Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).PicratesLipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Biphenyl CompoundsAcetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Antioxidant Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences that are found in the PROMOTER REGIONS of the genes of stress-responsive and cytoprotective proteins, such as those encoding antioxidant and PHASE II DETOXIFICATION enzymes. NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 containing transcription factors bind to these elements during induction of these genes.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Eugenia: A genus in the family Myrtaceae sometimes known as "stoppers" in FOLK MEDICINE. Many species of the genus SYZYGIUM have synonymous names that begin with the Eugenia genus name.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)PeroxidasesDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.HydroquinonesSulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.AmidinesCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Xanthophylls: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Peroxiredoxin VI: A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
Staghorn sumac is a powerful antioxidant, with ORAC rating over 1500 μmol TE/g. Some beekeepers use dried sumac bobs as a ... ISBN 978-0-89096-947-2. Wu, T; McCallum, JL; Wang, S; Liu, R; Zhu, H; Tsao, R. "Evaluation of antioxidant activities and ...
... equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) is a measurement of antioxidant strength based on Trolox, measured in units ... Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) used to be an alternative measurement, but the United States Department of ... It is an antioxidant like vitamin E and it is used in biological or biochemical applications to reduce oxidative stress or ... We know now that antioxidant molecules in food have a wide range of functions, many of which are unrelated to the ability to ...
The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) used to be the industry standard for antioxidant strength of whole foods, juices ... The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay is an alternative in vitro measurements of antioxidant capacity. Singleton, ... Because it measures anti-oxidant capacity in vitro, the reagent has been used to assay foods and supplements in food science. ... Consequently, the ORAC method, derived only in in vitro experiments, is no longer considered relevant to human diets or biology ...
Although research in vitro indicates polyphenols are good antioxidants and probably influence the ORAC value, antioxidant ... which have antioxidant capacity in vitro, so provide an artificial index of antioxidant strength-the ORAC measurement. Other ... The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of polyphenol-rich (ORAC-rich) foods is not caused ... antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidant properties, and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative ...
One idea is that the yin-yang balance, at least with regard to herbs, corresponds to the pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant balance. ... This interpretation is supported by several investigations of the ORAC ratings of various yin and yang herbs. In India, ... Liao, Hui; Banbury, Linda K.; Leach, David N. (2008). "Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their ... Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Pushpangadan, P (2005). "Antioxidant approach to disease management and the role of 'Rasayana ...
ORAC) level. Artemisia annua possesses the capacity to produce high phenolic compounds, which result in high antioxidant ... as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer". Molecules. 15 (5): 3135-3170. doi: ... "Nutritional characterisation and antioxidant capacity of different tissues of Artemisia annua L". Food Chemistry. 115 (4): 1240 ...
ORAC) has any relevance in the human body. Research shows that although polyphenols are good antioxidants in vitro, antioxidant ... MonaVie promoted that the juice had key polyphenol antioxidants from açai and other fruits in the blend; However, there is no ... An analysis conducted by contract laboratory ChromaDex indicated that MonaVie contained low levels of antioxidant vitamin C and ... dietary polyphenols have little or no direct antioxidant food value after digestion. Unlike controlled test tube conditions, ...
Wolfe, K. L.; Liu, R. H. (2007). "Cellular Antioxidant Activity (CAA) Assay for Assessing Antioxidants, Foods, and Dietary ... ORAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays or inhibition of copper-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein ... A cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay also exists. Dichlorofluorescin is a probe that is trapped within cells and is ... Total phenols (or antioxidant effect) can be measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction. Results are typically expressed as ...
Its flagship product contains a high level of antioxidants, as measured in ORAC values, from seven different fruit sources, ... OTC Pink: PPBV) is a company that develops, markets, and distributes an antioxidant beverage called Purple. ...
ORAC) of Selected Foods Release 2 (2010) table due to the lack of evidence that the antioxidant level present in a food ... The use of antioxidants to prevent some diseases is controversial. In a high-risk group like smokers, high doses of beta ... Reductive stress Acatalasia Antioxidant Bruce Ames Denham Harman Malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker Mitochondrial free ... Ruano-Ravina A, Figueiras A, Freire-Garabal M, Barros-Dios JM (2006). "Antioxidant vitamins and risk of lung cancer". Curr. ...
