The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
Tumor or cancer of the MALE GENITALIA.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Coordination of nursing services by various nursing care personnel under the leadership of a professional nurse. The team may consist of a professional nurse, nurses' aides, and the practical nurse.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.

Kinetics of neuroendocrine differentiation in an androgen-dependent human prostate xenograft model. (1/2065)

It was previously shown in the PC-295 xenograft that the number of chromogranin A (CgA)-positive neuroendocrine (NE) cells increased after androgen withdrawal. NE cells did not proliferate and differentiated from G0-phase-arrested cells. Here we further characterized NE differentiation, androgen receptor status, and apoptosis-associated Bcl-2 expression in the PC-295 model after androgen withdrawal to assess the origin of NE cells. PC-295 tumor volumes decreased by 50% in 4 days. Intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and MIB-1 labeling decreased to 0%, and the apoptosis was maximal at day 4. Androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels decreased rapidly within 2 days. The number of NE cells increased 6-fold at day 4 and 30-fold at day 7. Five and ten percent of the CgA-positive cells were BrdU positive after continuous BrdU labeling for 2 and 4 days, respectively. However, no MIB-1 expression was observed in CgA-positive cells. NE cells expressed the regulated secretory pathway marker secretogranin III but were negative for androgen receptor and Bcl-2. Bcl-2 expression did increase in the non-NE tumor cells. In conclusion, androgen withdrawal leads to a rapid PC-295 tumor regression and a proliferation-independent induction of NE differentiation. The strictly androgen-independent NE cells that were still present after 21 days differentiated mainly from G0-phase-arrested cells.  (+info)

The effects of low-copper diets with or without supplemental molybdenum on specific immune responses of stressed cattle. (2/2065)

Angus bull calves (n = 42; 7 mo of age; 254 kg initial BW) were used to investigate the effects of dietary Cu and Mo on immune function of stressed cattle. Randomly selected calves (n = 22) were injected with 90 mg of Cu as Cu glycinate 28 d before weaning and castrated at weaning. These calves received 7.5 and 5 mg of supplemental Cu/kg of DM during a 41-d receiving phase and a 196-d growing phase, respectively. The remainder of the steers received no supplemental Cu during the experiment. Copper-supplemented steers had adequate Cu status at weaning, whereas unsupplemented calves were marginally Cu-deficient. Cell-mediated response to intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin was not affected by dietary treatment during the receiving phase. During the growing phase, half of the steers in each Cu treatment were given 5 mg of supplemental Mo/kg of DM. Copper supplementation increased (P<.05) humoral response to ovalbumin injected on d 133 of the growing phase. On d 168 of the growing phase, calves receiving only supplemental Mo were severely Cu-deficient based on plasma and liver Cu concentrations. The other treatment groups had adequate Cu status. Before feeding on d 168 of the growing phase, half of the steers were loaded onto trailers and transported 2.5 h, and they remained on the trailers an additional 9.5 h. Humoral response to porcine erythrocytes (PRBC) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to dinitrochlorobenzene was tested at the end of the stress period. There was a Cu x stress interaction for humoral response to PRBC, with Cu decreasing antibody titers in unstressed calves and increasing titers in stressed steers. Stressed steers had lower (P = .03) ADG during the 28 d following stress. The results of this study indicate that Cu deficiency and 5 mg of supplemental Mo/kg of DM do not dramatically alter the specific immunity of stressed cattle.  (+info)

Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer. (3/2065)

PURPOSE: To obtain information about preorchiectomy gonadal function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer to improve the clinical management of fertility and other andrologic aspects in these men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In group 1, a group of 83 consecutive patients with testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) investigated before orchiectomy, semen analysis was carried out in 63 patients and hormonal investigations, including measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), inhibin B, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), in 71 patients. Hormone levels in patients with elevated hCG (n = 41) were analyzed separately. To discriminate between general cancer effects and specific effects associated with TGCC, the same analyses were carried out in a group of 45 consecutive male patients with malignant lymphoma (group 2). Group 3 comprised 141 men employed in a Danish company who served as controls in the comparison of semen parameters. As a control group in hormone investigations, 193 men were selected randomly from the Danish National Personal Register to make up group 4. RESULTS: We found significantly lower sperm concentration (median, 15 x 10(6)/mL; range, 0 to 128 x 10(6)/mL) and total sperm count (median, 29 x 10(6)/mL; range, 0 to 589 x 10(6)) in patients with testicular cancer than in patients with malignant lymphomas (sperm concentration: median, 48 x 10(6)/mL; range, 0.04 to 250 x 10(6)/mL; sperm count: median, 146 x 10(6); range, 0.05 to 418 x 10(6)) (P < .001 and P < .001) and healthy men (sperm concentration: median, 48 x 10(6)/mL; range, 0 to 402 x 10(6)/mL; sperm count: median, 162 x 10(6); range, 0 to 1253 x 10(6)) (P < .001 and P < .001). FSH levels were increased in men with testicular cancer (median, 5.7 IU/L; range, 2.0 to 27 IU/L) compared with both men with malignant lymphomas (median, 3.3 IU/L; range, 1.01 to 12.0 IU/L) and healthy controls (median, 4.1 IU/L; range, 1.04 to 21 IU/L)(P = .001 and P = .007, respectively). Surprisingly, we found significantly lower LH in the group of men with TGCC (median, 3.6 IU/L; range, 1.12 to 11.9 IU/L) than in healthy men (median, 4.7 IU/L; range, 1.3 to 11.9 IU/L) (P = .01). We could not detect any differences between men with testicular cancer and men with malignant lymphomas and healthy men with regard to serum levels of testosterone, SHBG, and estradiol. Men with testicular cancer who had increased hCG levels had significantly lower LH and significantly higher testosterone and estradiol than those without detectable hCG levels. CONCLUSION: Spermatogenesis is already impaired in men with testicular cancer before orchiectomy. Neither local suppression of spermatogenesis by tumor pressure nor a general cancer effect seems to fully explain this impairment. The most likely explanation is preexisting impairment of spermatogenesis in the contralateral testis in men with testicular cancer. The question of whether also a pre-existing Leydig cell dysfunction is present in men with testicular cancer could not be answered in this study because the tumor seems to have a direct effect on the Leydig cells. Men with testicular cancer had low LH values as compared with controls. We speculate that increased intratesticular level of hCG also in men without measurable serum hCG may play a role by exerting LH-like effects on the Leydig cells, causing increased testosterone and estrogen levels and low LH values in the blood.  (+info)

