Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.
The surgical removal of the contents of the orbit. This includes the eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum. It should be differentiated from EYE EVISCERATION which removes the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
A nonspecific tumor-like inflammatory lesion in the ORBIT of the eye. It is usually composed of mature LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; MACROPHAGES; LEUKOCYTES with varying degrees of FIBROSIS. Orbital pseudotumors are often associated with inflammation of the extraocular muscles (ORBITAL MYOSITIS) or inflammation of the lacrimal glands (DACRYOADENITIS).
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Recession of the eyeball into the orbit.
Rounded objects made of coral, teflon, or alloplastic polymer and covered with sclera, and which are implanted in the orbit following enucleation. An artificial eye (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) is usually attached to the anterior of the orbital implant for cosmetic purposes.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Congenital absence of the eye or eyes.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
The loss of calcium salts from bones and teeth. Bacteria may be responsible for this occurrence in teeth. Old age may be a factor contributing to calcium loss, as is the presence of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, defective GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR, and failure to generate INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I by GROWTH HORMONE. Laron syndrome is not a form of primary pituitary dwarfism (GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY DWARFISM) but the result of mutation of the human GHR gene on chromosome 5.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
A vascular anomaly that is a collection of tortuous BLOOD VESSELS and connective tissue. This tumor-like mass with the large vascular space is filled with blood and usually appears as a strawberry-like lesion in the subcutaneous areas of the face, extremities, or other regions of the body including the central nervous system.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The single family of PRIMATES in the infraorder TARSII, suborder HAPLORHINI. It is comprised of one genus, Tarsius, that inhabits southern Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Inflammation of the loose connective tissues around the ORBIT, bony structure around the eyeball. It is characterized by PAIN; EDEMA of the CONJUNCTIVA; swelling of the EYELIDS; EXOPHTHALMOS; limited eye movement; and loss of vision.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)
Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.
A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Rare neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, usually benign, and most commonly involving the PLEURA (see SOLITARY FIBROUS TUMOR, PLEURAL). They also are found in extrapleural sites.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Tumors or cancer of the MAXILLARY SINUS. They represent the majority of paranasal neoplasms.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
An environment simulating one or more parameters of the space environment, applied in testing space systems or components. Often, a closed chamber is used, capable of approximating the vacuum and normal environments of space. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988) This also includes simulated EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY studies in atmosphere exposure chambers or water tanks.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
Acute suppurative inflammation of the inner eye with necrosis of the sclera (and sometimes the cornea) and extension of the inflammation into the orbit. Pain may be severe and the globe may rupture. In endophthalmitis the globe does not rupture.
A cystic form of sweat gland adenoma (ADENOMA, SWEAT GLAND). It is produced by the cystic proliferation of apocrine secretory glands. It is not uncommon, occurring in adult life in no particular age group, with males and females equally affected. The commonest site is around the eye, particularly lateral to the outer canthus. It is cured by surgical removal. (Stedman, 25th ed; Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2410)
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Systems that provide all or most of the items necessary for maintaining life and health. Provisions are made for the supplying of oxygen, food, water, temperature and pressure control, disposition of carbon dioxide and body waste. The milieu may be a spacecraft, a submarine, or the surface of the moon. In medical care, usually under hospital conditions, LIFE SUPPORT CARE is available. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary)
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The most benign and common form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis which involves localized nodular lesions predominantly of the bones but also of the gastric mucosa, small intestine, lungs, or skin, with infiltration by EOSINOPHILS.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the FRONTAL SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE or HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
Benign, non-Langerhans-cell, histiocytic proliferative disorder that primarily affects the lymph nodes. It is often referred to as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A group of disorders resulting from the abnormal proliferation of and tissue infiltration by LANGERHANS CELLS which can be detected by their characteristic Birbeck granules (X bodies), or by monoclonal antibody staining for their surface CD1 ANTIGENS. Langerhans-cell granulomatosis can involve a single organ, or can be a systemic disorder.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
A dull red, firm, dome-shaped hemangioma, sharply demarcated from surrounding skin, usually located on the head and neck, which grows rapidly and generally undergoes regression and involution without scarring. It is caused by proliferation of immature capillary vessels in active stroma, and is usually present at birth or occurs within the first two or three months of life. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A benign tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of HISTIOCYTES and with various fibroblastic components. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. When they occur in the skin, they are called dermatofibromas or sclerosing hemangiomas. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1747)
Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE involving only one bone.
A type of neurofibroma manifesting as a diffuse overgrowth of subcutaneous tissue, usually involving the face, scalp, neck, and chest but occasionally occurring in the abdomen or pelvis. The tumors tend to progress, and may extend along nerve roots to eventually involve the spinal roots and spinal cord. This process is almost always a manifestation of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1016; J Pediatr 1997 Nov;131(5):678-82)
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.

Ruptured aneurysm of the orbitofrontal artery associated with dural arteriovenous malformation in the anterior cranial fossa--case report. (1/749)

A 27-year-old male presented with a rare association of a ruptured orbitofrontal artery aneurysm and a dural arteriovenous malformation (DAVM) fed by both ethmoidal arteries, manifestation as severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed a hematoma within the right frontal lobe and diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. The aneurysm was clipped successfully and the hematoma was evacuated. After an uneventful postoperative course, the patient was referred for gamma knife radiosurgery to treat the DAVM. In this case, the DAVM was asymptomatic and pathogenetically unrelated to the aneurysm, which demanded urgent treatment.  (+info)

Development of an animal model of autoimmune thyroid eye disease. (2/749)

In previous studies we have transferred thyroiditis to naive BALB/c and NOD mice with human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR)-primed splenocytes. Because the TSHR has been implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease (TED) we have examined the orbits of recipients of TSHR-primed T cells, generated using a TSHR fusion protein or by genetic immunization. In the NOD mice, 25 of 26 animals treated with TSHR-primed T cells developed thyroiditis with considerable follicular destruction, numerous activated and CD8+ T cells, and immunoreactivity for IFN-gamma. Thyroxine levels were reduced. Thyroiditis was not induced in controls. None of the NOD animals developed any orbital pathology. Thirty-five BALB/c mice received TSHR-primed spleen cells. Thyroiditis was induced in 60-100% and comprised activated T cells, B cells, and immunoreactivity for IL-4 and IL-10. Autoantibodies to the receptor were induced, including TSH binding inhibiting Igs. A total of 17 of 25 BALB/c orbits displayed changes consisting of accumulation of adipose tissue, edema caused by periodic acid Schiff-positive material, dissociation of the muscle fibers, the presence of TSHR immunoreactivity, and infiltration by lymphocytes and mast cells. No orbital changes or thyroiditis were observed in control BALB/c mice. We have induced orbital pathology having many parallels with human TED, only in BALB/c mice, suggesting that a Th2 autoimmune response to the TSHR may be a prerequisite for the development of TED.  (+info)

CT examination of the head of the Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). (3/749)

We carried out a computerised tomographic (CT) examination to elucidate the modifications in the head related to orbital enlargement in the Baikal seal. Transverse CT images showed that (1) the external frontal contours and the frontal sinuses are compressed medially and ventrally by the orbital enlargement; (2) the caudal part of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx are compacted ventrally; and (3) the cranial cavity is displaced caudally. The neurocranium is obviously separated from the facial part in the transverse plane at the caudal region of the orbit. The disposition of the mandible, zygomatic arch, temporal bone, and the masseter, temporal, digastric and pterygoid muscles is changed by the enlarged orbit in the 3-dimensional reorganisation of the head in this species. It is suggested that adaptation for the Lake Baikal environment primarily resulted in orbital enlargement, and that the altered orbital design may subsequently have influenced the form and function of the masticatory and respiratory system.  (+info)

The role of octreoscan in thyroid eye disease. (4/749)

Until recently there was no imaging technique available which could demonstrate pathological changes in orbital tissues and could be regarded as a reliable measure of inflammation in thyroid eye disease (TED). Pentetreotide (a synthetic derivative of somatostatin) labelled with 111In has been used to localize tumours which possess surface or membrane receptors for somatostatin in vivo using a gamma camera (1). This technique visualizes somatostatin receptors in endocrine-related tumours in vivo and predicts the inhibitory effect of the somatostatin analogue octreotide on hormone secretion by the tumours (1). By applying 111In-DTPA-d-Phe octreotide scintigraphy (octreoscan), accumulation of the radionuclide was also detected in both the thyroid and orbit of patients with Graves' disease (2-4). If peak activity in the orbit 5h after injection of radiolabelled octreotide is set at 100%, a decrease to 40+/-4% is found at 24h, significantly different from the decrease in blood pool radioactivity, which is 15+/-4% at 24h. Accumulation of the radionuclide is most probably due to the presence in the orbital tissue of activated lymphocytes bearing somatostatin receptors (5). Alternative explanations are binding to receptors on other cell types (e.g. myoblasts, fibroblasts or endothelial cells) or local blood pooling due to venous stasis by the autoimmune orbital inflammation.  (+info)

Dissociable neural responses to facial expressions of sadness and anger. (5/749)

Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have investigated the neural substrates which mediate responses to fearful, disgusted and happy expressions. No previous studies have investigated the neural substrates which mediate responses to sad and angry expressions. Using functional neuroimaging, we tested two hypotheses. First, we tested whether the amygdala has a neural response to sad and/or angry facial expressions. Secondly, we tested whether the orbitofrontal cortex has a specific neural response to angry facial expressions. Volunteer subjects were scanned, using PET, while they performed a sex discrimination task involving static grey-scale images of faces expressing varying degrees of sadness and anger. We found that increasing intensity of sad facial expression was associated with enhanced activity in the left amygdala and right temporal pole. In addition, we found that increasing intensity of angry facial expression was associated with enhanced activity in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. We found no support for the suggestion that angry expressions generate a signal in the amygdala. The results provide evidence for dissociable, but interlocking, systems for the processing of distinct categories of negative facial expression.  (+info)

Glaucoma patients demonstrate faulty autoregulation of ocular blood flow during posture change. (6/749)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Autoregulation of blood flow during posture change is important to ensure consistent organ circulation. The purpose of this study was to compare the change in retrobulbar ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients with normal subjects during supine and upright posture. METHODS: 20 open angle glaucoma patients and 20 normal subjects, similar in age and sex distribution, were evaluated. Blood pressure, intraocular pressure, and retrobulbar blood velocity were tested after 30 minutes of sitting and again after 30 minutes of lying. Retrobulbar haemodynamic measures of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistance index (RI) were obtained in the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries using colour Doppler imaging (CDI). RESULTS: When changing from the upright to supine posture, normal subjects demonstrated a significant increase in OA EDV (p = 0.016) and significant decrease in OA RI (p = 0.0006) and CRA RI (p = 0.016). Glaucoma patients demonstrated similar changes in OA measures of EDV (p = 0.02) and RI (p = 0.04), but no change in CRA measures. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma patients exhibit faulty autoregulation of central retinal artery blood flow during posture change.  (+info)

Orbitofrontal cortex and representation of incentive value in associative learning. (7/749)

Clinical evidence indicates that damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex disrupts goal-directed actions that are guided by motivational and emotional factors. As a consequence, patients with such damage characteristically engage in maladaptive behaviors. Other research has shown that neurons in the corresponding orbital region of prefrontal cortex in laboratory animals encode information regarding the incentive properties of goals or expected events. The present study investigates the effect of neurotoxic orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions in the rat on responses that are normally influenced by associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the incentive value of reinforcement. Rats were first trained to associate a visual CS with delivery of food pellets to a food cup. As a consequence of learning, rats approached the food cup during the CS in anticipation of reinforcement. In a second training phase, injection of LiCl followed consumption of the food unconditioned stimulus (US) in the home cage, a procedure used to alter the incentive value of the US. Subsequently, rats were returned to the conditioning chamber, and their responding to the CS in the absence of the food US was tested. Lesions of OFC did not affect either the initial acquisition of a conditioned response to the light CS in the first training phase or taste aversion learning in the second training phase. In the test for devaluation, however, OFC rats exhibited no change in conditioned responding to the visual CS. This outcome contrasts with the behavior of control rats; after devaluation of the US a significant decrease occurred in approach to the food cup during presentation of the CS. The results reveal an inability of a cue to access representational information about the incentive value of associated reinforcement after OFC damage.  (+info)

Choosing between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards activates inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex. (8/749)

