Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Herpes Labialis: Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Herpes Zoster: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Ischium: One of three bones that make up the coxal bone of the pelvic girdle. In tetrapods, it is the part of the pelvis that projects backward on the ventral side, and in primates, it bears the weight of the sitting animal.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Sacrococcygeal Region: The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Herpesvirus 8, Human: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.Herpesvirus 6, Human: The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 14: A novel member of the tumor-necrosis factor receptor family that can also mediate HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 entry into cells. It has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14 and the homotrimeric form of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA. The receptor is abundantly expressed on T-LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte activation. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex: An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Herpesvirus 1, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14: A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on activated LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Roseolovirus Infections: Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Meningomyelocele: Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Varicellovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Keratitis, Dendritic: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Alphaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis: A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Vmw65: Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Herpesvirus 7, Human: A species in the genus ROSEOLOVIRUS, of the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It was isolated from activated, CD4-positive T-lymphocytes taken from the blood of a healthy human.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Exanthema Subitum: An acute, short-lived, viral disease of infants and young children characterized by a high fever at onset that drops to normal after 3-4 days and the concomitant appearance of a macular or maculopapular rash that appears first on the trunk and then spreads to other areas. It is the sixth of the classical exanthematous diseases and is caused by HHV-6; (HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN). (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.SicilyHeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Acyclovir: A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Lymphoma, Primary Effusion: A rare neoplasm of large B-cells usually presenting as serious effusions without detectable tumor masses. The most common sites of involvement are the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. It is associated with HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 8, most often occurring in the setting of immunodeficiency.Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia: Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Moraxella (Moraxella) bovis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is most frequently isolated from bovine eyes in cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, INFECTIOUS), but also occurs in unaffected eyes and the nasal cavity of cattle.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Lymphotoxin beta Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.DNA Virus InfectionsChikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Herpesvirus 2, Saimiriine: The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.RNA Virus Infections
... herpes simplex type 1, oral herpes associated with cold sores; Epstein Barr virus that causes mononucleosis; varicella zoster ... a b c Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal. (2007, January 1). Retrieved October 31, 2014, from Alsmark SS, García J, ... "Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 12 (8): E576-81. PMID 18059242. Archived from the original on 2014-11-05. ... several varieties of herpes viruses that cause other diseases can also infect the ear, and can result in hearing loss: ...
In herpes labialis, the duration of healing, pain and detectable virus is reduced by up to one day, compared with the total ... It is the active ingredient in the cold sore medications Denavir (NDC 0135-0315-52), Vectavir and Fenivir. Famciclovir is a ... prodrug of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability. Penciclovir was approved for medical use in 1996. ... This activated form inhibits viral DNA polymerase, thus impairing the ability of the virus to replicate within the cell. The ...
"Salivary mediated autoinoculation of herpes simplex virus on the face in the absence of "cold sores," after trauma". J. Oral ... For the virus that causes herpes simplex, see Herpes simplex virus. For all types of herpes viruses, see Herpesviridae. ... "Helping You With Herpes - Herpes Viruses Association". Herpes Viruses Association. Archived from the original on 2015-07-26. ... implications for clinical management of herpes simplex virus recurrence during radiotherapy". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol ...
... herpes simplex type 1, oral herpes associated with cold sores; Epstein Barr virus that causes mononucleosis; varicella zoster ... Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal. (2007, January 1). Retrieved October 31, 2014, from "Archived copy". Archived ... can cause deafness in newborns several varieties of herpes viruses that cause other diseases can also infect the ear, and can ... the HIV virus, or due to an increased rate of other infections. West Nile virus, which can cause a variety of neurological ...
... or cold sores due to reactivation of the herpes simplex virus in the skin surrounding the lips. Eye protection is usually given ... When psoriasis involves the oral mucosa (the lining of the mouth), it may be asymptomatic, but it may appear as white or grey- ... Fissured tongue is the most common finding in those with oral psoriasis and has been reported to occur in 6.5-20% of people ... Oral corticosteroids should not be used, for they can severely flare psoriasis upon their discontinuation. Biologics are ...