Suppression of the secretion of luteinizing hormone due to isolation/restraint stress in gonadectomised rams and ewes is influenced by sex steroids. (4/2065)

In this study we used an isolation/restraint stress to test the hypothesis that stress will affect the secretion of LH differently in gonadectomised rams and ewes treated with different combinations of sex steroids. Romney Marsh sheep were gonadectomised two weeks prior to these experiments. In the first experiment male and female sheep were treated with vehicle or different sex steroids for 7 days prior to the application of the isolation/restraint stress. Male sheep received either i.m. oil (control rams) or 6 mg testosterone propionate injections every 12 h. Female sheep were given empty s.c. implants (control ewes), or 2x1 cm s.c. implants containing oestradiol, or an intravaginal controlled internal drug release device containing 0.3 g progesterone, or the combination of oestradiol and progesterone. There were four animals in each group. On the day of application of the isolation/restraint stress, blood samples were collected every 10 min for 16 h for the subsequent measurement of plasma LH and cortisol concentrations. After 8 h the stress was applied for 4 h. Two weeks later, blood samples were collected for a further 16 h from the control rams and ewes, but on this day no stress was imposed. In the second experiment, separate control gonadectomised rams and ewes (n=4/group) were studied for 7 h on 3 consecutive days, when separate treatments were applied. On day 1, the animals received no treatment; on day 2, isolation/restraint stress was applied after 3 h; and on day 3, an i. v. injection of 2 microg/kg ACTH1-24 was given after 3 h. On each day, blood samples were collected every 10 min and the LH response to the i.v. injection of 500 ng GnRH administered after 5 h of sampling was measured. In Experiment 1, the secretion of LH was suppressed during isolation/restraint in all groups but the parameters of LH secretion (LH pulse frequency and amplitude) that were affected varied between groups. In control rams, LH pulse amplitude, and not frequency, was decreased during isolation/restraint whereas in rams treated with testosterone propionate the stressor reduced pulse frequency and not amplitude. In control ewes, isolation/restraint decreased LH pulse frequency but not amplitude. Isolation/restraint reduced both LH pulse frequency and amplitude in ewes treated with oestradiol, LH pulse frequency in ewes treated with progesterone and only LH pulse amplitude in ewes treated with both oestradiol and progesterone. There was no change in LH secretion during the day of no stress. Plasma concentrations of cortisol were higher during isolation/restraint than on the day of no stress. On the day of isolation/restraint maximal concentrations of cortisol were observed during the application of the stressor but there were no differences between groups in the magnitude of this response. In Experiment 2, isolation/restraint reduced the LH response to GnRH in rams but not ewes and ACTH reduced the LH response to GnRH both in rams and ewes. Our results show that the mechanism(s) by which isolation/restraint stress suppresses LH secretion in sheep is influenced by sex steroids. The predominance of particular sex steroids in the circulation may affect the extent to which stress inhibits the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus and/or the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to the actions of GnRH. There are also differences between the sexes in the effects of stress on LH secretion that are independent of the sex steroids.  (+info)

Modulation of rat preadipocyte adipose conversion by androgenic status: involvement of C/EBPs transcription factors. (5/2065)

Androgenic status affects rat preadipocyte adipose conversion from two deep intra-abdominal (epididymal and perirenal) fat depots differently. The aim of this study was to establish whether these site-specific alterations of adipogenesis are related to altered expressions of the transcriptional factors regulating proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes, c-myc and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs: C/EBPalpha and beta). The increased proliferation of epididymal and perirenal preadipocytes from castrated rats was not linked to variations in c-myc mRNA and protein levels. The expression of the early marker of adipogenesis, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), was decreased by androgenic deprivation in epididymal cells but remained insensitive to the androgenic status in perirenal preadipocytes. In contrast, LPL expression increased in subcutaneous preadipocytes from castrated rats, an effect which was partly corrected by testosterone treatment. Expression of C/EBPbeta was unaffected by androgenic status whatever the anatomical origin of the preadipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA and protein levels of C/EBPalpha were greatly decreased by androgenic deprivation in epididymal cells, an alteration which could not be corrected by in vivo testosterone administration. Altogether these results demonstrated that in preadipocytes androgenic deprivation affects site-specifically the expression of LPL, an early marker of adipogenesis and of C/EBPalpha, a master regulator of adipogenesis. These observations contribute to an explanation of why castration induces defective adipose conversion in rat epididymal preadipocytes specifically.  (+info)

Natural androgens inhibit male atherosclerosis: a study in castrated, cholesterol-fed rabbits. (6/2065)

The effect of natural androgens on serum lipids and atherosclerosis is controversial. We therefore studied this important issue prospectively in an animal model of atherosclerosis. Eighty male rabbits were randomized to bilateral castration, and 20 animals were sham operated. The castrated rabbits were randomized to 500 mg oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) daily, 80 mg oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) daily, or 25-mg intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate (TE) twice weekly, whereas the fourth castrated group (placebo) and the sham-operated rabbits did not receive any hormones. All animals were fed a cholesterol-rich diet during the 30-week treatment period. Average serum lipids and atherogenic lipoproteins were higher in the placebo group than in the other groups (ANOVA, P<0.0001). Aortic atherosclerosis, as evaluated by the cholesterol content (nmol/mg protein), was also highest in the placebo group (308+/-39) and lowest in the TE group (61+/-12), but was intermediate in the DHEA (155+/-30), TU (191+/-43), and sham operation (162+/-29) groups (ANOVA, P<0.0001). ANCOVA indicated that the androgen effect on aortic atherosclerosis was only in part explained by the changes in lipoproteins. Aortic estrogen receptor contents were significantly lower in the androgen-treated groups than in the control groups, whereas there was no difference in aortic androgen receptor contents between groups. Natural androgens inhibit aortic atherosclerosis in castrated male rabbits only partly through a lipid-mediated effect.  (+info)

Alteration in sexually dimorphic testosterone biotransformation profiles as a biomarker of chemically induced androgen disruption in mice. (7/2065)

