Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Orbital Pseudotumor: A nonspecific tumor-like inflammatory lesion in the ORBIT of the eye. It is usually composed of mature LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; MACROPHAGES; LEUKOCYTES with varying degrees of FIBROSIS. Orbital pseudotumors are often associated with inflammation of the extraocular muscles (ORBITAL MYOSITIS) or inflammation of the lacrimal glands (DACRYOADENITIS).Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome: An idiopathic syndrome characterized by the formation of granulation tissue in the anterior cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure, producing a painful ophthalmoplegia. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p271)Cranial Fossa, Middle: The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Orbital Myositis: Inflammation of the extraocular muscle of the eye. It is characterized by swelling which can lead to ischemia, fibrosis, or ORBITAL PSEUDOTUMOR.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.TennesseeIntegrated Advanced Information Management Systems: A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Pitheciidae: A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI consisting of two subfamilies: Callicebinae and Pitheciinae.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.No-Reflow Phenomenon: Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.Atherectomy, Coronary: Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Atherectomy: Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter. It differs from balloon and laser angioplasty procedures which enlarge vessels by dilation but frequently do not remove much plaque. If the plaque is removed by surgical excision under general anesthesia rather than by an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.

Orbital dirofilariasis: MR findings. (1/276)

Dirofilariasis is a helminthic zoonosis occurring in many parts of the world. We report the findings in a 61-year-old woman who had painless right exophthalmos caused by orbital dirofilariasis. A vivid worm was embedded inside an inflammatory nodule in the right orbit. On T1-weighted MR images, the parasite was visible as a discrete, low-intensity, tubular signal in the center of the nodule surrounded by contrast-enhancing inflammatory tissue.  (+info)

Significance of serum antibodies reactive with flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase in thyroid associated orbitopathy. (2/276)

AIMS: Thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disorder of extraocular muscles and orbital connective tissue. Identification of the principal target antigens would help the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and possibly lead to the development of specific therapies in the future. The purpose of this study was to measure serum antibodies against the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase in patients with TAO and correlate their presence with factors of TAO. METHODS: Sera of patients with active TAO of 6 months' duration or less were tested for antibodies against the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective review of patients' charts. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to test sera for serum antibodies against purified succinate dehydrogenase. RESULTS: 38 patients with TAO and 32 healthy age and sex matched controls were included in the study. Anti-flavoprotein antibodies were detected in 24 out of 38 patients with TAO (63.16%) and in five out of 32 healthy controls (15.63%) (p<0.01). Neither age, sex, duration of thyroid disease, thyroid status, treatment of thyroid disease, smoking history, duration of orbitopathy, activity of orbitopathy, nor the presence of lid retraction were significantly associated with the presence of serum anti-flavoprotein antibodies (p>0.05). However, the total number of rectus muscles affected in both eyes of the patients was significantly correlated with the finding of a positive antibody test (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Serum antibodies reactive with the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase are associated with extraocular muscle involvement in active TAO of recent onset.  (+info)

Idiopathic sclerotic inflammation of the orbit with left optic nerve compression in a patient with multifocal fibrosclerosis. (3/276)

We present the MR imaging findings in a 43-year-old male patient with bilateral idiopathic sclerosing inflammation of the orbit. Bilateral enhancing retrobulbar masses, with concentric compression of the retrobulbar segment of the left optic nerve, were seen. MR imaging proved to be the only means to distinguish between the different intraorbital structures and to determine the exact site of optic nerve compression. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of MR imaging findings of this entity.  (+info)

Radiological and clinicopathological features of orbital xanthogranuloma. (4/276)

BACKGROUND: Orbital xanthogranuloma, a diagnosis confirmed histologically, occurs rarely in adults and children. With its characteristic macroscopic appearance the adult form may be associated with a spectrum of biochemical and haematological abnormalities including lymphoproliferative malignancies. METHOD: The clinicopathological features and imaging appearances on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of this condition are described in eight adults and a child. RESULTS: Radiological evidence of proptosis was present in seven patients. In all nine patients an abnormal infiltrative soft tissue mass was seen, with increased fat in six cases. All patients had associated enlargement of extraocular muscles suggestive of infiltration and five had lacrimal gland involvement. Encasement of the optic nerve, bone destruction, and intracranial extension was present only in the child with juvenile xanthogranuloma. Haematological and/or biochemical abnormalities were detected in seven patients and seven patients had other systemic diseases which were considered to have an immune basis. One patient subsequently developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CONCLUSION: The investigation and management of orbital xanthogranulomas requires a multidisciplinary approach even though the diagnosis may be suspected clinically. Imaging delineates the extent of disease and involvement of local structures and may influence the differential diagnosis. The juvenile form may be more locally aggressive, causing bone destruction with consequent intracranial extension.  (+info)

