointestinal tract - Easy bruising and bleeding - Abnormal pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes - Enlarged lymph nodes - Swelling of the tongue and tonsils - Seizures and other neurological problems - Developmental delays and intellectual disability in some cases CHS is a very rare disorder, with only a few hundred cases reported worldwide. It is typically diagnosed in childhood, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing infections. There is currently no cure for CHS.

DNA, chloroplast refers to the genetic material found within the chloroplasts of plant cells. Chloroplasts are organelles responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy. The DNA within chloroplasts is circular and contains genes that are involved in the production of proteins necessary for photosynthesis. Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally, meaning that it is passed down from the mother to the offspring. Mutations in chloroplast DNA can affect the ability of plants to carry out photosynthesis and can lead to various genetic disorders.

Centrifugation is a process used in the medical field to separate different components of a mixture based on their density or size. It involves spinning a sample at high speeds in a centrifuge, which causes the components to separate and settle out of the mixture. In the medical field, centrifugation is commonly used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Blood testing: Centrifugation is used to separate blood cells from plasma, allowing for the analysis of specific components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. 2. Viral and bacterial culture: Centrifugation is used to concentrate viruses and bacteria in a sample, making it easier to culture and study them. 3. DNA extraction: Centrifugation is used to separate DNA from other cellular components, allowing for the purification of DNA for use in genetic testing and research. 4. Protein purification: Centrifugation is used to separate proteins from other cellular components, allowing for the purification of proteins for use in research and drug development. Overall, centrifugation is a critical tool in the medical field, allowing researchers and healthcare professionals to analyze and study biological samples in a precise and efficient manner.

Biological transport, active refers to the movement of molecules across cell membranes against a concentration gradient, which means from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. This type of transport requires energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and is facilitated by specific proteins called transporters or pumps. Active transport is essential for maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules within cells and between cells and their environment. Examples of active transport include the sodium-potassium pump, which maintains the electrochemical gradient necessary for nerve impulse transmission, and the glucose transporter, which moves glucose into cells for energy production.

Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.

Cytochalasins are a group of fungal metabolites that have been found to have a variety of biological activities, including the ability to disrupt actin filaments in cells. This disruption of actin filaments can lead to changes in cell shape and movement, as well as the ability of cells to adhere to one another or to a substrate. Cytochalasins are often used as research tools to study the role of actin filaments in cell biology and have potential applications in the treatment of certain diseases, such as cancer and inflammatory disorders.

In the medical field, the proteome refers to the complete set of proteins expressed by an organism, tissue, or cell type. It includes all the proteins that are present in a cell or organism, including those that are actively functioning and those that are not. The proteome is made up of the products of all the genes in an organism's genome, and it is dynamic, constantly changing in response to various factors such as environmental stimuli, developmental stage, and disease states. The study of the proteome is an important area of research in medicine, as it can provide insights into the function and regulation of cellular processes, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying various diseases. Techniques such as mass spectrometry and proteomics analysis are used to identify and quantify the proteins present in a sample, allowing researchers to study changes in the proteome in response to different conditions. This information can be used to develop new diagnostic tools and treatments for diseases, as well as to better understand the underlying biology of various disorders.

Proton pumps are a type of protein found in the membranes of cells, particularly in the lining of the stomach and the cells that make up the walls of blood vessels. These pumps work to regulate the pH of the cell's interior by actively transporting hydrogen ions (protons) out of the cell and into the surrounding environment. This process is essential for maintaining the proper functioning of many cellular processes, including the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy. In the medical field, proton pumps are often targeted by medications used to treat conditions such as acid reflux and stomach ulcers.

Fungal proteins are proteins that are produced by fungi. They can be found in various forms, including extracellular proteins, secreted proteins, and intracellular proteins. Fungal proteins have a wide range of functions, including roles in metabolism, cell wall synthesis, and virulence. In the medical field, fungal proteins are of interest because some of them have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of fungal infections or as vaccines against fungal diseases. Additionally, some fungal proteins have been shown to have anti-cancer properties, making them potential targets for the development of new cancer treatments.