Patients sustaining lesions of the orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibit marked impairments in the performance of laboratory-based gambling, or risk-taking, tasks, suggesting that this part of the human PFC contributes to decision-making cognition. However, to date, little is known about the particular regions of the orbital cortex that participate in this function. In the present study, eight healthy volunteers were scanned, using H(2)(15)0 PET technology, while performing a novel computerized risk-taking task. The task involved predicting which of two mutually exclusive outcomes would occur, but critically, the larger reward (and penalty) was associated with choice of the least likely outcome, whereas the smallest reward (and penalty) was associated with choice of the most likely outcome. Resolving these "conflicting" decisions was associated with three distinct foci of regional cerebral blood flow increase within the right inferior and orbital PFC: laterally, in the anterior part of the middle frontal gyrus [Brodmann area 10 (BA 10)], medially, in the orbital gyrus (BA 11), and posteriorly, in the anterior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47). By contrast, increases in the degree of conflict inherent in these decisions was associated with only limited changes in activity within orbital PFC and the anterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest that decision making recruits neural activity from multiple regions of the inferior PFC that receive information from a diverse set of cortical and limbic inputs, and that the contribution of the orbitofrontal regions may involve processing changes in reward-related information.  (+info)

Left lateral view of orbital structures at the orbital apex and superior orbital fissure. Bone has been selectively removed to demonstrate...
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have a profound effect on adipose biology increasing tissue mass causing central obesity. The pre-receptor regulation of GCs by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) that activates cortisol from cortisone has been postulated as a fundamental mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome mediating adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the omental (OM) depot. Orbital adipose tissue (OF) is the site of intense inflammation and tissue remodelling in several orbital inflammatory disease states. In this study, we describe features of the GC metabolic pathways in normal human OF depot and compare it with subcutaneous (SC) and OM depots. Using an automated histological characterisation technique, OF adipocytes were found to be significantly smaller (parameters: area, maximum diameter and perimeter) than OM and SC adipocytes (P|0 x 001). Although immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated resident CD68+ cells in all three whole tissue adipose depots, OF CD68 mRNA and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human orbital tissue and thyroid membranes express a 64 kDa protein which is recognized by autoantibodies in the serum of patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. AU - Salvi, M.. AU - Miller, A.. AU - Wall, J. R.. PY - 1988/5/9. Y1 - 1988/5/9. N2 - A 64 kDa protein has been identified in the membrane fraction of human eye muscle, orbital connective tissue and thyroid, by testing sera of patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Antibodies to this membrane antigen seem characteristic of the early stage of ophthalmopathy. In the thyroid this newly recognized protein seems different from previously known membrane antigens. A thyroid antibody reactive with a 64 kDa membrane antigen in eye muscle could explain the very frequent association of ophthalmopathy with autoimmune thyroid disease.. AB - A 64 kDa protein has been identified in the membrane fraction of human eye muscle, orbital connective tissue and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Orbitocranial wooden foreign body diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Dry wood can be isodense with air and orbital fat by computed tomography. AU - Specht, Charles S.. AU - Varga, John H.. AU - Jalali, Michael M.. AU - Edelstein, Jeffrey P.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - In computed tomographic (CT) scans, a wooden foreign body can appear as a lucency with nearly the same density as air or fat, and it can be indistinguishable from orbital adipose tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can localize these wooden foreign bodies in the orbit. We studied a case in which a wooden golf tee lodged in the right optic canal of a nine-year-old boy. The head portion lodged in the orbital apex and the tip entered the interpeduncular fossa. Clinical examination revealed a right paranasal laceration; the right eye had no light perception and a peripapillary hemorrhage, but was otherwise normal. Surgical exploration and evaluation by CT failed to locate the foreign body. However, ...
Orbital injury and complications are commonly encountered in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) despite advances in techniques and instrumentation. For the recent 10 years, we summarized the experience of the rhinology unit of our department regarding orbital injury and complications of ESS for sinonasal inflammatory disorders. One thousand seventy-three patients (1869 sides) from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2012 undergoing ESS for sinonasal inflammatory diseases were enrolled in the present study. The age of the patients ranged from 8 to 81 years, mean age 49 years. Orbital injury and complications were observed in 13 patients (13 sides), which corresponded to 0.7% of the operated sides and 1.2% of the patients. Eight patients showed herniation of orbital fat alone through the injury of the lamina papyracea. The protruding orbital fat was snipped and cut using forceps in 2 patients. Removal of exposed orbital fat using powered instruments was performed in 3 patients, two of whom transiently showed
Superior orbital fissure syndrome information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
The purpose of this protocol is to study orbital structures in Graves´ Disease using multidetector computed tomography and color doppler imaging.. Some changes in orbital structures detected by imaging exams could predict severity of the ocular Graves´disease. Thus the study could be useful in improve medical management of patients with Graves´ Disease. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation between orbital volume, body mass index, and eyeball position in healthy East Asians. AU - Yoo, Jun Ho. AU - Lee, Young Hen. AU - Lee, Hwa. AU - Kim, Jung Wan. AU - Chang, Minwook. AU - Park, Minsoo. AU - Baek, Se Hyun. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were measure the orbital volume of healthy Koreans and analyze the differences between orbital tissue volume with respect to age and sex and to assess any correlation between body mass index (BMI), eyeball position, and orbital volume. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the scan results of patients who had undergone orbital computed tomography scans between November 2010 and November 2011. We assessed the scan results of 184 orbits in 92 adults who had no pathology of the orbit. The individuals were classified into 3 groups with respect to age. Orbital volume, effective orbital volume (defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume), extraocular muscle volume, ...
A decision was made for a left transcranial orbitotomy with a cranio-orbital approach for removal of the foreign body. The posterior location of the pellet in the orbital apex eliminated an anterior orbitotomy approach. A lateral approach could have been used yet it would have required an osteotomy extending along the lateral orbital wall that was posteriorly fragmented. This would have required enlarging the bony incision of a classic lateral orbitotomy and removing the sphenoid wing to the superior orbital fissure, as described by Goldberg et al.(5) This approach would have eliminated the need for a craniotomy; however, it was possible that this might not have provided enough access and exposure to safely extract the pellet. A multidisciplinary team included our neurosurgery service who performed a left transcranial orbitotomy with a cranio-orbital approach and provided access for our oculoplastic surgery team. A cranio-orbital approach allowed for direct visualization of the superior orbital ...
A decision was made for a left transcranial orbitotomy with a cranio-orbital approach for removal of the foreign body. The posterior location of the pellet in the orbital apex eliminated an anterior orbitotomy approach. A lateral approach could have been used yet it would have required an osteotomy extending along the lateral orbital wall that was posteriorly fragmented. This would have required enlarging the bony incision of a classic lateral orbitotomy and removing the sphenoid wing to the superior orbital fissure, as described by Goldberg et al.(5) This approach would have eliminated the need for a craniotomy; however, it was possible that this might not have provided enough access and exposure to safely extract the pellet. A multidisciplinary team included our neurosurgery service who performed a left transcranial orbitotomy with a cranio-orbital approach and provided access for our oculoplastic surgery team. A cranio-orbital approach allowed for direct visualization of the superior orbital ...
Purpose: : Thyroid Eye Dsease is characterized by infiltration of white blood cells and accumulation of nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) in orbital tissue. The inflamed orbital tissue can become full of scar and fat tissue. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) acts as a key inducer of the fibrotic response by enhancing extracellular matrix production. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that TGFβ would induce HA synthesis/secretion and that PPARγ ligands would inhibit this response in orbital fibroblasts. Methods: : Primary orbital fibroblasts were isolated from individual Graves patients undergoing orbital decompression surgery. The cells were grown in RPMI media containing 10%FBS. The amount of HA in the cell culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. HA synthase (HAS) mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Results: : Treatment of human orbital ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Orbital Trauma Caused by Bicycle Hand Brakes. AU - Ng, John. AU - Payner, Troy D.. AU - Holck, David E E. AU - Martin, Ronald T.. AU - Nunery, William T.. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - Purpose: This report aims to increase awareness of an unusual mechanism of orbital injury sustained by bicycle riders. Methods: In this retrospective small case series, we describe two cases of orbital injury caused by upper eyelid penetration. A 5-year-old boy (patient 1) and a 6-year-old boy (patient 2) presented to our service within a 2-week period. Both had been injured by similarly styled, handlebar-mounted bicycle hand brake levers. Patient 1 had an orbital roof fracture and penetrating brain injury and underwent repair of a left upper eyelid laceration, craniotomy for pseudoencephalocele, and ptosis repair. Patient 2 had orbital hemorrhage and underwent repair of left upper eyelid laceration. Results: In both cases, a handlebar-mounted bicycle hand brake lever perforated the left eyelid ...
Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA increased, statistically significantly, by 2.4 lines during 30±13 months (from 0.38±0.25 before surgery to 0.14±0.1 at the end of observation, p=0.0001). All eyes maintained or improved vision by at least one line. Mean postoperative reduction of proptosis was 6.4±3 mm. While VECP P100 amplitudes improved significantly, P100 latencies remained abnormal in 18 eyes (60%) during follow-up of 10±7 months. Nine eyes (30%) with previous latency defects improved in at least one check test, five of which normalised completely. Worsening was evident in seven eyes (23%), and three previously normal eyes developed new pathological latencies. P100 latencies in 14 eyes (47%) remained unchanged. ...
Please cite this website and data as: Botha CP, Willekens B, Klooster J, IJskes SG, Hötte G, Simonsz HJ: The Visible Human Orbit: Digital high-resolution conservation of anatomical serial sections of the human embryonal and adult orbit by Koornneef, Los and de Haan., 2012.. Affiliations: From the Dept. of Intelligent Systems, Delft University of Technology, (Botha); The Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience of the Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam (Willekens, Klooster, IJskes, Simonsz) and the Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Hötte, Simonsz).. ...
Definition : Ophthalmic implants designed for the total or partial reconstruction and/or augmentation of the extraocular rim, including the inferior (i.e., orbital floor), lateral (i.e., orbital wall), and superior parts of the rim. These implants are manufactured in a variety of sizes and shapes according to the intended use; they are typically made of high-density polymers (e.g., polyethylene) that are frequently reinforced with an embedded metal (usually titanium) mesh. The implants can be trimmed to fit the patients orbital anatomy. Dedicated orbital rim implants are available for use in procedures such as reconstruction of the orbital floor and wall augmentation of the inferior and lateral rim, augmentation of the lateral and superior or orbital rims in patients who are hypoplasic, and to support the lower eyelid and lateral canthus in patients who have inadequate support. These implants are used mainly to repair traumatic damage (e.g., fractures), to improve the function of the eyes, or ...
In a finite element analysis of orbital tissue mechanics, Schutte et al. 29 estimated the elastic modulus, which is equivalent to long-term stiffness in the present study, for intraconal and extraconal retrobulbar fat to be 0.3 and 1.0 KPa, respectively. Although muscle cone as a demarcating structure in the deep orbit is an anatomic fiction, 30 the bovine orbital fatty tissue in current investigation may correspond to what Schutte et al. 29 termed intraconal retrobulbar fat. The present study determined the long-term stiffness of human orbital fat to be 0.71 KPa, which is of similar magnitude to that reported by Schutte et al. 29 A more important observation of the current investigation, however, was similarity in the stiffness of normal human and bovine orbital fatty tissue. As can be seen in Table 1, the long-term stiffness of human orbital fatty tissue and bovine orbital fatty tissue are similar at 0.74 and 0.71 KPa, respectively. Although there is ,5% difference in long-term stiffness ...
As quotable as 2001: A Space Odysseys HAL is, hes not a character whose shoes - erm, digital footprint - many games have allowed us to fill. Human Orbit
Top 10 tissues for NP_777555 (Homo sapiens, RefSeq): retina, cerebellum, lacrimal gland, metencephalon, orbital adipose tissue, hindbrain (rhombencephalon), eye, suprabasal epidermis cell, peripheral blood T-cell (unspecified), peripheral blood CD4 stem cell memory T-cell
