Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Organelle Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Organelle Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Melanophores: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Cellular Structures: Components of a cell.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Blastocystis: A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Secretory Pathway: A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Weibel-Palade Bodies: Rod-shaped storage granules for VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR specific to endothelial cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth: A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Magnetosomes: Membrane-bound prokaryotic organelles of magnetotactic bacteria that contain chains of MAGNETITE crystals which orient the bacteria to geomagnetic fields.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Potassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Mitochondrial Degradation: Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Multivesicular Bodies: Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 184.108.40.206.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Magnetospirillum: A genus of microaerophilic, gram-negative bacteria that forms crystals of the mineral magnetite in special organelles called MAGNETOSOMES.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: A form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction characterized by unusual oculocutaneous albinism, high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms, and recurrent pyogenic infections. In many cell types, abnormal lysosomes are present leading to defective pigment distribution and abnormal neutrophil functions. The disease is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance and a similar disorder occurs in the beige mouse, the Aleutian mink, and albino Hereford cattle.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Propanediol Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 220.127.116.11.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cercozoa: A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough: A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.3,3'-Diaminobenzidine
Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (1/2526)BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model. (+info)
Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (2/2526)Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic. (+info)
A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (3/2526)In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect. (+info)
Rational analyses of organelle trajectories in tobacco pollen tubes reveal characteristics of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. (4/2526)To gain insight into the characteristics of organelle movement and the underlying actomyosin motility system in tobacco pollen tubes, we collected data points representing sequential organelle positions in control and cytochalasin-treated cells, and in a sample of extruded cytoplasm. These data were utilized to reconstruct approximately 900 tracks, representing individual organelle movements, and to produce a quantitative analysis of the movement properties, supported by statistical tests. Each reconstructed track appeared to be unique and to show irregularities in velocity and direction of movement. The regularity quotient was near 2 at the tip and above 3 elsewhere in the cell, indicating that movement is more vectorial in the tube area. Similarly, the progressiveness ratio showed that there were relatively more straight trajectories in the tube region than at the tip. Consistent with these data, arithmetical dissection revealed a high degree of randomlike movement in the apex, lanes with tip-directed movement along the flanks, and grain-directed movement in the center of the tube. Intercalated lanes with bidirectional movement had lower organelle velocity, suggesting that steric hindrance plays a role. The results from the movement analysis indicate that the axial arrangement of the actin filaments and performance of the actomyosin system increases from tip to base, and that the opposite polarity of the actin filaments in the peripheral (+-ends of acting filaments toward the tip) versus the central cytoplasm (+-ends of actin filaments toward to the grain) is installed within a few minutes in these tip-growing cells. (+info)
Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5/2526)In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (+info)
Surface proteins of gram-positive bacteria and mechanisms of their targeting to the cell wall envelope. (6/2526)The cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria is a macromolecular, exoskeletal organelle that is assembled and turned over at designated sites. The cell wall also functions as a surface organelle that allows gram-positive pathogens to interact with their environment, in particular the tissues of the infected host. All of these functions require that surface proteins and enzymes be properly targeted to the cell wall envelope. Two basic mechanisms, cell wall sorting and targeting, have been identified. Cell well sorting is the covalent attachment of surface proteins to the peptidoglycan via a C-terminal sorting signal that contains a consensus LPXTG sequence. More than 100 proteins that possess cell wall-sorting signals, including the M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes, protein A of Staphylococcus aureus, and several internalins of Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified. Cell wall targeting involves the noncovalent attachment of proteins to the cell surface via specialized binding domains. Several of these wall-binding domains appear to interact with secondary wall polymers that are associated with the peptidoglycan, for example teichoic acids and polysaccharides. Proteins that are targeted to the cell surface include muralytic enzymes such as autolysins, lysostaphin, and phage lytic enzymes. Other examples for targeted proteins are the surface S-layer proteins of bacilli and clostridia, as well as virulence factors required for the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes (internalin B) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PspA) infections. In this review we describe the mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria and review the functions of known surface proteins. (+info)
Rat liver GTP-binding proteins mediate changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and organelle fusion. (7/2526)The variety of mitochondrial morphology in healthy and diseased cells can be explained by regulated mitochondrial fusion. Previously, a mitochondrial outer membrane fraction containing fusogenic, aluminum fluoride (AlF4)-sensitive GTP-binding proteins (mtg) was separated from rat liver (J. D. Cortese, Exp. Cell Res. 240: 122-133, 1998). Quantitative confocal microscopy now reveals that mtg transiently increases mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) when added to permeabilized rat hepatocytes (15%), rat fibroblasts (19%), and rabbit myocytes (10%). This large mtg-induced DeltaPsi increment is blocked by fusogenic GTPase-specific modulators such as guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), excess GTP (>100 microM), and AlF4, suggesting a linkage between DeltaPsi and mitochondrial fusion. Accordingly, stereometric analysis shows that decreasing DeltaPsi or ATP synthesis with respiratory inhibitors limits mtg- and AlF4-induced mitochondrial fusion. Also, a specific G protein inhibitor (Bordetella pertussis toxin) hyperpolarizes mitochondria and leads to a loss of AlF4-dependent mitochondrial fusion. These results place mtg-induced DeltaPsi changes upstream of AlF4-induced mitochondrial fusion, suggesting that GTPases exert DeltaPsi-dependent control of the fusion process. Mammalian mitochondrial morphology thus can be modulated by cellular energetics. (+info)
Occurrence of prostasome-like membrane vesicles in equine seminal plasma. (8/2526)Equine seminal plasma was shown to contain membrane vesicles that are similar to the well characterized prostasomes in human seminal plasma. Determination of nucleoside and nucleotide concentrations of these particles have shown that ATP, ADP and adenosine are the main components of the nucleotidic pool. 5' nucleotidase, endopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase i.v. activities have been found on the surface of the particles. The interaction between these prostasome-like vesicles and spermatozoa was demonstrated by electron micrograph scans which revealed the steps of a fusion-like process leading to mixing of the membranes. In addition, endopeptidase activity, a marker enzyme of these seminal vesicles that is normally absent from equine spermatozoa, was shown to be acquired by these cells after interaction with the vesicles. The addition of these vesicles to equine spermatozoa resulted in the modification of adenylate catabolism. Therefore, a role in stabilizing the energy charge of the spermatozoa thus allowing longer viability is proposed for these organelles. (+info)
CellNetworks - Scientist (f/m) / PhD position Subject: Dynamics and functions of membrane-bound organelles during mitosis
Mitosis is fundamental for all life. Decades of research have yielded comprehensive insight into how chromosomes, microtubules and centrosomes are remodeled to ensure the faithful segregation of genetic material during mitotic cell division. In addition to the correct genetic information, the forming daughter cells also need a full complement of membrane-bound organelles for their viability. Furthermore, it has recently emerged that spindle assembly and chromosome segregation depend on organelles and organelle-associated proteins. Thus, during mitosis, membrane-bound organelles need to be restructured and repositioned in highly specific ways to ensure successful cell division. However, the mechanisms of mitotic organelle remodeling have so far largely remained elusive. We previously identified new candidate organelle remodelers, among them REEP3 and REEP4, which control the distribution of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during mitosis in a microtubule-dependent manner (Schlaitz et al., Dev Cell ...
Help us to identify all the different organelles in a live 3D cheek cell! - cell academy › A 3D Cell Biology Learning Space
Help us to identify all the different organelles in a live 3D cheek cell! Lets have a look at this exciting video of a LIVE human cheek cell in 3D and identify all the different organelles.. The image has been acquired with a special new microscope - the 3D Cell Explorer - and is composed of 96 layers that show you the different planes of the cell. Scrolling through we can identify different organelles/ components from the inner core: the nucleus (a) to its cytoplasmic organelles: lysosomes (c) to the surrounding plasma membrane (b) and even the bacteria lying on the surface of the cell (d).. How many components could you identify?. ...
Cellular origin of the viral capsid-like bacterial microcompartments | Biology Direct | Full Text
Bacterial microcompartments (BMC) are proteinaceous organelles that structurally resemble viral capsids, but encapsulate enzymes that perform various specialized biochemical reactions in the cell cytoplasm. The BMC are constructed from two major shell proteins, BMC-H and BMC-P, which form the facets and vertices of the icosahedral assembly, and are functionally equivalent to the major and minor capsid proteins of viruses, respectively. This equivalence notwithstanding, neither of the BMC proteins displays structural similarity to known capsid proteins, rendering the origins of the BMC enigmatic. Here, using structural and sequence comparisons, we show that both BMC-H and BMC-P, most likely, were exapted from bona fide cellular proteins, namely, PII signaling protein and OB-fold domain-containing protein, respectively. This finding is in line with the hypothesis that many major viral structural proteins have been recruited from cellular proteomes. This article was reviewed by Igor Zhulin, Jeremy Selengut
Frontiers | Mechanisms of Polarized Organelle Distribution in Neurons | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Neurons are highly polarized cells exhibiting axonal and somatodendritic domains with distinct complements of cytoplasmic organelles. Although some organelles are widely distributed throughout the neuronal cytoplasm, others are segregated to either the axonal or somatodendritic domains. Recent findings show that organelle segregation is largely established at a pre-axonal-exclusion zone (PAEZ) within the axon hillock. Polarized sorting of cytoplasmic organelles at the PAEZ is proposed to depend mainly on their selective association with different microtubule motors and, in turn, with distinct microtubule arrays. Somatodendritic organelles that escape sorting at the PAEZ can be subsequently retrieved at the axon initial segment (AIS) by a microtubule- and/or actin-based mechanism. Dynamic sorting along the PAEZ-AIS continuum can thus explain the polarized distribution of cytoplasmic organelles between the axonal and somatodendritic domains.
Organelle - Wikipedia
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialised subunit within a cell that haes a speceefic function, in that thair function is vital for the cell tae live. Individual organelles are uisually separately enclosed within thair awn lipid bilayers. The name organelle comes frae the idea that thir structures are pairts o cells, as organs are tae the bouk, hence organelle, the suffix -elle bein a diminutive. Organelles are identifeed bi microscopy, an can an aa be purifeed bi cell fractionation. Thare are mony teeps o organelles, pairteecularly in eukaryotic cells. While prokaryotes dae nae possess organelles per se, some dae conteen protein-based bacterial microcompartments, that are thocht tae act as primitive organelles. ...