Antiviral oral medication and topic medication can be prescribed to relieve the pain and soreness of the herpes virus. Verrucae ... Type 1 (HSV-1) can be transmitted through contact with an infected individual, and usually associated with sores on the lips, ... or oral medications. The herpes simplex virus comes in two different strains, though only one is spread among wrestlers. ... Occasionally, the virus will suddenly display recurring symptoms, or flares. There is no complete treatment for Herpes Simplex ...
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) *Transmitted by oral contact, causes orolabial herpes (cold sores) and genital herpes *HSV-1 is ... Heptad Repeat 2 in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 gH Interacts with Heptad Repeat 1 and Is Critical for Virus Entry and Fusion MacLeod ... Hydrophobic α-Helices 1 and 2 of Herpes Simplex Virus gH Interact with Lipids, and Their Mimetic Peptides Enhance Virus ... Intracellular Trafficking and Maturation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 gB and Virus Egress Require Functional Biogenesis of ...
Specifically, type 2 has been implicated as causing 10-15% of oral infections. Cold sores are the result of the virus ... Herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip. ... Herpes labialis infection occurs when the herpes simplex virus comes into contact with oral mucosal tissue or abraded skin of ... The cause is usually herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and occasionally herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The infection is ...
It is caused by contagious infection with human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which more commonly causes oral herpes ( ... The spread is facilitated when a sore is present but it can happen in its absence as well. The patients may know that the virus ... Herpes gladiatorum is a skin infection primarily caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus infects the cells in the ... Herpes gladiatorum is transmitted by direct contact with skin lesions caused by a herpes simplex virus. This is the main reason ...
"Salivary mediated autoinoculation of herpes simplex virus on the face in the absence of "cold sores," after trauma". J. Oral ... "Helping You With Herpes - Herpes Viruses Association". Herpes Viruses Association. Archived from the original on 2015-07-26. ... "Reactivation of oral herpes simplex virus: implications for clinical management of herpes simplex virus recurrence during ... herpes miliaris' and 'herpes exedens' also appeared. Herpes was not found to be a virus until the 1940s. Herpes antiviral ...
It is caused by contagious infection with human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1),[1] which more commonly causes oral herpes ... The spread is facilitated when a sore is present but it can happen in its absence as well. The patients may know that the virus ... Herpes gladiatorum is a skin infection primarily caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus infects the cells in the ... "Herpes Simplex explained"[permanent dead link] 2010-02-10. *^ Herpes Simplex Virus infection and recurrence About health online ...
... infection with herpes simplex virus, or HSV) is very common in the mouth and lips. This virus can cause blisters and sores ... Unlike herpes sores, canker sores are always found inside the mouth and are usually less painful.[citation needed] Good oral ... Although many people get infected with the virus, only 10% actually develop the sores. The sores may last anywhere from 3-10 ... Herpes Guide: How do I know if I have herpes Canadian Herpes Information portal. Retrieved on 2010-02-01 What are Mumps ...
This is usually termed "antibiotic sore mouth", "antibiotic sore tongue", or "antibiotic-induced stomatitis" because it is ... such as oral hygiene and human herpesviruses. This condition can develop into necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. This is an ... The global human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has been an important factor in ... Oral swabs are taken if culture is required. Some recommend that swabs be taken from 3 different oral sites. Oral rinse ...
These two viruses are the cause of oral and genital herpes. Latency is maintained in a variety of ways, one of which is the ... In the lytic phase the virus is able to spread to other hosts due to open sores and other such mechanisms. In the latent phase ... Human Herpes Viruses, also known as HHVs, are a family of DNA viruses that cause several diseases in humans. One of the most ... "Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus, the house guests who never leave". Herpesviridae. 3 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/2042- ...