Top 10 tissues for 1555273_at (Homo sapiens, Affymetrix Probeset): bone marrow plasma cell, plasma cell, orbital adipose tissue, lacrimal gland, liver-infiltrating lymphocyte, spinal cord neuron (unspecified), pars reticulata, tonsillar CD8 resting T-cell (unspecified), Brodmann area 10, lateral thalamic nucleus
Orbital trauma or any trauma or injury around the eyes should be thoroughly assessed and, if necessary, treated by an oculoplastic surgeon.
And then something kinda slowly happened. After all, you do get brainwashed training at the same institution for six years. And not that I consider myself a brilliant researcher, but at least I learnt some of the ropes. I learnt what it takes to write a paper, analyze a study, even perform experiments (I got to play with human orbital fibroblasts, yay!). And I popped my publication cherry. And became a scientist. I still consider myself one- after all, a doctor is a person of science, and as dynamic as science can be, we too need to evolve and learn, dont we? And so, its interesting how I went from that hater of EBM in 1999, to one who looks at The Evidence, to guide his clinical judgments. Not only the conclusions of the study, but also to try to pick apart the study to see if he agrees with the findings. After all, the goal of an author is to get the study published, and one often learns to present the data in the most compelling way; so you cant always take things at face value. And so, ...
Methods In order to calculate the orbital volume from axial CT slice images of the patients, using our first described measurement method, the segmentation of the orbital cavity and the bony skull was performed using Amira 3D Analysis Software. The files were then imported into the Blender program. The stereographic skull model was aligned based on the Frankfurt horizontal plane and superposed according to defined anatomical reference points. The anterior sectional plane ran through the most posterior section of the lacrimal fossa and the farthest dorsal point of the anterior latero-orbital margin, which is positioned perpendicular to the Frankfurt horizontal plane. The volume of each orbital cavity was then determined automatically by the Blender program. ...
Orbital penetrating injuries may cause significant harm to optic nerves and eyeball as well as to the brain and cerebral vasculature. Defining surrounding neurovascular structures by CT angiography (CTA) is important for surgical removal. We present an uncommon case of a 3-year-old child with a penetrating orbital injury caused by a toothbrush. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report orbital injury with a toothbrush so far. ...
Q: Dr. Eppley, Im a 32 year old man. I want a customized implant to provide forward projection to my infraorbital rims. Uniquely, I want this implant to move the frontal process of the maxilla forward. Here, I am referring to the point at which the infraorbital rim meets the frontal process. This would typically be a portion of the face moved by the Le Fort 2 osteotomy. I want to raise my infraorbital margin too. I want this implant to extend onto the zygomatic arch to provide a small amount of lateral projection there. I want no lateral movement of the zygomatic body, because I dislike cheekbone mass. The key objective for me however, is to widen the perceived appearance of my orbital complex. Ive noticed that this is an under appreciated and core aspect of beauty that most male models possess. I believe that this is possible by widening the brow bone, the lateral orbital rim and the zygomatic arch. I have so many questions on the theory of this, but I will limit them to 4 questions for your ...
Volume rendering evaluation of bony orbital walls before and after surgical decompression. -- Volume rendering reconstructions showing the lateral (greater wing of the sphenoid ...
As the ophthalmic division (V1) of the trigeminal nerve enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure, it divides into three branches: the frontal nerve, the nasociliary nerve, and the lacrimal nerve. The supratrochlear nerve and the supraorbital nerve are branches of the frontal nerve. Links and References: ...
BACKGROUND: Lateral canthal rhytides partly result from repetitive muscular actions of the orbicularis oculi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of one versus three injection sites of AbobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) in the treatment of lateral canthal rhytides. METHODS: This was a two-center, evaluator-masked, 120 day study in which 40 patients with moderate to severe hyperdynamic lateral canthal rhytides at maximal contracture were randomized to receive one injection of 36 Units of ABO into the middle of the lateral orbital rhytides on one side, with the contralateral side treated with the same total dose of ABO, divided into three intradermal injections of 12 Units each, along the lateral canthal area. A blinded evaluator assessed lateral orbital rhytides at rest and maximal contraction at baseline, 7, 42, 90, and 120 days post treatment. Standardized digital photography and subject self- assessment were performed at each visit. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was seen at any visit
Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. Their results refine our understanding of strong-field processes such as high harmonic generation (HHG) and laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED). Strong infrared laser pulses can extract an electron from a molecule (ionization), accelerate it away into free space, then turn it around (propagation), and finally collide it with the molecule (recollision). This is the widely used three-step model of strong-field physics. In the recollision step, the electron may, for example, recombine with the parent ion, giving rise to high harmonic generation, or scatter elastically, giving rise to laser-induced electron diffraction. One of the commonly used assumptions underlying attosecond physics is that, in the propagation step, the initial structure of the ionized electron is
ORCID: 0000-0002-8621-5066 (2020). The long-term health and wellbeing impacts of Healthy New Towns (HNTs): protocol for a baseline and feasibility study of HNT demonstrator sites in England.. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 6, doi: 10.1186/s40814-020-0550-2 Webb, R. (2017). Maternal mental health, processing of emotion and maternal sensitivity. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City, University of London) Webster, F., Weijer, C., Todd, L., Grimshaw, J. M., Marshall, A. P., Cook, D., MacLennan, G., Cuthbertson, B. H. and Francis, J. (2016). The ethics of future trials: qualitative analysis of physicians decision making. Trials, 17(12), doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-1137-8 Wettergren, L., Eriksson, L. E. and Abrahamsson Tornefors, Y. (2015). Translation report of the EORTC QLQ-C30 into Luganda language. Karolinska Institutet. Wickwar, S. (2015). What is the psychological impact of thyroid eye disease and does orbital decompression surgery improve outcomes?. TEDct Newsletter (Associated with The British ...
There is no difference between the sexes when it comes to an exaggerated temporal fossa depression. Even though I have treated only one woman with a significant indentation, I believe strongly that a deeply concave or inwardly curved space has nothing to do with gender. Whether you are a man or a woman, a pronounced hollow just behind your lateral orbital rims, the bony ridges to the side of your eyes, can have a significant effect on your facial aesthetics. This hollow can make you appear starving when you are well fed. Although the majority of the people dont have a temporal fossa depression that merits attention, it is not an uncommon occurrence. ...
The AMA Fee Navigator™ is an enhanced, easy-to-use version of the Schedule of Medical Benefits supplemented by expert, trusted AMA billing advice and tips.
G. eвf Coronal and sagittal, thin MPRs allow for localization of the fistula site (arrow) at the level of the superior orbital fissure (SOF).
IOF: How has your involvement with IOF impacted you the most?. Dr. Kramberg: IOF has provided a springboard to share techniques and outcomes with my fellow practitioners.. IOF: What do you treat most frequently?. Dr. Kramberg: The patient that I treat most frequently is the orthopedic knee patient that has been told that he or she needs surgery. Some surgeons simply ask, When do you want to schedule the surgery? without offering alternatives. The reward for me is seeing the patient return to an active, pain free life.. IOF: What are you most proud of in your practice?. Dr. Kramberg: I am most proud of the strides we have made in patient care, evaluations, and treatment. I appreciate receiving positive feedback from patients I have treated, as well as referrals from other providers in the field.. IOF: Where do you see the field of regenerative medicine going in the next 5 years?. Dr. Kramberg: In the next 5 years I expect Interventional Orthopedics to be the first choice of care for educated ...
Please donate! Funds go solely to hosting and development costs that allow medical practitioners around the globe to freely access WikEM. ...
Let me just start with with.... I am in a very weird situation because this is a problem that i should have dealt with a long time ago. I am very worried about my eye and psychological health. I have...
On the left images of a patient with an orbital varix, who had noticed that during straining there was a propulsion of the left eye . The upper image is during rest and the lower image is during valsalva at the moment of sneezing. During valsalva the varix shows extreme dilation (red arrow). Notice that during valsalva also on the normal side the superior ophthalmic vein dilates (blue arrow).. ...
Potts, A.W.; Price, W.C., Photoelectron spectra and valence shell orbital structures of groups V VI hydrides, Proc. R. Soc. London A:, 1972, 326, 181. 16 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...
PHACON developed in close cooperation with experienced specialists and ENT specialists at the Medical College in Hannover a PHACON Orbit System. The System is designed specifically for the pointed orbital floor fracturing and surgical reconstruction. Based on high resolution real CT-data of patients, the new PHACON Orbit System presents the simulation of transconjuctival approach to orbital cavity ...
The investigators will measure fetal orbital transverse and anterior-posterior diameter by 2D ultrasound and orbital volume by 3D ultrasound in women visiting our unit for other examinations during pregnancy. The investigators will examine 5-10 women in each gestational age in order to create a normal values curve throughout pregnancy ...
4. Secondary to diseases of the nose and the bony air sinuses around the orbital cavities. As most of the eye specialists in this country and also of Great Britain whom we generally follow make special study of the diseases of the eye alone, they very often overlook this aspect of the watering of the eyes and fail to give relief to their patients by the usual eye drops. The Americans who are the most practical nation in the world have realised its importance long ago and in America the specialists always combine ophthalmic knowledge with the specialised knowledge of the diseases of the ear, nose and throat ...
Motor vehicle and bicycle accidents are the most common causes of blunt head trauma. Other common etiologies are falls, physical violence, and sports accidents. Blunt trauma toward the superior orbital rim, lateral orbital rim, frontal region, and cranium may lead to intraorbital hematoma. A fracture following the blunt head trauma may form a one-way valve, which leads to orbital emphysema and a more pronounced increase in orbital pressure. Increased tissue pressure in an enclosed space will eventually lead to an inevitable decrease in tissue perfusion. It is important to treat the patient within the first 48 hours following the trauma, which is accepted as the critical period. In this report we present a case involving a 42-year-old man who was admitted to our clinic with left periorbital pain, edema, proptosis, and blurred vision after experiencing physical violence. The medical history and physical examination findings, along with imaging studies and a description of the endoscopic orbital ...
The pathogenesis of orbital Graves disease (GD), a process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), remains incompletely understood. The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) represents the central autoantigen involved in GD and has been proposed as the thyroid antigen shared with the orbit that could explain the infiltration of immune cells into tissues surrounding the eye. Another cell surface protein, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), has recently been proposed as a second antigen that participates in TAO by virtue of its interactions with anti-IGF-IR antibodies generated in GD, its apparent physical and functional complex formation with TSHR, and its necessary involvement in TSHR post-receptor signaling. The proposal that IGF-IR is involved in TAO has provoked substantial debate. Furthermore, several studies from different laboratory groups, each using different experimental models, have yielded conflicting results. In this article, we attempt to summarize the biological
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cavernous haemangioma in the orbital apex. T2 - Stereotactic-guided transcranial cryoextraction. AU - Papalkar, Daya. AU - Francis, Ian C.. AU - Stoodley, Marcus. AU - Kaines, Andrew. AU - Sharma, Shanel. AU - Kalapesi, Freny B.. AU - Wilcsek, Geoffrey A.. PY - 2005/8. Y1 - 2005/8. N2 - A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with an orbital cavernous haemangioma superior to the optic nerve in the orbital apex. Preoperative imaging demonstrated a mass involving the superomedial and superolateral quadrants of the posterior orbit. A stereotactic fronto-orbital approach was performed by the neurosurgical team, and cryoextraction of the lesion was accomplished by the ocular plastic surgical team.. AB - A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with an orbital cavernous haemangioma superior to the optic nerve in the orbital apex. Preoperative imaging demonstrated a mass involving the superomedial and superolateral quadrants of the posterior orbit. A stereotactic fronto-orbital approach ...
Penetrating orbital injuries pose a serious threat to vision, ocular motility, and in some cases, life. Long, sharp stiletto objects may penetrate deeply, causing catastrophic damage to orbital structures, despite seemingly trivial entry wounds. The authors present two cases of penetrating orbital injuries by stiletto objects, both entering via small eyelid wounds. Traumatic optic neuropathy occurred in both cases, and was treated with corticosteroids, however the globes escaped direct injury. Injuries to the IIIrd and VIth cranial nerves were also observed. Deep orbital injuries must be excluded in patients presenting with small eyelid wounds caused by sharp penetrating objects.. ...
