Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Programming, Linear: A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.Cybernetics: That branch of learning which brings together theories and studies on communication and control in living organisms and machines.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Medical Records, Problem-Oriented: A system of record keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, physical findings, laboratory data, etc. pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)United StatesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Radiation ProtectionPeptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Scheduling optimization problems[edit]. There are several scheduling problems in which the goal is to decide which job goes to ... This is usually regarded as an online problem.. *Open-shop scheduling - there are n jobs and m different stations. Each job ... Since threads can only use one time unit of the round-robin in the highest-priority queue, starvation can be a problem for ... Complexity results for scheduling problems [3]. *TORSCHE Scheduling Toolbox for Matlab is a toolbox of scheduling and graph ...
In mathematical optimization, a quadratically constrained quadratic program (QCQP) is an optimization problem in which both the ... Max Cut is a problem in graph theory, which is NP-hard. Given a graph, the problem is to divide the vertices in two sets, so ... Rn is the optimization variable. If P0, … Pm are all positive semidefinite, then the problem is convex. If these matrices are ... Solving the general case is an NP-hard problem. To see this, note that the two constraints x1(x1 − 1) ≤ 0 and x1(x1 − 1) ≥ 0 ...
Once a problem is found, it must be fixed. Typical fixes for IC on-chip problems include: Removing impedance discontinuities. ... Driver optimization. You can have too much drive, and also not enough. Buffer insertion. In this approach, instead of upsizing ... The first transatlantic telegraph cable suffered from severe signal integrity problems, and analysis of the problems yielded ... Each of these fixes may possibly cause other problems. This type of issue must be addressed as part of design flows and design ...
doi:10.1016/S0747-7171(86)80015-3. Bajaj, C. (1988). "The algebraic degree of geometric optimization problems". Discrete and ... It is also a standard problem in facility location, where it models the problem of locating a facility to minimize the cost of ... Some sources instead call Weber's problem the Fermat-Weber problem, but others use this name for the unweighted geometric ... describe more sophisticated geometric optimization procedures for finding approximately optimal solutions to this problem. As ...
In an optimization problem, a slack variable is a variable that is added to an inequality constraint to transform it into an ... Boyd, Stephen P.; Vandenberghe, Lieven (2004). Convex Optimization (pdf). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83378-3. ... Slack Variable Tutorial - Solve slack variable problems online. ...
Constrained Shortest Path and Related Problems. Constrained Network Optimization. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller. ISBN 978-3-8364-4633-4 ...
"Efficiency of coordinate descent methods on huge-scale optimization problems" (PDF). SIAM J. Optimization. 22 (2): 341-362. doi ... by iteratively solving the single variable optimization problems x i k + 1 = a r g m i n y ∈ R f ( x 1 k + 1 , … , x i − 1 k + ... optimization problems in a loop. In the simplest case of cyclic coordinate descent, one cyclically iterates through the ... The other problem is difficulty in parallelism. Since the nature of Coordinate Descent is to cycle through the directions and ...
Solution of non-linear, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems. PDE-constrained optimization problems. Partitioning and load ...
"Direct trajectory optimization and costate estimation of finite-horizon and infinite-horizon optimal control problems using a ... The techniques have been extensively used to solve a wide range of problems such as those arising in UAV trajectory generation ... Solving an optimal control problem requires the approximation of three types of mathematical objects: the integration in the ... Hesthaven, J. S.; Gottlieb, S.; Gottlieb, D. (2007). Spectral methods for time-dependent problems. Cambridge University Press. ...
Modeling those choices or decisions as an optimization problem provides a means to select the best available set of choices or ... The optimization problem reflects the mathematical complexity required to reach feasible and practical pricing solutions. There ... Many optimization problems are formulated as constrained or unconstrained mathematical programs, either linear programs (LP) or ... In some settings, solutions to this problem may be provided by heuristic methods; in others, by numerical optimization methods ...
Degeneracy in optimization problems. Springer Netherlands. 46-47 (1): 203-233. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.36.7658 . doi:10.1007/ ...
... quadratic optimization problem, that is, the problem of optimizing (minimizing or maximizing) a quadratic function of several ... In the case in which Q is positive definite, the problem is a special case of the more general field of convex optimization. ... Quadratic programming (QP) is the process of solving a special type of mathematical optimization problem-specifically, a ( ... For large problems, the system poses some unusual difficulties, most notably that the problem is never positive definite (even ...
46-47 (Degeneracy in optimization problems, number 1): 203-233. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.36.7658 . doi:10.1007/BF02096264. ISSN 0254- ... Researchers have extended the criss-cross algorithm for many optimization-problems, including linear-fractional programming. ... The criss-cross algorithm has been extended to solve more general problems than linear programming problems. There are variants ... The criss-cross algorithm can solve quadratic programming problems and linear complementarity problems, even in the setting of ...