Assessment of the impact of environmental chemicals on androgen homeostasis in rodent models is confounded by high intraindividual and interindividual variability in circulating testosterone levels. Our goal was to evaluate changes in testosterone biotransformation processes as a measure of androgen homeostasis and as a biomarker of exposure to androgen-disrupting chemicals. Sex-specific differences in hepatic testosterone biotransformation enzyme activities were identified in CD-1 mice. Gonadectomy followed by replacement of individual steroid hormones identified specific sex differences in biotransformation profiles that were due to the inductive or suppressive effects of testosterone. Notably, significant androgen-dependent differences in testosterone 6[alpha]- and 15[alpha]-hydroxylase activities were demonstrated, and the ratio of 6[alpha]- and 15[alpha]-hydroxylase activities proved to be an excellent indicator of the androgen status within the animal. The male or "masculinized" testosterone 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio was significantly less than the female or "feminized" ratio. Male mice were exposed to both an antiandrogen, vinclozolin, and to a compound that modulates serum androgen levels, indole-3-carbinol, to test the utility of this ratio as a biomarker of androgen disruption. Treatment with the antiandrogen vinclozolin significantly increased the 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio. Indole-3-carbinol treatment resulted in a dose-dependent, but highly variable, decrease in serum testosterone levels. The 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio increased as serum testosterone levels decreased in these animals. However, the increase in the ratio was much less variable and more sensitive than serum testosterone levels. These investigations demonstrate that the 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio is a powerful measure of androgen modulation and a sensitive indicator of exposure to androgen-disrupting chemicals in CD-1 mice.  (+info)

Granule cells in aging rats are sexually dimorphic in their response to estradiol. (8/2065)

Normal aging comprises cognitive decline, including deterioration of memory. It has been suggested that this decline in memory is sexually dimorphic because of the cessation in gonadal steroid secretion that occurs during reproductive aging in female, but not male, mammals. We wondered whether neurons in brain regions associated with learning and memory underwent morphological changes that were dimorphic as well and whether cessation of the secretion of gonadal steroids influenced these morphological changes. To explore these questions, we deprived and restored estrogens to young and old gonadectomized females and males and studied the morphology of dentate granule cells by intracellular dye filling in a lightly fixed slice preparation. We found the following: (1) Aged female dentate granule cells deprived of gonadal steroids long-term have a paucity of dendritic spines compared with young females deprived short-term; however, aged male dentate granule cells deprived of gonadal steroids long-term have no decrease in dendritic spines compared with young males deprived short-term. (2) Aged female dentate granule cells with long-term estrogen replacement at either high or low levels still had a decline in spine density. (3) Aged female dentate granule cells with short-term estradiol replacement had spine density increased to levels normally observed in young adults, whereas aged males with short-term estradiol replacement had decreased spine density. These data suggest that the response of rat dentate granule cells to aging and estradiol is sexually dimorphic and that, in females, the responsiveness of granule cells depends on the temporal pattern of estradiol replacement.  (+info)

Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure where one or both of the testicles are removed. It is also known as castration. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, or other conditions that may affect the testicles. It can also be done to reduce levels of male hormones in the body, such as in the case of transgender women undergoing gender affirming surgery. The specific medical definition may vary slightly depending on the context and the extent of the procedure.

Testicular neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the testicle that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They are a type of genitourinary cancer, which affects the reproductive and urinary systems. Testicular neoplasms can occur in men of any age but are most commonly found in young adults between the ages of 15 and 40.

Testicular neoplasms can be classified into two main categories: germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors, which arise from the cells that give rise to sperm, are further divided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are typically slow-growing and have a good prognosis, while non-seminomas tend to grow more quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Non-germ cell tumors are less common than germ cell tumors and include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and lymphomas. These tumors can have a variety of clinical behaviors, ranging from benign to malignant.

Testicular neoplasms often present as a painless mass or swelling in the testicle. Other symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin, and breast enlargement (gynecomastia).

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and blood tests to detect tumor markers. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular self-examinations of the testicles are recommended for early detection and improved outcomes.

The spermatic cord is a fibrous structure that contains the vas deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics, which provide passage for these structures between the abdomen and the scrotum in males. It is covered by several layers of protective sheaths, including the internal spermatic fascia, cremasteric fascia, and external spermatic fascia. The spermatic cord allows the testicles to be located outside the body, which helps maintain a cooler temperature for optimal sperm production.

Seminoma is a type of germ cell tumor that develops in the testicle. It is a malignant tumor, meaning it can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Seminomas are typically slow-growing and tend to remain localized to the testicle for a longer period compared to other types of testicular cancer. They usually occur in men between the ages of 25 and 45 but can develop at any age.

Seminomas can be classified into two main subtypes: classical seminoma and spermatocytic seminoma. Classical seminoma is more common and typically responds well to treatment, while spermatocytic seminoma is rarer and tends to have a better prognosis with a lower risk of spreading.

Seminomas are usually treated with surgery to remove the affected testicle (orchiectomy), followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for seminoma is generally good, especially when caught and treated early. Regular self-examinations of the testicles can help detect any lumps or abnormalities that may indicate the presence of a seminoma or other type of testicular cancer.

Spermatic cord torsion is a urological emergency that refers to the twisting of the spermatic cord, which contains the vas deferens, blood vessels (testicular artery and pampiniform plexus), nerves, and lymphatics. This twisting results in the compromise of the blood supply to the testicle, leading to potential ischemia, necrosis, and loss of the testicle if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The spermatic cord torsion mainly affects the pediatric population, particularly newborns and adolescents; however, it can also occur in adults, especially those with a history of an undescended testicle or previous episodes of torsion. The most common presenting symptom is sudden onset of severe scrotal pain, often associated with nausea, vomiting, and fever. A physical examination may reveal swelling, tenderness, and elevation of the affected testicle (known as a high-riding or "bell clapper" testicle). Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound or Doppler ultrasonography, although in some cases, surgical exploration might be necessary for definitive diagnosis and treatment.

Treatment of spermatic cord torsion usually involves prompt surgical intervention to untwist the spermatic cord and secure the affected testicle to the scrotal wall (orchidopexy) to prevent recurrence. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to severe complications, including loss of the testicle, infertility, and chronic pain.