Organelle Functions Quiz - By dwattbasketball
Difference between revisions of "FF:10172-103C1" - resource browser
sample_gostat=GO:0044464;cell part;0!GO:0005622;intracellular;0!GO:0044424;intracellular part;2.51722459339303e-272!GO:0005737;cytoplasm;7.03274858066242e-146!GO:0043226;organelle;1.83933100727468e-105!GO:0043229;intracellular organelle;6.75827775862751e-105!GO:0043227;membrane-bound organelle;1.39906714831906e-97!GO:0043231;intracellular membrane-bound organelle;1.99238562522615e-97!GO:0044444;cytoplasmic part;2.78697223894782e-97!GO:0044422;organelle part;1.35718295835874e-69!GO:0044446;intracellular organelle part;1.17078457964465e-68!GO:0032991;macromolecular complex;3.68234199998967e-68!GO:0005515;protein binding;1.29784489587146e-58!GO:0030529;ribonucleoprotein complex;8.47677128387784e-47!GO:0016043;cellular component organization and biogenesis;1.4015733823655e-45!GO:0003723;RNA binding;9.63624988378728e-44!GO:0005739;mitochondrion;3.32365407692497e-43!GO:0033036;macromolecule localization;1.01643268905042e-38!GO:0015031;protein transport;3.28539211883998e-38!GO:0043234;protein ...
Organelle Isolation Kits - Cell Fractionation and Organelle Isolation | Sigma-Aldrich
A fundamental of cell biology is the biogenesis and maintenance of intracellular organelles. Eukaroytic cells are organized by segregating essential cellular functions into discrete compartments composed of proteins and lipids. Establishing and maintaining order requires mechanisms to synthesize and localize proteins to specific organelles, and monitor and regulate individual organelles. Targeted proteomics profiling can be partnered with protein pathway function by enriching for organelles and analyzing their contents. These kits and reagents enable researchers to enrich for functional mitochondria, chloroplasts and more with companion kits to determine organelle integrity. For more information on the Organelle Marker Isolation kits please click here.
Emerging roles for organelles in cellular regulation | Science Signaling
Our understanding of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells continues to evolve. Even our understanding and definition of organelles have evolved. There are the well-recognized membrane-bound organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, lysosomes, endosomal compartments, autophagosomes, chloroplasts, vacuoles, nuclei, and peroxisomes. Now, the concept of organelles has been extended to include macromolecular complexes that are stable structures performing specific functions, such as stress granules and centrioles. The jury is still out on whether scaffolded macromolecular regions, such as the postsynaptic density, plasma membrane-associated platforms, and certain cytoskeletal structures, are "organelles." Primary cilia, the single cilium that protrudes from many mammalian cells, are hybrid organelles with a membrane surrounding the portion that extends from the cell and a portion that is contiguous with the cytoplasm. Many of the membrane-less organelles have long been considered ...
Can Eukaryotes Survive Without Mitochondria? | Sciencing
Biologists divide all life on Earth into three domains: bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Bacteria and archaea both consist of single cells that have no nucleus and no internal membrane-bound organelles. Eukarya are all the organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and other internal membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes ...
Identification of a novel conserved sorting motif required for retromer-mediated endosome-to-TGN retrieval | Journal of Cell...
The function of the different organelles that comprise the secretory and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells is determined by the complement of resident proteins present within the respective organelle. The mechanisms that govern membrane protein localisation to the different organelles rely on intrinsic information in the membrane protein such as sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain and extrinsic factors such as coat-proteins that recognise the sorting motifs.. A well-studied example of these concepts is the sorting of membrane proteins by the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) adaptor proteins through recognition of the YXXΦ sorting motif. This tetra-peptide motif, comprising Tyr-X-X (where X is any amino acid)-bulky hydrophobic, is bound by the medium chain (μ) subunit of adaptor complexes resulting in the protein containing the YXXΦ motif being concentrated in CCVs (Ohno et al., 1995; Owen and Evans, 1998) (reviewed in Bonifacino and Traub, 2003). Another example of sorting motifs ...
Organelle Biogenesis and Positioning in Plants | Biochemical Society Transactions
The biogenesis and positioning of organelles involves complex interacting processes and precise control. Progress in our understanding is being made rapidly as advances in analysing the nuclear and organellar genome and proteome combine with developments in live-cell microscopy and manipulation at the subcellular level. This paper introduces the collected papers resulting from Organelle Biogenesis and Positioning in Plants, the 2009 Biochemical Society Annual Symposium. Including papers on the nuclear envelope and all major organelles, it considers current knowledge and progress towards unifying themes that will elucidate the mechanisms by which cells generate the correct complement of organelles and adapt and change it in response to environmental and developmental signals.. ...
Cell organelle synonyms, cell organelle antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Organelle Autophagy in Plant Development | Frontiers Research Topic
To maintain cellular homeostasis, eukaryotes must control the function, quality and quantity of organelles through organelle degradation. The removal of damaged organelles is essential for plants throughout various developmental stages as well as to overcome environmental changes that enhance cellular damage, since organelle degradation allows the recycling of derived small molecules, such as amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids. During developmental aging or starvation, plants actively degrade organelles in old organs and reuse the released molecules to produce juvenile organs. This nutrient recycling can determine crop productivity under agricultural settings since various nutrients are mobilized from vegetative organs to seeds during grain filling of cereals. Overall, various types of organelle turnover systems must cooperate throughout plant development to complete their life cycle. Autophagy is the
Bacterial microcompartments protein, conserved site (IPR020808) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
New Discovery Blurs Distinction Between Human Cells and those of Bacteria - Redorbit
UCLA biochemists reveal the first structural details of a family of mysterious objects called microcompartments that seem to be present in a variety of bacteria. The discovery was published Aug. 5 in the journal Science. "This is the first look at how microcompartments are built, and what the pieces look like," said Todd O. Yeates, UCLA professor of chemistry and biochemistry, and a member of the UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics. "These microcompartments appear to be highly evolved machines, and we are just now learning how they are put together and how they might work. We can see the particular amino acids and atoms." A key distinction separating the cells of primitive organisms like bacteria, known as prokaryotes, from the cells of complex organisms like humans is that complex cells -- eukaryotic cells -- have a much higher level of subcellular organization; eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, the tiny power generators in cells. Cells of ...
THE T-SNARES SYNTAXIN-1 AND SNAP-25 ARE PRESENT ON ORGANELLES THAT PARTICIPATE IN SYNAPTIC VESICLE RECYCLING
Syntaxin 1 and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP-25) are neuronal plasmalemma proteins that appear to be essential for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Both proteins form a complex with synaptobrevin, an intrinsic membrane protein of SVs. This binding is thought to be responsible for vesicle docking and apparently precedes membrane fusion, According to the current concept, syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 are members of larger protein families, collectively designated as target-SNAP receptors (t-SNAREs), whose specific localization to subcellular membranes define where transport vesicles bind and fuse, Here we demonstrate that major pools of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 recycle with SVs. Both proteins cofractionate with SVs and clathrin-coated vesicles upon subcellular fractionation. Using recombinant proteins as standards for quantitation, we found that syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 each comprise similar to 3% of the total protein in highly purified SVs. Thus, both proteins are significant ...
Rongmin Zhao | Department of Biological Sciences
Role and mechanism of Arabidopsis organellar molecular chaperone HSP90s. The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone which aids in folding a variety of proteins (termed HSP90 substrates), many of which are protein kinases and transcription factors playing key roles in cellular signaling pathways. In plants, HSP90s are essential for proper organelle function, buffering genetic variations and for the plant innate immune responses. Our laboratory is interested in the role and mechanism of action of HSP90 in plant development, organelle functions and in plant adaptation to environmental changes with a focus on the organellar HSP90 isoforms. Genetic, biochemical and proteomics approaches are applied to explore and characterize the Arabidopsis thaliana organellar HSP90 interacting proteins, which are composed of putative substrates and cochaperones under both normal and stress conditions. This will facilitate the identification of particular cellular pathways in which HSP90 is ...
Interview with Dr. Chris Beh - Faculty of Science - Simon Fraser University
We study how cells transport materials to and from different organelle membranes within the cell. Each organelle is a biochemically active machine, each with its own special environment, supporting different chemical processes - thats why these structures need to be compartmentalized.. We know a lot about how material is moved in the cell, but we dont understand much about how that movement is coordinated and balanced. Moving material and communicating with other organelles within a cell requires vesicles, small structures that are more or less bubbles of proteins, lipids and other components contained inside and on the vesicle membrane.. One of our more recent projects looks at how the cell balances the removal of old material with the import of new cargo at the cell surface. Coordinating the movement across the membrane preserves a balance that maintains a seemingly constant surface area and size of the cell. We discovered that this process is regulated by a protein that acts like a ...
Organelle Motility in Plant Cells: Imaging Golgi and ER Dynamics with GFP - Current Protocols
Drp1: A Link Between ER Stress and Apoptosis | GoldLab Foundation
Live imaging of mitochondria with fluorescent probes unraveled their restless shape restyling all along cell life. Chopping and reconstructing of mitochondrial membranes was soon attributed to large GTPases of the dynamin family and appeared to accompany crucial pathways, from the distribution of mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division, to making release of proapoptotic molecules from mitochondria easier during programmed cell death. Recently, fusion and fission events were shown to apply to other subcellular organelles, including peroxisomes. In addition, proteins modeling mitochondrial morphology were observed on other organelles. A single shared shaping machinery appears to be suitable to the coordination of relevant pathways involving different organelles. Here, we describe our recent discovery of the involvement of the fission protein Drp1 in shaping morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum: morphological defects impinge on ER performances, in particular the ability of the cell ...