Propanediol dehydratase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of certain amino acids and sugars. It is involved in the breakdown of propanediol, a type of sugar alcohol, into pyruvate, a molecule that can be used for energy production in the body. Propanediol dehydratase is found in the liver and other tissues, and its activity is regulated by various factors, including hormones and nutrients. In the medical field, propanediol dehydratase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can cause a buildup of propanediol in the body, leading to a range of symptoms, including liver damage, neurological problems, and developmental delays.

DNA, Algal refers to the genetic material of algae, which is a diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that includes plants, seaweeds, and other aquatic plants. In the medical field, DNA from algae is sometimes used in research or as a source of therapeutic compounds. For example, some algae contain pigments called carotenoids that have antioxidant properties and may have potential health benefits. Additionally, algae are being studied as a source of biofuels, which could have implications for the medical field as a potential alternative to fossil fuels.

Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.

Macrolides are a class of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. They work by inhibiting the production of proteins that are essential for the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Macrolides are typically administered orally or intravenously, and they have a broad spectrum of activity against many different types of bacteria. Some common examples of macrolides include erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. Macrolides are generally considered to be safe and effective, although they can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain. They may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with a macrolide.

In the medical field, the centrosome is a cellular organelle that plays a crucial role in cell division and the organization of microtubules. It is composed of two centrioles surrounded by a protein matrix called the pericentriolar material (PCM). The centrosome is responsible for organizing the microtubules that make up the mitotic spindle, which is essential for the separation of chromosomes during cell division. The centrosome also plays a role in the organization of the cytoskeleton, which provides structural support for the cell and helps to maintain its shape. Abnormalities in the structure or function of the centrosome can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer. For example, mutations in genes that regulate centrosome function have been linked to the development of certain types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer and glioblastoma.

Blotting, Western is a laboratory technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample by transferring proteins from a gel to a membrane and then incubating the membrane with a specific antibody that binds to the protein of interest. The antibody is then detected using an enzyme or fluorescent label, which produces a visible signal that can be quantified. This technique is commonly used in molecular biology and biochemistry to study protein expression, localization, and function. It is also used in medical research to diagnose diseases and monitor treatment responses.

Synaptophysin is a protein that is found in nerve terminals, where it plays a role in the formation and maintenance of synapses, which are the junctions between neurons where information is transmitted. Synaptophysin is a type of synaptic vesicle protein, which means that it is found in the small sacs, or vesicles, that contain neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules in nerve terminals. Synaptophysin is also used as a diagnostic marker for certain neurological disorders, such as multiple system atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Cercozoa is a phylum of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that are commonly found in freshwater and marine environments. They are characterized by the presence of a large, complex cell membrane called a pellicle, which is composed of microtubules and intermediate filaments. Cercozoa are known to be important components of aquatic ecosystems, and some species are also found in soil and other habitats. They are also of interest to researchers because of their unique biology and potential applications in biotechnology and medicine. In the medical field, Cercozoa are not typically associated with human health, but some species have been found to produce bioactive compounds that may have potential therapeutic applications. Additionally, some Cercozoa are used as model organisms in research on cell biology and evolution.

'3,3'-Diaminobenzidine' (DAB) is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a substrate for histochemical staining. It is a diaminobenzidine derivative that is used to detect the presence of an enzyme or other protein in tissue samples. In histochemical staining, DAB is used to visualize the localization of an enzyme or protein in a tissue sample. The enzyme or protein is first incubated with a specific substrate, which is then converted by the enzyme into a colored product that can be visualized under a microscope. DAB is commonly used as a substrate for the detection of enzymes such as peroxidase, which is found in many cells and tissues. DAB staining is widely used in many areas of medicine, including pathology, immunohistochemistry, and neuroscience. It is a reliable and sensitive method for detecting proteins in tissue samples, and it can be used to study a wide range of biological processes and diseases.