Facility location (optimization problem). Facility location (cooperative game). Vetta, A. (2002). "Nash equilibria in ... and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3122. p. 183. doi:10.1007/978-3- ...
"New criss-cross type algorithms for linear complementarity problems with sufficient matrices" (pdf). Optimization Methods and ... The linear complementarity problem L C P ( M , q ) {\displaystyle LCP(M,q)} has a unique solution for every vector q {\ ... Hurwitz matrix Linear complementarity problem M-matrix Perron-Frobenius theorem Q-matrix Z-matrix (mathematics) Kellogg, R. B ... Murty, Katta G. (January 1972). "On the number of solutions to the complementarity problem and spanning properties of ...
J. Optimization Theory Appl. 19 (1976), no. 1, 3--16. Existence theory in optimal control problems in the underlying ideas. ... Optimization of sequences of operations under constraints on the individual operations. (Polish) Podstawy Sterowania 1 (1971), ... Contribution to the time optimal control problem. Abh. Deutsch. Akad. Wiss. Berlin Kl. Math. Phys. Tech. 1965 1965 no. 2, 438- ... with Węgrzyn, S. ; Skowronek, M. Optimization of a sequence of operations at limitations imposed on particular operations. Bull ...
SIAM Journal on Optimization. 19 (4): 1574. doi:10.1137/070704277. Problem Complexity and Method Efficiency in Optimization, A ... In engineering, optimization problems are often of this type, when you do not have a mathematical model of the system (which ... to solve optimization problems and fixed point equations (including standard linear systems) when the collected data is subject ... To address this problem, Spall proposed the use of simultaneous perturbations to estimate the gradient. This method would ...
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. 37 (3): 239-253. doi:10.1007/s00158-008-0234-7. Hayya, Jack; Armstrong, Donald; ... "A comparative study of uncertainty propagation methods for black-box-type problems". ...
... is used to solve non-linear least squares problems. These minimization problems arise especially in least squares curve fitting ... Some of them support only basic unconstrained optimization whilst other ones support different combinations of box and linear ... The primary application of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is in the least-squares curve fitting problem: given a set of m {\ ... The absolute values of any choice depends on how well-scaled the initial problem is. Marquardt recommended starting with a ...
doi:10.1016/S0167-9473(96)00024-2. "Some Aperture-Angle Optimization Problems". Algorithmica. 33 (4): 411-435. 2002-08-01. doi: ... Teichmann, Marek (1989). "Wedge placement optimization problems". Godfried T. Toussaint, "A simple linear algorithm for ... Spiral triangulations Quadrangulation Nice triangulation Art gallery problem Wedge placement optimization problem Union of two ... the method of rotating calipers is an algorithm design technique that can be used to solve optimization problems including ...
2011). "Direct Trajectory Optimization and Costate Estimation of Finite-Horizon and Infinite-Horizon Optimal Control Problems ... 2011). "Direct Trajectory Optimization Using a Variable Low-Order Adaptive Pseudospectral Method". Journal of Spacecraft and ... where the software has been used for minimum-time optimization of low-thrust orbital transfers, where the software has been ... GPOPS-II (pronounced "GPOPS 2") is a general-purpose MATLAB software for solving continuous optimal control problems using hp- ...
The optimization problem is a Lasso problem, and thus it can be efficiently solved with a state-of-the-art Lasso solver such as ... HSIC Lasso optimization problem is given as H S I C L a s s o : min x 1 2 ∑ k , l = 1 n x k x l HSIC ( f k , f l ) − ∑ k = 1 n ... Let xi be the set membership indicator function for feature fi; then the above can be rewritten as an optimization problem: C F ... Optimization Letters, November 2011. R. Meiri et J. Zahavi. Using simulated annealing to optimize the feature selection problem ...
To establish whether a form h(x) is SOS amounts to solving a convex optimization problem. Indeed, any h(x) can be written as h ... This is a linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility test, which is a convex optimization problem. The expression h ( x ) = x ... doi:10.1007/s10589-012-9513-8. Sum-of-squares optimization Positive polynomial Hilbert's seventeenth problem. ... is SOS amounts to solving a convex optimization problem. Indeed, similarly to the scalar case any F(x) can be written according ...
