Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Rest: Freedom from activity.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Metabolic Equivalent: A measurement of OXYGEN uptake in a sitting, resting person (resting oxygen consumption), varying with age, sex, race, and other factors. In normal adult men, one MET is approximately 3.5 ml O2/kg/min of body weight. Oxygen uptake during activities or work can be measured in METs which can be use to determine health status and exercise prescription.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Glycogen Storage Disease Type V: Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Microvascular Angina: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.GlycogenRespiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Ventricular Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Pre-Excitation Syndromes: A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Dalteparin: A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Oxprenolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Myotonic Disorders: Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Type 2 diabetes
Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin ( ... A proper diet and exercise are the foundations of diabetic care, with a greater amount of exercise yielding better results. ... with a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the oral dose a plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) ... The benefit of exercise occurs regardless of the person's initial weight or subsequent weight loss. High levels of physical ...
Sometimes these tests are performed by techs without a medical degree, but the interpretation of these tests is done by a ... oral and maxillofacial surgery, oncologic surgery, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, podiatric surgery, ... Sports medicine deals with the treatment and prevention and rehabilitation of sports/exercise injuries such as muscle spasms, ... After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy ...
Release of CRH from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress, physical activity, illness, by blood levels of cortisol and by ... with chronic oral administration of this drug leading to markedly reduced baseline cortisol levels in bonnet macaques (Macaca ... "Altered Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Responses to Provocative Challenge Tests in Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse". Am J Psychiatry ...
Direct testing of bioarchaeological methods for sexing skeletons by comparing gendered names on coffin plates from the crypt at ... Living bones are subject to Wolff's law, which states that bones are physically affected and remodeled by physical activity or ... such as suppression of the immune system and a possible concomitant decrease in antimicrobial activity in the oral cavity. ... Michopoulou, E.; Nikita, E.; Henderson, C. Y. (2016-01-01). "A test of the effectiveness of the Coimbra method in capturing ...
A process which draws these beliefs & ideas out, with the intent of re-examining & re-testing them against a topic in order to ... The origins of debriefing can be traced back to the military, whereby upon return from a mission or war game exercise, ... Responds to airway trauma or obstruction: esophageal, nasal and oral intubation, and BVM ventilation and laryngoscopic ... The table below shows the results of tests given to 20 students using highly advanced medical simulation training materials and ...
There is no basis for a renewed application to the Divisional Court or for the Attorney General to exercise his powers under ... South Yorkshire Police had performed blood alcohol tests on the victims, some of them children, and ran computer checks on the ... "In all some 65 police officers gave oral evidence at the Inquiry. Sadly I must report that for the most part the quality of ... though the Council noted that tragedy or disaster is not an occasion for writers to exercise gratuitous provocation. ...
多囊卵巢綜合症 - 维基百科，自由的百
2-Hour oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) in women with risk factors (obesity, family history, history of gestational diabetes)[ ... the role of exercise and diet. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine (Review). 2009, 27 (4): 306-15. PMID 19530064. doi:10.1055/s- ... oral glucose tests revealed that up to 38% of asymptomatic women with PCOS (versus 8.5% in the general population) actually had ... Common cut-offs to designate abnormally high LH/FSH ratios are 2:1or 3:1as tested on Day 3 of the menstrual cycle. The ...
Healthcare in Cuba
All pregnant women are tested for HIV, and those testing positive receive antiretroviral drugs. ... This is important because countries with high incidence of polio are now using live oral poliovirus vaccine. When polio is ... disease and all-cause mortality have been related to sustained population-wide weight loss as a result of increased physical ... Cuba compulsorily tested thousands of its citizens for HIV. Those who tested positive were taken to Los Cocos and were not ...
Bahrke, Michael (2002). Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise.. *^ Agence France Presse (2012-07-17). "UCI ... A common application of diuretics is for the purposes of invalidating drug tests. Diuretics increase the urine volume and ... a Selective Oral Vasopressin V2-Receptor Antagonist, for Hyponatremia". New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (20): 2099-2112. ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The optimal exercise routine, use of noninvasive ventilation during exercise, and intensity of exercise suggested for people ... Other tests. A chest X-ray and complete blood count may be useful to exclude other conditions at the time of diagnosis.[ ... A review of an oral Haemophilus influenzae vaccine found 1.6 exacerbations per year as opposed to a baseline of 2.1 in those ... Physical activity limitation. COPD often leads to reduction in physical activity, in part due to shortness of breath. ...
Obstructive sleep apnea
"Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 17 (6): e925-9. doi:10.4317/medoral.17706. PMC 3505711. PMID 22549673.. ... Diagnosis of OSA is often based on a combination of patient history and tests (lab- or home-based). These tests range, in ... "Effects of Exercise Training on Sleep Apnea: A Meta-analysis". Lung. 192 (1): 175-184. doi:10.1007/s00408-013-9511-3. PMC ... Oral appliances or splints are often preferred but may not be as effective as CPAP. This device is a mouthguard similar to ...
... s are more likely to exercise regularly than heterosexual women, and lesbians do not generally exercise for aesthetic ... Oral Herstorians Collection at Sinister Wisdom. *Dyke, A Quarterly, published 1975-1979 (online annotated archive, live website ... both of which tested the boundaries of sexuality and gender. A show directed at adolescents that had a particularly strong ... Unfortunately, depending on an oral tradition to impart our ways to future generations opened the floodgates for early non- ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Physical activity. A 2005 systematic review found no relationship between the amount of physical activity and the risk of ... Based on the person's symptoms and findings from the examination and from these tests, the physician may order tests on blood ... Baclofen and tizanidine are the most commonly used oral drugs for treating spasticity; an intrathecal baclofen pump can be used ... Lacorte E, Ferrigno L, Leoncini E, Corbo M, Boccia S, Vanacore N (July 2016). "Physical activity, and physical activity related ...
Testing for levels. Simple tests are available to measure the levels of vitamin C in the urine and in serum or blood ... which far exceed the approximately 0.2 mmol/L limit from oral consumption. The theories of mechanism are contradictory. At ... function of the immune system during and after extreme physical exercise (ID 144), non-haem iron absorption (ID 132, 147), ... The cognitive testing, however, relied on the Mini-Mental State Examination, which is only a general test of cognition, ...