There's DNA in those organelles | Journal of Cell Biology | Rockefeller University Press
The idea of endosymbiosis, in which bacterial cells are engulfed and modified to become eukaryotic organelles, was first suggested for chloroplasts in 1905 and 1907. Now it was seized upon by a young graduate student in Plauts laboratory, Lynn Sagan, who was then married to astronomer Carl Sagan. She had already seen cytoplasmic incorporation of labeled DNA precursors in amoeba (unicellular eukaryotes), but not connected this phenomenon to organelles (Plaut and Sagan, 1958). As similarities between organelles and bacteria mounted, however, Sagan was convinced that endosymbiosis was correct. She barraged over 20 journals before finding one that would publish her seminal paper (Sagan, 1967) and, after a name change to Lynn Margulis, became the consummate popularizer of this theory (Margulis, 1970 ...
Membrane dynamics and organelle biogenesis-lipid pipelines and vesicular carriers | BMC Biology | Full Text
Discoveries spanning several decades have pointed to vital membrane lipid trafficking pathways involving both vesicular and non-vesicular carriers. But the relative contributions for distinct membrane delivery pathways in cell growth and organelle biogenesis continue to be a puzzle. This is because lipids flow from many sources and across many paths via transport vesicles, non-vesicular transfer proteins, and dynamic interactions between organelles at membrane contact sites. This forum presents our latest understanding, appreciation, and queries regarding the lipid transport mechanisms necessary to drive membrane expansion during organelle biogenesis and cell growth.
Living Parts Tissues Cells Compartments and Organelles - Protein Structure
The main advantage multicellular organisms possess over their single-celled competitors is cell specialization. Not every cell in a larger organism has to be able to extract nutrients, protect itself, sense the environment, move itself around, reproduce itself and so on. These complex tasks can be divided up, so that many different classes of cells can work together, accomplishing feats that single cells cannot. Groups of cells specialized for a particular function are tissues, and their cells are said to have differentiated. Differentiated cells (except reproductive cells) cannot reproduce an entire organism.. In people (and most other multicellular animals) there are fourteen major tissue types. There are many texts with illustrations and descriptions of the various cell types and tissue, e.g. Kessel and Kardon (1979) which is full of beautiful electron micrographs. Some of these tissue types are familiar: bones, muscles, cardiovascular tissue, nerves, and connective tissue (like tendons and ...
Inside Cells - VEA
This information-rich production takes viewers on a tour of a cell gallery, and using illustrations of electron microscope imagery and graphics, looks in detail at the structure and function of cellular organelles, including cell membranes, nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula, ribosomes, the Golgi complex, lysosomes, vacuoles, the cytoplasm, cytosol and cytoskeleton, microtubules and microfilaments. It covers the importance of internal cellular membranes, and compares the relative sizes of the different organelles within a cell ...
Types of Cells - IAS OUR DREAM
The major and extremely significant difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotes do not. The DNA of prokaryotes floats freely around the cell; the DNA of eukaryotes is held within its nucleus. The organelles of eukaryotes allow them to exhibit much higher levels of intracellular division of labor than is possible in prokaryotic cells. ...
Organelle Genetics - Evolution of Organelle Genomes and | Charles E. Bullerwell | Springer
What is a Eukaryotic Cell ?
Define eukaryotic cells, give examples and describe their general structure. Eukaryotic cells are the type of living cells that form the organisms of all of the life kingdoms except monera. Protista, fungi, plants and animals are all composed of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus, and replicate via cell division by mitosis.
Ways in which living organisms differ from each other Essay - 768 Words
There are many ways in which living organisms differ from each other. In this essay I will discuss the various ways of which this occurs. There are two different types of cells, there are prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Within eukaryotes there are different structures and similar structures. For example; in a plant cell they have a nucleus, mitochondria an ER, and a Golgi body. These are the same as animal cells; however they differ because plants cells have a cellulose cell wall, chloroplasts, large central vacuole and they use starch for storage whereas an animal cell has lysosomes, rough ER, smooth ER and ribosomes. Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes because prokaryotes have no nucleus, they just have a loop of DNA and they also have no membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotes also have a cell wall, along with a slime capsule, flagellae and plasmids. Another way of which living organisms differ from each other is through proteins. Proteins are made up of amino acids and they condense together to ...
Cell structure - Stock Image G442/0174 - Science Photo Library
Cell structure. Confocal light micrograph of cultured endothelial cells. A fluorescent dye has been used to show the cell structure. Nuclei (blue) contain the cells genetic information, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) packaged in chromosomes. Actin filaments part of the cell cytoskeleton are green. The cytoskeleton is responsible for the structure and motility of the cell. Actin is the most abundant cellular protein. The golgi apparatus, or body (red), is a membrane-bound organelle that modifies and packages proteins. It consists of long flattened vesicles arranged in stacks. Endothelial cells are flat and line all of the bodys blood vessels. - Stock Image G442/0174
BioBlog: September 1, 2015 Archives
Ive always enjoyed Nick Lanes writing1, so naturally an article he wrote for the ABC Science website caught my eye. Titled Evolution of complex life on Earth, take 2?, it discusses an organism that appears to be neither prokaryote nor eukaryote, but something in-between.. Theres a great divide between the cells that fit the description of prokaryote and those that we view as eukaryotes. Both cell types have a cell membrane, which separates the cells contents from its external environment; DNA & RNA (the nucleic acids); and ribosomes (where proteins are constructed from their constituent amino acids, in accordance with the information encoded in DNA). But beyond that, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are distinctly different.. Prokaryotes have a single, circular chromosome, with no nuclear membrane separating it from the cytoplasm. There are no membrane-bound organelles (as distinct from infoldings of the cell membrane, or plasma membrane), and the cells are generally much, much smaller ...
PPT - Organelle Case Study PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6865358
P ROKARYOTIC AND E UKARYOTIC C ELLS ( AND VIRUSES ) Cell Biology Standard 1c Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic...
Unearthing a pathway to brain damage
IAS-Research Seminar by Guglielmo Militello: Motility Control of Symbionts and Organelles by the Eukaryotic Cell | IAS-Research
Motility Control of Symbionts and Organelles by the Eukaryotic Cell. Guglielmo Militello. Tuesday 29 at 11:30 (Centro Carlos Santamaria B14). Motility occupies a decisive role in an organisms ability to autonomously interact with its environment. However, collective biological organizations exhibit individual parts, which have temporally or definitively lost their motor capacities, but still able to autonomously interact with their host. Indeed, although the flagella of bacterial symbionts of eukaryotic cells are usually inhibited or lost, they autonomously modify the environment provided by their host. Furthermore, the eukaryotic organelles of endosymbiotic origin (i.e., mitochondria and plastids) are no longer able to move autonomously; nonetheless, they make a cytoskeletal-driven motion that allows them to communicate with other eukaryotic cells and to perform a considerable number of physiological functions. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to investigate how changes in the ...
Media agency for European innovation | youris.com
Cell Organelle Network | The Art of Science
Our study of cell organelles intersected with our previous units work with drawing systems when students were tasked with constructing a network diagram with cell organelles as nodes. For edges, students had to explain how two organelles interacted with each other. For full credit, pairs of students had to include all of the nodes in…
Bacterial proteins | Article about Bacterial proteins by The Free Dictionary
Cytoplasm Tutorial | Sophia Learning
We explain Cytoplasm with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p||span style=font-size: 13px; line-height: 1;|Did you know that much of the space |/span|in between|span style=font-size: 13px; line-height: 1;| different organelles in a cell is actually the cytoplasm? This tutorial is designed to focus what and where the cytoplasm is inside a cell, and what role it plays in the functions of the organelles within a cell.|/span||/p|
Cytoplasm Tutorial | Sophia Learning
We explain Cytoplasm with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p||span style=font-size: 13px; line-height: 1;|Did you know that much of the space |/span|in between|span style=font-size: 13px; line-height: 1;| different organelles in a cell is actually the cytoplasm? This tutorial is designed to focus what and where the cytoplasm is inside a cell, and what role it plays in the functions of the organelles within a cell.|/span||/p|
The Intriguing Genome of Mitochondria | Genetics And Genomics
organelles Flashcards - Cram.com
Chemical conditionality: a genetic strategy to probe organelle assembly. - PubMed - NCBI
18 | March | 2017 | VCE Biology
Students will understand the role of different organelles including ribosomes, endoplasmic, reticulum, Golgi apparatus and associated vesicles in the export of a protein product from the cell through exocytosis and cellular engulfment of material by endocytosis.". Ribosomes translate the messenger RNA into a protein by matching the 3-base pair codon with an anticodon on the transport RNA, allowing the production of a polypeptide. The endoplasmic reticulum allows the transport of polypeptides (protein chains) to the Golgi aparatus, where proteins are collected, packaged and distributed throughout the cell and exported through the cell membrane (exocytosis).. Osmosis is the passive movement of water across a semi-permeable ...
Teaching Animal and Plant Cell Parts with Food! | WebBib
This lesson plan provides a great way for students to learn about the structure of plant and animal cells. It has students create an edible cell model using different candy and food to represent the different organelles and cell structures found in animal and plant cells. This lesson plan includes a data sheet where students must write…
What Is a Good Cell Analogy Example to Use in Class?
Xpert search results for Cell organelles
This site has been created to show students how cells work. It reviews the functions of the cell organelles. This web site focuses on the structure and function of the cell membrane. Students will learn how the organelles interact with each other to keep the cell alive. This web site adds to the knowledge of most middle school students about organelles and expands to how the cell works as a whole. Scientists who study this area are known as cell physiologists. Physiology is the study of the func ...
Behind the Name: Message: "A small membranous organelle characteristic of certain flagellate protozoa, located near the pelta...
Gia Voeltz • iBiology
Dr. Gia Voeltz discovered her love for research as an undergraduate student at the University of California Santa Cruz. After graduation, she moved east to Yale University where she was a graduate student with Joan Steitz and studied RNA processing in Xenopus extracts. As a post-doctoral fellow in Tom Rapoports lab at Harvard, Voeltz tackled the question of how organelles, and in particular the endoplasmic reticulum, are shaped. Voeltz started her own lab at the University of Colorado, Boulder in 2006. She became an HHMI Faculty Scholar in 2016 and an HHMI Investigator in 2018. Her lab investigates how the ER interacts with other organelles such as the mitochondria and endosomes via membrane contact sites and how these contact sites may regulate organelle division and function. Learn more about Voeltz research here. ...