The carboxysome is a specialized bacterial organelle that encapsulates enzymes into a virus-like protein shell and plays ... Reprogramming bacterial protein organelles as a nanoreactor for hydrogen production. *Tianpei Li1,2,3,4, ... Tanaka, S., Sawaya, M. R. & Yeates, T. O. Structure and mechanisms of a protein-based organelle in Escherichia coli. Science ... Li, T., Jiang, Q., Huang, J. et al. Reprogramming bacterial protein organelles as a nanoreactor for hydrogen production. Nat ...
Tag Archives: cell organelles. NIMBioS Introduces Students to the Creative Side of Science. Posted on June 7, 2013 by admin ... cell organelles, CURENT, STEM , Comments Off on NIMBioS Introduces Students to the Creative Side of Science ...
organelles 2 videos. * Parts of a Cell AP Biology AP Biology Videos Membrane structure endosymbiosis organelles protein ...
Membraneless organelles: phasing out of equilibrium Maria Hondele 0000-0002-2733-2561 ... cellular functions of biological condensates, liquid-liquid phase separation, membraneless organelles, non-equilibrium steady- ... Maria Hondele, Stephanie Heinrich, Paolo De Los Rios, Karsten Weis; Membraneless organelles: phasing out of equilibrium. Emerg ...
... elegans reveal new insights into how the ANC-1 protein helps to anchor the nucleus and other organelles in place. ... Cells contain an assortment of organelles which each have their own specialized role. To work correctly, most organelles need ... Cellular Organisation: Putting organelles in their place. Experiments in C. elegans reveal new insights into how the ANC-1 ... Loss of ANC-1 leads to unanchored and misshaped organelles and a smaller body size in worms.. The hypodermis of C. elegans ...
... of Eukaryotic Organelles 10/1/96 Essay 】 on Artscolumbia ✅ Huge assortment of FREE essays & assignments ✅ The best writers! ... These organelles produce chemical reactions using the energy from the sun. The structure of the Golgi complex is made up of ... The outer membrane shapes the organelle into its egg-like shape, while the inner membrane folds inward to form a set of shelves ... "of Eukaryotic Organelles 10/1/96 Essay." Artscolumbia, 7 Jan 2019, https://artscolumbia.org/of-eukaryotic-organelles-10-1-96- ...
However, owing to their ancient origin, these organelles provide only limited insights into the initial stages of ... These proteins show similar domain architectures as known organelle-targeted expression regulators of the octotrico peptide ... The cercozoan amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains photosynthetic organelles-termed chromatophores-that evolved from a ... The cercozoan amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains photosynthetic organelles - termed chromatophores - that evolved from a ...
Size-scaling promotes senescence-like changes in proteome and organelle content. Ling Cheng, Jingyuan Chen, Yidi Kong, Ceryl ... Size-scaling promotes senescence-like changes in proteome and organelle content Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Analysis of organelle proteome expression identifies p53 and retinoblastoma pathways as mediators of size-scaling, consistent ... cell size can alter cellular fitness and function through cumulative reorganization of the proteome and organelle content. An ...
Novel Gene Rearrangement and the Full Mitochondrial Genome of Cynoglossusmonopus: Insights into the Envolution of the Household Cynoglossidae (Pleuronectiformes) Cynoglossusmonopus, a small benthic fish, belongs to the Cynoglossidae, Pleuronectiformes. It…. Read More ...
BioAssay record AID 1259315 submitted by Drosophila RNAi Screening Center (DRSC): Zinc chloride toxicity assay in Drosophila S2R+ cultured cells, DRSC MBO1 (membrane-bound organelles) RNAi reagent library.
How does lipid transport between organelles in the cell take place and how is it regulated? A lesson from the ceramide ... How does lipid transport between organelles in the cell take place and how is it regulated? A lesson from the ceramide ... About the talk: Lipids are the major constituents of all cell membranes and play dynamic roles in organelle structure and ... early history of CERT and a mechanistic consideration of rapid and accurate inter-organelle transport of lipids at organelle ...
Show how transistors work with our downloadable paper model.
Organelle Plant Cells Animal Cells Organelle Cell Wall Mitochondria Vesicle Nucleolus Chloroplast Nucleus Chromatin Plasma ... Download Cell Organelles Worksheet Survey yes no Was this document useful for you? Thank you for your participation! * Your ... Cell Organelles Worksheet Complete the following table by writing the name of the cell part or organelle in the right hand ... The sites of protein synthesis Transports materials within the cell The region inside the cell except for the nucleus Organelle ...