... a scalar value derived in the laboratory for comparing the antioxidant content of different foods or nutritional supplements ... ORAC or Orac may refer to: Oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ... Orac (Blake's 7), a fictional computer from the science fiction ... a commune in Moldova Orac, an early poker-playing computer program developed by Mike Caro ORAC, Wilhelm Reich's abbreviation ... cancer surgeon and blogger critical of alternative medicine Costel Orac (born 1959), Romanian footballer Daniel Orac (born 1985 ...
Lipid ORAC values are highest for δ-tocotrienol. However that study also says: "Regarding α-tocopherol equivalent antioxidant ... Chemically, different analogues of vitamin E all show some activity as a chemical antioxidant, but do not all have the same ... All tocotrienol and tocopherol isomers have some physical antioxidant activity due to an ability to donate a hydrogen atom (a ... Müller L, Theile K, Böhm V (May 2010). "In vitro antioxidant activity of tocopherols and tocotrienols and comparison of vitamin ...
This interpretation is supported by several investigations of the ORAC ratings of various yin and yang herbs.[76][77] ... One idea is that the yin-yang balance, at least with regard to herbs, corresponds to the pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant balance. ... "Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics". Evidence-Based Complementary ...
ORAC) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. The TEAC assay is often used to measure the antioxidant capacity of ... Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) measures the antioxidant capacity of a given substance, as compared to the ... Most commonly, antioxidant capacity is measured using the ABTS Decolorization Assay. Other antioxidant capacity assays which ... Huang, D.; Ou, B.; Prior, R. L. (2005). "The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (6): 1841- ...
... which have antioxidant capacity in vitro and so provide an artificial index of antioxidant strength - the ORAC measurement. ... The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of polyphenol-rich (ORAC-rich) foods is not caused ... antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidant properties, and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative ... Despite the above discussion implying that ORAC-rich foods with polyphenols may provide antioxidant benefits when in the diet, ...
Measurement and invalidation of ORAC[edit]. Measurement of antioxidant content in food is not a straightforward process, as ... In food science, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was once an industry standard for antioxidant strength of whole ... Examples of bioactive antioxidant compounds[edit]. Antioxidants are classified into two broad divisions, depending on whether ... Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants. For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activity when it ...
The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) test is a laboratory indicator of antioxidant potential in foods and dietary ... While most antioxidants go directly from an active to an inactive role, emblicanins utilize a multilevel cascade of antioxidant ... A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure. Numbering over 4,000 distinct species ... Experiments with binary mixtures of natural phenolic antioxidants with a non-phenolic antioxidant -ascorbic acid- show that ...
"ORAC and DPPH assay comparison to assess antioxidant capacity of tea infusions: Relationship between total polyphenol and ... "Antioxidant Activity of Dietary Polyphenols As Determined by a Modified Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power Assay". Journal of ... Some make use of the ABTS radical cation which is reactive towards most antioxidants including phenolics, thiols and vitamin C. ... Other antioxidant capacity assays which use Trolox as a standard include the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical ...
Almonds have a high oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), which is another indicator of being rich in antioxidants.[5][26] ... Antioxidants act as a defense mechanism against the oxidative stress.[21][22] They are used to remove the free radicals in a ... The fruits of Prunus often contain many phytochemicals and antioxidants.[5][19][20] These compounds have properties that have ... The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) varies within each fruit, but in plums, TAC is much higher in the skin than in the flesh ...
Antioxidant effect assessment[edit]. In vitro measurements. Other tests measure the antioxidant capacity of a fraction. Some ... ORAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays or inhibition of copper-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein ... Wolfe, K. L.; Liu, R. H. (2007). "Cellular Antioxidant Activity (CAA) Assay for Assessing Antioxidants, Foods, and Dietary ... Studies on evaluating antioxidant capacity can used electrochemical methods.[32] Detection can be made by recombinant ...