Organelle synonyms | Best 2 synonyms for organelle
... but prokaryotic organelles are generally simpler and are not membrane-bound. There are several types of organelles in a cell. ... Organelles are parts of the cell which are adapted and/or specialized for carrying out one or more vital functions, analogous ... Some eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria also contain some DNA. Many eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia. ... Flagella are organelles for cellular mobility. The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell membrane(s) ...
Outline of cell biology
Lysosome - The organelles that contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases). They digest excess or worn-out organelles, food ... "organelles". Bengt Lidforss - Coined the word "organells" which later became "organelle". Robert Hooke - Coined the word "cell ... Organelles - a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is separately enclosed within its own lipid ... Peroxisome - A ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that participate in the metabolism of fatty acids and other metabolites. ...
The internal organelles of the mastigote are essentially the same as described in the coccoid cell (see below). The transition ... Mucocysts (an ejectile organelle) located beneath the plasmalemma are found in S. pilosum and their function is unknown, but ... It may serve to accumulate cellular debris or act as an autophagic vacuole in which non-functional organelles are digested and ... There are several additional organelles found in the cytoplasm of Symbiodinium. The most obvious of these is the structure ...
William F. Martin
At least some prokaryotes also contain intracellular structures that can be seen as primitive organelles. Membranous organelles ... However, two organelles found in many eukaryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts, contain ribosomes similar in size and ... Carl Woese, J Peter Gogarten, "When did eukaryotic cells (cells with nuclei and other internal organelles) first evolve? What ... A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle ...
In contrast, eukaryotes have a range of organelles including the nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum. ... See Organelle. Prokaryotes have only one lipid bilayer- the cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane). Many prokaryotes ... This was the first time the bilayer structure had been universally assigned to all cell membranes as well as organelle ...
Programmed cell death
Cytoplasmic: characterized by the formation of large vacuoles that eat away organelles in a specific sequence prior to the ... Dyall SD, Brown MT, Johnson PJ (2004). "Ancient invasions: from endosymbionts to organelles". Science. 304 (5668): 253-7. doi: ... and excess or damaged organelles. Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been ...
Organelle - term used for major subcellular structures Peroxisomes - a very small organelle that uses oxygen to breakdown and ... Cell fractionation Release of cellular organelles by disruption of cells. Separation of different organelles by centrifugation ... Inside of the cell are extensive internal sub-cellular membrane-bounded compartments called organelles. Centrosome - an ... Cell biology explains the structure, organization of the organelles they contain, their physiological properties, metabolic ...
List of types of proteins
... "membrane organelle" "Double layer of lipid molecules that encloses all cells, and, in eukaryotes, many organelles; may be a ... In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm." See the Organelles category of Wikipedia. "All of the contents of a cell ... excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus." "A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed ...
... s are sometimes referred to as organelles, but the use of the term organelle is often restricted to describing sub- ... These organelles are believed to be descendants of bacteria (see Endosymbiotic theory) and, as such, their ribosomes are ... Ribosomes are organelles that synthesize proteins. Proteins are needed for many cellular functions such as repairing damage or ... When a ribosome begins to synthesize proteins that are needed in some organelles, the ribosome making this protein can become " ...
These microbes are prokaryotes, meaning they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. ... Dyall, Sabrina D.; Brown, Mark T.; Johnson, Patricia J. (9 April 2004). "Ancient Invasions: From Endosymbionts to Organelles". ... bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally ...
Slomovic, S; Portnoy, V; Schuster, G (2008). "RNA Turnover in Prokaryotes, Archaea and Organelles: Chapter 24 Detection and ... "RNA Polyadenylation in Prokaryotes and Organelles; Different Tails Tell Different Tales". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. ... Characterization of Polyadenylated RNA in Eukarya, Bacteria, Archaea, and Organelles". Methods in Enzymology. Methods in ...
History of evolutionary thought
Indeed, the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of organelles sees a form of horizontal gene transfer as a critical step in the ... The endosymbiotic theory holds that organelles within the cells of eukorytes such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, had ... Dyall, Sabrina D.; Brown, Mark T.; Johnson, Patricia J. (April 9, 2004). "Ancient Invasions: From Endosymbionts to Organelles ... Margulis was able to make use of new evidence that such organelles had their own DNA that was inherited independently from that ...
Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls, and contain organelles such as chloroplasts in addition to the organelles in other ... Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabolism as they are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. ... The nucleus is an organelle that houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome. DNA (Deoxyribonuclaic acid) itself is arranged ... A prokaryote is defined as having no cell nucleus or other membrane bound-organelle. Archaea share this defining feature with ...
... chloroplasts and the other organelles present in eukaryotic cells. However, some bacteria have protein-bound organelles in the ... Yeates TO, Kerfeld CA, Heinhorst S, Cannon GC, Shively JM (2008). "Protein-based organelles in bacteria: carboxysomes and ... Dyall SD, Brown MT, Johnson PJ (2004). "Ancient invasions: from endosymbionts to organelles". Science. 304 (5668): 253-7. ... Bobik TA (2006). "Polyhedral organelles compartmenting bacterial metabolic processes". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. ...
So as this organelle is so essential for the trypanosome, if a drug could target this organelle, it could be a successful ... The organelle is bounded by a single membrane and contains a dense proteinaceous matrix. It is believed to have evolved from ... The organelle keeps metabolism of the enzymes from occurring. For parasites, ether-lipid synthesis is vital to be able to ... In the organelle that is assumed to be a glycosome, numerous proteins are found. These include glycogen synthase, phosphorylase ...
The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived organelles lacking a genome suggests that complete gene loss is possible ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert ... van der Giezen, Mark; Tovar, Jorge; Clark, C. Graham (2005). "Mitochondrion‐Derived Organelles in Protists and Fungi". A Survey ... One Precious Model for Organelle DNA Inheritance and Evolution". DNA and Cell Biology. 28 (2): 79-89. doi:10.1089/dna.2008.0807 ...
These vesicles are not organelles as such. They are not bounded by lipid membranes, but by a protein sheath. Cyanobacteria can ... These endosymbiotic cyanobacteria in eukaryotes have evolved or differentiated into specialized organelles such as chloroplasts ... Primary chloroplasts are cell organelles found in some eukaryotic lineages, where they are specialized in performing the ...
The nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered. What is most likely the oldest preserved drawing dates back to the early ... The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and ... The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle in animal cells. In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is ... The nucleus is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Inside its fully enclosed nuclear membrane, it contains the majority of ...
Organelle - Wikipedia
The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as organs are to the body, hence organelle, ... Organelles are identified by microscopy, and can also be purified by cell fractionation. There are many types of organelles, ... Mullins, Christopher (2004). "Theory of Organelle Biogenesis: A Historical Perspective". The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles ... some parts of the cell do not qualify as organelles. Nevertheless, the use of organelle to refer to non-membrane bound ...
Vault (organelle) - Wikipedia
The vault or vault cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein is a eukaryotic organelle whose function is not fully understood. Discovered ... organelles in search of a function". Trends in Cell Biology. 1 (2-3): 47-50. doi:10.1016/0962-8924(91)90088-Q. PMID 14731565. ... and isolated by cell biologist Nancy Kedersha and biochemist Leonard Rome in 1986, vaults are cytoplasmic organelles which when ...
organelle | PNAS
Felix Schnarwiler, Moritz Niemann, Nicholas Doiron, Anke Harsman, Sandro Käser, Jan Mani, Astrid Chanfon, Caroline E. Dewar, Silke Oeljeklaus, Christopher B. Jackson, Mascha Pusnik, Oliver Schmidt, Chris Meisinger, Sebastian Hiller, Bettina Warscheid, Achim C. Schnaufer, Torsten Ochsenreiter, and André Schneider ...
Plant Cells and their Organelles | Wiley
The text focuses on subcellular organelles while also providing relevant background on plant cells, tissues and organs. ... methods of light and electron microscopy and modern biochemical procedures for the isolation and identification of organelles ... Plant Cells and Their Organelles provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and function of plant organelles. ... Plant Cells and Their Organelles provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and function of plant organelles. The text ...
Organelles and Cells: Lectures
Find out about our Organelles and Cells module available to study as part of our Integrated Science degree at Warwick Medical ... Organelles and Cells: Lectures The module aims to equip students with the conceptual, theoretical and computational skills ... Demonstrate a grasp of physical law as it applies to the structures and behaviours of living cells and their organelles, ... Use mathematical approaches to solve problems relating to the structure and behaviours of living cells and their organelles. ...
Organelle | Encyclopedia.com
Organelles are discrete structures within the cell that perform a specialized function. ... Organelle An organelle is a specialized cellular structure in eukaryotic cells analogous to an organ in the body. ... Organelle Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Organelle. An organelle is a specialized cellular structure in eukaryotic ... Organelle. An organelle is a tiny structure inside a cell that performs a particular function. Organelles are only found in ...
Quia - Cell Organelles Pop Ups
Organelle Contact Sites | SpringerLink
Google Answers: Organelles of epithelial cells
Subject: Organelles of epithelial cells Category: Science , Biology Asked by: dormouse-ga List Price: $25.00. Posted: 28 Feb ... Subject: Re: Organelles of epithelial cells Answered By: tehuti-ga on 01 Mar 2003 04:47 PST Rated:. ... Subject: Re: Organelles of epithelial cells From: xarqi-ga on 28 Feb 2003 20:30 PST. ... What organelles does a simple squamous epithelial cell contain? Is there a diagram anywhere on the web that illustrates them? ...
Organelle News, Research
Study sheds light on how a group of novel organelle-based disorders affects cells A pioneering study has shed new light on how ... Phase separation enables organelles to respond to changing cellular conditions New findings about critical cellular structures ... Study reveals new mechanism underlying organelle communication in brown fat cells In recent years, brown fat has garnered ... Biomedical engineers create artificial organelles to control biological function in cells Biomedical engineers at Duke ...