... varicella-zoster virus, adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus. Some people with aphthous stomatitis may show herpes virus within the ... Although there are many causes of oral ulceration, recurrent oral ulceration has relatively few causes, most commonly aphthous ... "herpes" despite this cause having been disproven. The informal term "canker sore" is sometimes used, mainly in North America, ... Aphthous stomatitis was once thought to be a form of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection, and some clinicians still refer ...
... as a pharmaceutical antiviral agent for reducing the duration of cold sores caused by the herpes simplex virus in the OTC ... The drug was approved as a cream for oral herpes after clinical trials by the FDA in July 2000. It was shown to shorten the ... Docosanol is thought to act by inhibiting the fusion of the human host cell with the viral envelope of the herpes virus, thus ... This topical is only intended for external, oral-facial use and not for genital herpes or shingles. Cosmetic products are ...
... treatment of herpes simplex virus 2 (genital herpes), herpes labialis (cold sores) in immunocompetent patients and for the ... most commonly for herpes zoster (shingles). It is a prodrug form of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability. Famciclovir ... The effects of antiviral therapy on the distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 to ganglionic neurons and its consequences ... 1996). "Differential effects of famciclovir and valaciclovir on the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus in a murine infection ...
Some examples of the milder diseases passed through saliva include herpes simple virus (cold sores or canker sores), flu virus ... It is a contagious viral disease in the herpes virus family. In addition to kissing, however, mono can also "be spread when a ... Oral Bacterial Ecology; the Molecular Basis Marsh, Philip, and Michael V. Martin. Oral Microbiology. DePaola, Dominick P., ... Bacteria and its growth are two of the principal components of oral ecology. Though bacteria play a major role in oral ecology ...
... such as Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1), Herpes Simplex Virus Type II (HSV-2) genital herpes, which may present as a lesion ... The cells of the inner oral cavity are called the buccal mucosa. The oral cavity is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils and may cause a sore throat and fever. In chronic cases tonsillectomy may be ... Autoimmune diseases such as: Crohn's disease of the oral cavity, see reference below. Careful observation of the oral cavity, ...
Other conditions that can result in symptoms similar to the common form include contact dermatitis, herpes simplex virus, ... Sores should be covered with a bandage. Scratching can spread the sores; keeping nails short will reduce the chances of ... Today, topical or oral antibiotics are usually prescribed. Mild cases may be treated with bactericidal ointment, such as ... Sores are not painful, but they may be itchy. Lymph nodes in the affected area may be swollen, but fever is rare. Touching or ...
Oral candidiasis.[11]. *Herpetic infection (herpes simplex virus).[17]. *Fissured tongue.[1] ... sore tongue,[3] burning tongue syndrome,[5] burning mouth,[3] or sore mouth[6]. ... Other causes of an oral burning sensation[edit]. Substances capable of causing an oral burning sensation.[1] ... de S. (2002). Cawsonś essentials of oral pathology and oral medicine (7. ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 216. ISBN ...
... or the herpes simplex virus (the virus that causes genital herpes). Vaginal yeast infections are typically caused by the yeast ... This may be either as a cream such as clotrimazole or with oral medications such as fluconazole. Probiotics have not been found ... sores in the surrounding area). This is rare, but may indicate the presence of another fungal condition, ... Other treatments after more than four episodes per year, may include ten days of either oral or topical treatment followed by ...
... 1 (CHV-1). Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a virus of the family Herpesviridae which most importantly causes a ... Reubel G, Wright J, Pekin J, French N, Strive T (2006). "Suitability of canine herpesvirus as a vector for oral bait ... Raised sores in the vagina or on the penis may be seen during these times. Spread of the disease is controlled by not breeding ... Like other types of herpesvirus, previously infected dogs can from time to time release the virus in vaginal secretions, penile ...