Chronic, traumatic intraconal hematic cyst of the orbit removed through the fronto-orbital approach--case report. (5/276)

A 22-year-old male presented with a chronic encapsulated intraorbital hematoma 3 months after blunt trauma to his left eyeball. Ophthalmological examination found the best corrected visual acuity was 4/20 in the left eye, and 20/20 in the right eye. The orbit exhibited exophthalmus and inability of the eye to move above the horizontal level. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a fairly well-demarcated area in the medial aspect of the orbit appearing as hyperintense on T1-weighted images and isoto hyperintense on T2-weighted images. This area was believed to be hemorrhage. No other abnormalities were found. The diagnosis was hematic cyst. The cyst was approached through a left fronto-orbital route and its location identified within the periorbita and orbital fat. The cyst was removed partially. Histological examination demonstrated cystic accumulation of blood and breakdown products in a non-epithelium-lined fibrous capsule, compatible with hematic cyst. The presence of hemosiderin in the cyst wall suggested that the cyst was a chronically enlarging lesion. Hematic cysts of the orbit usually present as subperiosteal mass months to years after trauma. Surgical removal of the cyst wall rather than needle aspiration is recommended to prevent recurrence.  (+info)

Adipogenesis in thyroid eye disease. (6/276)

PURPOSE: Adipogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease (TED). Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) transcripts are present in orbital fat. This study was conducted to determine whether they are expressed as functional protein, and if so, whether this is restricted to TED orbits or to a particular stage in adipocyte differentiation. METHODS: Samples of fat were obtained from 18 TED-affected orbits and 4 normal orbits, and 9 were obtained from nonorbital locations. Frozen sections were examined by immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies specific for the human TSHR. Samples were disaggregated and the preadipocytes separated from the mature by differential centrifugation and cultured in serum-free or DM and examined for morphologic changes, oil red O and TSHR staining, and TSH-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production. RESULTS: Marked immunoreactivity was observed in frozen sections from all three TED samples and faint staining in both normal orbital fat samples. In vitro, 1% to 5% of preadipocytes displayed TSHR immunoreactivity in five of six TED and two of three normal orbital samples and in three of five nonorbital samples. Differentiation, was induced in all 14 orbital samples. Three of four nonorbital samples contained occasional differentiated cells. Fifty percent to 70% of differentiating cells demonstrated receptor immunoreactivity. Two of three TED and four of four nonorbital preadipocytes in DM and/or mature adipocytes displayed a TSH-mediated increase in cAMP. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that orbital fat TSHR transcripts are expressed as protein, which can be functional. This is not aberrant in TED orbits, although expression may be upregulated. The majority of preadipocytes undergoing differentiation express the receptor, indicating a key role for this population in one mechanism for increasing orbital volume.  (+info)

MRI dynamic color mapping: a new quantitative technique for imaging soft tissue motion in the orbit. (7/276)

PURPOSE: To investigate both feasibility and clinical potential of magnetic resonance imaging-dynamic color mapping (MRI-DCM) in measuring the motion of soft tissues in the orbit and in the diagnosis of orbital disorders by detecting changes in motion. METHODS: Sequences of MRI scans were acquired (acquisition time, 5 seconds) in a shoot-stop manner, while the patient fixated at a sequence of 13 gaze positions (8 degrees intervals). Motion was quantified off-line (in millimeters per degree of gaze change) using an optical flow algorithm. The motion was displayed in a color-coded image in which color saturation of a pixel shows the displacement and the hue the displacement's orientation. Six healthy volunteers and four patients (two with an orbital mass and two with acrylic ball implant after enucleation) were studied. RESULTS: The technique was found to be clinically feasible. For a gaze change of 1 degrees, orbital tissues moved between 0.0 and 0.25 mm/deg, depending on the type of tissue and location in the orbit. In the patients with an orbital mass, motion of the mass was similar to that of the medial rectus muscle, suggesting disease of muscular origin. In the enucleated orbits, soft tissue motion was decreased. One eye showed attachment of the optic nerve to the implant, which could be verified by biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-DCM allows noninvasive and quantitative measurement of soft tissue motion and the changes in motion due to pathologic conditions. In cases in which the diagnosis of a tumor in the apex is in doubt, it may reduce the need for biopsy. In contrast to static computed tomographic (CT) scans and MRIs, it can differentiate between juxtaposition and continuity and may be a new and promising tool in the differential diagnosis of intraorbital lesions.  (+info)