Lysosome-related organelles: unusual compartments become mainstream. - PubMed - NCBI
Cell Organelles by Jennifer Meyer on Prezi
Organelles that make ATP ATP powers the cell Has its own DNA. Ribosomes. Build proteins Some free and some are attached to the ... Overview of Cell Organelles. The Plant Cell. The Cell Wall. rigid layer lies outside the cells plasma membrane Contain ... Transcript of Cell Organelles. The Cell. The Plasma Membrane. Cytoplasm Gel-like middle. Nucleus Most functions of eukaryoic ... large, fluid-filled organelle. stores water, enzymes, waste (almost anything). can be up to 20% of plan cells volume. Vacuoles ...
What Organelles Contain Digestive Enzymes? | Reference.com
The organelles that contain digestive enzymes are called lysosomes. These cellular structures primarily function for the ... What Are Some Organelles?. A: Cellular walls, nuclei, vacuole and lysosomes are all examples of cellular organelles. Organelles ... What Organelles Are in a Female Egg Cell?. A: A female egg cell contains many organelles such lysosomes, mitochondria, haploid ... The majority of organelles are membrane bound or surrounded by a plasma membrane. Although similar in shape and organization to ...
Cell Organelles by Mikaela Palma on Prezi
Filled with microtubules that make up the cytoskeleton and other organelles. Cytoplasm Organelles of: Organelles of: Bundles of ... Transcript of Cell Organelles. Cell Organelles Mikaela Palma Animal Cells Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote AP ... Old or non-functioning organelles.. They are sites where macromolecules are hydrolyzed into their monomers.. They are made by ... Can be free ribosomes, attached to the ER, or inside certain organelles. Ribosomes Plant vacuoles have many functions:. Storage ...
pH Sensor for Cell Organelles
NAQT - Organelles Quiz - By eugeneenclona
Organelles Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by eugeneenclona ... Paired organelles with nine sets of microtubule triplets in cross section.. Both contain a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules in ... Double-membrane-bound organelles that are the site of respiration. Here proteins from the ribosomes are packaged in vesicles ... Double-membrane-bound organelles that are the site of oxidative phosphorylation. Short hair-like projections which allow the ...
Multipurpose Organelles: The Peroxisome. | Science
JBC: What makes organelles connect?
Inside every cell is a complex infrastructure of organelles carrying out different functions. Organelles must exchange signals ... "Think of (an organelle) like a ferry docking at one site, unloading and loading passengers and cars, and then going to another ... "The method we have used is more rapid and allows an unbiased look at a whole system and whats happening at that organelles ... Researchers are using new technologies to see and understand the networks that connect these organelles, allowing them to build ...
Which organelles carry out cellular respiration? | Reference.com
What are osteocyte organelles?. A: Osteocytes, also known as bone cells, have all the organelles found in other eukaryotic ... What are the four organelles in eukaryotic cells?. A: There are more than four organelles that are common to most eukaryotic ... A: Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are essential cells in ... cells, with organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and riboso... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Cells ...
Name cell organelles Quiz - By MrsNieves
Organelles of a Cell - Biology Diagram
Cell organelles | Smore Newsletters
Cell organelles - Amanda Fritsch pd2 by amanda fritsch , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating ... Chloroplast is an organelle found only in plant cells. It is responsible for photo synthesis in plants and give plants their ... all organelles are contained in the cytoplasm. It is where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Cytoplasm exists in both ... The mitochondria is a membrane bound organelle. it is the shape of a bean. The purpose of mitochondria is to provide energy to ...
Visualization of acidic organelles in intact cells by electron microscopy | PNAS
Visualization of acidic organelles in intact cells by electron microscopy. R G Anderson, J R Falck, J L Goldstein, and M S ... Visualization of acidic organelles in intact cells by electron microscopy Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Its primary and tertiary amino groups (apparent pKa, 10.6) allow it to be concentrated in acidic organelles and to be retained ... We report the synthesis of a probe that permits the visualization by electron microscopy of acidic organelles in intact cells. ...
Re: Names for biologists who discovered animal cell organelles?
Mitochondria - The Dynamic Organelle | Stephen W. Schaffer | Springer
Mitochondria: The Dynamic Organelle focuses on the function of the mitochondria and the organelles role in cellular pathology ... Mitochondria: The Dynamic Organelle is a timely contribution that addresses the reemergence of the mitochondria as a key player ... Mitochondria: The Dynamic Organelle presents examples of crosstalk between the mitochondria and the rest of the cell, which ... Mitochondria: The Dynamic Organelle is essential reading for researchers, molecular and cellular biologists, biochemists, ...
The Organelle music computer is nearly $100 off this weekend
Critter & Guitari is running a sale on the Organelle M that drops the price from $595 to $499 from now through December 2nd. At ... Critter & Guitari is running a sale on the Organelle M that drops the price from $595 to $499 from now through December 2nd. At ... We found that the Organelle requires patience and a curious mind, but that effort can pay off in spades. You can produce ...
Synthetic enzyme organelles | Science Articles | Naked Scientists
Cellular organelles and structure (article) | Khan Academy
Proteomics of organelles and large cellular structures
The mass-spectrometry-based identification of proteins has created opportunities for the study of organelles, transport ... Proteomics of organelles and large cellular structures Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Sep;6(9):702-14. doi: 10.1038/nrm1711. ... The mass-spectrometry-based identification of proteins has created opportunities for the study of organelles, transport ...
MitochondriaEukaryoticEndoplasmicNucleusProteinsCytoplasmLysosomesChloroplastsMembrane-bound organellesCellsBiologyStructuresRibosomesCell fractionationMulticellular organismsMammalianBiogenesisAutophagyCytosolCentriolesMembranesPeroxisomesCell's organellesChloroplastIntracellularPlasma MembraneFunctionCytoplasmicMitochondrionDigestive enzymesCarry out cellular respirationCiliaProtistsMacromolecular complexesFunctionsMechanismsDifferent organellesProteinIsolationIndividual organellesMembraneless organellesCompartmentsMetabolismBacteriaVesiclesProkaryotesComplexesBacterialResearchersEukaryotesAntibody specificGenomesInner membraneMolecularFunctionalMotilityOrganismsPlant organellesLysosomeDegradation
- Some organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus and the nucleus, exist as individual units, while others, including the chloroplasts, mitochondria and lysosomes, are present in large quantities. (reference.com)
- A female egg cell contains many organelles such lysosomes, mitochondria, haploid nucleus and smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula. (reference.com)
- Organelles are broadly classified as either mitochondria or plastids. (reference.com)
- A recent article in the Journal of Biological Chemistry reports the use of an emerging method to identify proteins that allows two organelles, the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, to attach to each other. (asbmb.org)
- The proteins that connect and bridge the ER and mitochondria are well-studied in yeast, but the connections between these organelles in multicellular organisms like mammals are more complex and less understood. (asbmb.org)
- Under this definition, there would only be two broad classes of organelles (i.e. those that contain their own DNA, and have originated from endosymbiotic bacteria): mitochondria (in almost all eukaryotes) plastids (e.g. in plants, algae, and some protists). (wikipedia.org)
- Exceptional organisms have cells that do not include some organelles that might otherwise be considered universal to eukaryotes (such as mitochondria). (wikipedia.org)
- Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. (reference.com)
- Osteocytes, also known as bone cells, have all the organelles found in other eukaryotic cells, such as a nucleus, mitochondria, cell membrane and endoplasm. (reference.com)
- There are more than four organelles that are common to most eukaryotic cells, with organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and riboso. (reference.com)
- Mitochondria: The Dynamic Organelle focuses on the function of the mitochondria and the organelle's role in cellular pathology. (springer.com)
- Mitochondria: The Dynamic Organelle presents examples of crosstalk between the mitochondria and the rest of the cell, which serve a regulatory role by modulating the levels of key metabolites, ions and oxidants or the activities of key rate-controlling enzymes. (springer.com)
- Mitochondria: The Dynamic Organelle is a timely contribution that addresses the reemergence of the mitochondria as a key player in cellular function and pathology. (springer.com)
- Mitochondria: The Dynamic Organelle is essential reading for researchers, molecular and cellular biologists, biochemists, physiologists and pathologists. (springer.com)
- The mitochondria are small organelles in the cell, they create ATP, Which is like the fuel helping the whole cell. (smore.com)
- Mitochondria and chloroplasts (a type of plastid ) are membrane-bound organelles that convert energy from foodstuffs ( mitochondria ) or sunlight ( chloroplasts ) into forms that can be used by the cell . (factbites.com)
- They counted each of the contact points between two cellular organelles -- the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria -- and demonstrated for the first time that the number of these connections, called MAMs, markedly increase during obesity. (eurekalert.org)
- Furthermore, organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum show widely varying morphologies that affect their scaling properties. (nih.gov)
- In addition to membrane-encased organelles-the nucleus, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus, to name a few-eukaryotic cells harbor a variety of compartments that lack a casing. (the-scientist.com)
- Most of the reactions for aerobic respiration take place in the mitochondria so it is an incredibly important organelle. (s-cool.co.uk)
- The Mitochondria is the organelle involved in aerobic cellular respiration. (answers.com)
- Main organelle used in cellular respiration is Mitochondria dude. (answers.com)
- In eukaryotes it is located in the organelle called the mitochondria. (answers.com)
- The main organelle for cellular respiration is mitochondria. (answers.com)
- In eukaryotic cells, the mitochondria is the organelle that does cellular respiration. (answers.com)
- This section covers the transport of a protein into a specific organelle--the mitochondria. (answers.com)
- However, the organelle that carries out cellular respiration in animal cells is the mitochondria. (answers.com)
- The latter include lipofuscin (a non-degradable intralysosomal polymeric substance), defective mitochondria and other organelles, and aberrant proteins, often forming aggregates (aggresomes). (nih.gov)
- Without a protein called Nix, the cells would not effectively rid themselves of organelles called mitochondria and consequently become short-lived, leading to anemia, said researchers at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston in a report that appears online today in the journal Nature. (medgadget.com)
- In both animal and plant eukaryotic cells, the cellular energy is generated by organelles called mitochondria. (jrank.org)
- Mitochondria are tiny organelles that fuel the operation of the cell, and they are among the first parts of the cell to die when it is deprived of oxygen-rich blood. (nationalpost.com)
- Autophagic turnover processes of plant organelles (including chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, ER, oil bodies and nuclei) throughout plant development. (frontiersin.org)
- These reagent-based kits are optimized for the isolation and enrichment of organelles, including mitochondria, lysosomes, and synaptosomes. (thermofisher.com)
- Although important cellular processes in plants and animals were known to take place in organelles (larger structures enclosed by a membrane, such as the nucleus or mitochondria), it is only in the past few years that scientists have discovered that there is another type of structure playing a critical role in the organisation of cellular processes: membraneless organelles. (analytica-world.com)
- In the cell, there are organelles called the mitochondria which are known as the 'powerhouses of the cell. (madsci.org)
