Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Bone Marrow DiseasesOsteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Mice, Inbred C57BLLeg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Subfornical Organ: A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Abnormal descent of a pelvic organ resulting in the protrusion of the organ beyond its normal anatomical confines. Symptoms often include vaginal discomfort, DYSPAREUNIA; URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE; and FECAL INCONTINENCE.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Mice, Inbred BALB CHematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Bone Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.OsteomyelitisCadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Enamel Organ: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
  • Chemokines, small protein chemoattractants, decorate the stromal network of fibroblasts and epithelial cells that create the cellular framework of secondary lymphoid organs through which lymphocytes continually recirculate ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Molecular imaging of lymphoid organs and immune activation by positron emission tomography with a new [18F]-labeled 2'-deoxycytidine analog. (nih.gov)
  • 18)F]FAC enabled visualization of lymphoid organs and was sensitive to localized immune activation in a mouse model of antitumor immunity. (nih.gov)
  • This overview is aimed at providing practitioners with an update on recent advances on cell signalling in bone remodelling and highlights the role of the skeleton in systemic metabolism. (scielo.org.za)
  • They do not have four limbs, they do not have eyes with true lenses often, they usually don't have a skeleton like ours, their organ systems all work differently from ours. (answers.com)
  • A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cortical bone gives bone its smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult human skeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, these microvascular-mediated complications damage the retina, kidneys, peripheral nerves and other organs. (hindawi.com)
  • Behind the intestines are the kidneys , important organs that contain an estimated 1 million filtering units called nephrons. (healthline.com)
  • The shortage of donor organs and the need of lifelong immunosuppression for the thousands of patients suffering from end-stage diseases worldwide are problems that need to be resolved. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to avoid removal of recipient organs when donor organs are not viable, it is standard procedure that the patient is not operated on until the donor organs arrive and are judged suitable, despite the time delay this involves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once suitable donor organs are present, the surgeon makes an incision starting above and finishing below the sternum, cutting all the way to the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the donor organs warm up to body temperature, the lungs begin to inflate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study characterized bone histomorphometric findings in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients who were assessed for suspected secondary osteoporosis. (lu.se)
  • The observed changes in bone quality (i.e. abnormal turnover rate, thin trabeculae) rather than the actual loss of trabecular bone, might explain the increased fracture risk in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. (lu.se)
  • Show Notes: On episode 114, advancements in the use of donated bone marrow is not only saving lives, but may also be the key to decreasing or eliminating rejection for organ transplant recipients. (iheart.com)
  • s, acute cellular rejection in the first six months occurred in 38 percent of those who received bone marrow, compared to 82 percent of those who did not. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Additionally, we will present evidence for a role of altered microRNAs in the vital organ dysfunction caused by acute or chronic alcohol consumption. (mdpi.com)
  • To solve this paradox, we used computed tomography-based, four-dimensional imaging methods and computational analysis to monitor acute and chronic whole-bone shape adaptation and remodeling in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • We first confirmed that some acute load-induced structural changes are reversible, adhere to the linear strain magnitude regulation of remodeling activities, and are restricted to bone regions in which marked antiresorptive actions are evident. (sciencemag.org)
  • The reproductive organs (uterus and vagina), tibia bone and aorta were taken for histopathological examination while serum for hormonal assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Administration of Tualang honey for 2 weeks to ovariectomised rats significantly increased the weight of the uterus and the thickness of vaginal epithelium, restored the morphology of the tibia bones and reduced the body weight compared to rats in the ovariectomised group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conducted controlled experimentation using ovariectomised rats as an animal model for menopausal syndrome to study the effect of Malaysian Tualang honey on body weights, reproductive organs, tibia bone, aorta and assayed the hormonal profiles of these rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bone marrow (BM) is an invaluable source of adult pluripotent stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (hindawi.com)
  • Our results suggest the potential application of OCT in providing high-resolution tomographic imaging of tissues in organ culture and cells grown in three-dimensional constructs in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The results in these patients who received the extra boost of donor immune system cells indicate the procedure is safe and augments the cellular environment we believe is necessary for long-term acceptance of a transplanted organ. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Osteogenic cells- stem cells that develop from fibroblasts and give rise to other bone cells located in endosteum, inner layer of eriostemon, and in central canals 2. (coursehero.com)
  • Solitary bone plasmacytomas and plasma cell myeloma are clonal proliferations of plasma cells. (tjh.com.tr)
  • In engineered bone grafts, the combined actions of bone-forming cells, matrix and bioactive stimuli determine the eventual performance of the implant. (legallaw247.com)
  • High-Dose Chemotherapy - means a form of chemotherapy wherein the dose exceeds standard doses of chemotherapy to the extent that virtually all patients who receive high-dose chemotherapy sustain destruction of the bone marrow to the point that bone marrow or peripheral stem cells or progenitor cells must be implanted or infused to keep the patient alive. (coalbenefits.com)