Neoplasms, germ cell and embryonal are types of tumors that originate from the abnormal growth of cells. Here's a brief medical definition for each:

1. Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths or masses, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled cell division and may invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis.
2. Germ Cell Tumors: These are rare tumors that develop from the germ cells, which give rise to sperm and eggs in the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). They can be benign or malignant and may occur in both children and adults. Germ cell tumors can also arise outside of the reproductive organs, a condition known as extragonadal germ cell tumors.
3. Embryonal Tumors: These are a type of malignant neoplasm that primarily affects infants and young children. They develop from embryonic cells, which are immature cells present during fetal development. Embryonal tumors can occur in various organs, including the brain (medulloblastomas), nervous system (primitive neuroectodermal tumors or PNETs), and other areas like the kidneys and liver.

It is essential to note that these conditions require professional medical evaluation and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in oncology and related fields.

Testicular diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the testicles, the male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. These diseases can affect either one or both testicles and may cause pain, swelling, or impact fertility. Here are some examples of testicular diseases:

1. Testicular cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the testicle. It is a relatively rare cancer but is highly treatable if detected early.
2. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency that occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, becomes twisted, cutting off the blood flow.
3. Epididymitis: An infection or inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube that stores and carries sperm from the testicle.
4. Orchitis: An infection or inflammation of the testicle itself. It can occur on its own or as a complication of mumps.
5. Hydrocele: A fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle, causing swelling.
6. Varicocele: Enlarged veins in the scrotum that can cause pain and affect fertility.
7. Inguinal hernia: A condition where a portion of the intestine or fat protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge in the groin or scrotum.
8. Testicular trauma: Injury to the testicle, which can result from accidents, sports injuries, or other causes.
9. Undescended testicles: A condition where one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth.

It is essential for men to perform regular self-examinations to check for any unusual lumps, swelling, or pain in the testicles and seek medical attention if they notice any changes.

Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of androgens, which are hormones that contribute to male sexual development and characteristics. They work by binding to androgen receptors in cells, preventing the natural androgens from attaching and exerting their effects. This can be useful in treating conditions that are caused or worsened by androgens, such as prostate cancer, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women), and acne. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.

Limbic encephalitis is a rare type of inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects the limbic system, which is a part of the brain involved in emotions, behavior, memory, and sense of smell. It is characterized by inflammation of the limbic system, leading to symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, seizures, changes in behavior and mood, and problems with autonomic functions.

Limbic encephalitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, cancer, or autoimmune disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI), and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment usually involves immunosuppressive therapy to reduce inflammation, as well as addressing any underlying causes if they can be identified.

It is important to note that limbic encephalitis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention and treatment. If you or someone else experiences symptoms such as sudden confusion, memory loss, or seizures, it is essential to seek medical care immediately.

Castration is a surgical procedure to remove the testicles in males or ovaries in females. In males, it is also known as orchiectomy. This procedure results in the inability to produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm in men and eggs in women), and can be done for various reasons such as medical treatment for certain types of cancer, to reduce sexual urges in individuals with criminal tendencies, or as a form of birth control in animals.

Flutamide is an anti-androgen medication, which is primarily used to treat prostate cancer. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, on cancer cells. This helps to slow down or stop the growth of prostate cancer cells. Flutamide may be given in combination with other medications, such as a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, to enhance its effectiveness. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets.

Flutamide can have side effects, including breast tenderness and enlargement, hot flashes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of sexual desire. In rare cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as liver damage. It is important to be monitored by a healthcare professional while taking this medication to ensure that it is working properly and to manage any potential side effects.

Genital neoplasms in males refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the male reproductive organs. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant genital neoplasms are often referred to as genital cancers. The most common types of male genital cancers include:

1. Penile Cancer: This occurs when cancer cells form in the tissues of the penis.
2. Testicular Cancer: This forms in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum.
3. Prostate Cancer: This is a common cancer in men, forming in the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system that helps make semen.
4. Scrotal Cancer: This is a rare form of cancer that forms in the skin or tissue of the scrotum.
5. Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PeIN): This is not cancer, but it is considered a pre-cancerous condition of the penis.

Early detection and treatment of genital neoplasms can significantly improve the prognosis. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended, especially for individuals with risk factors such as smoking, HIV infection, or a family history of these cancers.

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

Orchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of one or both testicles, usually caused by an infection. The most common cause of orchitis is a bacterial infection that spreads from the epididymis, resulting in a condition known as epididymo-orchitis. However, viral infections such as mumps can also lead to orchitis. Symptoms may include sudden and severe pain in the testicle(s), swelling, warmth, redness of the overlying skin, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections and supportive care for symptom relief. If left untreated, orchitis can lead to complications such as infertility or testicular atrophy.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

Antineoplastic agents, hormonal, are a class of drugs used to treat cancers that are sensitive to hormones. These agents work by interfering with the production or action of hormones in the body. They can be used to slow down or stop the growth of cancer cells and may also help to relieve symptoms caused by the spread of cancer.

Hormonal therapies can work in one of two ways: they can either block the production of hormones or prevent their action on cancer cells. For example, some hormonal therapies work by blocking the action of estrogen or testosterone, which are hormones that can stimulate the growth of certain types of cancer cells.

Examples of hormonal agents used to treat cancer include:

* Aromatase inhibitors (such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane), which block the production of estrogen in postmenopausal women
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen and raloxifene), which block the action of estrogen on cancer cells
* Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (such as leuprolide, goserelin, and triptorelin), which block the production of testosterone in men
* Antiandrogens (such as bicalutamide, flutamide, and enzalutamide), which block the action of testosterone on cancer cells

Hormonal therapies are often used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or radiation therapy. They may be used to shrink tumors before surgery, to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery, or to help control the spread of cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. Hormonal therapies can also be used to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life in people with advanced cancer.

It's important to note that hormonal therapies are not effective for all types of cancer. They are most commonly used to treat breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers, which are known to be sensitive to hormones. Hormonal therapies may also be used to treat other types of cancer in certain situations.