Ալերգիա - Վիքիպեդիա՝ ազատ հանրագիտարան
September 2005). "The predictive value of the skin prick test weal size for the outcome of oral food challenges". Clinical and ... Addo-Yobo EO, Woodcock A, Allotey A, Baffoe-Bonnie B, Strachan D, Custovic A (February 2007). "Exercise-induced bronchospasm ... Basophil activation test compared to skin prick test and fluorescence enzyme immunoassay for aeroallergen-specific ... Ռադիոմետրիկ գնահատումը ներառում է ռադիոալերգոսորբենտ թեսթը (radioallergosorbent test RAST test), որն օգտագործում է ռադիոակտիվ ...
Examples are the infusion of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) to treat neuroblastoma, of oral iodine-131 to treat thyroid cancer ... Nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union. *Nuclear weapons tests of the United States ... 1954 Totskoye nuclear exercise. *Bikini Atoll. *Hanford Site. *Rocky Flats Plant. *1945 Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and ... Depending on the area being treated, this may include the skin, oral mucosa, pharyngeal, bowel mucosa and ureter. The rates of ...
"Hybrid verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity: A challenge for the clinician and the pathologist". Oral Oncology Extra. 42 (2 ... But they don't stand the test of knowledge. Haeckel is a fool. That will be apparent one day. As far as that goes, if anything ... Although he anticipated full recovery, the fractured femur never healed, and restricted his physical activity. His health ... even after several biopsy tests. The Kaiser died on 15 June 1888. The next day a post-mortem examination was performed by ...
This was consistent with the griot practices of oral history in many African and other cultures that did not rely on the ... From the earliest days of American slavery in the 17th century, slave owners sought to exercise control over their slaves by ... African-American children who are isolated by speaking only AAVE sometimes have more difficulty with standardized testing and, ... Oral traditionEdit. Slaveholders limited or prohibited education of enslaved African Americans because they feared it might ...
Strok bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
... test laborat meliputi tomografi, noninvasive vascular imaging, dan saat memungkinkan dan relevan, angiografi. Dari diagnosa ... Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group". ... oral contraceptive use. 'sticky platelet syndrome" dan sejenisnya. *Meningitis. *Cortical vein thrombosis-dehydration. ...
The Jewish Oral Tradition cites the Book of Ezra, Chapters 9, 10, regarding the law of matrilineal descent in Judaism. The ... a man will exercise guardianship rights not over the children he fathers but exclusively over his sisters' children, who are ... "Evolutionary contributions to solving the "Matrilineal Puzzle": A test of Holden, Sear, and Mace's model". Human Nature. 22 (1 ... The law of matrilineal descent was first codified, as all Jewish Oral Law, in the Mishnah (c. 2nd century CE). The Talmud[ ...
"Osteoporosis Tests and Diagnosis". Healthline. 2017-11-10.. *^ a b "Administration on Aging" (PDF). Archived from the original ... May have less saliva and less ability for oral hygiene in old age which increases the chance of tooth decay and infection. ... Muriel R. Gillick, a baby boomer, accuses her contemporaries of believing that by proper exercise and diet they can avoid the ... Harvard University's implicit-association test measures implicit "attitudes and beliefs" about Young vis a vis Old. Blind ...
"Exercise and physical activity recommendations for people with cerebral palsy". Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 58 (8 ... and oral articulation disorders that are due to restricted movement in the oral-facial muscles. There are three major types of ... Once a person is diagnosed with cerebral palsy, further diagnostic tests are optional. Neuroimaging with CT or MRI is warranted ... or targeted physical activity and exercise are usually the chief ways to keep spastic CP well-managed. If the spasticity is too ...
Personalized genomic testing. In the USA, several companies offer direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. The company that ... Computer models are used to examine various topics such as how exercise affects obesity, healthcare costs, and many more. ... Utilizing genetic testing in health care raises many ethical, legal and social concerns; one of the main questions is whether ... Seg11 Diagnostic Tests The table above demonstrates details of this comparison which indicates certain domains of improvement ...
Two tests are performed, the short and the long test. Dexamethasone does not cross-react with the assay and can be administered ... If aldosterone is deficient, maintenance therapy also includes oral doses of fludrocortisone acetate. ... as in rigorous exercise or being sick, the latter often needing emergency treatment with intravenous injections to treat the ... If the short test is abnormal, the long test is used to differentiate between primary adrenal insufficiency and secondary ...
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. Diagnostic tests can ... It might be a management-naming or prognosis-naming exercise. It may indicate either degree of abnormality on a continuum or ... tests such as radiological studies like magnetic resonance imaging or blood test panels that also include blood tests that are ... The term diagnostic criteria designates the specific combination of signs, symptoms, and test results that the clinician uses ...
Enzyme testing is performed for a wide range of metabolic disorders to confirm a diagnosis suspected based on screening tests. ... These compounds normally accumulate during exercise or ischemia, but are also elevated in patients with disorders of pyruvate ... and identify the tests that are relevant for a particular patient. These tests might evaluate for chromosomal ... This test was routinely used to detect deletions or duplications in conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy but is being ...
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
... talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of testing so you can decide if testing is the right choice for you." ... "American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention" (pdf). Last Revised: 1/11/2012. ... Unfortunately, oral ingestion of zinc is ineffective since high concentrations of zinc into prostate cells is not possible ... Initial screens may lead to more invasive follow-up tests such as a biopsy.[medical citation needed] Options include the ...
Julian D. Richards suggested that in societies with strong oral traditions, material culture is used to store and pass on ... Perhaps the games the youthful Cuthbert played ('wrestling, jumping, running, and every other exercise') had some military ... for perhaps understandable reasons the ordeals became associated with trials in criminal matters they were in essence tests of ... There is very strong evidence that Anglo-Saxon poetry has deep roots in oral tradition, but, keeping with the cultural ...
The first operational test of SOSUS was done during the ASDevEx 1-54 exercise from April 6 to June 7, 1954. ... Box: 1 Fold: 510 Wright, Admiral Jerauld, January 1, 1963 - December 31, 1965 - Foreign Affairs Oral History Project - ... a convoy escort exercise. However, the most significant naval exercise during Admiral Wright's tour of duty was Operation ... Among the high-level observers for this naval exercise were the President Dwight D. Eisenhower and many other members of the US ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Laboratory tests that might show abnormalities include blood count, kidney function, electrolyte, and liver enzyme tests. ... "Aerobic physical exercise for adult patients with haematological malignancies". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1 ... daily oral mercaptopurine. *weekly oral methotrexate. *monthly 5-day course of intravenous vincristine and oral corticosteroids ... Blood tests and bone marrow examination. Differential diagnosis. Infectious mononucleosis, acute myeloid leukemia, ...