We previously described a significant response to RTX treatment in patients with active TAO, with no effect on TRAb and hyperthyroidism. In order to study the effect of RTX in the orbit, we analyzed the orbital tissues of 9 patients with TAO at decompression after RTX (n.2) or other treatments. Decompression was carried out in 2 patients for sight threatening optic neuropathy and in 7 for correction of proptosis. Of the RTX treated patients, one was decompressed after 12 months because of optic neuropathy, while the other after 23 months with burnt out disease. Of the other 7 patients, one was decompressed for the second time because of relapse of optic neuropathy that did not respond to steroids and 6 had burnt out disease of 15-175 months of duration. Immunohistochemistry of orbital fat and muscle showed presence of infiltrating immune cells in all patients. Infiltrates were present independently of the duration and the type of treatment of TAO and of thyroid disease. Interestingly, in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The paradoxical predominance of medial wall injuries in blowout fracture. AU - Choi, Kwang Eon. AU - Lee, Joonsik. AU - Lee, Hwa. AU - Chang, Minwook. AU - Park, Minsoo. AU - Baek, Se Hyun. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To evaluate the type and cause of orbital blowout fractures in Korea. Design: Retrospective, observational case series. Methods: Patients who underwent reconstruction for blowout fracture from March 2004 to April 2013 at Korea University Guro and Ansan Hospitals were included in this study. Patient demographics and orbital computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed. On CT, ethmoid air cell septa, blowout fracture type, and other combined fractures were analyzed. Blowout fracture was classified as affecting up to 4 areas: the floor lateral to the infraorbital canal, the floor medial to the canal, the maxilla-ethmoidal strut (inferomedial strut), and the medial wall. Furthermore, trauma type and associated injury were reviewed. The results of ...
M. Morinaga, in Titanium in Medical and Dental Applications, 2018. Molecular and Electronic Structure of Hydronium Ion 22 What about the O-atom when it has only a single lone pair, in case such as hydronium? Click hereð to get an answer to your question ï¸ Explain the molecular orbital structure of benzene? Printed in the Netherlands CNDO/2 MOLECULAR ORBITAL CALCULATION OF THE DEWAR STRUCTURE OF BENZENE ZDZIS3E-AW LATAJKA AND HENRYK RATAJCZAK Institute of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland) W. J. ORVILLE-THOMAS Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, University of Sal â ¦ Abstract. ... Each atom in the ring must have an unhybridized p-orbital. The molecular structure of benzene derivatives, part 2: 4-chloro-benzaldehyde by joint analysis of gas electron diffraction, microwave spectroscopy and ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The curly arrows represent the migration of Pi electrons. Figure 1 serves to illustrate the above point. Do you notice something missing, ...
title: MicroRNA-27 inhibits adipogenic differentiation in orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves orbitopathy, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221077, category: Article
We explain what thyroid-associated orbitopathy is. The causes and symptoms of this pathology. ✅ Specialised treatment at Barraquer.
Intraorbital haematoma is a rare clinical entity which can be caused by orbital traumas, neoplasms, surgeries nearby sinuses and orbit, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, systemic abnormalities, barotrauma and valsalva maneuver. A 74-year-old male presented with sudden onset of ocular pain, upper eye lid swelling, proptosis and diplopia after a commercial flight. After complete ophthalmic ocular examination including pupillary light reflexes and laboratory examinations; computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of orbit revealed a subperiostal mass-like lesion in the right retrobulbar-extraconal region which was compatible with intraorbital haematoma. Visual acuity was not compromised so we planned a conservative approach with close observation. We administered systemic corticosteroid and topical dorzolamide/timolol combination therapy. At the first month follow-up, intraorbital haematoma resolved without significant sequelae. Intraorbital haematoma can be managed by conservative approach
TY - JOUR. T1 - Footprints of the globe. T2 - A practical look at the mechanism of orbital blowout fractures, with a revisit to the work of Raymond Pfeiffer. AU - Erling, Brian F.. AU - Iliff, Nicholas. AU - Robertson, Bradley. AU - Manson, Paul N.. PY - 1999/4. Y1 - 1999/4. N2 - Multiple mechanisms of orbital blowout fractures have been proposed since the fracture was described at the beginning of this century. The original theory of direct globe-to-wall contact was abandoned long ago for the more contemporary hydraulic and bone conduction theories. Although the more widely accepted theories play an obvious role in fracture generation and its associated complications, it is our contention that direct globe-to-wall contact is an important and largely unrecognized mechanism in orbital blowout fracture production. By means of a critical review of the historical literature and an analysis of patient computed tomography scans, support is presented for the original theory first proposed by Raymond ...
Purpose. Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is characterized by the infiltration of immune cells into the orbit, a process in which cytokines play a central role. Orbital fibroblasts are potent producers of cytokines on different stimuli. Recently, the authors showed increased expression of the PDGF-B chain in GO orbital tissue. The dimeric PDGF-BB molecule has been described to activate the NF-κB pathway, which is well recognized for its role in regulating cytokine production. This study was conducted to determine the role of PDGF-BB in the production of proinflammatory cytokines by orbital fibroblasts in GO. Methods. Orbital, lung, and skin fibroblasts were stimulated with PDGF-BB, and cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-16, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, TNF-α) production was measured by ELISA. Involvement of NF-κB activation through PDGF signaling was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, specific NF-κB inhibitors, and the PDGF-receptor kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate. Results. IL-6, IL-8, ...
80 As we have seen earlier, structures like linear, tetrahedral etc, can be obtained on the basis of bond angle. Benzene and derivatives 1. 1. In benzene, the carbon atoms are sp2 hybridized. Naively, the molecule as shown can be determined to have chemical formula C 6H 6. The resonance energy of benzene is about 150.6 kJ mol-1, i.e. ... Each atom in the ring must have an unhybridized p-orbital. (b) The electrons in the resulting p molecular orbitals are delocalized over the entire ring of carbon atoms, giving six equivalent bonds. The energy of the upper orbital is greater than that of the 1s atomic orbital, and such an orbital is called an antibonding molecular orbital. The linear combination of atomic orbitals or LCAO approximation for molecular orbitals was introduced in 1929 by Sir John Lennard-Jones. molecular structure and characteristic molecular orbital map. Structure of Benzene. â ¢ The Ï -electrons are disregarded, except for their role in establishing the molecular geometry. ...
However, we find that the incidence of injury is significantly higher in the pure fracture group suggesting that a different mechanism is at play. It is more reasonable to envision that the acute rise in orbital pressure would lead not only to the floor fracturing, but also to a greater incidence of intraocular injury as the globe retropulses. One could argue, however, that in the case of the impure fracture, the rate of injury is lower because the force is blunted by the rim. Nevertheless, we believe that these data suggest that the retropulsion theory might possibly be the more likely explanation for orbital fractures; one theory (retropulsion) can explain variations of ocular findings in both pure and impure fractures ...
The researchers found that in the intention-to-treat population, 69 and 20% of those who received teprotumumab and placebo, respectively, had a response at week 24.
By Chris Williams: Naoya Monster Inoue reportedly suffered a fractured right orbital bone in his victory over WBA bantamweight champion Nonito Donaire
A systemic radiological approach to examining the images is needed to reach a differential diagnosis. The images should be studied for lesion appearance, localization, contrast enhancement, bony orbit evaluation, and detection of calcifications.[3,4]. The lesion appearance on imaging includes; solid or cystic, well circumscribed or ill-defined, and localized or infiltrative.[4] Comparing the density of the lesion with that of the vitreous body can help to identify a solid lesion, whose density is higher than that of vitreous on CT images.[4]. Orbital tumors can be localized anatomically to within the globe/intraocular or intraconal or in the extraconal space, the orbital apex, the extraocular muscles, or the lacrimal gland. CT remains the modality of choice for evaluation of the bony orbit and paranasal sinuses. MRI is preferred to evaluate the optic nerve and chiasm.[3,4]. Contrast enhancement aids in the characterization of orbital masses. Moderate to marked enhancement is usually noted in ...
Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Tepezza (teprotumumab-trbw) for the treatment of adults with thyroid eye disease, a rare condition where the muscles and fatty tissues behind the eye become inflamed, causing the eyes to be pushed forward and bulge outwards (proptosis). Todays approval represents the first drug approved for the treatment of thyroid eye disease.. Todays approval marks an important milestone for the treatment of thyroid eye disease. Currently, there are very limited treatment options for this potentially debilitating disease. This treatment has the potential to alter the course of the disease, potentially sparing patients from needing multiple invasive surgeries by providing an alternative, non surgical treatment option, said Wiley Chambers, M.D., deputy director of the Division of Transplant and Ophthalmology Products in the FDAs Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Additionally, thyroid eye disease is a rare disease that impacts a small ...
Enophthalmos is the posterior displacement of the eyeball within the orbit due to changes in the volume of the orbit (bone) relative to its contents (the eyeball and orbital fat), or loss of function of the orbitalis muscle. It should not be confused with its opposite, exophthalmos, which is the anterior displacement of the eye. ...
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (FHC) is an international,English-language journal devoted to the developing fields of histochemistry,cytochemistry,cell biology,cell and tissue biology.It is source of the recent research in fields of and cell biology
Thyroid eye disease (TED) causes the muscles and soft tissues in your eye socket to swell. It is also known as thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, thyroid orbitopathy, Graves orbitopathy or Graves ophthalmopathy.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Tepezza (teprotumumab-trbw) for the treatment of adults with thyroid eye disease, a rare condition where the muscles and fatty tissues behind the eye become inflamed, causing the eyes to be pushed forward and bulge outwards (proptosis). Today s approval represents the first drug approved for the treatment of thyroid eye disease. Today s approval marks an important milestone for the treatment of thyroid eye disease. Currently, there are...
Define infraorbital fold. infraorbital fold synonyms, infraorbital fold pronunciation, infraorbital fold translation, English dictionary definition of infraorbital fold. fold1 top: isocline fold center: overturned fold bottom: recumbent fold v. fold·ed , fold·ing , folds v. tr. 1. To bend over or double up so that one part...
The inferior rectus (also inferior rectus muscle, inferior rectus extraocular muscle, latin: musculus rectus inferior) is one of the six extra-ocular muscles that are in control of eye movements.
The optic nerve within the optic canal, the parophthalmic segment of the carotid artery, and the oculomotor nerve in the superior orbital fissure all lay a
Bilateral subfrontal gives much better access than unilateral. The blind spot behind ipsilateral optic nerve can be visualised from the contralateral side. I never use unilateral approach. Head extended so that frontal lobes fall back by gravity. Do not use lumbar drain because much higher chance of extradural hematoma because frontal lobe often sunken at the end of surgery with drainage of CSF.. Bicoronal curvy incision results in better hair growth than straight one. Skin incision does not need to go all the way down to zygomatic arches unless pterygonal approach is needed as well. In that case head is tilted slightly toward that side. Harvest pericranium for repair using wet gauze to wipe the pericranium off the bone. Temporalis fascia may be harvested toward end of operation if needed for dural repair. Burr holes are made either above lateral orbital rim or behind depending on the amount of exposure needed. Use a long cutting blade to reach near midline and crack the middle.. Alternatively, ...
Its terminal branches, escaping from the gland, are distributed to the eyelids and conjunctiva: of those supplying the eyelids, two are of considerable size and are named the lateral palpebral arteries; they run medially in the upper and lower lids respectively and anastomose with the medial palpebral arteries, forming an arterial circle in this situation. The lacrimal artery also give off one or two zygomatic branches, one of which passes through the zygomatico-temporal foramen, to reach the temporal fossa, and anastomoses with the deep temporal arteries; another appears on the cheek through the zygomatico-facial foramen, and anastomoses with the transverse facial. A recurrent branch passes backward through the lateral part of the superior orbital fissure to the dura mater, and anastomoses with a branch of the middle meningeal artery. ...
The second day of the course will include didactic sessions covering modern understanding of orbital disease and advanced techniques for management. The faculty consists of experts in the area of orbital disease and treatment who will share their knowledge and experience with participants. A range of high yield topics will be covered including orbital trauma, vascular lesions, tumors, inflammatory disease and thyroid-related orbitopathy. Complex cases presented by participants will be discussed by expert panel members in an interactive manner. Individuals unable to participate in the first day dissection course will be welcome to attend. Target Audience: This course is targeted to practicing ophthalmologists and orbital surgeons. For more information visit the CME web site . ...
This report describes the anatomy of the frontal branch of the seventh nerve and a technique for assuring its preservation when doing a low frontal approach. By dissecting under both layers of the temporal fascia, rapid and safe access to the inferior fronto-orbital region may be achieved. This technique is recommended for exposure of a bony lesion in the fronto-orbital region and when performing an osteoplastic pterional craniotomy.