En la tecnologia dels aliments, la capacitat d'absorbància de radicals de l'oxigen (ORAC, per les seves sigles en anglès) s'ha ... 10,0 10,1 10,2 10,3 Vertuani S, Angusti A, Manfredini S «The antioxidants and pro-antioxidants network: an overview». Curr ... Duarte TL, Lunec J «Review: When is an antioxidant not an antioxidant? A review of novel actions and reactions of vitamin C». ... La importància relativa de les activitats dels antioxidants com pro-oxidants i antioxidants és una àrea d'investigació actual; ...
The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) test is a laboratory indicator of antioxidant potential in foods and dietary ... A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure and studied in vitro. Numbering over ... However, ORAC results cannot be confirmed to be physiologically applicable and have been designated as unreliable.[3][9] ... Combination of antioxidants in vitroEdit. Experiments on linoleic acid subjected to 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) ...
Total phenols (or antioxidant effect) can be measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction. Results are typically expressed as ... Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods - 2007 (PDF). November 2007. [page needed] Cos, P; De Bruyne, T; ... Procyanidins have antioxidant properties in vitro. Foods rich in procyanidins have high oxygen radical absorbance capacity, an ... Scientists continue to research the relevance of antioxidant properties in vitro and potential effects of PCOs on cancer or ...
The redox functions of CoQ in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two ... Shindo, Y.; Witt, E.; Han, D.; Epstein, W.; Packer, L. (1994). "Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of ... electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced CoQ) and ubiquinone (oxidized CoQ).[60][61] The antioxidant role of the ... and as a free-radical-scavenging antioxidant. ...
Antioxidant[edit]. Melatonin was first reported as a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger in 1993.[39] In vitro, ... the overall antioxidant capacity of melatonin is believed to be greater than that of other well‐known antioxidants, such as ... melatonin works with other antioxidants to improve the overall effectiveness of each antioxidant.[41] Melatonin has been proven ... The discovery that melatonin is an antioxidant was made in 1993.[80] The first patent for its use as a low-dose sleep aid was ...
ORAC编辑. 在抗氧化強度的標準測量中---氧自由基吸收能力和抗氧化能力指數(ORAC),. 野櫻莓是所有水果中數值最高的---每100克含16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. 其原因為野櫻莓所富含的花青素和原花青素,這也許可 ... Ipatova, O. M.; Prozorovskaia, N. N.; Rusina, I. F.; Prozorovskiĭ, V. N. (2003). "Antioxidant properties of a leaf extract from ... Rugină, D; Sconţa, Z; Leopold, L; Pintea, A; Bunea, A; Socaciu, C
... vitamins and other extracts providing superior antioxidant protection. Try Isotonix® Maximum ORAC today! ... Why Choose Isotonix Maximum ORAC?+. A good ORAC supplement should contain at least 3000 ORAC units in the form of high-ORAC ... A good ORAC supplement should contain at least 3000 ORAC units in the form of high-ORAC value foods such as blueberries, ... What is an antioxidant? Antioxidant means against oxidation. Antioxidants work to protect lipids from peroxidation by radical ...
List and Charts of Top 100 Antioxidant ORAC Value Foods. These were originally sourced from USDAs Nutrient Data Laboratory ( ... There is an error in the "Top 100 High ORAC Value Antioxidant Foods" chart. It lists Cocoa as having an ORAC value of 80,933. ... ORAC units measure antioxidant capacity of foods. Higher ORAC value units potential for better health. ... Top 100 High ORAC Value Antioxidant Foods. 07/18/2017 Ken Jorgustin 102 Comments ...
Find more product information on Antioxidant Superfood, High ORAC Antioxidant and shop online. ... Buy Discount Antioxidant Superfood, High ORAC Antioxidant, 90 Capsules, Futurebiotics at VitaSprings. ... High ORAC Antioxidant product and share your experience or opinion with other customers.. Antioxidant Superfood, High ORAC ... Buy Antioxidant Superfood, High ORAC Antioxidant from FutureBiotics at VitaSprings, and we guarantee you a safe, secure online ...
ORAC 6.0: replacing ORAC 5.0. *ORAC 6.0™ - Antioxidant Capacity Measurements of Botanicals and the Use of Multiple Radical ... ORAC) tests are among the most acknowledged methods to quantify antioxidants in a material. ORAC tests measure antioxidant ... ORAC 6.0™ consists of six types of ORAC assays that evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a material against six primary ... ORAC Assay Family. ORAC 6.0 Assay: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity ( ...