Effect of Timing of a Post-exercise Oral Glucose Tolerance Test on Glycaemic Control. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Experimental: Exercise-immediate Breakfast followed by exercise and an immediate OGTT. Behavioral: Exercise Exercise at 55% of ... Effect of Timing of a Post-exercise Oral Glucose Tolerance Test on Glycaemic Control.. The safety and scientific validity of ... Effect of Timing of a Post-exercise Oral Glucose Tolerance Test on Glycaemic Control.. ... Breakfast followed by exercise and a delayed (1 h) OGTT.. Behavioral: Exercise Exercise at 55% of maximum power output for 30 ...
Creatine ingestion augments dietary carbohydrate mediated muscle glycogen supercompensation during the initial 24 h of recovery...
Muscle glycogen availability can limit endurance exercise performance. We previously demonstrated 5 days of creatine (Cr) and ... This hypothesis could be tested by performing an oral-glucose tolerance test (oral-GTT) before exercise and at several pre- ... Oral-glucose tolerance tests (oral-GTT) were performed pre-exercise and after 1, 3 and 6 days of Cr and placebo supplementation ... Blood metabolites and oral-glucose tolerance tests. The area under the blood glucose-time curve during the oral-GTT (defined in ...
Effects of Aerobic Versus Resistance Exercise Without Caloric Restriction on Abdominal Fat, Intrahepatic Lipid, and Insulin...
... oral glucose tolerance test) were similar between aerobic and resistance training, and the improvements in the exercise ... Exercise regimen.. The exercise groups exercised at either the downtown Pittsburgh YMCA exercise facility or the exercise ... Oral glucose tolerance test.. Participants reported to the Pediatric Clinical and Translational Research Center after an ... The aerobic exercise program required participants to exercise three times per week for 60 min/session (including 5 min warm-up ...
Health and Nutrition of Uniontown, OH Residents: Sexual Behavior, Medical Conditions, Reproductive Health, Mental Health,...
Oral Health, Taste & Smell, Audiometry, Diet Behavior & Nutrition, and more ... Excluding tests they have had as part of blood donations, 41 percent of Uniontown residents have ever had their blood tested ... Oral Health. The average Uniontown resident last visited a dentist two years ago (including all types of dentists, such as, ... Physical Activity. Sixteen percent of Uniontown residents work involve vigorous-intensity activity that causes large increases ...
Health and Nutrition of Fulton, AR Residents: Sexual Behavior, Medical Conditions, Reproductive Health, Mental Health, Consumer...
Oral Health, Taste & Smell, Audiometry, Diet Behavior & Nutrition, and more ... Excluding tests they have had as part of blood donations, 42 percent of Fulton residents have ever had their blood tested for ... People in Fulton were 22 years old on average when they first performed oral sex on a man. They performed oral sex on average ... Physical Activity. Twenty percent of Fulton residents work involve vigorous-intensity activity that causes large increases in ...
Effect of Moderate Exercise Training on Peripheral Glucose Effectiveness, Insulin Sensitivity, and Endogenous Glucose...
Oral glucose tolerance test and FSIGTT.. Before starting the exercise training, all subjects were orally given 75 g of glucose ... A single bout of exercise is also known to increase Sg in men (33). In contrast to the effects of chronic exercise training on ... Six weeks after starting the training program, each subject underwent a graded exercise test to readjust the training workload ... King DS, Dalsky GP, Clutter WE, Young DA, Staten MA, Cryer PE, Holloszy JO: Effects of exercise and lack of exercise on insulin ...
Course Details / Course Handbook / The University of Newcastle, Australia
Changes in Bone Biomarkers, BMC, and Insulin Resistance Following a 10-Week Whole Body Vibration Exercise Program in Overweight...
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). At around 7:00 a.m., after a 10-12 hour overnight fast, participants ingested 1.75 gram ... We tested whether whole body vibration (WBV) exercise can positively affect bone metabolism and improve insulin/glucose ... Within group changes were determined using a paired samples t-test, while independent t-tests were used to assess between group ... Further studies incorporating an exercise only arm in the design are warranted to parse out the effect of vibration exercise. ...
Diabetics Could Be Helped by Oral Medicines as Well
... for a new study has revealed that oral medications may be enough for controlling the disease. ... Diabetes and Exercise Pregnancy and Complications Glycemic Index Type 2 Diabetes Decoding HbA1c Test for Blood Sugar Diabetes ... Diabetes and Exercise. Regular exercise especially in type II diabetes not only helps reduce the sugar but also reduces the ... Swislocki said the long-term effectiveness of oral diabetic medications seen in their study may reflect the wider range of oral ...
Preventing Chronic Disease | Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Viet Nam: A Review of the Literature - CDC
Abbreviations: HCMC, Ho Chi Minh City; VN, Viet Nam; AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; OGTT, oral glucose ... physical activity, exercise, sedentary lifestyle, BMI, overweight, obesity, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, blood ... Low level of physical activity. 15.0%. Ng et al 2009 (40). 2005. 25-64. 4,194. Fila Bavi district. GPAQ. No vigorous activity. ... Low level of physical activity. 11.0%. Ng et al 2009 (40). 2005. 25-64. 4,194. Fila Bavi district. GPAQ. No vigorous activity. ...
Physical Activity Linked to Low Risk of CVD in Older Adults
Vigorous Physical Activity Malnutrition to Obesity - The Big Leap PLAC Test for Cardiovascular Disease Workout Pain ... Overuse of Oral Contraceptives may Cause Blood Coagulation, Cardiovascular Diseases. Among several other health complications ... New Diagnostic Test May Predict Teenagers Risk Of Developing Cardiovascular Diseases. The new tests analyzes the metabolic ... PLAC Test for Cardiovascular Disease. Ensure your heart health by getting a PLAC test. Prevent heart attack and stroke by ...
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test | dLife
Expert Advice: 9 Exercise Excuses and Tips to Squash Everyone of Them. ... Blood Tests for Diabetes: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Also known as: OGTT; 2-hour glucose tolerance test. What is it? A test ... A1C Testing , Blood Tests for Diabetes , Fasting Plasma Glucose Test , Lipid Profile , Oral Glucose Tolerance Test ... Blood Tests for Diabetes , Oral Glucose , Oral Glucose Tolerance Test , Testing Blood Sugar ...
What is the role of an oral glucose tolerance test in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?
... an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can exclude the diagnosis of diabetes when hyperglycemia or glycosuria are recognized in ... Exercise in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:154-68. [Medline]. ... What is the role of an oral glucose tolerance test in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?. Updated: Jul 03, ... Although unnecessary in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can exclude the ...