Orbital Tumors Stockton - Central Valley Eye Medical Group offers treatment for Orbital Tumors. Our office serves Stockton, Manteca CA and surrounding areas
Are you looking for best Frontal Bone Fracture Surgery in Mumbai? We have top surgeons for Frontal Bone Fracture surgery in India. Know more about cost/ price, doctors profile, clinic/ center address, review, before after photos, video, risk & recovery time, patient testimonials etc. at
Over the last 4 years I have primarily utilized a temporal endoscopic plane approach (between the superficial and deep temporalis fascia) with or without the use of the endoscope to reshape the brow contour. My focus has been a temporal lift only. In my experience, in most cases, lifting the medial brow is an error which changes normal eyelid and periorbital, and ultimately, facial proportions. Most who need medial brow elevation also have bunching of glabellar tissue, and I have found benefit most from a central pretrichial approach (with tissue excision) combined with the temporal lift described below.. The procedure proceeds with standard temporal approach sub-superficial temporal fascia access to the canthus. This plane is made continuous with the central subperiosteal space by dividing the conjoint tendon. Dissection continues to the arcus marginalis periosteum at the superior orbital rim. The periosteum is released from the supraorbital neurovascular bundle laterally to the canthus. It is ...
7. propanolol b ппппa the gland to the periosteum of the superior orbital rim during blepharoplasty can improve the surgical result without compromising tear production (Fig.
Thyroid Eye Disease Your doctor thinks you have thyroid orbitopathy. This is an autoimmune condition where your bodys immune system is producing factors that stimulate enlargement of the muscles that
Treatment is essential to protect the cornea and the optic nerve from getting permanently damaged. In the initial stages of the disease, lubricating drops are used to keep the eye moist. Most patients must be started on steroid tablets for a few months to control the progression of the disease. Closure of the lids may be required if the lids are not able to completely cover the eyes. The closure is temporary and is done only on the outer part of the lids, leaving the cornea clear so that vision is not affected. If protrusion of the eyeball is too great the optic nerve is in danger. At this stage, orbital decompression is advised. This surgery involves breaking one or more walls of the orbit in order that the extra fat, which has been deposited in the orbit due to thyroid eye disease, may be displaced out of the orbit. The eyeball can then be pushed back into the orbit. A patient who has suffered from thyroid eye disease for a long time develops eye movement disorders and requires eye muscle ...
The doctors at Eyesthetica also perform bony decompression surgery for thyroid eye disease, where the bones of the orbit are reshaped to protect the eye, restore the previous appearance, and protect the vision. Call at 213-234-1000 for more information.
• Seven cases of subcutaneous epithelioid granulomas caused by silica and involving the eyelids and periorbital region are described. Histologically, all cases
Intra-individual consistency of lymphocyte re- sponses to the in vitro suppressive effect of steroid. 32a shows the characteristic function for the sets A, B, and C. Define the facial skin redundancy Absent Moderate Marked The hairline is Normally positioned Too high Too low The forehead profile is Flat Round Presence of inferior cymbalta sleepy all the time (clear definite orbital bar) Cymbalta sleepy all the time supraorbital bar is Normally shaped Protruding Recessive Forehead transverse lines Just visible Moderate Marked Vertical frown lines Te lines) Absent Moderate Marked Horizontal frown line (nasal radix line) Absent Moderate Marked Temporal depression Absent Moderate Marked Does the orbital region look cmybalta. This process will be s leepy below and will be modeled, in large part, after a 30-year-old comparative brand-name evaluation program and processes used by ECRI to advise hospitals on medical device selection.
the superior half of the orbital rim, which constitutes the curved superior border of the orbital opening, formed by the frontal bone. [ ...
NO. 1 GARTH AND STEPHENSON : PORTUNIDAE 61 Carapace hexagonal, only moderately broad, fairly convex, and bearing the following ridges: mesogastrics, metagastrics, and epibranchials (plus others different in the two species) ; postlateral corner smoothly rounded. Front four-toothed (considering process lateral to the four teeth as inner subdivision of inner supraorbital angle), teeth of approximately equal size, deeply separated from inner supraorbital angles. Orbital region with inner supraorbital angles clearly subdivided into a narrower, sharper inner lobe and a broader, blunter outer lobe; two supraorbital fissures, and a deep suborbital fissure with a distinct lateral tooth; main suborbital tooth well developed. Anterolateral teeth: first live teeth alternately large and small. Third maxillipeds with a slight production of the anteroexternal angle of the merus. Chelipeds massive; anterior border of arm with massive spines; wrist with inner spine strong and three spines or spinules on outer ...
During your consultation, you will learn about the Orthognathic Surgery treatment plan and discuss your needs and concerns. Seeing a patient with extensive deformities of the face, jaws, and teeth requires a systematic evaluation. Dr. Srikanth Yadav Puligilla will carefully examine your proportion of your entire face the orbital region, as well as the nose, lips, and mouth, which must all be evaluated. In addition, functional problems with the bite problems with dental hygiene such as the recession of gums, abnormalities of the teeth, and functional compromise of the airway, such as sleep apnea. The face is analyzed clinically and cephlometrically. In the profile view, the clinical and cephalometric examinations analyze the face anteroposteriorly. The frontal clinical view is responsible for revealing midlines, cants, yaw, and outline of the face. After that, he will determine what type of treatment you need to best maximize your result. Computerized facial imaging may be recommended to assess ...
Adult male.-Above metallic golden or bronzy green, the upper tail-coverts mostly cinnamon-rufous basally and laterally; rectrices cinnamon-rufous, the middle pair with a broad, fusiform mesial stripe of purplish black, extending for nearly the entire length, the next two (on each side) with a similar but broader and more cuneate stripe, the two outer pairs (on each side) with outer web and part of inner web purplish black; remiges purplish dusks, the inner secondaries glossed with bronze-green, the primary coverts similar in color to primaries but darker; loral and orbital regions deep cinnamon-rufous; chin and throat (gorget) brilliant metallic orange-red or orange (less scarlet than in S. rufus and S. [sasin]), changing to golden green in position d; chest dull white, tinged with cinnamon-buff posteriorly, the feathers dusky gray beneath surface; rest of under parts pale cinnamon-rufous or cinnamon-buff, paler medially, the sides (especially sides of breast) spotted with metallic bronze-green; ...
In this discussion from the Academys Committee on Aging, Drs. Andrew Lee and Neil Miller discuss how to manage thyroid eye disease in elderly patients.
Orbit and classification[edit]. Anchises is a primitive Jovian asteroid orbiting in the trailering Trojan camp at Jupiter's L5 ... It orbits the Sun at a distance of 4.6-6.0 AU once every 12 years and 2 months (4,451 days; semi-major axis of 5.3 AU). Its ... orbit has an eccentricity of 0.14 and an inclination of 7° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] Up to the year 2200, its closest ... Lagrangian point, 60° behind the Gas Giant's orbit in a 1:1 resonance (see Trojans in astronomy). It is also a non-family ...
Innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO). Main article: Innermost stable circular orbit. In Newtonian gravity, test particles can ... If there are other stars orbiting a black hole, their orbits can be used to determine the black hole's mass and location. Such ... 4.2 Proper motions of stars orbiting Sagittarius A*. *4.3 Accretion of matter *4.3.1 X-ray binaries * Quiescence and ... 2009). "Monitoring Stellar Orbits around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center". The Astrophysical Journal. 692 (2): ...
Orbit and classification[edit]. Elatus orbits the Sun at a distance of 7.3-16.3 AU once every 40 years and 7 months (14,826 ... days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.38 and an inclination of 5° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] ...
From low Earth orbit. A satellite image of a section of the Great Wall in northern Shanxi, running diagonally from lower left ... Veteran U.S. astronaut Gene Cernan has stated: "At Earth orbit of 100 to 200 miles [160 to 320 km] high, the Great Wall of ... A more controversial question is whether the Wall is visible from low Earth orbit (an altitude of as little as 160 km (100 mi ... I have not yet found somebody who has told me they've seen the Wall of China from Earth orbit. ... I've asked various people, ...
Orbit and classification[edit]. Jimarnold is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population.[3] It orbits the ... Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.23 and an inclination of 8° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] ...
Orbit and classification[edit]. Ennomos is a Jovian asteroid orbiting in the trailing Trojan camp at Jupiter's L5 Lagrangian ... It orbits the Sun at a distance of 5.1-5.4 AU once every 12 years (4,387 days; semi-major axis of 5.24 AU). Its orbit has an ... point, 60° behind its orbit in a 1:1 resonance (see Trojans in astronomy).[4] ...
Orbit[edit]. The launch placed Skynet 5B into a 250 by 35,786 kilometres (155 by 22,236 mi) geosynchronous transfer orbit with ... By the time of Skynet 5B's launch, a decision had been made to launch the backup spacecraft, Skynet 5C, as an on-orbit spare; ... in an orbit with a perigee of 35,572 kilometres (22,103 mi), an apogee of 35,867 kilometres (22,287 mi), and 0 degrees ... 6 degrees of inclination.[2][6] The satellite used its apogee motor to raise itself into geostationary orbit.[5] It is located ...
a b LOW-LATENCY TELEROBOTICS FROM MARS ORBIT: THE CASE FOR SYNERGY BETWEEN SCIENCE AND HUMAN EXPLORATION, Concepts and ... Study and analyses from orbit[edit]. During the "Exploration Telerobotics Symposium" in 2012 experts on telerobotics from ... Return of the sample to orbit has the advantage that it permits analysis of the sample without delay, to detect volatiles that ... Space debris - The pollution of orbit around Earth by defunct human-made objects ...
... (abbreviated 55 Cnc e, also named Janssen), is an exoplanet in the orbit of its Sun-like host star 55 Cancri A. The ... Orbit and mass[edit]. The radial velocity method used to detect 55 Cancri e obtains the minimum mass of 7.8 times that of Earth ... It takes less than 18 hours to complete an orbit and is the innermost known planet in its planetary system. 55 Cancri e was ... It was announced at the same time as another "hot Neptune" orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 436 named Gliese 436 b. ...
The planet orbits a (M-type) red dwarf star named Gliese 667 C, orbited by a total of two planets. The star is part of a ... Orbit[edit]. The orbit of Gliese 667Cc has a semi-major axis of 0.1251 astronomical units, making its year 28.155 Earth-days ... is the apparent diameter of the star from the surface of the planet in orbit (GJ667Cc in this case), h. ⊙. {\displaystyle {\ ... Gliese 667 Cc (also known as GJ 667Cc, HR 6426Cc, or HD 156384Cc)[4] is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the ...
Both the Earth and Saturn orbit the Sun on eccentric orbits, which means their distances from the Sun vary over time, and ... Phoebe was the first such satellite found and it takes more than a year to orbit Saturn in a retrograde orbit. During the early ... The Cassini-Huygens space probe entered orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004. In June 2004, it conducted a close flyby of Phoebe ... The Moon's orbit is inclined by several degrees relative to Saturn's, so occultations will only occur when Saturn is near one ...
Ganymede participates in orbital resonances with Europa and Io: for every orbit of Ganymede, Europa orbits twice and Io orbits ... It is intended to perform its first flyby of Ganymede in 2029, then enter orbit of the moon in 2032. It will de-orbit and crash ... the first group of objects discovered orbiting another planet.[17] Ganymede orbits Jupiter in roughly seven days and is in a 1: ... Ganymede orbits Jupiter at a distance of 1,070,400 km, third among the Galilean satellites,[17] and completes a revolution ...
... orbits the Sun once every 452 years. It will come to perihelion around 2202,[d] at a distance of about 36 AU.[6] It ... Once the orbit is known, the masses and densities of the two components can be determined. ... Follow up observations have been taken between May and July 2018 in order to determine the orbit of the satellite,[4] but the ... is currently near aphelion, 80 AU from the Sun, and, as a result, it has an apparent magnitude of 22.[1] Its orbit has a ...
Real orbits have perturbations, so a given set of Keplerian elements accurately describes an orbit only at the epoch. Evolution ... A Kepler orbit is an idealized, mathematical approximation of the orbit at a particular time. ... Osculating orbit. References[edit]. *^ For example, with "VEC2TLE". .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... True anomaly (ν, θ, or f) at epoch (t0) defines the position of the orbiting body along the ellipse at a specific time (the " ...
Mars transfer orbit[edit]. The MSL spacecraft departed Earth orbit and was inserted into a heliocentric Mars transfer orbit on ... The Atlas V launch vehicle is capable of launching up to 8,290 kg (18,280 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit.[114] The Atlas V ...
Variations in Earth's orbit. The Milankovitch cycles are a set of cyclic variations in characteristics of the Earth's orbit ... and others have pointed out that those calculations are for a two-dimensional orbit of Earth but the three-dimensional orbit ... He attempted to show that they originated from changes in Earth's orbit.[18] During the following years, Esmark's ideas were ... Researchers used data on Earth's orbit to find the historical warm interglacial period that looks most like the current one and ...
Examples of this include orbit transfers, attitude adjustments, drag compensation for low Earth orbits, fine adjustments for ... In Earth orbit[edit]. GOCE[edit]. ESA's Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) was launched on March ... The ISS orbits at a relatively low altitude and experiences fairly high levels of atmospheric drag, requiring periodic altitude ... In a certain configuration, the ambient gas in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be used as a propellant. The gas enters the main ...