Parasite Organelles. Acidocalcisomes are novel calcium-containing acidic organelles present in unicellular eukaryotes. Several ... Processing of secretory organelle contents appears to be ubiquitous among the Apicomplexa. Since subtilases are found in ... Andrea Montalvetti described a functional aquaporin (water channel) found in the organelles of T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of ... Micronemes and rhoptries are specialized secretory organelles of the Apicomplexa, whose contents are thought to be essential ...
Cover photo: Wikimedia User Thesupermat The scientific method is a powerful tool for exploring the physical realities underpinning our existence. But theres no guarantee that well like what we find once we start the exploration. The physical relationships uncovered by scientific inquiry can be joyful or disturbing, useful or esoteric, controversial or deeply satisfying. Occasionally, science can reveal truths that are just, well, a bit trippy. Endosymbioses are long …. ...
MRM Proteomics Inc. was established in 2010 as a spin-out company to commercialize the cutting-edge proteomics technologies, tools and know-how developed at the University of Victoria-Genome BC Proteomics Centre.. ...
Perhaps the mitochondrias development is simply a result of condensing the process of energy creation into a single organelle ... Describe The Relationship Between Organelles And Eukaryotes. Some the evidence for this theory include the mitochondria and ... Konstantin Mereschkowski.1 The Endosymbiont theory states that organelles of eukaryotic cells came from prokaryotic cells that ... of eukaryotes through either primary or secondary endosymbiosis which allowed for the development of many unique organelles ...
What organelle is least important?. What organelle is the least important? The ribosome may be the smallest organelle in the ... What is an organelle quizlet?. organelle. a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within a cell. nucleus. ... What best describes the organelles in a cell?. An organelle is a structure within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that is ... What is an organelle and give two examples of organelles?. The nucleus, the mitochondrion, the chloroplast, the Golgi apparatus ...
Which Cell Organelle Stores DNA and Synthesizes…25 Apr 2017 DNA is stored within the cell organelle known as the nucleus. The ... Isolated Human .. organelles could be responsible for the observed stimulation of RNA labeling Organelles Working Together , A ... The ribosome moves down the RNA, reading the instructions on what amino acids to Cell Organelles - Biology FactsSome organelles ... cellCytoplasm surrounds the cells specialized structures, or organelles.Cell Biology/Organelles - Wikibooks, open books for an ...
We describe how viruses reorganize cellular membrane compartments and cytoskeleton to generate these "mini-organelles" and how ... ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5347-0490 (2023) Virus factories and mini-organelles generated for virus replication. In: ...
Membrane-bound organelles found in both plant and animal cells include the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ... Plant Cell vs Animal Cell: Definition, 25+ Differences with Cell Organelles. September 8, 2021. August 16, 2021. ... Theyre both membrane-bound, having multiple cell organelles in common that execute comparable, though not identical, ... Both plant and animal cells contain membrane-bound organelles like the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes ...
Their method uses grids of light that activate fluorescent color tags on each type of organelle - the result is a 3-D video ... "Drexel Researchers Help Provide First Glimpse at Organelles In Action". Researchers at Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the ...
Name the organelles which show the analogy written as under: ... Name the organelle which show the analogy written as under. ...
What organelle does lactic acid fermentation occur in?. Editor. December 21, 2021. ... What organelle does lactic acid fermentation occur in?. In eukaryotic cells, glycolysis and fermentation reactions occur in the ...
First artificial organelle. August 5, 2009. Tom James Researchers have developed an artificial cellular organelle to aid in the ... Much of the mystery of heparin production stems from the site of its natural synthesis: a cellular organelle called the Golgi ... The result: the first known artificial cell organelle, a small microfluidics chip that mimics some of the Golgis actions. ...
Who Found the Ribosome? Meet the Scientist who Discovered the Organelle Ribosome 2009-01-28. ...
In contrast, eukaryotes have membrane-bound internal compartments called organelles. Each of these organelles fulfills a ... For example, in plant cells, chloroplasts are specialized organelles that convert light energy to sugar. Similarly, animal ... Organelles Compartmentalize Eukaryotic Cells. Prokaryotic cells lack internal membranes. ...
... ... Lysosomes which are known as suicide bags are produced by which organelle ? ...
... : ... The cell organelle involved in forming complex sugars from simple sugars are:. Golgi apparatus are involved in the formation of ... Which cell organelle plays a crucial role in detoxifying many poisons and drugs in a cell? ...