Oral and genital herpes simplex (treatment and prevention). *Reduction of HSV transmission from people with recurrent infection ... "B Virus-First Aid and Treatment-Herpes B-CDC". Retrieved June 6, 2015.. ... Infrequent adverse effects (0.1-1% of patients) include: agitation, vertigo, confusion, dizziness, edema, arthralgia, sore ... Herpes zoster (shingles): the typical dosage for treatment of herpes is 1,000 mg orally three times a day for seven consecutive ...
Herpes simplex virus can cause multiple mouth ulcers. Measles Common cold: rhinovirus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus ... A sore throat may be associated. Infectious mononucleosis ("glandular fever") caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. This may cause ... Oral analgesic solutions, the active ingredient usually being phenol, but also less commonly benzocaine, cetylpyridinium ... It is hard to differentiate a viral and a bacterial cause of a sore throat based on symptoms alone. Thus often a throat swab is ...
... cold sores), a nemi szerveken megjelenő herpesz (genital herpes), és a műtét utáni száj-fájdalom kezelésében. Más esetekben ... T. Shimizu u. a.: Anti-influenza virus activity of propolis in vitro and its efficacy against influenza infection in mice. In: ... június 1.). „The effect of bee propolis on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a pilot study". Clin Oral Investig. 11 (2), 143-7. o ... T. Shimizu et al.: Anti-influenza virus activity of propolis in vitro and its efficacy against influenza infection in mice. ...
Herpes simplex labialis (HSL), also known as cold sores, is a common disease of the lips caused by the herpes simplex virus, ... There was low quality evidence from 1 RCT that long-term use of oral aciclovir reduced clinical recurrences (1.80 versus 0.85 ... Interventions for prevention of herpes simplex labialis (cold sores on the lips). Overview of attention for article published ... We failed to find any evidence of efficacy for lysine, LongoVital® supplementation, gamma globulin, herpes simplex virus (HSV) ...
... herpes treatment, Herpes Side Effects , people with herpes, Home Remedy To Prevent A Mouth Infection , herpes treatment, Herpes ... can you have herpes and never have an outbreak, herpes vaccine news 2013, Herpes Cure , herpes treatment, reiki healer as ... career, Scientists Reveal Novel Strategy For Stopping Herpes , herpes treatment, Top Natural Supplements For Treatment , ... Online Dating , dating site for people with herpes ... get rid of herpes, Researchers Use The Bodys Natural Defenses ...
HSV2 genital herpes, is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a strain of the herpes simplex virus. Oral herpes may ... oral herpes, causes cold sores. It spreads by direct contact with fluids of a cold sore or skin eruption from someone who ... Herpes Virus: HSV1, oral herpes, causes cold sores. It spreads by direct contact with fluids of a cold sore or skin eruption ... HSV2 genital herpes, is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a strain of the herpes simplex virus. Oral herpes may ...
Herpes stomatitis: The herpes virus can uncommonly cause cold sores on the tongue. Herpes virus cold sores are usually on the ... Canker sores are not contagious.. * Oral leukoplakia: White patches appear on the tongue that cant be scraped off. Leukoplakia ... A relatively common condition, the cause of canker sores is unknown; they are unrelated to the cold sores caused by herpes ... Oral cancer: A growth or ulcer appears on the tongue and grows steadily. Oral cancer is more common in people who smoke and/or ...
Healthcare providers diagnose this group of infections by visual inspection and by taking a sample from the sore(s) for testing ... Signs and symptoms associated with herpes viral infections in humans can vary greatly depending upon the specific virus ... Between outbreaks, these herpes infections can be difficult to diagnose. Viral diagnostic... ... Herpes viruses Symptoms and Causes: diagnosis - Physical exam: ... Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, oral herpes): Symptoms of ...
... you may have stumbled upon an effective treatment for herpes that could actually reduce the severity and the number of herpes ... Health Self-Help for Mouth & Oral Care. Whats the Best Way to Get Rid of a Canker Sore? Top Natural Ways to Treat Cold Sores, ... Other Helpful Herpes Related HUBS. *Herpes FAQ: Herpes Frequently Asked Questions About Herpes. HSV2 herpes is rather common! ... The herpes virus stigma.... *Dating With Herpes: A Simple Tip to Successful Herpes Dating. Dating in general, can be extremely ...