Like all medications, hormonal therapies can have side effects. These can vary depending on the specific drug and the individual person. Common side effects of hormonal therapies include hot flashes, fatigue, mood changes, and sexual dysfunction. Some hormonal therapies can also cause more serious side effects, such as an increased risk of osteoporosis or blood clots. It's important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of hormonal therapy with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both of a male infant's testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth or within the first year of life. Normally, the testicles descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development in the second trimester. If the testicles do not descend on their own, medical intervention may be necessary to correct the condition.

Cryptorchidism is a common birth defect, affecting about 3-5% of full-term and 30% of preterm male infants. In most cases, the testicle will descend on its own within the first six months of life. If it does not, treatment may be necessary to prevent complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, and inguinal hernia.

Treatment for cryptorchidism typically involves surgery to bring the testicle down into the scrotum. This procedure is called orchiopexy and is usually performed before the age of 2. In some cases, hormonal therapy may be used as an alternative to surgery. However, this approach has limited success and is generally only recommended in certain situations.

Overall, cryptorchidism is a treatable condition that can help prevent future health problems if addressed early on. Regular check-ups with a pediatrician or healthcare provider can help ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

A teratoma is a type of germ cell tumor, which is a broad category of tumors that originate from the reproductive cells. A teratoma contains developed tissues from all three embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. This means that a teratoma can contain various types of tissue such as hair, teeth, bone, and even more complex organs like eyes, thyroid, or neural tissue.

Teratomas are usually benign (non-cancerous), but they can sometimes be malignant (cancerous) and can spread to other parts of the body. They can occur anywhere in the body, but they're most commonly found in the ovaries and testicles. When found in these areas, they are typically removed surgically.

Teratomas can also occur in other locations such as the sacrum, coccyx (tailbone), mediastinum (the area between the lungs), and pineal gland (a small gland in the brain). These types of teratomas can be more complex to treat due to their location and potential to cause damage to nearby structures.

The retroperitoneal space refers to the area within the abdominal cavity that is located behind (retro) the peritoneum, which is the smooth serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This space is divided into several compartments and contains vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, aorta, and vena cava.

The retroperitoneal space can be further categorized into two regions:

1. The posterior pararenal space, which is lateral to the psoas muscle and contains fat tissue.
2. The perirenal space, which surrounds the kidneys and adrenal glands and is filled with fatty connective tissue.

Disorders or conditions affecting the retroperitoneal space may include infections, tumors, hematomas, or inflammation, which can lead to various symptoms depending on the specific structures involved. Imaging techniques such as CT scans or MRI are commonly used to diagnose and assess retroperitoneal pathologies.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

A germinoma is a type of tumor that develops in the brain or the spine, primarily in the pituitary gland or pineal gland. It is a rare form of primary central nervous system (CNS) cancer and is classified as a type of germ cell tumor. These tumors arise from cells that normally develop into sperm or eggs, which can migrate to unusual locations during embryonic development.

Germinomas are highly sensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, making them generally treatable and curable with appropriate medical intervention. Symptoms of a germinoma may include headaches, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, hormonal imbalances, and neurological deficits, depending on the location and size of the tumor. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies like MRI or CT scans, followed by a biopsy to confirm the presence of malignant cells.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. In adults, AFP is normally present in very low levels in the blood. However, abnormal production of AFP can occur in certain medical conditions, such as:

* Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
* Germ cell tumors, including non-seminomatous testicular cancer and ovarian cancer
* Hepatitis or liver inflammation
* Certain types of benign liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatic adenomas

Elevated levels of AFP in the blood can be detected through a simple blood test. This test is often used as a tumor marker to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer, particularly HCC. However, it's important to note that an elevated AFP level alone is not enough to diagnose cancer, and further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, some non-cancerous conditions can also cause elevated AFP levels, so it's important to interpret the test results in the context of the individual's medical history and other diagnostic tests.

Lymph node excision is a surgical procedure in which one or more lymph nodes are removed from the body for the purpose of examination. This procedure is often conducted to help diagnose or stage various types of cancer, as malignant cells may spread to the lymphatic system and eventually accumulate within nearby lymph nodes.

During a lymph node excision, an incision is made in the skin overlying the affected lymph node(s). The surgeon carefully dissects the tissue surrounding the lymph node(s) to isolate them from adjacent structures before removing them. In some cases, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed instead, where only the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node to which cancer cells are likely to spread) is removed and examined.

The excised lymph nodes are then sent to a laboratory for histopathological examination, which involves staining and microscopic evaluation of the tissue to determine whether it contains any malignant cells. The results of this examination can help guide further treatment decisions and provide valuable prognostic information.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In medical terms, sutures are specialized surgical threads made from various materials such as absorbable synthetic or natural fibers, or non-absorbable materials like nylon or silk. They are used to approximate and hold together the edges of a wound or incision in the skin or other tissues during the healing process. Sutures come in different sizes, types, and shapes, each designed for specific uses and techniques depending on the location and type of tissue being sutured. Properly placed sutures help to promote optimal healing, minimize scarring, and reduce the risk of infection or other complications.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Transsexualism is not considered a medical condition in itself, but rather a symptom or a part of a larger gender dysphoria diagnosis. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, gender dysphoria refers to the distress that may accompany the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender.

Transsexualism is an outdated term that was previously used to describe individuals who strongly identify with a gender different from the one they were assigned at birth and wish to permanently transition to their identified gender through medical and social means, including hormone therapy and gender confirmation surgery. The current preferred terminology is to use the term "transgender" as an umbrella term that includes all people whose gender identity differs from the sex they were assigned at birth.

It's important to note that being transgender is not a mental illness, but rather a part of human diversity. The distress that some transgender individuals experience is primarily due to societal stigma and discrimination, rather than their gender identity itself.

Transgender is a term used to describe people whose gender identity differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. It's important to note that being transgender is not a mental illness; it's a part of human diversity.

According to the American Psychiatric Association, a transgender person may be diagnosed with gender dysphoria if they experience significant distress or impairment in their daily life due to this incongruence between their experienced/expressed gender and their assigned sex. However, many transgender people do not experience such distress and therefore do not have a mental disorder.

It's also crucial to respect each individual's self-identified gender and use the appropriate pronouns they prefer. Discrimination and stigma against transgender individuals can lead to serious health disparities, including higher rates of mental health issues, substance abuse, and suicide.