2014) Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Drug testing ... 2016) Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Inhaled Terbutaline after Exercise in Trained Men. Frontiers in Pharmacology.. ... Guo Y, Shi H, Yu D, Qiu P (2016) Health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and physical activity for older adults: A ... McCutcheon M. Testing Specific Deterrence In The National Basketball Association: An Application Of Beccarias Theory Of ...
5 Tips to Prevent Injury While You Exercise | Washingtonian (DC)
Thinking About Getting Tested for Covid-19 After Attending the Protests? Here Are Some Testing Sites Around DC.. ... "It Was The Office Does Major League Baseball": An Oral History of the Nats First Year. ... Thinking About Getting Tested for Covid-19 After Attending the Protests? Here Are Some Testing Sites Around DC.. ... 5 Tips to Prevent Injury While You Exercise. Experts share their advice on ways to avoid getting hurt. Written by Dora Grote ...
A possible link between exercise-training adaptation and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate- an oldest-old female study
... and participated in a 4-month exercise intervention trial. Insulin response with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ... Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and insulin response. A 75-gram bolus of glucose was orally delivered with 500 ml of pure ... Exercise is a known stress condition that consumes muscle glycogen rapidly. During the recovery period following exercise, the ... Exercise training program. The exercise program complied with the ACSMs Active Aging Partnership and the Strategic Health ...
Oral Bone Drugs Fail Breast Cancer Test - Osteoporosis Center - Everyday Health
Nutrition and physical activity are linked to mens and womens loss of bone density at younger ages. ... Oral Bone Drugs Fail Breast Cancer Test. Bisphosphonates offered little protection against breast cancer recurrence in two ... For Postmenopausal Women, More Physical Activity May Mean Fewer Hip Fractures. A large study finds that older women who spend ... 12, 2011 (MedPage Today) - Breast cancer patients gained little protection from recurrence when they received an oral ...
Laboratory Assistant Job in Portland, OR - ALS
Exercise laboratory safety practices;. *Organizing and storing of testing documentation;. *Strong commitment to quality and ... ALS provides a broad range of testing and analytical services to a wide variety of end markets and industries around the globe ... We continue to remain at the forefront of the testing services industry, building an enviable reputation. ...
Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on...
OGTT indicates oral glucose tolerance test; ITT refers to intent-to-treat. ... DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction demonstrated lower glucose levels after the oral glucose load, improved ... Post-treatment glucose response during oral glucose tolerance test. Values are adjusted for pretreatment glucose levels, gender ... Insulin sensitivity was estimated on the basis of glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose ...
Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Consumption and Aerobic...
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Animals received glucose solution (1.5 g/kg) orally 30 minutes after their respective treatments. ... Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats. Vandana Panda,1 Kinjal Mistry,1 S. Sudhamani,2 Mukesh Nandave,3 and Shreesh Kumar ... Effect of NAOE, AE, NAOEAE, and Gemfibrozil on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). The effect of various treatments on OGTT is ... Table 2: Effect of NAOE, AE, NAOEAE, and gemfibrozil on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in fructose-fed rats. ...
Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors Among States and Selected Local Areas --- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...
... oral health; womens health screenings (Papanicolaou [Pap] test and mammogram); prostate cancer screening (prostate specific ... Leisure-Time Physical Activity. Leisure-time physical activity was measured by the respondents indication of no participation ... Although the PSA test is not a definitive test for prostate cancer, elevated levels suggest the need for further tests to ... and mortality have declined because of widespread use of the Pap test. The Pap test can detect abnormalities in cells and ...
Handbook of Genetic Counseling/Diabetes Mellitus - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Insulin, dietary management, and oral hypoglycemic agents, exercise. *Eye exams and podiatry care is important ... Testing. *Blood tests: elevation of plasma glucose (fasting level of at least 140 mg/dl) ... Type 2: The typical patient is an overweight adult whose diabetes can be managed by diet or oral medication (although they may ... Risk factors: family history, obesity, lack of exercise, age over 30. Ethnic backgrounds of African American, Latino, Native ...
Effect on Exercise Endurance and Lung Hyperinflation of Tiotropium + Olodaterol in COPD Patients. - Full Text View -...
Any contraindications for exercise testing.. *Patients who have undergone thoracotomy with pulmonary resection (patients with a ... Patients being treated with any oral ß-adrenergics. *Patients being treated with oral corticosteroid medication at unstable ... Effect on Exercise Endurance and Lung Hyperinflation of Tiotropium + Olodaterol in COPD Patients.. This study has been ... Patients who have a limitation of exercise performance as a result of factors other than fatigue or exertional dyspnoea, such ...
Tubal ligation - Series-Aftercare: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Muscle and Liver Insulin Resistance Indexes Derived From the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test | Diabetes Care
No subject participated in any excessively heavy exercise program. The study protocol was approved by the institutional review ... Matsuda M, DeFronzo RA: Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the ... Muscle and Liver Insulin Resistance Indexes Derived From the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. ... Muscle and Liver Insulin Resistance Indexes Derived From the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test ...
Androstenedione - Wikipedia
"Androstenedione, Serum". Test Catalog. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 1 March 2014. Leder BZ, Longcope C, Catlin DH, Ahrens B, ... Reents S (2000). Sport and Exercise Pharmacology. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-87322-937-1. "Andro supplement ... Schoenfeld DA, Finkelstein JS (February 2000). "Oral androstenedione administration and serum testosterone concentrations in ... has been shown to increase serum testosterone levels over an eight-hour period in men when taken as a single oral dose of 300 ...
Influence of Vitamin D Supplementation by Sunlight or Oral D3 on Exercise Performance.
To determine the relationship between vitamin D status and exercise performance in a large, prospective cohort study of young ... Exercise Test. Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of ... Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often ... Exercise Tolerance. The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal ...
Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the evaluation of mitochondrial myopathies: results of a 6-month therapy study...
31P MRS spectra of calf muscle were recorded at rest, during exercise and in the immedia … ... Administration, Oral * Adult * Energy Metabolism * Exercise Test * Female * Humans * Longitudinal Studies * Magnetic Resonance ... 31P MRS spectra of calf muscle were recorded at rest, during exercise and in the immediate postexercise recovery period. ... Although there was an improvement of the mean ratio of phosphocreatine (PCr) to inorganic phosphate during the post-exercise ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Supplementation with Beef Extract Improves Exercise Performance and Reduces Post-Exercise Fatigue...