Orbit[edit]. The VIth nerve's course is short and lesions in the orbit rarely give rise to isolated VIth nerve palsies, but ... In addition, III, IV, V1, and V2 involvement might also indicate a sinus lesion as all run toward the orbit in the sinus wall. ...
Jupiter-orbiting comet[edit]. Orbital studies of the new comet soon revealed that it was orbiting Jupiter rather than the Sun, ... Its orbit around Jupiter was very loosely bound, with a period of about 2 years and an apoapsis (the point in the orbit ... It is likely that it was captured from a solar orbit in the early 1970s, although the capture may have occurred as early as the ... The volume of space within which an object can be said to orbit Jupiter is defined by Jupiter's Hill sphere (also called the ...
"Hyperbola - Orbiting the blogosphere with Rob Coppinger. Retrieved 2009-07-18.. *^ "NASAfacts - Constellation - Orion Crew ... Low Earth Orbit and Unmanned Scientific Missions[edit]. Orion spacecraft taking a Space Shuttle Payload Delivery Module (SSPDM ... The two upper stages would meet in low Earth orbit and the lunar spacecraft would transfer from the spent JUS to the fresh JUS ... After this the spacecraft would enter lunar orbit, and the entire crew would descend to the Moon in the Altair while the Orion ...
Launch requirements mean that this rocket would be significantly smaller than an Earth-to-orbit rocket. Mars-to-orbit launch ... "Hohmann transfer orbit diagram". Retrieved 2018-03-27.. *^ "Homann Transfers". Retrieved ... FAST MARS TRANSFERS THROUGH ON-ORBIT STAGING. (2012)" (PDF). *^ Matt Williams - Universe Today. "Making A Trip To ... Mars orbit by the mid-2030s (2010)[edit]. In a major space policy speech at Kennedy Space Center on 15 April 2010, Barack Obama ...
22 August 2018). Orbit. ISBN 9780316274111 The Light of All That Falls. (10 December 2019). Orbit. ISBN 9780356507835 Islington ... He signed a deal with Orbit Books less than a year later. He has published two sequel novels, entitled An Echo of Things to ... 4 August 2014). Originally self-published, later Orbit Books. ISBN 9780992580209 An Echo of Things to Come. ( ...
The ending was initially made available on Facebook on 17 May, then released online by Orbit on 23 May. The new ending starts ... Fitzgerald, Laura (23 May 2012). "What if things had ended…differently? FED by Mira Grant". Orbit. Retrieved 3 June 2012.. ... series of science fiction/horror novels written by Seanan McGuire under the pen name Mira Grant and published by Orbit Books in ...
Orbit. 31 (2): 77-85. doi:10.3109/01676830.2011.648797. PMID 22489850. Rossomondo, R. M.; Carlton, W. H.; Trueblood, J. H.; ...
Orbit. ISBN 1-85723-897-4. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Benson, Donald R. (1978). And having Writ... Bobbs-Merrill. ...
"TEN ARROWS OF IRON Cover Launch". Orbit. Retrieved 24 December 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Official website ...
"In-Memoriam - The Life of a Great Man" (PDF). Orbit. GE Oil & Gas. 33 (1): 4. January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... page 18 Sabin, Steve A New Edition of API 670 Orbit. March 2001. page 32. "About Don Bently". Bently Bearings. Archived from ... The Life of a Great Man Orbit. Vol. 33, No. 1. Jan 2013. page 4. Bently Enterprises Bently Ranch. ...
Orbit. pp. 916-917. ISBN 978-0-316-25130-3. Weeks, Brent (2019). The Burning White. Orbit. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-316-25128-0. ... Found on the Orbit website) Shawarma Scene (2019, after Book 5. Found on the Brent Weeks website) "Not An April Fools Joke". ... Orbit Books published a hardcover 10th Anniversary Edition of the trilogy in November 2018. Perfect Shadow, a novella set in ... "Orbit to publish Weeks title as e-book only". The Bookseller. Retrieved 10 November 2012. "Books". Brent Weeks. Retrieved 1 ...
The maxilla will be affected up to and including the orbits and sometimes inside the lower orbits. The maxilla and zygomatic ... Irfan S, Cassels-Brown A, Hayward J, Corrigan A (1997). "Orbital Cherubism". Orbit. 16 (2): 109-112. doi:10.3109/ ...
Orbit. ISBN 978-0-316-49134-1. " - Awards Grants - How Long 'Til Black Future Month?". American Library Association. ... The book was published in November 2018 by Orbit Books, an imprint of the Hachette Book Group. The name of the collection comes ... The stories are: The book was published by Orbit Books, a speculative fiction imprint of the Hachette Book Group. It was ...
Orbit InfoTech is the one stop solution for various web services: Web Designing and Development, SEO Service, software ...
A parking orbit is a temporary orbit used during the launch of a satellite or other space probe. A launch vehicle boosts into ... In a literal example of a parking orbit, the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) could park for several months in orbit while ... The Apollo program used parking orbits, for all the reasons mentioned above except those that pertain to geostationary orbits.[ ... Geostationary spacecraft require an orbit in the plane of the equator. Getting there requires a geostationary transfer orbit ...
Halo orbits exist in any three-body system, e.g., the Sun-Earth-Orbiting Satellite system or the Earth-Moon-Orbiting Satellite ... Halo orbits orbit the L1, L2, or L3 Lagrangian points (orbits not shown in diagram). ... A halo orbit is a periodic, three-dimensional orbit near the L1, L2 or L3 Lagrange point in the three-body problem of orbital ... Gaias Lissajous Type Orbit - a Lissajous-type orbit, i.e., a near-circular ellipse or "halo" ...
Hurls a torrent of Chi energy up to 40 yds forward, dealing 72,206 Nature damage to all enemies, and 59,186 healing to the Monk and all allies in its path ...
... circle the Sun inside Mercurys orbit. Called vulcanoids, they are extremely difficult to observe, which is why its still not ...
... In early May 2018, an eruption on Hawaiis Kilauea volcano began to unfold. Heres what satellites saw in ...
Known as the Orbital Robotics Bench for Integrated Technology (ORBIT) facility, it relies on a trio of air-bearing platforms ...
Orbit. In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a ... Watch Virgin Orbit launch its first satellites into space. The payload was onboard a rocket dropped from a modified 747 jet ... orbits of planets are typically elliptical. current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on albert ... Satellites orbiting Earth are increasing like crazy - how do we prevent them from crashing?. ...
A satellite can remain in the same orbit for a long period of time as the gravitational pull of the Earth provides a balance to ... As the satellites are in orbit outside the atmosphere there is no air resistance, and therefore, according to the law of ... Therefore, a satellite in low orbit, typically about 800km from the Earth is exposed to an immense gravitational pull and has ... At a distance of 36000km, the orbiting time is 24 hours corresponding to the Earths rotation time. At this distance a ...
The German engineer Walter Hohmann showed in 1925 that elliptical orbits tangent to the orbits of both the planet of departure ... Hohmann orbit, most economical path (though not the shortest or fastest) for a spacecraft to take from one planet to another. ... Alternative Title: transfer orbit. Hohmann orbit, also called Transfer Orbit, most economical path (though not the shortest or ... Compromise orbits, faster but needing more energy than true Hohmann orbits, have been used by interplanetary probes launched ...
Earth orbit: …to be put into a polar orbit-an orbit that crosses over Earths poles-it is launched in a northerly or southerly ... Although the benefit of an easterly launch is lost, a spacecraft in an orbit perpendicular to the Equator offers other ... Other articles where Polar orbit is discussed: spaceflight: ... In spaceflight: Earth orbit. …to be put into a polar orbit-an ... Polar orbit. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this topic. ...
... On July 4, United States citizens celebrate the nations independence. EO does the same by ...
Compare EQUATORIAL ORBIT. Source for information on polar orbit: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary. ... polar orbit An orbit which is inclined at 45° or more to the equatorial plane. ... polar orbit An orbit which is inclined at 45° or more to the equatorial plane. Compare EQUATORIAL ORBIT. ... ...
Clarke orbit*)* A satellite orbit in which the satellite travels on the equatorial plane in the same direction as the rotation ... geostationary orbit (Clarke orbit) A satellite orbit in which the satellite travels on the equatorial plane in the same ... The possibility of such an orbit was first suggested by Arthur C. Clarke, for whom the orbit is sometimes named. Compare ... geostationary orbit Location of an artificial satellite so that it remains above the same point on a planets surface because ...
On March 17, NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft became the first probe to enter orbit around the metal-rich body (SN Online: 3/17/11 ...
Posted in New pages , Tagged 8-speed, bicycle, gearing, gears, hub, hybrid gearing, internal, internal-gear, Orbit, Sachs, ... Tag Archives: Orbit. SRAM and Sachs Internal-gear hubs. Posted on February 2, 2015 by John ... John has prepared a new page about the Sachs Orbit hybrid-gear hub and added information about this hub to internal-gears.html ... Orbit, planetary, Sachs, Sheldon, Sheldon Brown, sheldonbrown,, shifter, Spectro, SRAM , Leave a comment ...
A team of science students at each site is vying to become the worlds first to put its own satellite into orbit. The schools ... Rival Schools Charge Into Orbit. Whiteboard Jungle. The Next Next Thing. See Spot, Drive!. People. Jargon Watch. SkyDoc at ... A team of science students at each site is vying to become the worlds first to put its own satellite into orbit. The schools ... A team of science students at each site is vying to become the worlds first to put its own satellite into orbit. ...
... dropship from the martian orbit toward landing site on the planet. That game is not so regular Point & Click quest. We tried ... dropship from the martian orbit toward landing site on the planet. That game is not so regular Point & Click quest. We tried ...
... trapping its crew on the moons barren surface or in lunar orbit, 238,000 miles from home. Beyond Apollo blogger David S. F. ... man Apollo Command and Service Module during every lunar mission so that it could retrieve marooned astronauts from lunar orbit ... orbit around the moon; then, at apolune (lunar orbit high point), he would ignite the SPS again to line up his spacecrafts ... At perilune (lunar orbit low point), the pilot would fire the SPS a third time to lower the rescue CSMs apolune, thus ...
COLLIDING ORBITS ~ The intense, poetic thriller from author T. S. Fox Read the opening Chapters free online: http://www. ...
O2 Xda Orbit review. Some smartphones are smarter than others By staff 18 April 2007. ... The O2 Xda Orbit is therefore a breath of fresh air. It not only comes with a built-in GPS receiver but also comes with UK road ... The Orbit has the usual full range of Microsoft Windows Mobile software. The ability to write and edit Word and Excel files - ... As the latest in the successful Xda series, the Orbit offers a great deal more than simply a novel piece of integration. This ...
Orbit Escape (Orbit Escape). 1 track (4:20). Discover more music, concerts, videos, and pictures with the largest catalogue ...
Key thing was making it easy to use.Website fits to new Orbit positioning, which contains clean colours and large lifestyle ... Wrigley Orbit website. Colourful flat responsive website. Key thing was making it easy to use. Website fits to new Orbit ...
NASA is committed to stimulating the economy in low-Earth orbit as the next step in humanitys exploration and expansion into ...
... and partial orbit. Great history section I researched at Countway Library at Har… ... Physical Exam ,ul,,li,Orbit exam ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Globe integrity ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Pupils ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul,,ul ... Fractures of the Midface / Orbit * 1. Fractures of the Midface W. Thomas McClellan, M.D. ... A presentation on the latest in facial fracture repair of the midface, zygoma, and partial orbit. Great history section I ...
See an archive of all william orbit stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, ...
In this visualization, we see the orbit of the spacecraft orbit (green) in relation to the Earth, the orbit of the Moon (gray ... The satellite spins as it orbits Earth so that over the course of six months, each sensor collects particles from every part of ...
Orbit: Lightweight jQuery Slider. Orbit is a jQuery slider developed by ZURB. The plugin is lightweight(4KB), easy to implement ... Note: This version of Orbit has been deprecated and will no longer be developed or supported. For the most recent code, check ... Create solid fix for positioning the initial Orbit container (since it gets wrapped and positioning gets broken without ... All of the docs and the download link are on the playground page too: ...
During this LM Comm Break, Houston has AOS with Evans, who is on his 49th orbit.]. MP3 Audio Clip ( 16 min 21 sec ). 183:57:32 ... I wasnt going to let it send us into orbit around the Sun. But I was less concerned about the shutdown than the start. I was ... Because Evans is in a 60 mile orbit, he rises over the LM horizon about 6 minutes prior to passing overhead. They will launch ... Because of slight deviations of the CSM orbit from the planned path, lift-off will be 1 minute, 10 seconds early. Evans has ...
... Science Animations Video • March 15th, 2004 • ssc2004-05v1 This animation shows the location of the newly ... As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach ... Starting at the inner Solar System, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view ... pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt ...
  • Geostationary spacecraft require an orbit in the plane of the equator. (
  • Unless the launch site itself is quite close to the equator, it requires an impractically large amount of fuel to launch a spacecraft directly into such an orbit. (
  • [2] [3] For the Apollo program 's manned lunar missions, a parking orbit allowed time for spacecraft checkout while still close to home, before committing to the lunar trip. (
  • Halo orbits can be thought of as resulting from an interaction between the gravitational pull of the two planetary bodies and the Coriolis and centrifugal accelerations on a spacecraft. (
  • [1] Farquhar advocated using spacecraft in a halo orbit on the far side of the Moon (Earth-Moon L 2 ) as a communications relay station for an Apollo mission to the far side of the Moon. (
  • A spacecraft in such a halo orbit would be in continuous view of both the Earth and the far side of the Moon. (
  • Hohmann orbit , also called Transfer Orbit , most economical path (though not the shortest or fastest) for a spacecraft to take from one planet to another. (
  • Consider Michael Collins a few years before, orbiting in his tiny Gemini 10 spacecraft with John Young. (