- The organelles include MITOCHONDRIA , the GOLGI APPARATUS , the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM , RIBOSOMES , LYSOSOMES and the CENTRIOLES . (thefreedictionary.com)
- The nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts are all organelles. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Core organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and several others. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- For instance, cells that use a lot of energy tend to contain large numbers of mitochondria (the organelle responsible for harvesting energy from food). (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- However, most organelles are not clearly visible by light microscopy, and those that can be seen (such as the nucleus, mitochondria and Golgi) can't be studied in detail because their size is close to the limit of resolution of the light microscope. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Another organelle that consists of convolutions is the mitochondria. (enotes.com)
- However, lately selective types of autophagy have been described that lead to the elimination of specific organelles or protein aggregates ( 17 ), such as ER-phagy for ER-specific degradation ( 18 ), mitophagy for mitochondria-specific degradation ( 19 ), and ribophagy for ribosome-specific degradation ( 20 ). (mcponline.org)
- These kits and reagents enable researchers to enrich for functional mitochondria, chloroplasts and more with companion kits to determine organelle integrity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This model of organelle evolution proposes that eukaryotic cells captured bacteria that later provided the function of mitochondria and chloroplast. (jrank.org)
- In this report they demonstrate that loss of UNC-16 dramatically alters the distribution of multiple axon-restricted organelles, including lysosomes, early endosomes, and Golgi, but not axon-associated components, like ER membranes and mitochondria. (genetics.org)
- The module aims to equip students with the conceptual, theoretical and computational skills required for the analysis and engineering of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organelles and cells. (warwick.ac.uk)
- An organelle is a specialized cellular structure in eukaryotic cells analogous to an organ in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
- The organelles resemble the peroxisomes of other eukaryotic organisms in that they may contain the enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, Futhermore their enzymes are imported into the organelly with the help of at least two different types of import signals, a C-terminal tripeptide (SKL or similar) and a N-terminal signal peptide, that have also been identified for peroxisomal enzymes. (bio.net)
- The cells of eukaryotic organisms are compartmentalized into functional units called organelles, which perform highly specialized tasks in the cell. (reference.com)
- There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Not all eukaryotic cells have each of the organelles listed below. (wikipedia.org)
- What are the four organelles in eukaryotic cells? (reference.com)
- The vault or vault cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein is a eukaryotic organelle whose function is not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
- Organelle DB compiles protein localization data from organisms spanning the eukaryotic kingdom and presents an organized catalog of the known protein constituents of more than 50 organelles , subcellular structures, and protein complexes. (factbites.com)
- In total, Organelle DB is a singular resource consolidating our knowledge of the protein composition of eukaryotic organelles and subcellular structures. (factbites.com)
- Membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic cells (eukaryote ) that is responsible for the cell's digestion of macromolecules, old cell parts, and microorganisms. (factbites.com)
- Organelles are a feature of eukaryotic cells and the debate as to origin of such functional compartmentalization is a controversial part of evolutionary theory. (factbites.com)
- This volume contains the Proceedings of FEBS Advanced Course No. 88-02 held in Bari, Italy on the topic "Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells: Molecular Structure and Interactions. (springer.com)
- Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that most of the various organelles in eukaryotic cells are encapsulated in membranes , while prokaryotic cells have only free-floating organelles (Figure 1). (visionlearning.com)
- A eukaryotic cell (left) has membrane bound organelles, while a prokaryotic cell (right) does not. (visionlearning.com)
- The types and arrangement of a cell's organelles enable eukaryotic cells of multicellular organisms to perform specialized functions. (jrank.org)
- All organelles in eukaryotic cells are thought to have evolved from endosymbiosis. (visionlearning.com)
- Autophagy is the "self-eating process" that degrades the portion of cytoplasm including organelles in eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Introduces cell organelles and outlines the structure and function of the nucleus and other major organelles in eukaryotic cells. (ck12.org)
- M itochondria and plastids are organelles within eukaryotic cells that are thought to have derived from endosymbiotic bacteria and that, throughout evolution, have become entirely dependent on their hosts and vice versa. (the-scientist.com)
- Core organelles are found in virtually all eukaryotic cells. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Below is a list of organelles that are commonly found in eukaryotic cells. (windows2universe.org)
- Results] Various Zera fusions with fluorescent and therapeutic proteins accumulate in induced PB-like organelles in all eukaryotic systems tested: tobacco leaves, Trichoderma reesei, several mammalian cultured cells and Sf9 insect cells. (csic.es)
- Our main model organelle is the endoplasmic reticulum. (helsinki.fi)
- Sarcoplasmic reticulum is the cellular organelle in muscle fiber that corresponds to the endoplasmic reticulum. (answers.com)
- One such organelle is the endoplasmic reticulum. (enotes.com)
- Background] Protein bodies (PBs) are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. (csic.es)
- The larger organelles, such as the nucleus and vacuoles, are easily visible with the light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
- The nucleus is the largest organelle in a cell. (smore.com)
- The nucleus is the lighter purple organelle at the top. (smore.com)
- Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, or membrane based organelles. (smore.com)
- Although the organelles maintain their own genomes , many genes encoding mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins are found in the cell nucleus . (factbites.com)
- The organelle that directs cellular activities is the nucleus. (answers.com)
- Nucleus is membrane bound organelle has nucleoplasm, nucleolus and Genomic DNA and RNAs in it. (answers.com)
- They contain many organelles within their cytoplasm and a nucleus separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane. (jrank.org)
- The cell's nucleus directs its overall functioning, while the membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm carry out a variety of specialized jobs in a coordinated fashion. (jrank.org)
- Biomedical engineers at Duke University have demonstrated a method for controlling the phase separation of an emerging class of proteins to create artificial membrane-less organelles within human cells. (news-medical.net)
- In this organelle, proteins undergo modifications and folding to yield the final, functional protein structures. (sporcle.com)
- The mass-spectrometry-based identification of proteins has created opportunities for the study of organelles, transport intermediates and large subcellular structures. (nih.gov)
- Organelles are tiny structures that perform very specific functions within cells, such as producing energy or manufacturing proteins. (quizlet.com)
- An organelle called the Golgi complex then moves the enzymes-and other proteins-into the membranes and distributes them. (jrank.org)
- Moreover, the ATPases not only ensure the self-organised formation of organelles, but also use ATP-dependent binding of RNA to regulate the transport of RNA molecules and proteins into these structures, where the RNA molecules are collected. (analytica-world.com)
- 1. What are the fluorescent proteins used for the organelle markers? (origene.com)
- Upon starvation cells undergo autophagy, a cellular degradation pathway important in the turnover of whole organelles and long lived proteins. (mcponline.org)
- Cluster analysis of the recorded protein profiles revealed that cytosolic proteins were degraded rapidly, whereas proteins annotated to various complexes and organelles were degraded later at different time periods. (mcponline.org)
- Autophagy is responsible for cytoplasmic bulk degradation and thought to be important for the turnover of whole organelles and long lived proteins ( 8 , 9 ). (mcponline.org)
- Establishing and maintaining order requires mechanisms to synthesize and localize proteins to specific organelles, and monitor and regulate individual organelles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- To create these distinctions, neurons must differentially target both proteins and organelles to these cellular compartments, but how this is achieved remains poorly understood. (genetics.org)
- Furthermore, they extend the concept of an AIS to include not only localizing of proteins, but also regulating the compartment restriction of organelles through characterization of unc-16 mutants that disrupt somatodendritic vs . axon targeting of organelles. (genetics.org)
- Conclusion] The Zera sequence provides an efficient and universal means to produce recombinant proteins by accumulation in ER-derived organelles. (csic.es)
- I have searched for images of endothelial cells showing the various organelles that they contain in order to confirm the above statement: Although endothelial cells contain all the basic cell machinery, there tend to be fewer of each type of organelle than in some other tissues, because they have relatively small amounts of cytoplasm. (google.com)
- The cytoplasm is relatively simple with few organelles, mostly concentrated in the perinuclear zone. (google.com)
- all organelles are contained in the cytoplasm. (smore.com)
- The cytoplasm is the fluid that holds all of the organelles in place. (smore.com)
- The method disclosed comprises isolation and concentration of the organelle to be transferred from the tissue of the donor followed by injection of the organelle into the cytoplasm of a target organism, whereupon the transgene of the injected organelle is expressed. (freepatentsonline.com)
- These protein-based liquid globules, called membraneless organelles, selectively permit entry of enzymes and substrates to carry out various cellular functions that would be less efficient or not possible at all in the cytoplasm. (the-scientist.com)
- Cytoplasm refers to the jelly-like material with organelles in it. (s-cool.co.uk)
- Primary cilia, the single cilium that protrudes from many mammalian cells, are hybrid organelles with a membrane surrounding the portion that extends from the cell and a portion that is contiguous with the cytoplasm. (sciencemag.org)
- c. they allow different chemical reactions within the cell to operate simultaneously without interference from the cytoplasm or other reactions happening in different organelles. (visionlearning.com)
- Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) comprise a group of cell type-specific subcellular compartments with unique composition, morphology and structure that share some features with endosomes and lysosomes and that function in varied processes such as pigmentation, hemostasis, lung plasticity and immunity. (nih.gov)
- The organelles that contain digestive enzymes are called lysosomes. (reference.com)
- Cellular walls, nuclei, vacuole and lysosomes are all examples of cellular organelles. (reference.com)
- Lysosomes may be used inside the cell during endocytosis, or to break-down old, redundant organelles. (s-cool.co.uk)
- Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in animals that are involved in degradation of endogenous and exogenous macromolecules [ PMID: 15261680 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The building BLOC(k)s of lysosomes and related organelles. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Other organelles, the lysosomes, are membrane-bound packages of digestive enzymes. (jrank.org)
- Membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes. (sporcle.com)
- This has led some texts to delineate between membrane-bound and non-membrane bound organelles. (wikipedia.org)
- The non-membrane bound organelles, also called large biomolecular complexes, are large assemblies of macromolecules that carry out particular and specialized functions, but they lack membrane boundaries. (wikipedia.org)