Type 1 causes cold sores, fever blisters or oral herpes. Type 2 affects the genital area. Read about symptoms. ... Type 1 usually causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time ... Coping with Cold Sores (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) (American Academy of Pediatrics ... Cold sores are caused by a contagious virus called herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV. ...
... a contagious infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes affects the mouth. Genital herpes affects the genitals ... Herpes is an infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. ... Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish ... Herpes viral culture of lesion (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Serum herpes simplex antibodies (Medical Encyclopedia) ...
See pictures of HIV mouth sores here. Learn about thrush, warts, cold and canker sores, and more. Also get information on ... Mouth sores are one of the most common symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... One of the most common viruses that people have is herpes simplex, or oral herpes. Oral herpes usually appears as red sores in ... Theyre also known as cold sores.. Anyone can get oral herpes, but in someone with HIV or a weakened immune system, oral herpes ...
Many of polyDNAs customers want to know how to treat cold sores. Most people think that creams, lotions or some other ... "As trends in the use of oral antivirals against the herpes virus change, I think its important for individuals to learn more ... "Oral antivirals are the most effective treatment for cold sores (1)." One such oral antiviral against cold sores is Gene-Eden- ... polyDNA recommends that people who get cold sores take Gene-Eden-VIR to help reduce the numbers of latent cold sore virus (HSV- ...
Avoid oral sex when you, or your partner, have a cold sore - the virus is readily transmitted from the mouth to the genital ... COMPLICATIONS OF HERPES INFECTION. Apart from cold sores and genital disease, herpes simplex viruses can also cause more ... The blisters that Shakespeare refers to are in fact cold sores produced by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) which comes in 2 ... Instead, most cases of primary herpes affecting the face present with a nasty sore throat, a sore mouth (which can occasionally ...
Aphthous stomatitis (canker sores). Herpes simplex virus type 1. Contagious 18 Oral cancer signs and symptoms. ...
Herpes Zoster is a member of the Herpes family of viruses. In some instances, this can cause shingles in mouth that require ... How to Manage Chemotherapy Mouth Sores The drugs used to fight cancer may cause oral changes. Chemotherapy mouth sores are a ... Are Cold Sores Bad for People Are cold sores really that bad? Cold sores can spell trouble for some people. Find out who they ... Mouth sores got you feeling blue?. Mouth sores can leave you uncomfortable and in pain. Try one of our products for fast acting ...
Find 6 suggestions for getting rid of canker sores naturally, at Colgate® Oral Care ... Home remedies for canker sores may reduce the pain and promote healing. ... Herpes Zoster is a member of the Herpes family of viruses. In some instances, this can cause shingles in mouth that require ... How to Manage Chemotherapy Mouth Sores The drugs used to fight cancer may cause oral changes. Chemotherapy mouth sores are a ...
Recurrent Herpetic Infections (Cold Sores). Once the dormant herpes virus is reactivated, it becomes recurrent herpes. Usually ... ABSTRACT: Oral sores can occur anywhere in the oral cavity and oropharyngeal region. Since not all oral sores are benign, a ... Nicorandil-induced severe oral ulceration: a newly recognized drug reaction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. ... Most oral sores are painful and annoying and, in severe cases, can cause significant morbidity. The two most common oral sores ...
Killian on herpes simplex virus shingles: People with their first infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) (mostly kids w/ ... Herpes Simplex (Definition) Herpes Simplex virus 1 & 2 can be a cause of sexually transmitted diseases or sometimes oral/oral ... Type 1 more common: Cold sores on or near the lips are due to recurrence of herpes type 1 or 2. Herpes viruses, after the ... Viruses: Nope. Not in any way. Warts are caused by either the human papilloma virus or the molluscum virus. Herpes is not in ...