Pathogen-free male BALB/c mice were divided into three groups to receive vehicle or BE (0, 12.3, or 24.6 mL/kg) by oral gavage ... In this study, we evaluated the potential beneficial effects of BE on exercise performance and the related role of the gut ... Exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, swimming time to exhaustion, and physiological levels of ... with BE or an equal-calorie portion of albumin did not show significant differences from the other groups in exercise ...
Clinical Laboratory Scientist
... to follow oral and written instruction; to exercise initiative and independent judgment; and to plan, assign, and review the ... Ability is required to conduct and interpret laboratory tests, to organize, analyze and evaluate tests in terms of laboratory ... Ability is required to conduct and interpret laboratory tests; to organize, analyze and evaluate tests in terms of laboratory ... Access specimens for acceptability for testing and assign accession numbers.. * Perform clinical laboratory tests using ...
BloodPotassiumTreadmillAerobicInsulin resistanceEnduranceAcuteIngestionSupplementationSymptomsMaximal exerciseImprovements in insulin sensitivityChronicGlucose loadAssessmentDiabeticFastingCaloric restrictionGlycogenAuralDietPatientsResultsAlcoholDosageInterventionHealthMedicationsAbstract2020SensitivityLaboratory testsDiagnosisSecretionLevelsMeasuresFindingsGlycemic controlHumansIntensityPharmacokineticsLipidProceduresInsulinomaEvaluateMedicinesPhysiologyPostprandialCardiorespiratoryExaminationAssignmentBlood Sugar
- Treadmill exercises test (TET)-electrocardiogram (ECG) was measured during TET, and invasive examination of coronary angiography (CAG, golden standard for CHD diagnosis) was also performed. (scirp.org)
- The doctor has you take a breathing test before you exercise, and then has you exercise on a treadmill. (timesunion.com)
- The drug by itself had no impact on the animals' running endurance in a treadmill test. (nih.gov)
- However, when the scientists added exercise training to the mix-having the mice run on a treadmill for nearly an hour daily for a month-the treated mice were able to run up to 75% farther than mice that received exercise training alone. (nih.gov)
- Animals were assigned to a sedentary control, a trandolapril-treated (1 mg ⋅ kg −1 ⋅ day −1 for 6 wk), an exercise-trained (treadmill running for 6 wk), or a combined trandolapril-treated and exercise-trained group. (physiology.org)
- Background There are conflicting data as to whether diabetics have a higher prevalence of asymptomatic ST-segment depression during exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and ambulatory ECG (AECG) monitoring. (ahajournals.org)
- We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Although previous studies have examined the effect of aerobic exercise ( 12 , 13 ) or resistance training ( 14 , 15 ) on insulin sensitivity in obese children and adolescents, interpretation is limited because these studies did not include nonexercising controls ( 12 , 13 , 15 ) and did not measure ectopic fat (e.g., visceral obesity, liver fat, intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) mobilizations with exercise treatments ( 12 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- A recent meta-analysis ( 16 ) reported that aerobic exercise performed for 60 min 3 times/week improves LDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in obese children, whereas combined exercise increases HDL concentration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- 17 ) demonstrated that in overweight Asian adolescents improvements in insulin sensitivity index (oral glucose tolerance test) were similar between aerobic and resistance training, and the improvements in the exercise training groups did not differ from those with diet alone. (diabetesjournals.org)
- DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction demonstrated lower glucose levels after the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared with both DASH diet alone and UC, as well as lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with UC. (nih.gov)
- Rats administered with fructose (20% w / v ) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. (hindawi.com)
- Effects of aerobic exercise and vitamin C supplementation on rhinitis symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. (bioportfolio.com)
- In this study, we investigated the effects of a reduced-exertion HIT (REHIT) exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity and aerobic capacity. (springer.com)
- In conclusion we show that a novel, feasible exercise intervention can improve metabolic health and aerobic capacity. (springer.com)
- Two such interventions are aerobic exercise training and chronic treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. (physiology.org)
- Although the individual effects of aerobic exercise training and ACE inhibition on insulin action are well documented, the metabolic consequences of combining these two interventions in a model of insulin resistance are presently unknown. (physiology.org)
- In adults, randomized, controlled studies have reported that regular exercise (performed for 30-60 min/day ≥3 days/week) is associated with significant reductions in abdominal fat and improvements in glycemia and insulin resistance in nondieting men and women ( 7 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- To determine the association of DHEA-S with exercise-training adaptation, the effect of 4 months of exercise training on insulin resistance measures was determined in a group of oldest-old females dichotomized into Lower Halves and Upper Halves according to their baseline DHEA-S levels. (medsci.org)
- Plasma elevated levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance, but their relationship to stimulated insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS and in response to exercise is unknown. (frontiersin.org)
- Amino acid profiles and metabolites were taken at baseline and at maximal insulin resistance stimulation before and after the exercise program. (frontiersin.org)
- An insulin test may also be done when an individual has or is suspected of having insulin resistance. (labcorp.com)
- Exercise training or chronic treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can ameliorate glucose intolerance, insulin resistance of muscle glucose metabolism, and dyslipidemia associated with the obese Zucker rat. (physiology.org)
- In this context, the present study was undertaken to determine whether 6 wk of exercise training and 6 wk of administration of the ACE inhibitor trandolapril, in combination, could improve the glucose intolerance, insulin resistance of muscle glucose metabolism, and dyslipidemia (as reflected by plasma free fatty acid levels) associated with the obese Zucker rat to a greater degree than either intervention used individually. (physiology.org)
- Muscle glycogen availability can limit endurance exercise performance. (springer.com)
- As a result of this, improvements in subsequent endurance exercise performance (time to fatigue ) of about 50 % can be expected (Bergström and Hultman 1967 ). (springer.com)
- 2014) Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. (omicsonline.org)
- Effect on Exercise Endurance and Lung Hyperinflation of Tiotropium + Olodaterol in COPD Patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Slope is defined as : (intensity of breathing discomfort at the end of exercise minus intensity of breathing discomfort at rest) / endurance time. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST. (bioportfolio.com)
- Researchers have identified 2 drugs that, in mice, seem to confer many of the healthful benefits of long-term exercise, giving them more fat-burning muscle and better endurance. (nih.gov)
- To the scientists' surprise, 4 weeks of AICAR treatment alone activated exercise-related genes and enhanced running endurance by 44% in sedentary mice. (nih.gov)
- This drug-exercise pattern of gene activity-dubbed an "endurance gene signature"-led to the greatest improvement in endurance. (nih.gov)