- They are characterised by having membrane-bound organelles. (s-cool.co.uk)
- The role of membrane-bound organelles as sources of signaling molecules is less well understood. (sciencemag.org)
- Most of the highlighted studies focus on the membrane-bound organelles, but we are also interested in research into regulation of the dynamics and function of the membrane-less structures, which may produce signaling intermediates that affect cellular behavior. (sciencemag.org)
- Plant Cells and Their Organelles provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and function of plant organelles. (wiley.com)
- The text focuses on subcellular organelles while also providing relevant background on plant cells, tissues and organs. (wiley.com)
- Demonstrate the ability to apply creative analytical thinking in order to frame incisive, tractable scientific questions, especially about the structures, functions and mechanisms of cells and cellular organelles. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Demonstrate a grasp of physical law as it applies to the structures and behaviours of living cells and their organelles, especially nuclei. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Use mathematical approaches to solve problems relating to the structure and behaviours of living cells and their organelles. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Bacterial cells do not contain organelles or intracellular membrane-bound structures. (encyclopedia.com)
- I suggest that we reserve the name glycosomes for the trypanosomatid organelles and use a different name or description for the glycogen-containing articles of animal cells. (bio.net)
- Hello dormouse, Cells of the squamous epithelium contain the same basic set of organelles that are common to all cells. (google.com)
- Animal cells have many distinct characteristics when compared to plant cells, including their varied shapes, their many types of organelles, their centriol. (reference.com)
- Cell Organelles Mikaela Palma Animal Cells Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote AP Biology - 3rd Period Plant Cells Translates the nucleotide sequence of mRNA molecules into a polypeptide chain. (prezi.com)
- Endosomes, cell organelles that play a role in transport within cells, experience a considerable drop in their pH value as they mature. (innovations-report.com)
- The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as organs are to the body, hence organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive. (wikipedia.org)
- This organelle can only be found in animal cells. (smore.com)
- We report the synthesis of a probe that permits the visualization by electron microscopy of acidic organelles in intact cells. (pnas.org)
- Organelle as its suffix intimates is a term used to describe the 'little' organs within cells . (factbites.com)
- However, uniquely among organelles , they contain their own DNA and one suggestion as to their origin is that early bacteria were subsumed inside the cells of another. (factbites.com)
- A centriole in biology is a hollow cylindrical organelle found in most animal cells , and cells of fungi and algae though not frequently in plants. (factbites.com)
- Techniques for measuring size at smaller length-scales continue to improve, leading to more data on the control of size in cells and organelles. (nih.gov)
- b. a method of physically inserting said organelle into target cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
- b. spraying said buffer solution containing said organelle under pressure onto target cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
- and wherein said method of physically inserting said organelle into target cells further comprises spraying said portion of the filtrate under pressure onto target cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The Jokitalo group studies structure-function interplay of organelles in mammalian cells. (helsinki.fi)
- Cells that lack lysosome-related organelles express BLOC-1 but do not appear to need it for lysosome biosynthesis. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The term 'organelle' is a reference to organs, since these structures operate in cells similar to the way organs function in the body. (quizlet.com)
- A number of different organelles can be found inside the many types of plant and animal cells. (quizlet.com)
- As a result of insufficient digestion of oxidatively damaged macromolecules and organelles by autophagy and other degradative systems, long-lived postmitotic cells, such as cardiac myocytes, neurons and retinal pigment epithelial cells, progressively accumulate biological 'garbage' ('waste' materials). (nih.gov)
- When other cells get old or stressed, their organelles may become damaged and need to be cleared by autophagy for quality control. (medgadget.com)
- Organelles are enclosed "mini-organs" within cells and contain a mix of enzymes that work to perform essential biological functions. (goldsea.com)
- The word "organelle" comes from the Latin for "little organ," which fits their function as organized structures within cells that allow the cell to survive. (naqt.com)
- Not found in plant cells, centrioles are paired organelles with nine sets of microtubule triplets in cross section. (naqt.com)
- Recent studies have identified several types of selective autophagy processes in plant cells that degrade specific organelles or unwanted components. (frontiersin.org)
- Selective elimination processes of damaged organelles in plant cells. (frontiersin.org)
- It has recently become clear just how important membraneless organelles are for cells. (analytica-world.com)
- In living cells, the ETH researchers have even observed how RNA is transported through several different membraneless organelles. (analytica-world.com)
- Each organelle marker plasmids are tested by transfection into HEK293 or SKOv3 cells followed by imaging via confocal microscopy. (origene.com)
- The primary cilium (which has recently been shown to help cells sense their surroundings) may also be a core organelle because it seems to be present on most cells. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Different types of cells have different amounts of some organelles. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Some cell types have their own specialised organelles that carry out functions that aren't required by all cells. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Within cells, organelles tend to cluster close to where they do their job. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Size-sensing mechanisms that enable cells to maintain their optimal sizes are reviewed, as are the scaling mechanisms that organelles use to adjust their sizes in response to changes in cell size. (cshlpress.com)
- This category deals with the genetics of organelles (small structures within cells that perform dedicated functions). (valuemd.com)
- Coverage of the latest methods of light and electron microscopy and modern biochemical procedures for the isolation and identification of organelles help to provide a thorough and up-to-date companion text to the field of plant cell and subcellular biology. (wiley.com)
- In cell biology, an organelle (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. (wikipedia.org)
- Biology (Sci) : The course focuses on biomembranes and subcellular organelles and their implications for disease. (mcgill.ca)
- Create Biology Diagram examples like this template called Organelles of a Cell - Biology Diagram that you can easily edit and customize in minutes. (smartdraw.com)
- In cell biology , an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions enclosed by a membrane , suspended in the cytosol of a eucaryotic cell . (factbites.com)
- In cell biology, an organelle ( /ɔrɡəˈnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer. (phys.org)
- Seeing the internal cellular environment as a fluid that contains multiple liquid droplets functioning as membraneless organelles marks a turning point in our understanding of cell biology. (the-scientist.com)
- This Editorial Guide describes the emerging confluence of cellular regulation and organelle biology. (sciencemag.org)
- Advances in geochemistry, molecular phylogeny, and cell biology have offered insight into complex molecular events that drove the evolution of endosymbionts into contemporary organelles. (sciencemag.org)
- In the past few decades, the field of plant organelle molecular biology and biotechnology has made immense strides. (abebooks.com)
- A fundamental of cell biology is the biogenesis and maintenance of intracellular organelles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Organelles are discrete structures within the cell that perform a specialized function. (encyclopedia.com)
- Under the more restricted definition of membrane-bound structures, some parts of the cell do not qualify as organelles. (wikipedia.org)
- Nevertheless, the use of organelle to refer to non-membrane bound structures such as ribosomes is common. (wikipedia.org)
- Now, the concept of organelles has been extended to include macromolecular complexes that are stable structures performing specific functions, such as stress granules and centrioles. (sciencemag.org)
- The jury is still out on whether scaffolded macromolecular regions, such as the postsynaptic density, plasma membrane-associated platforms, and certain cytoskeletal structures, are "organelles. (sciencemag.org)
- Parasitic protozoa, including some which are agents of human and veterinary diseases, display special cytoplasmic structures and organelles. (nii.ac.jp)
- Further chapters cover structures involved in the synthesis, secretion and uptake of molecules, including the flagellar pocket of trypanosomatids, the reservosome of Trypanosoma and the megasome found in Leishmania, the traffic of vesicles in Entamoeba histolytica, secretory organelles and the secretory events of intestinal parasites during encystation. (nii.ac.jp)
- Organelles are small unique structures of a cell that perform specialized tasks. (wikidoc.org)
- Conventional fluorescent microscope can be used for viewing some of the organelle or subcellular structures. (origene.com)
- Every cell in your body contains organelles (structures that have specific functions). (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Organelles are internal cellular structures that perform dedicated functions. (jrank.org)
- Is the Subject Area "Cellular structures and organelles" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- Can be free ribosomes, attached to the ER, or inside certain organelles. (prezi.com)
- Double-membrane bound organelle, and it has its own DNA and ribosomes in the stroma. (sporcle.com)
- RER looks rough on the surface because it is studded with very small organelles called ribosomes . (s-cool.co.uk)
- In the 1960s it was recognized that ribosomes, the protein factories, are produced in this organelle. (innovations-report.com)
- Organelles are identified by microscopy, and can also be purified by cell fractionation. (wikipedia.org)
- Organelles were historically identified through the use of microscopy , and were also identified through the use of cell fractionation . (factbites.com)
- Organelles were historically identified through the use of some form of microscopy and by cell fractionation . (wikidoc.org)
- However, phospholipids are the principle component of organelle and cell membranes in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, but they can't be called cellular for the same reason we don't call bricks buildings. (answers.com)
- Organelles are analogous with organs in the body of multicellular organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
- this would illustrate that methodologies developed for studying the biogenesis of the structure-function relationships in one organelle can often be applied fruitfully to investi- gate such aspects in other organelles. (springer.com)
- One of the protein complexes involved in this process is biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). (ebi.ac.uk)
- In losing their autonomy, endosymbionts lost the bulk of their genomes, necessitating the evolution of elaborate mechanisms for organelle biogenesis and metabolite exchange. (sciencemag.org)
- The centre focuses on understanding the biogenesis and functions of three organelles, namely, Golgi, TGN and EXPO. (edu.hk)
- This research will not only address the fundamental questions concerning organelle biogenesis and functions in important biological processes, such as cell wall formation and stress signaling pathways in plants, but will also have potential applications for the biotechnology industry in Hong Kong and China, including improving the value of plants as biofuel feedstocks and enhancing crop productivity in high-stress environments. (edu.hk)
- Thus, the aim of this Research Topic is to extend our understanding of plant autophagy processes that degrade specific organelles during plant development. (frontiersin.org)
- Physiological roles of organelles autophagy in plant development and crop productivity. (frontiersin.org)