Phasouk on herpes simplex virus: I think you may be confusing the terms and the infections. Herpes type one, infecting 75% of ... Herpes type two, predominantly found on or near the genitals, and infecting 25% of americans can infect any skin it comes in ... Herpes Simplex (Definition) Herpes Simplex virus 1 & 2 can be a cause of sexually transmitted diseases or sometimes oral/oral ... Virus: There are two types of herpes viruses that are most common.Type one causes cold sores and the 2nd types causes genital ...
... different stages of oral herpes, alternative medicine complementary, hsv1 host range, reflexology treatment in dubai, natural ... oral herpes, caused by HSV1 (herpes simplex virus), has five stages. A cold sore is caused by a virus called the HSV1, another ... just like genital herpes or herpes zoster (shingles). Oral herpes is almost always caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 ( ... As oral herpes sores begin to resolve, you may notice a yellow crust appear over the ruptured blisters. Some oral herpes ...
... what are symptoms of herpes outbreak, herpes dating ... cure for herpes simplex virus type 2, chlamydia treatment ... 18.04.2014 at 11:56:22 Can both cause sores in the the. ... Cure for herpes simplex virus type 2, herpes 2 treatment at ... Comments to "Cure for herpes simplex virus type 2". * LOVELYBOY. : 18.04.2014 at 18:29:22 Herpes virus is the main cause fall ... Oral herpes medicine over the counter Any new research on herpes Treatment of herpes 2 Reiki healers in manhattan Std herpes ...
Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which lives inside nerve tissue. ... Definition Cold sores are small red blisters, filled with clear fluid, that form on the lip and around the mouth. Rarely, they ... Other names for cold sores are fever blisters , oral herpes, labial herpes, herpes labialis, and herpes febrilis. Cold sores ... Other names for a cold sore are fever blister, oral herpes, labial herpes, herpes labialis, and herpes febrilis. Cold sores ...
... cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus, which is contagious. The virus is contagious via direct or indirect oral ... What Are Some Home Cures for a Sore Throat?. A: Sore throats can be cured at home through several methods, such as gargling ... Are Cold Sores Contagious?. A: According to WebMD, ...
Cold sores are caused by herpes simplex virus. This disease, also known as oral herpes or fever blisters, can occur anywhere on ... A distinction between canker sores and cold sores must be made because cold sores are infectious and the herpes infection can ... The two sores can usually be distinguished visually and there are specific diagnostic tests for herpes infection. ... Cold sores are infectious.. Causes and symptoms. The exact cause of canker sores is uncertain, however, they seem to be related ...
... herpes simplex type 1, oral herpes associated with cold sores; Epstein Barr virus that causes mononucleosis; varicella zoster ... a b c Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal. (2007, January 1). Retrieved October 31, 2014, from Alsmark SS, García J, ... "Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 12 (8): E576-81. PMID 18059242. Archived from the original on 2014-11-05. ... several varieties of herpes viruses that cause other diseases can also infect the ear, and can result in hearing loss: ...
These include cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, and shingles. This medication comes as a generic and as the brand-name ... Valacyclovir oral tablet is a prescription medication used to treat or prevent infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. ... Valacyclovir oral tablet is used to treat viral infections caused by a group of viruses called herpes simplex viruses. Its ... Oral herpes causes cold sores. These are small, painful sores that you can get in or around your mouth. Cold sores can be ...