  • A dynamin is required for the biogenesis of secretory organelles in Toxoplasma gondii. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: DrpB is the essential mechanoenzyme for the biogenesis of secretory organelles in Apicomplexa. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Organelle Biogenesis and Protein Translocation. (hhmi.org)
  • However, they may have additional roles on the regulation of organelle transport by their interaction with motor proteins on the microtubules. (go.jp)
  • This project aims to understand the roles of transport proteins in cellular metabolism by (A) biochemical characterization of recombinant proteins in vitro using liposome systems, (B) physiological characterization of loss-of-function mutants, and (C) in vivo analyses with isolated intact organelles. (hhu.de)
  • It is unknown how plastids (and mitochondria) in plant cells interact with the endoplasmic reticulum and which proteins mediate the interactions between these organelles and other cellular membrane systems. (hhu.de)
  • Ascribing subcellular localization of proteins assists understanding function and has largely been addressed through 'omic' approaches, such as proteomics of purified organelles and hyperplexed organelle localizations by isotope tagging 1 . (nature.com)
  • In the absence of these organelles, invasion-related secretory proteins are mistargeted to the constitutive secretory pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • are organelles that process the cell's genetic instructions to create proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Proteins and RNA aggregate into "membraneless organelles" due to liquid-liquid phase separation. (the-scientist.com)
  • The Laboratory of Protein Trafficking and Organelle Biology focus on understanding how cells sense, respond, and adapt to a variety of stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation, organelle damage, and pathogen infection. (nih.gov)
  • M. pneumoniae is primarily an extracellular pathogen that has evolved a specialized attachment organelle for close association with host cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies from basic cell biology and other diseases demonstrate the existence of a highly dynamic system for bidirectional communication among the cell's network of mitochondria, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, and other organelles that dictate cellular behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • Complement's favourite organelle-Mitochondria? (nih.gov)
  • Contacts between organelles within cells drive the transfer of calcium from lysosomes to mitochondria, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences (PNAS). (northwestern.edu)
  • Organelles including the mitochondria and lysosome are specialized subunits within a cell, performing a variety of functions: energy production and the "garbage disposal" breakdown of large molecules, respectively. (northwestern.edu)
  • When these two organelles "docked" together, the scientists observed calcium moving from the lysosome to the mitochondria, through a lysosomal receptor called TRPML1. (northwestern.edu)
  • The isolation of such complex organelles, however, is still demanding, and existing protocols are either limited to a few species (for plastids) or have not been reported for diatoms so far (for mitochondria). (uni-konstanz.de)
  • LC-ESI-MS/MS studies on mitochondria and thylakoids, moreover, allowed detailed proteome analyses which resulted in extensive proteome maps for both plastids and mitochondria thus helping us to broaden our understanding of organelle metabolism and functionality in diatoms. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • We hope your happy with this Membrane Structure and Function Worksheet Cell organelle Worksheet idea. (ventureitch.com)
  • You can download and please share this Membrane Structure and Function Worksheet Cell organelle Worksheet ideas to your friends and family via your social media account. (ventureitch.com)
  • Unexpectedly, global mislocalization of cellular organelles and excess membrane accumulation in the septate junctions (SJs) are also observed. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Whereas mutations in core secretory pathway genes lead to organelle localization defects similar to those of CrebA mutants, they have no effect on SJ-associated membrane. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Cells use compartments known as organelles to sequester molecules or reactions as a way to control many biochemical processes. (acs.org)
  • Scientists would like to do the same by engineering synthetic organelles into cells. (acs.org)