- Relationship among autophagy and other processes for organelle turnover. (frontiersin.org)
- Autophagy is induced upon cellular stress, such as starvation, organelle damage, pathogen invasion, and oxidative stress ( 11 ), and serves as a prosurvival response because mice with a defect in the autophagic response die upon neonatal starvation ( 12 ). (mcponline.org)
- Moreover, the dynamics of processes that result in changes in these characteristics (e.g. organelle fission, fusion, autophagy, transport) influence the function of the cell. (rug.nl)
- A secondary function of centrioles is to arrange the cell's organelles. (kidsbiology.com)
- Centrioles correctly position cilia (green), and also intracellular organelles. (rupress.org)
- The authors found evidence that the centrioles position two other organelles-the contractile vacuole and microtubule rootlets. (rupress.org)
- In most cases, the organelle is separated from the rest of the cell by selectively permeable membranes. (encyclopedia.com)
- There are also occasional exceptions to the number of membranes surrounding organelles, listed in the tables below (e.g., some that are listed as double-membrane are sometimes found with single or triple membranes). (wikipedia.org)
- Generally, they are sausage-shaped organelles whose walls consist of 2 membranes . (s-cool.co.uk)
- Organellar membranes not only define the intraorganellar space and maintain organelle identity, but also serve as platforms for organizing regulatory complexes. (sciencemag.org)
- The contents within these organelles determine their specific function, but the overall architecture of the protein membranes of BMCs are fundamentally the same, the authors noted. (lbl.gov)
- b. have organelles bound by membranes. (visionlearning.com)
- Which organelles inside the cell have membranes with many convolutions and why? (enotes.com)
- This organelle has two membranes one of which is folded inside the other. (enotes.com)
- What organelle inside the cell has membranes with many convolutions and why? (enotes.com)
- organelle Within a cell, a persistent structure that has a specialized function. (encyclopedia.com)
- In addition, the number of individual organelles of each type found in a given cell varies depending upon the function of that cell. (wikipedia.org)
- DAMP should be a useful probe for exploring the assembly, distribution, and function of acidic organelles by electron microscopy. (pnas.org)
- Under normal conditions, these connections are necessary for the function of both organelles. (eurekalert.org)
- An organelle is an organized structure of distinctive morphology and function. (yeastgenome.org)
- The signals and molecular machineries that regulate organelle function, dynamics, and replication and the signals produced by organelles are beginning to be discovered. (sciencemag.org)
- These agents promote massive and wide-spread neuroapoptosis that is caused by the impairment of integrity and function of neuronal organelles. (frontiersin.org)
- To maintain cellular homeostasis, eukaryotes must control the function, quality and quantity of organelles through organelle degradation. (frontiersin.org)
- This lesson will give a general overview of how organelles help a cell function and will explain the importance of organelles in increasing surface area to volume ratios. (sophia.org)
- And, if the genes are indeed operative, it would imply that the pathway in which they function would involve a complicated mosaic of inputs from host and endosymbiont-the sort of complex interactions seen between the classic endosymbiont-turned-organelle example of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded genes, says McCutcheon. (the-scientist.com)
- Just like organs in the body, each organelle contributes in its own way to helping the cell function well as a whole. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Despite their central importance to cell function (and therefore to all life), organelles have only been studied closely following the invention of the transmission electron microscope, which allowed them to be seen in detail for the first time. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Targeted proteomics profiling can be partnered with protein pathway function by enriching for organelles and analyzing their contents. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Recent data indicate that morphological characteristics of cell organelles are important for their function in the cell. (rug.nl)
- 6. The method of claim 5 wherein said organelle is a mitochondrion. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The mitochondrion is the organelle that performs cellular reproduction. (answers.com)
- Reviews on special organelles, such as the kinetoplast-mitochondrion complex, the apicoplast found in Apicomplexa, the glycosomes in Kinetoplastida and the acidocalcisomes found in several protozoa complete the volume. (nii.ac.jp)
- What Organelles Contain Digestive Enzymes? (reference.com)
- The digestive enzymes contained within these organelles are called acid hydrolases. (reference.com)
- 09.03.2016 at 14:55:12 (Abdominal tenderness, pain, gas, and/or diarrhea) if intake product to buy, it is recommended to digestive enzymes in organelle use one that much. (amazonaws.com)
- As you probably all know glycosomes are the membrane surrounded microbody-like organelles of trypanosomatid and bodonid flagellated protists that belong to the order of the Kinetoplastida. (bio.net)
- Sequence determination of complete organelle genomes provides the data for genome bioinformatics, the investigation of organelle genome evolution and the molecular phylogeny of protists . (factbites.com)
- Despite being small unicellular organisms, bacteria have the ability to organize their cellular architecture and spatially regulate synthesis of organelles and macromolecular complexes essential for many biological activities. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- In addition, the synthesis of certain macromolecular complexes and organelles are numerically regulated so that bacteria only produce a level ideal for the organisms. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- Inside every cell is a complex infrastructure of organelles carrying out different functions. (asbmb.org)
- A third objective was to impress upon the participants that a study of the interaction between different organelles is intrinsic to understanding their physiological functions. (springer.com)
- Other membraneless organelles are found only in certain cell types, where they have more-specialized functions. (the-scientist.com)
- Lysosome-related organelles occur in specific cell types and fulfil specialised functions e.g. melanosomes which synthesise and store pigments in higher eukaryotes. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Yunfeng Lu has developed a nanoscale shell that can mimic organelles by delivering precisely formulated enzyme combinations intact into the body to serve therapeutic functions. (goldsea.com)
- The functions of the human cell and its organelles are similar to that of a city. (enotes.com)
- We provide brief summaries of these issues for individual organelles, and conclude with a discussion on how to apply this concept to better understand the mechanisms of size control in the cellular environment. (nih.gov)
- The study authors said that by using the structural data from this paper, researchers can design experiments to study the mechanisms for how the molecules get across this protein membrane, and to build custom organelles for carbon capture or to produce valuable compounds. (lbl.gov)
- One of the objectives of the course was to compare different organelles in order to allow the participants to discern recurrent themes which would illustrate that a basic unity exists in spite of the diversity. (springer.com)
- This suggests that further processing of the RNA molecules takes place step by step in different organelles," says Weis. (analytica-world.com)
- While prokaryotes do not possess organelles per se, some do contain protein-based bacterial microcompartments, which are thought to act as primitive organelles. (wikipedia.org)
- In particular, Organelle DB is a central repository of yeast protein localization data, incorporating results from both previous and current (ongoing) large-scale studies of protein localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (factbites.com)
- The special biophysical conditions found in this organelle prevent harmful protein aggregation. (innovations-report.com)
- This accumulation in membranous organelles insulates both recombinant protein and host from undesirable activities of either. (csic.es)
- Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
- The detailed structure of organelles only became clear after the development of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which made it possible to look at individual organelles at high resolution. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- Membraneless organelles, defined as subcellular compartments that lack a surrounding membrane and perform a specialized biochemical role, are also referred to as membraneless compartments, cellular bodies, and, most broadly, biomolecular condensates. (the-scientist.com)
- But already, it is clear that the phenomenon underpins the formation and functionality of a growing number of long-observed membraneless organelles. (the-scientist.com)
- Now, together with his team, he has researched the principle underpinning the formation of membraneless organelles and how this process is regulated. (analytica-world.com)
- By doing so, they realised that it is precisely these flexible arms that are responsible for the formation and regulation of membraneless organelles. (analytica-world.com)
- However, membraneless organelles are susceptible to failure. (analytica-world.com)
- Now that the biochemists have understood how such membraneless organelles are regulated, they are able to study the phenomenon in a more targeted way. (analytica-world.com)
- Researchers at McGill University have discovered bacterial organelles involved in gene expression, suggesting that bacteria may not be as simple as once thought. (news-medical.net)
- The organelles likely evolved from bacteria that were endocytosed more than one billion years ago. (factbites.com)
- These organelles, or bacterial microcompartments (BMCs), are used by some bacteria to fix carbon dioxide, Kerfeld noted. (lbl.gov)
- This class of organelles also helps many types of pathogenic bacteria metabolize compounds that are not available to normal, non-pathogenic microbes, giving the pathogens a competitive advantage. (lbl.gov)
- Flagellar motors in polarly-flagellated bacteria are excellent examples of organelles that are spatially and numerically regulated in specific bacterial species. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- Prokaryotes were once thought not to have organelles, but some examples have now been identified. (phys.org)
- But more importantly, it provides the very first picture of the shell of an intact bacterial organelle membrane. (lbl.gov)
- Having the full structural view of the bacterial organelle membrane can help provide important information in fighting pathogens or bioengineering bacterial organelles for beneficial purposes. (lbl.gov)
- Researchers are using new technologies to see and understand the networks that connect these organelles, allowing them to build maps of the trade routes that exist within a cell. (asbmb.org)
- Researchers are discovering a growing number of biological processes that take place in these organelles, separated from the rest of the cell's content," says Karsten Weis, Professor of Biochemistry at ETH Zurich. (analytica-world.com)
- It turns out that the enhanced MAM formation in obesity is too much of a good thing, leading to functional failure of multiple organelles and amplification of cellular stress," Hotamisligil said. (eurekalert.org)
- Each organelle or organized functional macromolecular complex could have an entire article devoted to it. (sciencemag.org)
- citation needed] While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment", other cell biologists choose to limit the term organelle to include only those that are containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), having originated from formerly autonomous microscopic organisms acquired via endosymbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
- From the green revolution to golden rice, plant organelles have revolutionized agriculture. (abebooks.com)
- After my talk and evaluating several posters presented by investigators from my laboratory, Dr. Jacco Flipsen, Publishing Manager of Kluwer Publishers asked me whether I would consider editing a book on Plant Organelles. (abebooks.com)
- The removal of damaged organelles is essential for plants throughout various developmental stages as well as to overcome environmental changes that enhance cellular damage, since organelle degradation allows the recycling of derived small molecules, such as amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids. (frontiersin.org)