Anaerobic orbital abscess/cellulitis in a Yorkshire Terrier dog. (8/276)

A retrobulbar abscess/cellulitis occurred in a Yorkshire Terrier dog. The clinical signs were exophthalmos, prolapsed nictitating membrane and purulent ocular discharge. Ultrasonography showed a marked soft tissue swelling of the retrobulbar tissues as well as echogenic parallel lines between the globe and the medial orbital rim. Surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and no foreign body was found. The pterygopalatine fossa was incised and therapeutic retrobulbar drainage attempted. A drain was placed to encourage ventral drainage of the abscess. Anaerobic cultures revealed heavy growth of gram negative rods (prevotella bivia and prevotella buccae were isolated). Recovery was successful but subsequent treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca was necessary. A full recovery of tear production occurred after several weeks.  (+info)

  • Orbital lesions form a wide range of pathologies, that create challenges in diagnosis, management, and treatment. (
  • The aim of this study was to examine the MRI characteristics of common and/or rare diseases arising from or extending into the orbita to aid radiologists in the correct diagnosis of orbital lesions. (
  • The extraconal space includes the superior and inferior oblique muscles, levator muscle complex, the lacrimal gland and the orbital fat. (
  • This leaves 4 valence electrons which will each overlap with the s orbital of a Hydrogen to form a σ (sigma) bond. (
  • Shows the S orbits of H overlapping with sp3 orbitals of C. Note 2 electrons in each bond, one from carbon and one from hydrogen. (
  • Essentially, hybridisation is the mixing of standard atomic orbitals to form new orbitals - which can be used to describe bonding in molecules. (
  • This retrospective cohort study included fat specimens removed during orbital decompression from 26 orbits of 15 patients with TED. (
  • Repair of orbital fractures. (
  • McArdle CB, Amparo EG, Mirfaohraee M (1986) MR imaging of orbital blow-out fractures. (
  • Orbital fractures present a unique challenge due to their proximity to the eye. (
  • Approximately half of orbital fractures may not require surgical repair. (
  • We reviewed the incidence of orbital fractures treated at St Vincent's Hospital, the primary tertiary referral hospital in the lockout law zone, from 2 years before to 2 years after the laws were introduced (24 February 2012 - 23 February 2016). (
  • Cases were identified by recorded International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes for orbital fractures (online Appendix ). (
  • A total of 351 computed tomography-confirmed orbital fractures were recorded during the 4-year period: 196 during the 2 years prior to the laws and 155 during the subsequent 2 years. (
  • The indications for operative management of orbital fractures, which requires overnight admission, include enophthalmos, diplopia, muscle entrapment and cosmetic deformity. (
  • In the first pre-post analysis of the incidence of orbital fractures around the time of the introduction of the controversial lockout laws, we found that the number of fractures associated with alleged violence or assault was statistically significantly lower during the period covered by the laws, and that fewer fractures required operative management. (
  • We have no information about whether presentations of orbital fractures and their associated costs have increased at hospitals outside the lockout law zone since February 2014. (
  • These findings provide impetus to analyze additional eyes, which could provide further insight into the post-operative prognosis and trajectory of changes after orbital decompression. (
  • Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic fibro-inflammatory disorder that can affect various organ systems [ 1 ]. (
  • We have organized 14 centers from around the world to contribute previously biopsied tissue to analyze tissue patterns of gene expression from patients with orbital inflammation in order to clarify the cause, predict prognosis, and ultimately improve the therapy. (
  • Twenty-five small animal patients presenting with signs of orbital disease were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to assess the value of this imaging technique for diagnosis. (
  • Some of patients report to orbital pain in certain compartments associated with double vision (diplopia). (
  • Genetic Profiling of Primary Orbital Melanoma-An Analysis of 6 Cases with Clinico-Pathological Correlation. (
  • Detection of mutations in SF3B1, EIF1AX and GNAQ in primary orbital melanoma by candidate gene analysis. (
  • Primary orbital melanoma: a case series and literature review. (
  • Xu D, Liu D, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Song G. Gamma knife radiosurgery for primary orbital varices: a preliminary report. (
  • Methods: Resistance index (RI) and maximum and minimum velocity of ophthalmic artery (OA), superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), and central retinal artery (CRA) of 24 eyes (14 patients) with TED were measured before and at least 3 months after cosmetic orbital decompression procedure (single or double walls) using CDI. (