- The resistance equipment provides us the ability to test muscular strength and endurance with single-and multi-joint exercises. (baylor.edu)
- Endurance exercise training by previously sedentary glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant humans results in enhanced insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose disposal that is associated with a substantial increase in muscle GLUT-4 protein level, suggesting a potential cause-and-effect relationship ( 18 ). (physiology.org)
- Acute Effect of Oral N-Acetylcysteine on Muscle Soreness and Exercise Performance in Semi-Elite Rugby Players. (bioportfolio.com)
- N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation may enhance performance and reduce soreness from acute, repeated-sprint, high-intensity exercise. (bioportfolio.com)
- Regardless of breakfast, acute exercise produced a less positive energy balance following ad libitum lunch consumption. (cambridge.org)
- 21 asthmatic children (aged 7-14 years) treated for acute asthma with: oral salbutamol, open continuous nebulisation of salbutamol, or closed-port intermittent nebulisation of salbutamol. (bestbets.org)
- We previously demonstrated 5 days of creatine (Cr) and carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion augmented post-exercise muscle glycogen storage compared to CHO feeding alone in healthy volunteers. (springer.com)
- 1999 ). Although Cr ingestion is well established as a method to improve performance during, and recovery from (in the form of PCr re-synthesis), short-term maximal exercise (Greenhaff et al. (springer.com)
- Moreover, dose-dependent myofibrillar protein synthesis resulting from beef ingestion was enhanced with resistance exercise in middle-aged men [ 7 ], and BE supplementation increased the relative weights of both the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles in rats [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Food-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis describes a disorder in which exercise is tolerated and a food or foods are tolerated, but when exercise follows ingestion of a specific food or foods, anaphylaxis results. (medscape.com)
- Oral-glucose tolerance tests (oral-GTT) were performed pre-exercise and after 1, 3 and 6 days of Cr and placebo supplementation. (springer.com)
- We have previously demonstrated that dietary Cr supplementation can augment post-exercise muscle glycogen storage during a conventional 'CHO-loading' regimen in healthy, young, male volunteers, and that this response is restricted to the previously exercised limb (Robinson et al. (springer.com)
- Influence of Vitamin D Supplementation by Sunlight or Oral D3 on Exercise Performance. (bioportfolio.com)
- Then, in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, to investigate the effects on exercise performance of achieving vitamin D sufficiency (serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol·L) by a unique comparison of safe, simulated-sunlight and oral vitamin D3 supplementation in wintertime (Study-2). (bioportfolio.com)
- Exercise training and vitamin C supplementation have both been recommended as an effective adjuvant treatment in the management of symptoms in patients with many diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
- Vitamin D C3-epimer levels are proportionally higher with oral vitamin D supplementation compared to ultraviolet irradiation of skin in mice but not humans. (bioportfolio.com)
- This study aimed to compare the effects between sunlight exposure and oral vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and metabolic markers in Korean young adults. (bioportfolio.com)
- The purpose of this study is to determine the average dosage of oral vitamin D supplementation to maintain optimal vitamin D levels in the body and to see if there are differences in the r. (bioportfolio.com)
- The purpose of this trial is to study the effects of oral vitamin B12 supplementation and vitamin B12 combined with folic acid supplementation on cognitive performance for 24 weeks in elde. (bioportfolio.com)
- Previous reports showed that supplementation with beef-related foods such as powder-hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and micellar casein enhanced exercise performance [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
- When symptoms appear, he or she gives you another breathing test. (timesunion.com)
- Enoximone appears to improve exercise tolerance, ventricular function, and symptoms of heart failure for 4 to 8 weeks. (unboundmedicine.com)
- You use salbutamol via a spacer and want to know if oral bronchodilators are effective at relieving asthma symptoms. (bestbets.org)
- Many people, however, have no symptoms during the first few years and are diagnosed on routine testing. (wikipedia.org)
Improvements in insulin sensitivity2
- Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. (nih.gov)
- Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids. (nih.gov)
- Oral enoximone therapy in chronic heart failure: a placebo-controlled randomized trial. (unboundmedicine.com)
- BACKGROUND Enzymatic and histochemical abnormalities of the peripheral muscle may play a role in exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (bmj.com)
- The function of the skeletal peripheral muscle and its contribution to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently being investigated. (bmj.com)
- Fecal elastase 1 test, a functional test, which highlights the early pancreatic failure, it is the gold test for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatits used nowadays. (amazonaws.com)
- Perform clinical laboratory tests using standard procedures examining human and animal specimens for the purpose of providing information for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease, impairment as an assessment of health of human beings. (ok.gov)
- and 1 formative assessment of oral French language. (abdn.ac.uk)
- The top-scoring candidates from the written phase of the testing process will be invited to the Skills Assessment phase of the testing process. (kingcounty.gov)
- We understand that some of our candidates do not live in this geographic area and we will make every attempt to give ample notice for the date and time of the Skills Assessment portion of the testing process to allow for travel arrangements to be made. (kingcounty.gov)
- It does not describe how the community assessment approach was tested or evaluated. (tripdatabase.com)
- Selection procedures for generalist profiles (under the annual cycles) comprise two stages: a 'pre-selection' test stage (computer-based tests in specialised test centres throughout Europe, and in around 40 international test centres) and the Assessment Centre (held in Brussels). (europa.eu)
- Assessment centres enable all key competencies to be properly tested in a reliable manner. (europa.eu)
- Whilst the vast majority of biochemical tests assess the level of constituents in blood and urine at a given point in time, an impor- tant additional parameter is the assessment of physiological reserve function by means of loading tests, prOlonged fasting, exercise and clearance studies. (booktopia.com.au)
- Insulin stress test-for hypothalamic-pituitary (anterior) assessment. (booktopia.com.au)
- Insulin stress (Hollander) test-for vagotomy assessment. (booktopia.com.au)
- Generally, both patients and physicians believe that long-term use of oral diabetic medications is not possible because these drugs lose their effectiveness over time as the patient's pancreas fails," said lead researcher Arthur Swislocki, of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Northern California Health Care System in Martinez. (medindia.net)
- Our data suggest that some patients can remain in good glucose control for years using non-insulin, oral diabetic agents," he added. (medindia.net)
- The researchers found that 55 percent of the patients who started treatment with oral diabetic agents were able to continue using them 15 years later and achieve good blood sugar control. (medindia.net)
- In obese adolescents, the utility of exercise alone (no caloric restriction) as a strategy for reducing obesity-related health risk is not clear. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity a. (nih.gov)