  • n = 120).These trials found no increase in adverse events associated with the use of oral antiviral agents (moderate quality evidence).There was no evidence to show that short-term use of topical antiviral agents prevented recurrent HSL. (altmetric.com)
  • There was low quality evidence from 1 RCT that long-term use of oral aciclovir reduced clinical recurrences (1.80 versus 0.85 episodes per participant per a 4-month period, P = 0.009) and virological recurrence (1.40 versus 0.40 episodes per participant per a 4-month period, P = 0.003). (altmetric.com)
  • Engaging in moderate exercise activities helps to strengthen the body's immune system and in tun helps to reduce the body's weaknesses to the herpes simplex virus. (hubpages.com)
  • Numerous research studies have shown that repetitive high intensity exercise may suppress the immune system for a short period of time and may increase the chance of experiencing herpes outbreaks. (hubpages.com)
  • The virus can be dangerous in newborn babies or in people with weak immune systems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anyone can get oral herpes, but in someone with HIV or a weakened immune system, oral herpes may be more severe and last longer. (healthline.com)
  • Taking zinc supplements may reduce the frequency of your canker sores and boost your immune system. (colgate.com)
  • The exact cause of canker sores is uncertain, however, they seem to be related to a localized immune reaction. (stateuniversity.com)
  • This drug is used to treat or prevent flare-ups of genital herpes in people with normal immune systems, or in people with HIV. (healthline.com)
  • Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues report that the herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), which affects an estimated 50 to 80 percent of all American adults, exploits an immune system receptor to boost its infectivity and ability to cause disease. (ucsd.edu)
  • Ordinarily, if a cell recognizes the virus as an invader, an immune response is immediately triggered, which includes a group of proteins called scavenger receptors that help identify and remove harmful viruses. (ucsd.edu)
  • In latency, however, infected cells are less readily recognized by the immune system because of the low level of virus gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • People with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS, or those who take immunosuppressant drugs to treat an autoimmune disease or because of organ transplant, are at increased risk for severe cases of herpes. (adam.com)
  • In newborn babies or people with weakened immune systems, cold sores can be life threatening, although this is rare. (hse.ie)
  • Parents or relatives with cold sores should be especially careful not to kiss babies-their immune systems are not well developed until after about 6 months old. (healthychildren.org)
  • The first layer, known as the epidermis , is your immune system's shield, protecting your body from the onslaught of infectious bacteria, viruses , yeasts, parasites, and fungi that are nearby. (onhealth.com)
  • An antibody is the body's immune response to the virus, since the virus itself is undetectable in the bloodstream. (healthcentral.com)
  • In this book, it's time to learn about a specific lifestyle plan one can implement immediately that will not only cure herpes by eliminating the constant cycle of flare-ups, but this healthy new approach will increase the immune system and help to stop the future diseases in their tracks. (sbwire.com)
  • In addition, people will learn about how to improve their immune system to avoid herpes effectively. (sbwire.com)
  • Zinc may help boost your immune system and help prevent future cold sores. (wikihow.com)
  • Eat to boost your immune system and help your body to fight off the virus. (wikihow.com)
  • Your immune system has the job of keeping viruses, harmful bacteria and other organisms out of your body. (britishlivertrust.org.uk)
  • Echinacea tea is believed to strengthen the immune system, thereby assisting your body's natural immune response as it fights the cold sore. (wikihow.com)
  • The scientists were able to demonstrate that echinacea does boost the immune system and does reduce the latency rate of the herpes simplex 1 virus. (progressivehealth.com)
  • The book Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology by Neville says, "An antigenic stimulus appears to be the primary initiating factor in the immune-mediated cytotoxic destruction of the mucosa in many patients. (oralanswers.com)
  • It is presumed that since stress weakens the body's immune system that it makes it more susceptible to canker sores. (oralanswers.com)
  • Some people who have problems with their immune system have many canker sores. (oralanswers.com)
  • Oral lichen planus on the tongue is a chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune response (the body's immune system attacking its own tissue). (rxlist.com)
  • When this virus senses a weakness in your immune system, it will grab the opportunity to replicate. (articlebiz.com)
  • HSV-2, on the other hand, affects between 5 and 10% of the population (including many individuals who are also infected with HSV-1), and is more often associated with genital herpes, although either virus can cause a similar disease at both anatomical sites. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Beyond these differences, the largest difference between these two is the stigma associated with genital herpes. (healthcentral.com)
  • Immediately after someone has been diagnosed with genital herpes, control over everyday living, health and fitness, and in many cases life alone may bring about grieving. (hubpages.com)