Optical illusions are visual phenomena that occur when the brain perceives an image or scene differently from the actual physical properties of that image or scene. They often result from the brain's attempt to interpret and make sense of ambiguous, contradictory, or incomplete information provided by the eyes. This can lead to visually perceived images that are different from the objective reality. Optical illusions can be categorized into different types such as literal illusions, physiological illusions, and cognitive illusions, based on the nature of the illusion and the underlying cause.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

Penile implantation, also known as a prosthetic penis or penile prosthesis, is a surgical procedure to place devices into the penis to help a person with erectile dysfunction (ED) achieve an erection. The two main types of penile implants are inflatable and semi-rigid rods.

The inflatable implant consists of a fluid-filled reservoir, a pump, and two or three inflatable cylinders in the penis. The semi-rigid rod implant is a pair of flexible rods that are bent into an erect position for sexual intercourse and can be straightened when not in use.

Penile implantation is typically considered as a last resort treatment option for ED, when other treatments such as medications, vacuum constriction devices, or penile injections have failed or are not suitable. The procedure is typically performed by a urologist under general or spinal anesthesia and requires a hospital stay of one to two days.

It's important to note that like any surgical procedure, penile implantation also has risks such as infection, bleeding, mechanical failure, and device malfunction. It is essential for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before making a decision about this treatment option.