  • Sequestering the enzyme Cdc5, required for another part of cell division, within organelles caused cells to stall midway through division, leaving them dumbbell shaped. (acs.org)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support research projects that examine how inter-organelle communication in cancer cells and/or tumor-associated cells affects cellular function, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of phthalate esters on lipid metabolism in various tissues, cells and organelles in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • At a subcellular level, this technique provides a high spatial resolution in the x-y plane (5-nm) and in the perpendicular z-direction (25-nm) that enables visualization of organelles throughout the volumes of individual beta cells within an islet. (nih.gov)
  • This method enables quantification of the number of secretory organelles in beta cells, as well as estimation of the total insulin content of a beta cell. (nih.gov)
  • Take a Tour of Your Cells’ Organelles! (nih.gov)
  • It also provides a track-like system that directs the movement of organelles and other substances within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We suggest that DrpB is required during replication to generate vesicles for the regulated secretory pathway that form the unique secretory organelles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Peroxisomes are cellular organelles that are an integral part of the metabolic pathway. (medscape.com)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, encourage s Research Project Grant (R01) applications that propose to study biological processes involving the cellular organelles in alcohol-induced tissue injury. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular organelles play an important role in cellular functions and are significantly involved in alcohol-induced tissue injury. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, studies of alcohol's effects on the structure and function of cellular organelles are critical to better understand the mechanisms of alcohol-induced injuries and to develop new strategies for their diagnosis and treatment. (nih.gov)
  • We provide clues to function and define lineage-specific organelle adaptations for parasitism, mapping the ultraconserved cellular architecture of eukaryotes, including the first comprehensive 'cartographic' analysis of the eukaryotic flagellum, which is vital for morphogenesis and pathology. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, the flagellum is also a widely conserved organelle in eukaryotes and a defining feature of the last eukaryotic common ancestor 9 , but not yet analysed by genome-wide protein localization mapping using microscopy. (nature.com)
  • Acidocalcisomes are novel calcium-containing acidic organelles present in unicellular eukaryotes. (medscape.com)
  • Each labelled organelle/structure is distinguishable by light microscopy. (nature.com)
  • Three methods can be used for the evaluation of spermatozoa morphology in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory: (1) light microscopy of stained spermatozoa, (2) motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) and (3) polarized light microscopy. (intechopen.com)
  • MeSH had a number of descriptors that included organelle- and organism-specific terms in sub-concepts as Entry Terms. (nih.gov)
  • To avoid this confusion we removed organism- and organelle-specific terms in cases where the concept merely refers to the same or nearly same protein found in a different location or different organism. (nih.gov)
  • In cases where there is a distinct protein subtype that is only found in a specific organelle or organism the sub-concept was promoted to a new descriptor class. (nih.gov)
  • However, such localization attributions are limited by the accuracy of organelle purification or fractionation, and sensitivity is limited by protein abundance and characteristics. (nature.com)
  • Protein localization offers insights into organelle subdomains/dynamics and cell-cycle-dependent localization changes. (nature.com)
  • The Laboratory of Protein Trafficking and Organelle Biology, led by Dr. Rosa Puertollano, seeks to understand precisely how defects in intracellular trafficking-specifically, in endosomal and lysosomal pathways-contribute to human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • T . brucei is an early-branching eukaryote (Fig. 1a ), giving enormous insight into eukaryote evolutionary cell biology and losses or gains in organelle complexity since the last eukaryotic common ancestor. (nature.com)
  • Fox, RM & Andrew, DJ 2015, ' Changes in organelle position and epithelial architecture associated with loss of CrebA ', Biology Open , vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 317-330. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • This organelle helps process molecules created by the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Subcellular compartmentalization enabled pro- and eukaryotic organisms to target metabolic reaction into distinct organelles. (hhu.de)
  • These organelles can float freely in the cytoplasm or be connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (see above). (medlineplus.gov)