  • High-Dose Radiation Therapy - means a form of radiation therapy wherein the dose exceeds standard doses of radiation therapy resulting in destruction of the bone marrow to the point that bone marrow or peripheral stem cells or progenitor cells must be implanted or infused to keep the patient alive. (coalbenefits.com)
  • Scientists hope these human cells can be harnessed to create organs for transplant patients one day. (cnn.com)
  • Entry of LPL −/− B cells into the lymph nodes and bone marrow of mice was also impaired. (jimmunol.org)
  • Following successful rearrangement of the Ig locus to generate and express IgM, immature B cells emigrate from the bone marrow, guided by receptors for S1P ( 13 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In living organisms, the hair cells are organized into neuromast organs . (palaeos.com)
  • The neuromast organ consists of hair cells and support cells embedded in a gelatinous cupula . (palaeos.com)
  • The treatment of many blood diseases, including cancers such as leukemia, involves the destruction of the patient's own blood cells and replacement with blood stem cells from bone marrow provided by a genetically matched donor. (kanebiolaw.com)
  • The plaintiffs included cancer patients seeking bone marrow stem cells and a bone marrow registry which intends to offer financial incentives for donations and to increase efforts to target ethnic groups that may be underrepresented in current banks. (kanebiolaw.com)
  • The plaintiffs argued that modern cell sorting technologies now allow the harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells directly from blood, and thus avoid the traditional procedure of bone marrow withdrawal to recover these cells. (kanebiolaw.com)
  • The induction of vessels within an artificial bone substitute, by co-seeding endothelial progenitors and mesenchymal stromal cells, might improve the vascularization of the graft. (aofoundation.org)
  • Indirect bone healing results in successive events including inflammation, recruitment and differentiation of stem cells, the formation of a cartilaginous callus that will remodel to restore the bone biological and structural integrity. (aofoundation.org)
  • Indeed, key mechanisms involved in breast cancer osteotropism are still only partially understood due to the lack of suitable animal models to mimic metastasis of human tumor cells to a human bone microenvironment. (biologists.org)
  • The newly formed bone was largely humanized, as indicated by the incorporation of human bone cells and human-derived matrix proteins. (biologists.org)
  • They originate from stem cells in the bone marrow. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells , store minerals , provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility . (wikipedia.org)
  • Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone is not uniformly solid, but consists of a flexible matrix (about 30%) and bound minerals (about 70%) which are intricately woven and endlessly remodeled by a group of specialized bone cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone is actively constructed and remodeled throughout life by special bone cells known as osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The columns are metabolically active, and as bone is reabsorbed and created the nature and location of the cells within the osteon will change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone is formed by the hardening of this matrix around entrapped cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within these spaces are bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical in-/stability is known to influence the bone healing path (direct versus indirect bone healing) and callus formation in vivo . (aofoundation.org)
  • This indicates that the recipient's immune defense is capable of fighting unwanted infections but is less likely to initiate an attack against the donor organ. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our joints, energy levels, immune system, and organ systems are not what they could be. (saltwrap.com)
  • Current treatments involving autologous or allogenic bone grafts present the problem of implant availability and quality, or associated infection and immune response risks, respectively. (aofoundation.org)
  • We are investigating how modulation of immune cell responses may be used to enhance the bone healing process, as well as assessing the potential of immune cell characterization to be used as a predictive marker of individual patient healing potential in a personalized medicine approach. (aofoundation.org)
  • Vitamin D3 is an essential nutrient that boosts the immune system, assists with calcium absorption to promote bone strength, supports the nervous system, and promotes brain health. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Drugs that keep the immune system from attacking a transplanted organ can also leave the inner ear vulnerable to infection. (healthcanal.com)
  • If you do make the immune system work better, they may reject their organ," McKinnon notes. (healthcanal.com)
  • The procedure is used to cure cancers in the blood as well as diseases in the bones and immune system. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • This case highlights the importance of close monitoring of patients diagnosed with solitary bone plasmacytoma with increased serum M protein and serum β2-microglobulin levels, so that early therapy can be instituted to prevent conversion to plasma cell myeloma. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Tekrarlanan tam kan say m , kan re, serum kreatinin, kemik taramas ve kemik ili i incelemelerinde anormallik bulunmam t r. ok say da ekstramed ller retroperitoneal kitlelerle bulgu vermesi, SKP geli mesi, organ ya da doku hasarlanmas na neden olmamas ve kemik ili i tutulumunun bulunmamas gibi nedenlerle zellikli bir PHM olgusu sunulmu tur. (tjh.com.tr)
  • The concentration of apoE detected in serum was found to be gene dosage dependent, being 3.52±0.30%, 1.87±0.17%, and 0% of normal in transplanted mice receiving either apoE +/+ , apoE +/− , or apoE −/− bone marrow, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Will lab-grown organs cure cancer? (cnn.com)
  • Because estrogen is important for maintaining bone strength in women, breast cancer treatments that act against estrogen can lead to bone weakening. (moffitt.org)
  • After intracardiac injection, the dissemination of luciferase-expressing human breast cancer cell lines to the humanized bone ossicles was detected by bioluminescent imaging. (biologists.org)