"Nursing, Team" in a medical context refers to a group of healthcare professionals, including but not limited to registered nurses, nurse practitioners, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and other support staff, who work collaboratively to provide comprehensive nursing care to patients. The team members bring their unique skills, knowledge, and expertise to the table to achieve optimal patient outcomes through coordinated efforts, open communication, and evidence-based practice. The goal of a nursing team is to ensure continuity of care, promote patient safety, and enhance the overall quality of care by working together in a cohesive and interdisciplinary manner.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Inguinal orchiectomy (named from the Latin inguen for "groin", and also called radical orchiectomy) is performed when an onset ... Unilateral orchiectomy results in decreased sperm count but does not reduce testosterone levels. Bilateral orchiectomy causes ... Woo LL, Ross JH (2020). "Partial orchiectomy vs. radical orchiectomy for pediatric testis tumors". Translational Andrology and ... Vaginoplasty can still be administered after undergoing bilateral orchiectomy, as the orchiectomy preserves the penoscrotal ...
... (also named orchidectomy) is a specific method of orchiectomy whereby one or both testicles and the full ... If the orchiectomy is performed to diagnose cancer, the testicle and spermatic cord are then sent to a pathologist to determine ... The inguinal orchiectomy is a necessary procedure if testicular cancer is suspected. While it is possible to remove a testicle ...
"Orchiectomy". 15 October 2021. Retrieved 2022-09-22. "Orchiectomy". Retrieved 2022-09-22. ... Orchiectomy is the process of removing the testicles from the body. It can be performed with or without removing the scrotum. ... She was the subject of four surgeries: one for orchiectomy, one to transplant an ovary, one for penectomy, and one for ... This makes it appropriate for individuals who have already undergone penectomy, orchiectomy, or who had a penis smaller than ...
Fertility is also a factor considered in SRS, as patients are typically informed that if an orchiectomy or oöphoro-hysterectomy ... In 1922, Richter underwent orchiectomy. In early 1931, a penectomy, followed in June by vaginoplasty. Richter is presumed to ... These include genital surgeries such as penectomy (removal of the penis), orchiectomy (removal of the testes), vaginoplasty ( ... Genital surgery may also involve other medically necessary ancillary procedures, such as orchiectomy, penectomy, mastectomy or ...
Orchiectomy is generally not indicated. Causality between splenogonadal fusion and future malignant transformation has not been ... Many cases have been diagnosed at autopsy or incidentally after orchiectomy. Treatment remains controversial given the benign ... but preoperative consideration of the diagnosis and use of ultrasound may help avoid unnecessary orchiectomy. The presence of ...
... orchiectomy versus orchiectomy plus cyproterone acetate (150 mg/day) versus low-dose diethylstilbestrol (1 mg/day) EORTC 30843 ... orchiectomy versus buserelin versus buserelin plus cyproterone acetate (150 mg/day) EORTC 30853 - orchiectomy versus goserelin ... September 1990). "Zoladex and flutamide versus bilateral orchiectomy. A randomized phase III EORTC 30853 study. The EORTC GU ...
"Orchiectomy: Surgery to Remove the Testicles". WebMD. Archived from the original on 2008-10-12. Retrieved 2022-02-11. ...
Lipshultz, L I (1980). "Orchiectomy, Penectomy, Vaginoplasty for the Male Transsexual". In Lipshultz, L I; Corriere, J N; Hafez ... van der Sluis, Wouter B.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Bouman, Mark-Bram (2 April 2020). "Orchiectomy in transgender individuals: A ...
Although orchiectomy is a low-risk surgery, the psychological impact of removing the testicles can be significant, and ... Orchiectomy is considered the gold standard of treatment. Antiandrogens are medications such as flutamide, nilutamide, ... GnRH agonists eventually cause the same side effects as orchiectomy but may cause worse symptoms at the beginning of treatment ... Eventually, total androgen blockade may prove to be better than orchiectomy or GnRH agonists used alone. Each treatment has ...
For comparison, orchiectomy decreased testosterone levels by 91%. In general, progestins are able to maximally suppress ...
One testicle may have been surgically removed through orchiectomy. One testicle may be injured. Lance Armstrong, American ...
In males, a radical inguinal orchiectomy is typically performed. However, testes-sparing surgery can be used to maintain ...
Dillon subsequently carried out an inguinal orchiectomy on Cowell. Secrecy was necessary for this as the procedure was then ...
Orchiectomy is recommended usually only after other surgeries have failed. Potts JM (2008). "Post Vasectomy Pain Syndrome". ...
If the testis is not viable, it is removed (orchiectomy). Torsion is most frequent among adolescents with about 65% of cases ... such individuals are at significant risk of complete torsion and possible subsequent orchiectomy and the recommended treatment ...
CPA should be discontinued in transgender women after sex reassignment surgery or orchiectomy to reduce the risk of VTE. It ... and 0.60 for CPA monotherapy relative to combined androgen blockade with a GnRH agonist/orchiectomy and CPA. The adjusted odds ... 3.35 for combined androgen blockade with CPA and a GnRH agonist/orchiectomy; 5.23 for CPA monotherapy; and 5.67 for estrogen ... 3.35 for CPA monotherapy relative to GnRH agonist/orchiectomy monotherapy; 1.25 for CPA monotherapy relative to estrogen ...
Gonadectomy (also referred to as "orchiectomy") removal of the gonads. This is done in three circumstances. (1) If the gonads ...
GCNIS is generally treated by radiation therapy and/or orchiectomy. Chemotherapy used for metastatic germ cell tumours may also ...
"Canine Ovariohysterectomy and Orchiectomy Increases the Prevalence of ACL Injury". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. ...
"Tamoxifen before and after orchiectomy in advanced male breast cancer". Cancer Treat Rep. 66 (10): 1882-3. PMID 7127330. ...
One in three cases results in dead testes, requiring orchiectomy. Surgical fixation in the form of orchiopexy is indicated to ...
A British group also assessed polyestradiol phosphate 160 mg/month versus orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer. The SPCG-5 ... Aro J (1991). "Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in prostatic cancer patients treated with estrogens or orchiectomy as ... Haapiainen R, Rannikko S, Alfthan O (April 1986). "Comparison of primary orchiectomy and estrogen therapy in advanced prostatic ... Haapiainen R, Rannikko S, Alfthan O (October 1986). "Comparison of primary orchiectomy with oestrogen therapy in advanced ...
All participants received a GnRH analog or had prior bilateral orchiectomy. Participants were required to have received at ...
Neutering - removing the testes of a male animal - medical term = orchiectomy. Various humans activities (e.g. hunting, farming ...
Trans women often undergo orchiectomy, as do some other transgender people. Orchiectomy may be performed as part of a more ... Surgical castration is bilateral orchiectomy (excision of both testicles), while chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs ... a serial killer who castrated his male victims Emasculation Emasculator Eunuch Gelding Inguinal orchiectomy, the approach ...
Fournier gangrene can also be a reason for penectomy and/or orchiectomy. Because of the rarity of cancers which require the ...
On October 3, Armstrong had an orchiectomy to remove the diseased testicle. When Reeves was asked in a later interview what he ...
The free androgen index with oral EMP has been found to be on average 4.6-fold lower than with orchiectomy. As such, EMP ... A comparative study of the effect of orchiectomy and estramustine phosphate on free androgens in patients with prostatic cancer ... therapy results in considerably stronger androgen deprivation than orchiectomy. Metabolites of EMP, including estramustine, ...
They reportedly asked these individuals to undergo surgical procedures, such as an orchiectomy. The Draft Physical Examination ... such as an orchiectomy, which is the removal of the testicles. Between 2012 and 2015, 104 transgender women were exempt based ...
The patient underwent a right radical orchiectomy, or a surgical operation to remove the one or more testicles, since ... "Scrotal leiomyoma a rare benign intra-scrotal mass could lead to unnecessary orchiectomy". Urology Case Reports. 32: 101170. ...
  • Inguinal orchiectomy (named from the Latin inguen for "groin", and also called radical orchiectomy) is performed when an onset of testicular cancer is suspected, in order to prevent a possible spread of cancer from the spermatic cord into the lymph nodes near the kidneys. (
  • An inguinal orchiectomy can be either unilateral (one testicle) or bilateral (both testicles). (
  • During surgery, the testis is exposed in a similar way to inguinal orchiectomy. (
  • Guidelines state that fertility counseling should be offered to all patients undergoing inguinal orchiectomy, as there is a risk of reduced fertility or infertility. (
  • In an inguinal Orchiectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the groin area, and the testis is carefully removed. (
  • Inguinal Orchiectomy forms a key step in diagnosing and treating testicular cancer. (
  • An inguinal orchiectomy, which is a procedure to remove the entire testicle. (
  • Orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy, and sometimes shortened as orchi or orchie) is a surgical procedure in which one or both testicles are removed. (