- Exercise depleted muscle glycogen content to the same extent in both treatment groups. (springer.com)
- 1967 ). Optimising liver and muscle glycogen storage is a goal of many athletes wishing to maximise performance, particularly those involved in disciplines requiring prolonged sub-maximal exertion (65-75 % V O 2peak ) or repeated bursts of high intensity exercise. (springer.com)
- Glucagon stimulation test-for glycogen storage diseases. (booktopia.com.au)
- The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS. (hindawi.com)
- In patients for whom diet and exercise do not provide adequate glucose control, therapy with a single oral agent can be tried. (aafp.org)
- 6 If the desired level of glycemic control is not achieved with diet and exercise within a three-month period, pharmacologic intervention is required. (aafp.org)
- Of these patients, 96 began treatment solely with oral drugs. (medindia.net)
- TUESDAY, Dec. 12, 2011 (MedPage Today) - Breast cancer patients gained little protection from recurrence when they received an oral bisphosphonate (medication to prevent loss of bone mass) in addition to primary systemic therapy, results of two large trials showed. (everydayhealth.com)
- The primary objective of this trial is to investigate the effect of 6 weeks treatment with tiotropium + olodaterol fixed dose combination inhalation solution on lung hyperinflation and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In this paper, we present our initial findings of treatment using a combination of these oral substances in a heterogeneous group of patients with different forms of PAH. (nih.gov)
- All the patients who were negative in both HbA1c and TET tests turned out to be 90% CAG negative, which meant that the combination might stand invasive examination of CAG for CHD diagnosis. (scirp.org)
- Another significant finding of this landmark study was that patients with oropharyngeal cancer who had tested positive for antibodies against HPV16 E6 before cancer diagnosis were 3 times as likely to be alive 5 years after their diagnosis as those oropharyngeal cancer patients who had tested negative for these antibodies. (healthcanal.com)
- While it has been convincingly shown that peripheral muscle weakness contributes to exercise intolerance in patients with COPD, 8 the possible impact of the morphological and enzymatic characteristics of skeletal muscle on exercise tolerance is less obvious. (bmj.com)
- 6 9 Although the capacity of the oxidative metabolism of the skeletal muscle may not be exhausted at peak exercise, 10 there is substantial evidence to support the notion that poor muscle oxidative capacity may influence exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. (bmj.com)
- However, the exercise physiologist spent more of their time guiding the patients to the correct machines and monitoring there pace and exertion throughout the exercise session. (bartleby.com)
- Conduct statistical analysis, evaluate test results relative to demographic information and to established reference materials. (ok.gov)
- Perform maintenance and function checks on electronic, mechanical and operational checks necessary for proper test performance to assure accurate and reliable test results and reports. (ok.gov)
- Provide consultation regarding the appropriateness of the testing ordered and interpretation of test results. (ok.gov)
- Sensitivity test results, expressed as the concentration of amantadine required to inhibit by 50% the growth of virus (ED 50 ) in tissue culture vary greatly (from 0.1 mcg/mL to 25.0 mcg/mL) depending upon the assay protocol used, size of virus inoculum, isolates of influenza A virus strains tested, and the cell type used. (nih.gov)
- In such a way they will have access to didactic material of the course, will receive via email communications of the teacher and will have access to the results of the written tests. (unige.it)
- When considering genetic testing, you should ask your doctor if the results would have any impact on treatment decisions. (healthline.com)
- Results of this test show how the body uses glucose over time. (eatright.org)
- Free HIV Testing - Simple Oral Swab Test, Results in 30 Minutes! (csudh.edu)
- Enhance sports performance and athletic achievement by testing sport-specific physical characteristics and developing individualized training recommendations based on test results. (baylor.edu)
- In conclusion, these results indicate combined exercise training and ACE inhibition improve oral glucose tolerance and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose transport to a greater extent than does either intervention alone. (physiology.org)
- You may be asked to not take certain medications in the lead up to the test, but only if these would affect the test results. (diabetes.co.uk)
- What do these OGT test results mean? (diabetes.co.uk)
- Criteria for initiation of therapy with an oral agent versus insulin are debated among diabetologists, but the decision should be made jointly by the physician and patient to obtain the best results. (aafp.org)
- Avoid alcohol and smoking, and keep a proper exercise schedule. (cvs.com)
- provides employee drug testing programs, and onsite drug screening and alcohol testing products. (directoryhealthy.com)
- Provides drug and alcohol testing management and Department of Transportation compliance programs. (directoryhealthy.com)
- Offers nationwide employee drug and alcohol testing services. (directoryhealthy.com)
- offers drug and alcohol testing programs to employers in the U.S. and Canada. (directoryhealthy.com)
- Further, although it is generally accepted that regular physical activity provides substantial health benefits in obese adolescents, it is unclear which exercise modality is most beneficial for reducing comorbidities associated with obesity in adolescents. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Address correspondence and reprint requests to Hiroaki Tanaka, PhD, Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma Jonan-Ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan. (diabetesjournals.org)
- With the childhood obesity epidemic, efficient methods of exercise are sought to improve health. (medsci.org)
- Developing exercise interventions to improve bone health in overweight children may help maintain glucose homeostasis and skeletal health into adulthood. (medsci.org)
- The researchers used the information in the CHS database concerning physical activity, including walking, leisure-time activities and exercise intensity, and other health information coming from annual study visits such as physical exams, diagnostic testing, laboratory evaluations, personal health histories, and measured risk factors. (medindia.net)
- Our findings support the importance of continuing light to moderate exercise to improve health across the lifespan. (medindia.net)
- This study aims to develop and test a programme that can be run in groups (structured education), to support women with PCOS make the lifestyle changes needed to improve their PCOS and prevent future associated health problems. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- And can improving oral health prevent cardiovascular problems? (harvard.edu)
- This test is performed by a health care professional after an overnight fast. (eatright.org)
- The Baylor Laboratories for Exercise Science & Technology, the Exercise Biochemical Nutrition Laboratory, and the Athletic Training and Sports Medicine Laboratory are designed and equipped to provide our students with advanced academic training and practical experience in the exercise and health sciences. (baylor.edu)
- You may be asked to fast for 8 hours before the blood sample is collected, but occasionally a health practitioner may do the test with, for example, a glucose tolerance test . (labcorp.com)
- Both tests may be ordered when a health practitioner wants to evaluate how much insulin in the blood is made by the body and how much is from outside (exogenous) sources such as insulin injections. (labcorp.com)