BMG Labtechs Microplate Readers have received ORAC Assay Measures Antioxidant Capacity certification for their outstanding ... ORAC assay measures antioxidant capacity. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay is a method that measures the ... ORAC assay to determine antioxidant capacity. Features of BMG LABTECH microplate readers that facilitate antioxidant capacity ... It is used as a standard by which all unknown antioxidants are compared. Modifications of the ORAC assay include the use of ...
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ORAC is the oxygen rate absorption capacity of a particular food, supplement or additive in the diet. The ORAC value score is ... One Response to "What is ORAC Value And What is Highest ORAC Value Antioxidant?". ... The antioxidants ORAC value of a particular food, supplement or ingested additive is measured using a variety of factors to ... Some of the most talked about antioxidants ORAC values include: ground cloves at 314,446; raw brand sumac at 312,400; ground ...
ORAC has been a trusted in-vitro measure of antioxidant potential for more than a decade. However, like any in-vitro test, it ... We combine ORAC with our proprietary cell-based antioxidant (CAA) assay to deliver valuable measurement of product safety and ... The ORAC CAA test combination is also valuable for product R&D, formulation optimization, and screening for more advanced ... In Phase 2, safe concentrations of the sample are tested to measure the antioxidant performance of the sample. This phase ...
ORAC Value , Top 100 High Antioxidant Foods - Spices - Herbs (ORAC list below) The ORAC value of the following spices-herbs- ... ORAC units measure antioxidant capacity of foods. Higher ORAC value units … Continue reading ORAC Value , Top 100 High ... modernsurvivalblog.com/health/high-orac-value-antioxidant-foods-top-100/,ORAC Value , Top 100 High Antioxidant Foods - Spices ... modernsurvivalblog.com/health/high-orac-value-antioxidant-foods-top-100/embed/ width=600 height=400 title="ORAC Value , ...
... an impressive 2,500 ORAC plant antioxidant units per daily dose in one truly unique product. ... Orac Omega is a high strength fish oil with 760mg of Omega 3s & ... provide a useful level of ORAC antioxidant units to help ... Two capsules provide an impressive 2,500 ORAC units, (a measure of antioxidant effectiveness) alongside a full 760mg of Omega ... With Bs for energy and powerful plant antioxidants. £18.25 View Product Eyewise® Super Strength Lutein 20mg 4.8/5 based on 278 ...
These compounds contribute to the antioxidant potential and are concentrated to a levels which makes ORAC-15,000 the highest ... ORAC-15,000 is a unique and highly concentrated extract of grape skin, seed and fruit. The extract is naturally rich in ... The antioxidant capacity of ORAC-15,000 is assured by the ORAC (APPH) method, and a value of NLT 15,000 ORAC value is ... ORAC value and anti-oxidant capacity: ORAC, the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity system was developed by the USDA to reliably ...
... ensures you your daily portion of antioxidants (orac: 35.460/100g). ... Brimming with antioxidants (orac: 35.460/100g). Gula Java Matcha Bovis 10.500, Yin 20, GI 30, ORAC 35.460/100g ... 1 teaspoon (8.5g) Gula Java Matcha contains the antioxidants you require on a daily basis (ORAC 3500). ... The antioxidant power of the polyphenols (catechins and tannins) is very high. ...
Total antioxidant capacity was calculated by combining L-ORAC(FL) and H-ORAC(FL). Differences of ORAC(FL) values in fruits and ... Home > Aroniaberry 101 > Understanding Antioxidants & ORAC Values. Understanding Antioxidants & ORAC Values. a { color: #7A2C66 ... ORAC and Antioxidant Links. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 ... The higher the ORAC, the higher the antioxidant activity. (Wu, Beecher et al. 2004) The graph shows the ORAC levels (expressed ...
But the value of vitamins, minerals, antioxidant activity is limited. Its ORAC value, which represents how much antioxidants in ... The antioxidant value of Tofu described in ORAC units is: 90 μ mol TE/100g. ... How bad? To put it in perspective, a Little Caesars cheese pizza has twice the antioxidant content, if youre comparing on an ... Which Tea Is Best For You? This Is Healthiest For Antioxidants. January 29, 2018. ...