  • We can pretend both spacecraft were in circular orbits 200km above the surface of the earth. (
  • The thrust was applied to move the spacecraft forward in its orbital direction, and this will raise the orbit. (
  • Putting satellites and spacecraft into low earth orbit is getting easier and less expensive all the time, but that also means we're possibly creating even more orbiting space junk around our planet -- without any way to remove this garbage. (
  • One observation station of the French side later conducted observation and control support to the orbiting of the Shenzhou I and II spacecraft. (
  • The Shenzhou VI spacecraft blasted off on a Long March 2F rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in north-west China at 0900 local time (0100 GMT) and entered orbit 21 minutes later. (
  • I think you're already seeing a space race in Asia," he says, citing plans by India and Japan to send orbiting spacecraft to study the moon. (
  • The spacecraft will soon use its propulsion system tocircularize the orbit at an altitude of about 13,000 miles (20,921 kilometers). (
  • The newest Beidou satellite was put in space inFebruary, and a marinesurveying spacecraft was orbited Wednesday. (
  • A NASA spacecraft fired its engine and slipped into orbit around the moon Saturday in the first of two back-to-back arrivals over the New Year's weekend. (
  • Once in orbit, the near-identical Grail-A and Grail-B spacecraft will spend the next two months refining their positions until they are just 34 miles (55 kilometers) above the surface and flying in formation. (
  • Now the spacecraft has reached its operational orbit. (
  • The mini-space shuttle spacecraft, also referred to as the OTV-3, flew aboard an Atlas V craft, rocketing towards its orbit from Cape Canaveral in Florida just after 1:00 p.m. local time. (
  • The spacecraft uses solar power for energy while orbiting Earth and features a 15 feet long wingspan. (
  • The spacecraft has now entered the earth's orbit, where it will travel for two days before arriving at the International Space Station. (
  • The Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has become the first to orbit the solar system's innermost planet. (
  • EDT last night, March 17, the MESSENGER spacecraft completed its 17 minute-long process of entering orbit of Mercury. (
  • The spacecraft will now spend the next year in elliptical orbit. (
  • Launched in 2004, the probe-whose full name is the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft-will be the first in history to orbit the closest planet to the Sun, and its findings will help scientists answer fundamental questions about the dawn of the solar system. (
  • If MESSENGER succeeds in entering orbit, the spacecraft will have to endure both heat from the sun, which is 11 times greater than what we receive here on Earth, and heat radiating off Mercury's surface, which Solomon says can get up to 350 degrees Celsius. (
  • By November 15, the spacecraft is expected to be orbiting the moon at a distance of 100 kilometers and sending back data and images (the camera was tested with shots looking back at Earth ). (
  • From the linked article: "The spacecraft will make observations from the initial orbit, and then the orbit will be lowered a 100 km circular polar orbit. (
  • At a distance of 36000km, the orbiting time is 24 hours corresponding to the Earth's rotation time. (
  • The next step is to conduct drop tests, during which Virgin Orbit engineers can study the rocket-release mechanism and observe the launch vehicle's flight through Earth's atmosphere, Virgin Orbit representatives have said . (
  • about two years and eight months would be needed for a round trip, allowing for a waiting period of 455 days on Mars while the planets realigned themselves properly so that the returning craft would meet Earth's orbit when the Earth was present. (
  • The launch was timed so that NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory, or OCO, would end up at the front of a train of polar-orbiting environmental satellites that cross Earth's equator every afternoon. (
  • Low Earth orbit CubeSats have already made affordable satellite experiments possible for universities as well as government space agencies, so floating a few of these satellites out beyond Earth's reach could open up even more possibilities. (
  • The CleanSpace One project is planning to launch satellites that can clear out space debris in the Earth's orbit. (
  • But John Logsdon, director of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University in Washington DC, US, emphasises that China's official space plans do not call for the country to go beyond Earth's orbit. (
  • Orbits can be positioned near the Earth's equator (equatorial orbits) or loop from the North to South Pole (polar orbits). (
  • The X-37B can operate in an Earth orbit for extended periods of time and is designed to re-enter Earth's atmosphere and land on autopilot. (
  • Most satellites in halo orbit serve scientific purposes, for example as space telescopes . (
  • Satellites orbiting Earth are increasing like crazy - how do we prevent them from crashing? (
  • As the satellites are in orbit outside the atmosphere there is no air resistance, and therefore, according to the law of inertia, the speed of the satellite is constant resulting in a stable orbit around the Earth for many years. (
  • The company expects to be able to place small satellites in a wide variety of low Earth orbits. (
  • Communications and remote-sensing satellites are often placed in geostationary orbits. (
  • DARPA is working on a project called Phoenix which aims to create new satellites that can cannibalize older satellites in orbit for parts. (
  • DARPA wants to demonstrate robotic satellites that can salvage reusable parts such as antennas from obsolete satellites in geosynchronous orbit, but there are quite a few technological and logistical hurdles to overcome. (
  • According to Xinhua, France launched an Ariane rocket on Saturday, lifting into orbit the new-generation of military satellites, Helios II A and six micro satellites for different scientific purposes. (
  • ARIANESPACE says two satellites ended up in off-target orbits after being launched from Kourou, French Guiana, aboard a Soyuz rocket. (
  • THE European Space Agency and launch company Arianespace say the satellites ended up in off-target orbits after being launched on Friday from Kourou, French Guiana, aboard a Soyuz rocket. (
  • NASA's Orbit Pavilion sound experience is an outdoor installation producing an innovative "soundscape" experience representing the movement of the International Space Station and 19 Earth Science satellites, each with distinctive sounds that interpret the satelites' missions. (
  • The ability to rendezvous in orbit could be used to help clear out space junk or inspect or fix satellites. (
  • The Compass system willconsist of five satellites orbiting in the geostationary belt some 22,000 milesabove Earth, and 30 more craft circling the planet in a medium orbit, accordingto earlier Xinhua reports. (
  • To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits, with the center of mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Kepler's laws of planetary motion. (
  • A halo orbit is a periodic, three-dimensional orbit near the L 1 , L 2 or L 3 Lagrange point in the three-body problem of orbital mechanics . (
  • Known as the Orbital Robotics Bench for Integrated Technology (ORBIT) facility, it relies on a trio of air-bearing platforms scooting across the flattest surface by far in ESA's ESTEC technical centre in the Netherlands - a 4.8 x 9 m epoxy floor smoothed to within 0.8 mm. (
  • current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on albert einstein's general theory of relativity, which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of space-time, with orbits following geodesics. (
  • The Exoplanet Orbit Database is a database of well-determined orbital parameters of exoplanets, and their host stars' properties. (
  • This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for planets orbiting their host stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. (
  • This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. (
  • However, Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime, with orbits following geodesics, provides a more accurate calculation and understanding of the exact mechanics of orbital motion. (
  • Second, he found that the orbital speed of each planet is not constant, as had previously been thought, but rather that the speed depends on the planet's distance from the Sun. Third, Kepler found a universal relationship between the orbital properties of all the planets orbiting the Sun. For the planets, the cubes of their distances from the Sun are proportional to the squares of their orbital periods. (
  • Getting there requires a geostationary transfer orbit with an apogee directly above the equator. (
  • In December 1965, the company's engineers briefed NASA's Office of Manned Space Flight (OMSF) and Bellcomm, OMSF's planning contractor, on results of a preliminary feasibility study of a one-man CSM mission to rescue Apollo astronauts stranded in lunar orbit. (
  • The NAA engineers did not describe specific lunar-orbit rescue scenarios, though the CSM modifications they outlined offer clues about the types of rescues they envisioned. (
  • The rescue CSM pilot could reconfigure the docking unit in flight, implying that the situation in lunar orbit might be unknown or in flux when he departed Earth. (
  • NAA expected that a lunar-orbit rescue might require a spacewalk, so provided the rescue CSM pilot with a tether and a life support umbilical extension, a compressed-gas-propelled maneuvering device, and a protective 'meteoroid garment' of the type Apollo moonwalkers would wear over their suits. (
  • The rescue CSM and Saturn V would stand by until the Apollo lunar CSM safely departed lunar orbit and began the fall back to Earth, then would be rolled back to the cavernous Vehicle Assembly Building for storage until the next Apollo lunar mission. (
  • When it finally has enough energy, it will pop over the brink and it can enter lunar orbit with very little fuel use to close the orbit. (
  • Its twin Grail-B still had to enter lunar orbit on New Year's Day. (
  • After an 18-day journey, Chandrayaan-1, the moon mission of India, has entered Lunar orbit . (
  • The lunar orbit insertion placed Chandrayaan-1 in an elliptical orbit with its nearest point 400 to 500 kilometers away from the moon, and the farthest, 7,500 kilometers. (
  • The next mission to use a halo orbit was Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a joint ESA and NASA mission to study the Sun, which arrived at Sun-Earth L 1 in 1996. (
  • New NASA measurements of the orbit of the half-kilometer asteroid 1999 RQ36 have given space science its most precise measurement of such space rocks' orbit - and revealed a 160km deviation from the orbit predicted by gravity. (
  • NASA 'deep space' ship: Humans beyond orbit by 2020? (
  • In May 2018, Farquhar's original idea was finally realized when China placed the first communications relay satellite into a halo orbit around the Earth-Moon L 2 point. (
  • Virgin CEO Branson expects that LauncherOne could be ready to reach orbit early in 2019, according to his October 2018 blog post . (
  • Yadav A., Jha K. (2018) Rulkov Map in the Superior Orbit. (
  • Previous Beidou satelliteswere placed in geostationary orbit, but Friday's launch delivered the firstCompass satellite to medium Earth orbit. (
  • Halo orbits exist in any three-body system, e.g., the Sun - Earth -Orbiting Satellite system or the Earth- Moon -Orbiting Satellite system. (
  • A satellite can remain in the same orbit for a long period of time as the gravitational pull of the Earth provides a balance to the centrifugal force. (
  • Therefore, a satellite in low orbit, typically about 800km from the Earth is exposed to an immense gravitational pull and has to move at considerable speed to generate a corresponding centrifugal force. (
  • geostationary orbit ( Clarke orbit ) A satellite orbit in which the satellite travels on the equatorial plane in the same direction as the rotation of the Earth at a height of about 36 000 km (more than 5 Earth radii) above the equator. (
  • The craft is circling at 343 km (213 miles) above the Earth, orbiting every 90 minutes, preparing for what a senior engineer said would be the most challenging part of the mission. (
  • Starting at the inner Solar System, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). (
  • Low Earth Orbit stories at Techdirt. (
  • It's getting easier and easier to send stuff into low earth orbit, and more folks seem to be interested in doing it. (
  • China's space program has achieved several significant milestones, but its anti-satellite capabilities could turn low earth orbit into an unusable space junkyard. (
  • One proposal to reduce space debris in low earth orbit involves deploying tons of micron-scale tungsten dust in space -- which would collide with other debris and slow down the space junk so that it burns up in the upper atmosphere. (
  • An unclassified document (PDF) from the US Space and Missile Systems Center ponders long and hard about how to create robust, affordable communications in Earth orbit. (
  • The earth orbits the sun once every 365.25 days. (
  • Orion will orbit Earth twice before splashing down off the California coast. (
  • To put into an orbit, as a satellite is put into orbit around the Earth. (
  • Last year, a Long March 2D rocket took off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the Gobi Desert carrying a satellite called Micius, named after an ancient Chinese philosopher who died in 391 B.C. The rocket placed Micius in a Sun-synchronous orbit so that it passes over the same point on Earth at the same time each day. (
  • We report the first quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low Earth orbit satellite-through an up-link channel- with a distance up to 1400 km," says the Chinese team. (
  • This is the first time that any object has been teleported from Earth to orbit, and it smashes the record for the longest distance for entanglement. (
  • Hours before Earth revelers counted down the new year, Grail-A flew over the south pole and slowed itself to get captured into orbit. (
  • See also GEO and middle earth orbit (MEO). (
  • It's nearly a given that your picosatellite will go to low earth orbit (LEO), a broad band ranging from about 150km up to perhaps 600km. (
  • That is, it rotates around the Earth once every 90 minutes, doing about 15 orbits per day. (
  • Similarly, orbits can be nearly circular, or be highly eccentric-coming closer to the Earth at one end of the orbit, and then moving far away at the other. (
  • Because dust closer to the star is hotter than dust farther from the star, the warm dust likely traces material orbiting the star at distances comparable to distances between Earth and Jupiter around our star, the sun. (
  • No interviews and no contact with other people for the last 24 hours on earth before the launch is allowed as even a minor influenza can be fatal in orbit. (