- A health practitioner also may order insulin and C-peptide tests after an insulinoma has been successfully removed to verify the effectiveness of treatment and then order the tests periodically to monitor for recurrence. (labcorp.com)
- This marked response ensued without apparent treatment differences in muscle insulin sensitivity (oral-GTT, muscle GLUT4 mRNA), osmotic stress (muscle c - fos and HSP72 mRNA) or muscle cell volume (muscle water content) responses, such that another mechanism must be causative. (springer.com)
- For examining the effects of moderate exercise training on peripheral glucose effectiveness ( S g 2 *), insulin sensitivity ( S i 2 *), and endogenous glucose production (EGP), seven men and one woman (24.8 ± 1.8 years) participated in cycle ergometer training at lactate threshold intensity for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In conclusion, moderate exercise training at lactate threshold improves not only peripheral insulin sensitivity but also peripheral glucose effectiveness with no change in the effect of glucose and/or insulin to suppress EGP in healthy humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, we recently showed that a 6-week mild exercise training improves both the S g and insulin sensitivity ( S i ) in healthy men ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- 5 ] speculated that the mechanisms which lead to changes in insulin sensitivity from weight loss alone or from exercise may be different. (medsci.org)
- The authors hypothesize that exercise may stimulate osteocalcin production in bone, which positively impacts insulin secretion and sensitivity. (medsci.org)
- The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the level of salivary dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and the magnitude of adaptation to exercise training in insulin sensitivity for aged females. (medsci.org)
- While numerous studies confirm the benefit of regular exercise training on improving insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in human [ 5 ], it was also reported that the exercise training effect on improving insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance is not as effective in middle-aged or older groups as in young people [ 6 ]. (medsci.org)
- Before and after the exercise program, all participants underwent maximal IR stimulation with intralipid infusions followed by insulin sensitivity (IS) measurement by hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps. (frontiersin.org)
- L-Leucine sensitivity test. (booktopia.com.au)
- Positions within this job family are assigned responsibilities for performing professional work involving a wide variety of clinical laboratory tests. (ok.gov)
- This is the basic level of this job family where incumbents perform a wide variety of routine clinical laboratory tests. (ok.gov)
- This is the career level of this job family where incumbents are responsible for performing a full range of routine clinical laboratory tests. (ok.gov)
- The work shows how innovative laboratory tests may help us develop tools to prevent or detect cancer early as well as improve treatment of the disease. (healthcanal.com)
- Androstenedione has been shown to increase serum testosterone levels over an eight-hour period in men when taken as a single oral dose of 300 mg per day, but a dose of 100 mg had no significant effect on serum testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
- Exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, swimming time to exhaustion, and physiological levels of fatigue-related biomarkers (serum lactate, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose levels) after physical challenges. (mdpi.com)
- The germ-free mice supplemented with BE or an equal-calorie portion of albumin did not show significant differences from the other groups in exercise performance and levels of related biomarkers. (mdpi.com)
- Your blood fat levels and other tests will be measured from time to time. (cvs.com)
- You can check your blood sugar levels at home using a glucose meter or an A1C test. (wikihow.com)
- The glucose tolerance test (GTT) measures glucose levels after administration of an oral or IV carbohydrate challenge. (thefreedictionary.com)
- While compering within the groups, no significant changes in the amino acid levels before and after exercise were observed. (frontiersin.org)
- Insulin levels are also sometimes used in conjunction with the glucose tolerance test (GTT) . (labcorp.com)
- The growth hormones in bovine colostrum help burn fat, build lean muscle, build strength, shorten recovery time, balance blood glucose levels, and prevent illness after vigorous exercise. (townsendletter.com)
- Similarly, whereas exercise training or trandolapril alone improved maximally activated insulin-stimulated glucose transport in isolated epitrochlearis (26-34%) or soleus (39-41%) muscles, the greatest improvements in insulin action (67 and 107%, respectively) were seen in the combined group and were associated with similarly enhanced muscle GLUT-4 protein and total hexokinase levels. (physiology.org)
- Exercise was continuous, moderate-intensity running (expending approximately 2·9 MJ of energy). (cambridge.org)
- High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise training, but is very fatiguing. (springer.com)
- The 10-min exercise sessions consisted of low-intensity cycling (60 W) and one (first session) or two (all other sessions) brief 'all-out' sprints (10 s in week 1, 15 s in weeks 2-3 and 20 s in the final 3 weeks). (springer.com)
- Krogh N, Backer V, Rzeppa S, Hemmersbach P, Hostrup M (2016) Pharmacokinetics of nebulized and oral procaterol in asthmatic and nonâ asthmatic subjects in relation to doping analysis. (omicsonline.org)
- 2016) Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Inhaled Terbutaline after Exercise in Trained Men. (omicsonline.org)
- Modulation of metoprolol pharmacokinetics and hemodynamics by diphenhydramine coadministration during exercise testing in healthy premenopausal women. (webmd.com)
- 8.Kendall MJ, Jack DB, Quarterman CP, Smith SR, Zaman R. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker pharmacokinetics and the oral contraceptive pill. (webmd.com)
- 9.Kendall MJ, Quarterman CP, Jack DB, Beeley L. Metoprolol pharmacokinetics and the oral contraceptive pill. (webmd.com)
- Compared with controls, significant reductions in total and visceral fat and intrahepatic lipid were observed in both exercise groups. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The effects of IHE on intestinal lipid absorption were examined in Wistar rats using a plasma triacylglycerol assay after oral administration of a lipid emulsion. (nature.com)
- Evaluate and document performance of individuals responsible for testing by direct observation of specimen handling and test performance. (ok.gov)
- The new situational judgement tests (SJT) evaluate workplace-related behaviour and are based on core competencies of the Competency framework for working within the EU institutions. (europa.eu)
- The written examination will consist of a prose and a Use of French exercise. (abdn.ac.uk)
- The oral examination will test both comprehension and productive skills. (abdn.ac.uk)
- The decision to proceed with an oral examination is made by a Qualifications Evaluation Panel after determining the applicant's eligibility for appointment and reviewing the applicant's qualifications including his/her performance, and administrative files (or equivalents), claimed language proficiency and other background or factors which may be related to the work performed by FSOs. (cornell.edu)
- Written test and oral examination. (unige.it)
- Evaluation is based on questionnaires and individual reports relating to laboratory experiments, written test and oral examination. (unige.it)
- Anthropology 1120 Assignment 1: Critical Reading Exercise Value: 10% of final grade DUE DATE: Section A: MONDAY OCTOBER 21 in your tutorial Section B: WEDNESDAY OCTOBER 23 in your tutorial You must also upload your assignment to Turnitin via the course Moodle website by the beginning of the lecture on the due date. (bartleby.com)