The antioxidant value of Raisins, Seedless described in ORAC units is: 3,406 μ mol TE/100g. ... ORAC Source. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 - Prepared by ... Many would assume that the classic purple raisin would be high in antioxidants. It is relative to most foods, but the lighter ... Which Tea Is Best For You? This Is Healthiest For Antioxidants. January 29, 2018. ...
Antioxidant activity of protocatechuates evaluated by DPPH, ORAC, and CAT methods. Grajeda-Iglesias C., Salas E., Barouh N., ... and the impact of lipophilization on its antioxidant activity was evaluated in both, an homogeneous (DPPH and ORAC methods) and ... support its use as an innovative way to synthesize molecules with an improved antioxidant capacity and potential to be used as ... lipophilization could positively affect the antioxidant activity of PA in heterogeneous media; therefore, ...
ORAC(FL)) procedure. These methods provide, for the first time, the ability to obtain a measure of total antioxidant capacity ... Methods are described for the extraction and analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, using modifications of the ... Assays for Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC(FL))) of Plasma and Other ... Assays for Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC(FL))) of Plasma and Other ...
The antioxidant value of Plain Instant Oatmeal, Fortified, Dry described in ORAC units is: 2,308 μ mol TE/100g. ... Even though oats have an ORAC value comparable to many other grains, antioxidants isnt the only reason to consume them. There ... ORAC Source. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 - Prepared by ... Instant oatmeal has an amount of antioxidants which is comparable to quick-cooking and old-fashioned oatmeal. ...
Foods high in antioxidants/ORAC value list? My way to recovery. Discussion in General ME/CFS Discussion started by Monty79, ... they all are also very high in the ORAC value list of antioxidant foods. Im eating a lot of nuts and berries like blueberries ... they all are also very high in the ORAC value list of antioxidant foods. Im eating a lot of nuts and berries like blueberries ... May I ask if you tried taking foods high in the ORAC value list?. Im wondering if anybody on this board got better after ...
Antioxidant Fruits: Benefits, Uses and Availability. November 11, 2014 Antioxidant Fruits - Learn more about all sorts of fruit ... ORAC. April 23, 2016 ORAC Value Is the Value Given to a Fruits Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity ... More Antioxidants Found in Organic Fruit. August 5, 2015 Fruit like apples, grapes and cherries are good sources of ... The berries and the extract of the elder are full of benefits and antioxidants. ...
Measurement and invalidation of ORAC[edit]. Measurement of antioxidant content in food is not a straightforward process, as ... In food science, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was once an industry standard for antioxidant strength of whole ... Examples of bioactive antioxidant compounds[edit]. Antioxidants are classified into two broad divisions, depending on whether ... Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants. For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activity when it ...
... which have antioxidant capacity in vitro and so provide an artificial index of antioxidant strength - the ORAC measurement. ... The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of polyphenol-rich (ORAC-rich) foods is not caused ... antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidant properties, and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative ... Despite the above discussion implying that ORAC-rich foods with polyphenols may provide antioxidant benefits when in the diet, ...
... per serving ORAC-Energy Greens provides the antioxidant power of more than 24 servings of fruits & vegetables in every scoop. ... that is why ORAC Energy Greens is the perfect supplement to provide the antioxidant protection we all need. Bursting with more ... Super Antioxidants. Organic Green & White Tea extract. Grape seed extract. 125 mg. 62.5 mg. 62.5 mg. *. *. *. ... Award Winning Patented ORAC-Energy Greens Superfood Formula. Many of use do not eat the recommended nine servings of fruits and ...
Based on our original ORAC-Energy Greens formula, just one vegetarian capsule provides the antioxidant power of over 7 servings ... Paradise Herbs, ORAC-Energy, Earths Blend, One Daily Superfood Multivitamin, With Iron, 60 Vegetarian Capsules 420 Reviews ... Paradise Herbs, ORAC-Energy, Earths Blend, One Daily Superfood Multivitamin, With Iron, 60 Vegetarian Capsules. By. Paradise ... Paradise Herbs, ORAC-Energy, Earths Blend, One Daily Superfood Multivitamin, With Iron, 60 Vegetarian Capsules. By. Paradise ...