  • are complex organelles that convert energy from food into a form that the cell can use. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The goal of the Protein Trafficking and Organelle Dynamics Interest Group is to promote interaction between Institutes and laboratories studying protein trafficking and organelle dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • To join the Protein Trafficking and Organelle Dynamics Interest Group mailing list, please visit the Protein Trafficking and Organelle Dynamics Interest Group Listserv home page , then click the "Subscribe or Unsubscribe" link in the right sidebar. (nih.gov)
  • CoralHue ™ Organelle targeting vectors allowing to visualize subcellular structures. (mblbio.com)
  • Some of these parts, called organelles, are specialized structures that perform certain tasks within the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this sense, phosphorylation of MAPs can be a good candidate for the molecular switch to regulate the organelle transport. (go.jp)
  • As a second set of experiments, we investigated the effects of modulating cAMP dependent protein kinase pathway on organelle transports in primary sensory neurons, where high-molecular-weight tau protein is the major MAP. (go.jp)
  • Local activation of protein kinase pathways in the axon might play an important role on the segregation of microtubules serving for either organelle transport or cytoskeletal architecture. (go.jp)
  • As part of our ongoing effort to improve your search experience, we’ve made it easier for you to find the sequence of your favorite organelle genome plus all the information and data associated with it. (nih.gov)
  • The arrows indicate the attachment organelles. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers have made such synthetic organelles before, but they haven't used them to program cell function. (acs.org)
  • While they are commonly thought to function separately, recent investigations have revealed a substantial number of these organelles are in contact with each other at any given time. (northwestern.edu)
  • These contacts are thought to both help maintain the environment within the cell and facilitate organelle function, as shown in Krainc's recent publication in Nature . (northwestern.edu)
  • Viscosity probes towards different organelles with red emission based on an identical hemicyanine structure. (bvsalud.org)
  • A series of viscosity probes targeting different organelles were obtained using a single hemicyanine dye as the matrix structure. (bvsalud.org)
  • This interaction has the effect of recruiting the enzymes to the synthetic organelle made by the scaffold protein. (acs.org)
  • Transfection of tau or MAP2C gene suppressed organelle movement almost completely in this cell type, hence interaction of axonal MAPs with microtubules interferes with organelle transports. (go.jp)
  • That the researchers could turn cell growth off and back on makes this work "stand out from some of the previous work," says Evan Spruijt, who studies artificial organelles at Radboud University and wasn't involved with the new study. (acs.org)
  • The researchers engineer yeast to produce both the scaffold protein and the enzyme that they want to capture within the organelle. (acs.org)
  • Several posters from researchers in the groups of Silvia Moreno and Roberto Docampo (UIUC, Urbana) highlighted recent work on these organelles. (medscape.com)
  • Its results helped investigators to understand the role of these organelles in human disease. (medscape.com)
  • Axonal microtubules have two essential roles: providing the track for organelle transport and forming the cytoskeletal framework to maintain axonal morphology. (go.jp)
  • These results indicate that axonal MAPs can work as a phosphorylation-dependent regulator of organelle transport. (go.jp)
  • We first examined the effects of axonal MAPs on the organelle movement along microtubules in a heterologous system using COS fibroblasts, which express no axonal MAPs, such as tau or MAP2C. (go.jp)
  • The highly organized cell, with single copies of many organelles (Fig. 1b ) and a precise division process 10 , allows unambiguous assignment of cell cycle stages and identification of old and new organelles during and after replication. (nature.com)
  • Apicomplexa replicate by budding from or within a single mother cell, and secretory organelles are synthesized de novo at the final stage of division. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Arizona State University's "Ask a Biologist" provides a description and illustration of each of the cell's organelles . (medlineplus.gov)
  • This emerging area promotes the concept that organelle networks coordinate oncogenic or tumor suppressive pressures that influence cell behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • We found that the application of dibutyryl cAMP enhanced transports of large organelles in the axon. (go.jp)
  • Andrea Montalvetti described a functional aquaporin (water channel) found in the organelles of T. cruzi , the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, and Peter Rohloff showed that this protein is translocated to the contractile vacuole upon hypo-osmotic stress. (medscape.com)