  • Less frequently, orchiectomy may be performed following a trauma, or due to wasting away of one or more testicles. (
  • An orchiectomy is surgery done to remove one or both of your testicles. (
  • Your doctor may recommend orchiectomy if you're in generally good health, and if the cancer cells have not spread beyond your testicles or far beyond your prostate gland. (
  • An orchiectomy is a procedure used in transwoman, involve removing the testicles, which are responsible for sperm and testosterone production. (
  • The aim of an orchiectomy procedure is to remove the testicles, so that sperm is no longer produced and to reduce testosterone production, which can remove the need for testosterone suppression therapy, and decreasing the amount of estrogen medication required thereafter. (
  • Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure carried out to remove one or both testicles in males. (
  • Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of one or both testicles. (
  • A simple Orchiectomy involves the extraction of one or both testicles through an incision on the scrotum. (
  • Subcapsular Orchiectomy entails removing the glandular tissue from the lining of the testicles, leaving the outer layer intact. (
  • For transgender women (male-to-female individuals), bilateral orchiectomy (removal of both testicles) can be a step in the transition process. (
  • 4 rats 8 testicles) Group 2 underwent bilateral partial orchiectomy with 30 min of cord compression and cold ischemia via ice slush (= 7 rats 14 testicles) and Group 3 underwent bilateral partial orchiectomy with 30 min of cord compression and warm ischemia (no ice slush = 7 rats 14 testicles). (
  • Feminizing gender-affirming surgery involves breast augmentation to achieve feminine proportions (chest feminization), removal of the testicles (orchiectomy) and creation of external genitalia (vaginoplasty and vulvoplasty). (
  • An orchiectomy can treat or prevent testicular cancer and breast cancer in men, too. (
  • Additionally, orchiectomy procedures have been found to help in preventing testicular cancer, prostate cancer , and male breast cancer . (
  • 1999) Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer. (
  • In testicular cancer post-orchiectomy, markers are used to determine risk classification. (
  • Patients undergoing an orchiectomy without vaginoplasty will experience a tightening of the skin in that region, which could make any subsequent plans for gender affirmation surgery much more difficult as other areas of skin may instead be required for transplantation, such as the colon or abdomen. (
  • For those who will undergo vaginoplasty in the future, an orchiectomy can be a preparatory step, though it's not a requirement. (
  • Some surgeons might perform the orchiectomy as part of the vaginoplasty procedure. (
  • The operation is similar to that of a simple orchiectomy, with the exception that the glandular tissue that surrounds each testicle is removed rather than the entire testis itself. (
  • Surgical treatment removes the testicle (orchiectomy). (
  • What are the types of orchiectomy? (
  • There are several types of orchiectomy procedures depending on your condition or the goal that you're trying to reach by having this procedure done. (
  • Post-Orchiectomy, a person might need hormone replacement therapy. (
  • Post Orchiectomy Scar Treatments? (
  • Post-orchiectomy primary treatment for pure seminoma includes surveillance, radiotherapy, 0r chemotherapy. (
  • A subcapsular orchiectomy is also commonly performed for treatment of prostate cancer. (
  • Following orchiectomy, those who have undergone the procedure are advised to avoid bathing, swimming, and heavy lifting for at least one month. (
  • Read on to learn more about the different types of the orchiectomy procedure, how the procedure works, and how to take care of yourself after you've had the procedure done. (
  • In conclusion, Orchiectomy, though potentially daunting, is a vital surgical procedure in handling various health conditions and serving as a pivot in gender reassignment surgeries. (
  • How is the Orchiectomy procedure performed? (
  • The surgeon makes an incision in the groin area (in contrast to an incision in the scrotum, as is done in both simple and subcapsular orchiectomies). (
  • The operation entails an incision in the scrotum or groin depending on the type and purpose of the Orchiectomy. (
  • We perform orchiectomy through a small incision in the scrotum, for most patients. (
  • Patients should first consult their doctor regarding the potential benefits and drawbacks of an orchiectomy or scrotoplasty. (
  • Why does Orchiectomy cost vary for different patients? (
  • Patients might encounter discomfort and swelling in the surgical area after an Orchiectomy. (
  • Most patients who undergo orchiectomy go home the same day and return to normal activities within two to three weeks. (
  • Matériel et Méthode : Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 13 dossiers de patients qui ont été pris en charge au service d'Urologie-Andrologie l'hôpital Gabriel Touré du Mali pour traumatisme des bourses durant la période allant de Février 2006 à Janvier 2013. (
  • This type of orchiectomy is performed to remove testosterone-producing glandular tissue while maintaining the appearance of an ordinary scrotum. (
  • Androgen deprivation can also be accomplished by orchiectomy (surgical castration) or by using hormone therapy such as Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonists to suppress the production of androgen. (
  • Depending on the type, Orchiectomy is performed under general or spinal anesthesia, with an incision either on the scrotum or the groin. (
  • Orchiectomies can be performed through several approaches: an inguinal (groin) incision, a scrotal incision, or via the upper pubic area. (
  • Treatment is with orchiectomy and sometimes lymph node dissection, radiation therapy. (
  • Thus, an Orchiectomy can reduce the hormone, slowing the disease's progress. (
  • To compare luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists with orchiectomy or diethylstilbestrol, and to compare antiandrogens with any of these three alternatives. (
  • After an orchiectomy, transgender women will still need to continue estrogen therapy to maintain feminine secondary sexual characteristics and to prevent osteoporosis, but, as mentioned, anti-androgens might be reduced or stopped. (
  • Hence, those wishing to undergo gender affirmation surgery in the future are not advised to have an orchiectomy. (
  • Partial orchiectomy is an option for individuals with testicular masses that want to preserve their testes and their function. (
  • In addition, testicular prosthesis placement counseling and education is encouraged to be given before an individual undergoes orchiectomy or before inguinal exploration with possibility of orchiectomy. (
  • Conclusion : Une exploration chirurgicale doit être réalisée en cas d'hématocèle ou de rupture de l'albuginée testiculaire à l'échographie. (
  • A simple orchiectomy is commonly performed as part of gender affirming surgery for transgender women, or as palliative treatment for advanced cases of prostate cancer. (
  • Objective We hypothesized that cold ischemia during partial orchiectomy Peramivir would lead to higher serum testosterone levels and preservation of testicular architecture than warm ischemia in a prepubescent rat model. (
  • This instructional tool allows trainers to visually explain the various parts of the male canine reproductive organ prior to trainees working on the orchiectomy (neuter) model. (
  • How much is the cost of treatments related to Orchiectomy in Mumbai? (
  • This is an elective surgery which can be done at the time of orchiectomy. (
  • Before an orchiectomy, your doctor may take blood samples to make sure you're healthy enough for surgery and to test for any indicators of cancer. (
  • Cost for Orchiectomy in Mumbai comprises of many sections like Pre-surgery cost, surgery cost, Post-surgery cost, and daycare, etc. (
  • This article aims to delve into the details of Orchiectomy, its implications, and its importance in healthcare, and life after the surgery. (
  • Like any surgery, Orchiectomy carries a risk of infection and bleeding. (
  • Pride Clinic at Bumrungrad Hospital offers orchiectomy and scrotoplasty procedures performed by experienced surgeons with high levels of expertise. (
  • Because human dirofilariasis is emerging in southern and eastern Europe, this parasitic infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of scrotal swelling in disease-endemic countries to avoid unnecessary interventions, such as orchiectomy. (
  • A simple orchiectomy may also be required in the event of testicular torsion. (
  • Over the long term, an Orchiectomy can have emotional implications due to changes in body image. (
  • You may want to do an orchiectomy if you're transitioning from male to female and want to reduce how much testosterone your body makes. (
  • How much does Orchiectomy cost in Mumbai? (
  • What is the cost of different components of Orchiectomy in Mumbai? (
  • What are the potential side effects of an orchiectomy? (
  • The recovery period could differ depending on the individual's overall health or the type of Orchiectomy. (
  • For transgender women considering an orchiectomy, it's essential to consult with experienced medical professionals, including mental health specialists familiar with gender-related care, to make informed decisions. (
  • 6. Desire to initiate or restart FHT, regardless of orchiectomy status. (
  • reported results as a hazard ratio relative to orchiectomy. (
  • Orchiectomy serves as an early stage in gender-reassignment processes to suppress male hormones and to prepare for further surgeries. (