Antioxidants and ORAC value of foods Antioxidants and ORAC value of foods ...
  • Sometime during 2012, the USDA apparently removed their ORAC listings. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • Currently, all testing for ORAC values is done by Brunswick Laboratories under a grant from the USDA. (jonbarron.org)
  • In studies at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging in Boston researchers found that 10 ounces of fresh spinach produced the biggest increase in blood antioxidant scores in women. (healthquestpodcast.com)
  • A 2007 ORAC chart compiled by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) compares 100-gram doses of each food. (thenibble.com)
  • The USDA has since recommended we consume a variety of foods that add up to 3,000-5,000 ORAC daily for disease prevention. (bellaonline.com)
  • However, the usefulness of antioxidants has gained enough credibility to warrant several studies by the USDA and CDC, the former of which conducts regular evaluations of the top food sources of antioxidants. (eatdrinkbetter.com)
  • This phase establishes both the ability of the cell to absorb the sample substance (bioavailability) and the antioxidant performance of the sample absorbed by the cell (efficacy). (brunswicklabs.com)
  • This study was designed to determine the overall bioavailability (body readiness) and antioxidant effect of the Vemma formula in the body. (vemma.com)
  • This comprehensive reference consolidates current information on the antioxidant properties of wheat, their beneficial effects, the mechanisms involved, factors affecting availability/bioavailability, and the methods used to measure them. (wiley.com)
  • It discusses antioxidant properties of wheat grains and fractions and their phytochemical compositions and covers the effects of genotype, growing conditions, post-harvest treatment, storage, and food formulation and processing on availability/bioavailability. (wiley.com)
  • Furthermore, AAPH is reactive with water and lipid soluble substances, so it can measure total antioxidant potential. (bmglabtech.com)
  • In order to modify PA hydrophilic character, which limits its use in lipid-rich food products, PA was esterified to C1 C18 alcohols, and the impact of lipophilization on its antioxidant activity was evaluated in both, an homogeneous (DPPH and ORAC methods) and an heterogeneous (CAT method) system. (cirad.fr)
  • Tirilazad is an antioxidant steroid derivative that inhibits the lipid peroxidation that is believed to play a key role in neuronal death in stroke and head injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antioxidant activity is not a single reaction but encompasses multiple mechanisms-hydrogen atom or electron transfers to quench radicals, metal chelation, singlet oxygen quenching, and others-in both aqueous and lipid phases. (ift.org)
  • As a consequence finding, new or nonconventional sources of antioxidants are a priority for food and also pharmaceutical industries. (intechopen.com)
  • The present chapter is underlying the great potential of food wastes to be exploited as sources of antioxidants based on the scientific evidences regarding the possibilities of extraction and purification, health benefits and envisaged applications of antioxidants recovered from these wastes. (intechopen.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hexane extracts from leaves of Piper auritum (HS). (mdpi.com)
  • We sought to examine the antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties of chlorophyll-rich methanol extracts of Angelica keiskei , Oenanthe javanica , and Brassica oleracea (kale). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings provide support for the antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties of chlorophyll-rich extracts of A. keiskei , O. javanica , and B. oleracea , through mechanisms that include inhibition of carcinogen activation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A growing interest exists in establishing the various health benefits of raw green-yellow vegetable extracts, including their potential antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Based on these initial studies, we sought to examine the antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of A. keiskei , O. javanica , and B. oleracea , including studies with cooked meat heterocyclic amines, which are potent mutagens and multi-organ carcinogens [ 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • OracOmega ® combines a healthy dose of plant antioxidants, (from green tea, grape seed, rosemary and oregano), together with one of the UK's strongest fish oils, to create a unique high potency product. (naturesbest.co.uk)
  • Liquid Goji Wolfberry Supreme with ORAC Super 7 also contains ORAC 7 which blends mangosteen, green coffee, grape, acai, pomegranate and blueberry for even more antioxidant protection that also benefits liver function, boosts immune system function and can even improve your sex life. (evitamins.com)
  • The supportive Herbal Antioxidant Activators contained herein are extremely potent antioxidants themselves and also significantly increase the absorption and effectiveness of the other botanicals. (blogspot.com)