  • A craft launched from Earth would be traveling more than 10 kilometers per second upon reaching the innermost planet, he says, but it would need to slow down to less than 0.09 kilometers per second to achieve successful orbit. (
  • We don't often get views of the Earth from this altitude, stuck as we are in low earth orbit (ISS - looking at you). (
  • The alternative to a parking orbit is direct injection , where the rocket fires continuously (except during staging) until its fuel is exhausted, ending with the payload on the final trajectory . (
  • Use of a parking orbit requires a rocket upper stage to perform the injection burn while under zero g conditions. (
  • Often, the same upper stage which performs the parking orbit injection is used for the final injection burn, which requires use of a restartable liquid-propellant rocket engine. (
  • Virgin Orbit is building and testing a rocket dedicated to carrying such machines to orbit. (
  • An artist's depiction of a Virgin Orbit LauncherOne rocket being air-launched from its Cosmic Girl mothership. (
  • Their task was to dock with an unmanned Agena rocket which would propel them into a higher orbit. (
  • For this match, it's Recharger vs. Nonrecharger, and the prize is a ride into polar orbit aboard a rocket launched from Baikonar, Ukraine, in May. (
  • A tiny Spanish civilian research satellite was also placed successfully into orbit by the rocket, which was launched from the European Space Agency in Kourou. (
  • A few minutes after the launch, the Antares rocket was safely in orbit, prompting cheers and sighs of relief on the ground. (
  • The space lab made the journey into orbit atop a Long March 2F rocket. (
  • The three-stage Long March3A rocket left its payload in an egg-shaped transfer orbit with an inclinationof 55 degrees. (
  • Your orbit is entirely determined by what your rocket provider has sold you. (
  • When the craft crosses the equator, the upper stage is fired to raise the spacecraft's apogee to geostationary altitude (and often reduce the inclination of the transfer orbit, as well). (
  • The main disadvantage of fuzzy orbits is that whilst a normal Hohmann transfer orbit will take 3 days, a fuzzy orbit can take months or years. (
  • Last summer, I wrote a piece on the search for small solar system objects that might, theoretically, circle the Sun inside Mercury's orbit. (
  • In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet around the center of a star system, such as the solar system. (
  • First, he found that the orbits of the planets in our Solar System are elliptical, not circular (or epicyclic), as had previously been believed, and that the Sun is not located at the center of the orbits, but rather at one focus. (
  • orbits of planets are typically elliptical. (
  • Some planets can be orbited by approaching them slowly. (
  • Astronomers have discovered that rocky, terrestrial planets might orbit many, if not most, of the nearby sun-like stars in the disk of our galaxy. (
  • Two very different planets that are very near to each other have been discovered orbiting the same distant star. (
  • polar orbit An orbit which is inclined at 45° or more to the equatorial plane. (
  • At the hobbyist level, you're going to most likely get a standard 250km or so nearly circular orbit, either equatorial or polar. (
  • But the equation told us that higher v means a lower orbit by almost two kilometers. (
  • Researchers in China have teleported a photon from the ground to a satellite orbiting more than 500 kilometers above. (
  • But Micius changes all that because it orbits at an altitude of 500 kilometers, and for most of this distance, any photons making the journey travel through a vacuum. (
  • It produces a higher altitude and thus ends up reducing v. So Gemini 10 moves forward, and simultaneously it starts rising to a higher orbit. (
  • When the Space Shuttle orbiter launched interplanetary probes such as Galileo , it used a parking orbit to deliver the probe to the right injection spot. (
  • Compromise orbits, faster but needing more energy than true Hohmann orbits, have been used by interplanetary probes launched since the 1960s. (
  • The orbit is the bony cavity in the skull that houses the globe of the eye (eyeball), the muscles that move the eye (the extraocular muscles), the lacrimal gland, and the blood vessels and nerves required to supply these structures. (
  • Well, they're in circular orbits, so they're experiencing the acceleration of uniform circular motion. (
  • What if the orbit of Darwinism should be a little too circular? (
  • Orbits are nearly elliptical or circular in shape and are very closely approximated by Kepler's laws of planetary motion. (
  • The German engineer Walter Hohmann showed in 1925 that elliptical orbits tangent to the orbits of both the planet of departure and the target planet require the least fuel and energy. (
  • LOST ORBIT centers around the exploration of space. (
  • Set in a world rich with comedy and tragedy, LOST ORBIT is a game filled with risk, loneliness, wonder, and death. (
  • That's the predicament protagonist Harrison finds himself dealing with in Lost Orbit . (
  • Described as a "dodge-'em-up" by developer PixelNAUTS, Lost Orbit doesn't fall neatly into any one established genre. (
  • Risk and reward are central to Lost Orbit 's design, and that comes through in the boost ability. (
  • It captures the science fiction feel with its drifting electronic melodies, but also has higher energy sections that set the stage for Lost Orbit 's fast action. (
  • All in all, Lost Orbit is a winner. (
  • Scientists have been waiting since 2009 for OCO to reach orbit. (
  • China's third manned space mission reached its final orbit early on Friday where astronauts preparing for the country's first spacewalk enjoyed spicy food and the convenience of an onboard toilet. (
  • In March 2017, Virgin Galactic , a private space tourism company owned by British entrepreneur Richard Branson, announced the spinoff of a separate firm called Virgin Orbit. (
  • Virgin Orbit is a spinoff company from the space tourism company Virgin Galactic. (
  • Virgin Orbit aims to build 24 new rockets annually from its production center in Long Beach, California, according to the company's website. (
  • The default value for Orbit Around is 0, which results in a stable orbit. (
  • Parking orbit for one of the early Ranger missions to the Moon. (
  • The trick with a fuzzy orbit is to try to arrange that the vehicle 's orbit is such that the moon pulls on it and gives it a little extra energy and momentum each time it goes past. (
  • Additionally, you must be reasonably close to the moon to start with for it to perturb your orbit enough for this to work. (
  • The two probes are scheduled to enter orbit around the moon over New Year's weekend. (
  • Isaac Newton demonstrated that Kepler's laws were derivable from his theory of gravitation and that, in general, the orbits of bodies subject to gravity were conic sections (this assumes that the force of gravity propagates instantaneously). (
  • In relativity theory, orbits follow geodesic trajectories which are usually approximated very well by the Newtonian predictions (except where there are very strong gravity fields and very high speeds) but the differences are measurable. (
  • geostationary orbit Location of an artificial satellite so that it remains above the same point on a planet's surface because it completes one orbit in the same time it takes that planet to rotate once on its axis. (
  • The probe also carries a complex digital camera called the Mercury Dual Imaging System, which features a wide angle, multi-spectral camera for observing the different types of rock on the planet and a narrow-angle camera that will capture 98 percent of the planet's surface as MESSENGER completes its 12-hour orbits. (
  • An upgrade to the second stage (ESC-B) will have multiple restart capability, so future missions may use parking orbits. (
  • [4] Although several other missions since then have traveled to Lagrange points, they typically have used the related non-periodic variations called Lissajous orbits rather than an actual halo orbit. (
  • All the SpLAN orbiting nodes are envisioned as simple, lightweight, standard hardware with minimal new infrastructure required for new missions, the ability to route past damage in that time-honoured IP fashion, and lots of useful interoperability with existing systems. (
  • This table was first created by the HEASARC in August 2012 based on a machine-readable version of the Exoplanet Orbit Database which was obtained from the authors' web site ( ), file exoplanets.csv. (
  • China launched its secondsatellite in less than three days Friday when a Long March 3A rocketsuccessfully delivered a navigation craft into orbit. (
  • The Orbit is a 1.8 by 0.6-inch (4.6 by 1.5 centimeters) device that has a display screen and a single navigation button. (
  • You simply press the navigation button once, make sure the device is charged and then download the accompanying Runtastic Me mobile app, which is designed specifically for the Orbit. (
  • When you press the navigation button once, the Orbit will show you the time of day, and when you press it subsequent times, the device will display how many steps you've taken, how many calories you've burned and how many "active minutes" (of walking, running, etc.) you had that day. (
  • NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission (OCO-2) launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base, in California July 2, 2014. (
  • A parking orbit is a temporary orbit used during the launch of a satellite or other space probe . (
  • Because halo orbits tend to be unstable, stationkeeping is required to keep a satellite on the orbit. (
  • A team of science students at each site is vying to become the world's first to put its own satellite into orbit. (
  • D-Sat is a small satellite equipped with a dedicated propulsive device to remove it from orbit in a quick, direct, and controlled way at the end of its mission. (
  • We look at what conditions your satellite must endure, how to test your satellite, and what launch, ground and orbit support you will need. (
  • Satellite observation and control networks in China and France yesterday successfully tracked the orbiting of a satellite launched by the French Government. (
  • to send into orbit, as a satellite. (
  • A 'science orbit' is when a satellite revolves in a near circle pattern very close around a planetary body's atmosphere . (
  • China launches space lab Jump to media player China has launched into orbit its first space laboratory, Tiangong-1, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in Gansu Province. (
  • Such an orbit lasts (because of drag by the tenuous ionosphere) from 3 to 16 weeks before the satellite will suffer a fiery reentry. (
  • In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. (
  • Where one body is much more massive than the other (as is the case of an artificial satellite orbiting a planet), it is a convenient approximation to take the center of mass as coinciding with the center of the more massive body. (
  • This would put the company in a good position to potentially launch some of the many thousands of cubesats expected to need rides to orbit in the next few years, as companies like SpaceX and Planet aim to create space-based networks that can provide internet access and global-imaging capabilities. (
  • VIDEO: See what it's like to ride the world's longest tunnel slide, which was added to the ArcelorMittal Orbit in 2016. (
  • Until we get a fully transparent display, the Orbit smartphone will have to do! (
  • its 10,000-year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. (
  • Hauppauge-based Orbit International Corp. has received an order valued at more than $600,000 for panels for the E-2 Hawkeye aircraft, the company announced Friday morning. (
  • Mission: activate onboard systems to make your way through the ship to the space hangar zone and navigate 'Aurora' dropship from the martian orbit toward landing site on the planet. (
  • All makes sense to me - but the SpLAN will be orbiting a planet full of people who are very good at hacking IP-based systems. (
  • In their paper, the authors use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots, giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: They illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the different selection biases between radial velocity and transit surveys, and that the multi-planet systems show a distinct semi-major-axis distribution from apparently singleton systems. (
  • In her debut novel Winter's Orbit , Everina Maxwell rockets this surefire premise into space, uniting Prince Kiem (lesser royal of the Iskat Empire) in a political marriage with Count Jainan (from vassal planet Thea) following the unexpected and tragic death of Jainan's husband, Prince Taam. (
  • It circles the star about every 14 days, while the outer planet takes 16 days to make its orbit. (
  • This video chronicles some of the major events that occurred on this planet during a single Neptune orbit. (
  • Hedersleben tracks, including a track from Orbit, have been featured in the upcoming action/heist movie Diamond Cartel (starring Armand Assante and Bolo Yeung) and dark thriller The Devil's Domain starring Michael Madsen! (
  • One thing that confused me about the Orbit was that the company claims that the device tracks "happiness" and "ambient lighting. (
  • In a dramatic vindication of classical mechanics, in 1846 Urbain Le Verrier was able to predict the position of Neptune based on unexplained perturbations in the orbit of Uranus. (
  • Tonight, if all goes well , NASA's MESSENGER probe will complete a seven-year journey by entering orbit of Mercury. (
  • Similar to the Attracted To behavior, the Orbit Around behavior's default parameter settings give the object sufficient initial velocity to orbit around another object in a perfect circle. (
  • Behaviors such as Attractor and Repel applied to nearby objects may disrupt an object with the Orbit Around behavior applied to it. (
  • In the Layers list, you can also drag the target object onto the Orbit Around behavior. (
  • 4 is spiking-busting whereas earlier in picard orbit its behavior is chaotic. (
  • There may well be valid scenarios here the Orbit bundle is not appropriate but projects are strongly urged to share as much as possible. (
  • China successfully launched two "taikonauts" into orbit on Wednesday, marking the country's second crewed foray into space. (
  • However, once the plane successfully reached orbit, the broadcast was ended "at the request of our customer. (
  • The eye is protected from mechanical injury by being enclosed in a socket, or orbit, which is made up of portions of several of the bones of the skull to form a four-sided pyramid, the apex of which points back into the head. (
  • the eye socket," from Old French orbite or directly from Medieval Latin orbita , transferred use of Latin orbita "wheel track, beaten path, rut, course, orbit" (see orb ). (
  • In a literal example of a parking orbit, the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) could park for several months in orbit while waiting to rendezvous with the International Space Station . (