A natural approach to this problem would be to compute a finite number of powers of the given graph G, find their independence ... Discrete Mathematics and Optimization. 78 (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 134. ISBN 1118640217. Regan, Kenneth W. (July 10, ... However (even ignoring the computational difficulty of computing the independence numbers of these graphs, an NP-hard problem) ... Open Problem Garden . Alon, Noga; Lubetzky, Eyal (2006), "The Shannon capacity of a graph and the independence numbers of its ...
However, sphere packing problems can be generalised to consider unequal spheres, n-dimensional Euclidean space (where the ... For learning about oriented matroids, a good preparation is to study the textbook on linear optimization by Nering and Tucker, ... This theorem has many equivalent versions and analogs and has been used in the study of fair division problems. Topics in this ... In 1978 the situation was reversed - methods from algebraic topology were used to solve a problem in combinatorics - when ...
Usually, this optimization is done in order to achieve a low decoding error probability without hurting too much the data rate ... Interleaving ameliorates this problem by shuffling source symbols across several code words, thereby creating a more uniform ... IT++: a C++ library of classes and functions for linear algebra, numerical optimization, signal processing, communications, and ...
In this paper we move a step towards the formalization of this discipline by describing some optimization problems that arise ... Compact linearization for binary quadratic problems - Liberti 11. Reformulation and convex relaxation techniques for global ... Optimization by simulated annealing: An experimental evaluation - Johnson, Aragon, et al. - 1989 ... Quadratic Convex Reformulation : A Computational Study of the Graph Bisection Problem - Billionnet, Elloumi, et al. - 2006 ...
... Mohammed Azmi Al-Betar,1,2 Ahamad Tajudin Khader,1 Mohammed A. Awadallah,1 ... L. Zhang, Y. Xu, and Y. Liu, "An elite decision making harmony search algorithm for optimization problem," Journal of Applied ... M. Mahdavi, M. Fesanghary, and E. Damangir, "An improved harmony search algorithm for solving optimization problems," Applied ... "Problem denitions and evaluation criteria for the CEC 2005 special session on real-parameter optimization," Tech. Rep., Nanyang ...
An optimization problem with discrete variables is known as a discrete optimization. In a discrete optimization problem, we are ... an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from all feasible solutions. Optimization problems can be ... the problem is more naturally characterized as an optimization problem. An NP-optimization problem (NPO) is a combinatorial ... Semi-infinite programming Search problem Counting problem (complexity) Function problem Glove problem Operations research. ...
... for solving binary optimization problems by using a new solution update rule because the agents in AAA work on continuous... ... problems which are pure binary optimization problem and there is no integer or real valued decision variables in this problem. ... and this modification for AAA is required for solving a binary optimization problem because a binary optimization problems have ... Yuan XH et al (2009) An improved binary particle swarm optimization for unit commitment problem. Expert Syst Appl 36(4):8049- ...
The algorithmic framework ARGONAUT is presented for the global optimization of general constrained grey-box problems. ARGONAUT ... ARGONAUT is tested on a large set of test problems for constrained global optimization with a large number of input variables ... Martelli, E., Amaldi, E.: PGS-COM: a hybrid method for constrained non-smooth black-box optimization problems: brief review, ... Boukouvala, F., Hasan, M.M.F., Christodoulos, A.F.: Global optimization of constrained grey-box problems: new method and ...
Optimization in Solving Elliptic Problems focuses on one of the most interesting and challenging problems of computational ... Optimization in Solving Elliptic Problems focuses on one of the most interesting and challenging problems of computational ... Optimization in Solving Elliptic Problems describes the construction of computational algorithms resulting in the required ... In addition, algorithms are developed for eigenvalue problems and Navier-Stokes problems. The development of these algorithms ...
The primary aim of Mathematical Problems in Engineering is rapid publication and dissemination of important mathematical work ... Mathematical Problems in Engineering is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes results of rigorous engineering ... An unconstrained global optimization (UGO) problem can generally be formulated as follows: where is an objective function and ... C. C. Chen, "Two-layer particle swarm optimization for unconstrained optimization problems," Applied Soft Computing Journal, ...
... the smoothed penalty problem and the original optimization problem are obtained. Based on the smoothed problem, an algorithm ... Error estimations among the optimal objective values of the nonsmooth penalty problem, ... a second-order differentiability smoothing technique to the classical l 1 exact penalty function for constrained optimization ... the smoothed penalty problem and the original optimization problem are obtained. Based on the smoothed problem, an algorithm ...
Obtained results for the problems show that iABC is better than the basic ABC in terms of solution quality. ... method called as iABC were applied to both five numerical benchmark functions and an estimation of energy demand problem. ... algorithm is a swarm-based metaheuristic optimization technique, developed by inspiring foraging and dance behaviors of honey ... Kiran, M. and Babalik, A. (2014) Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems. Journal of ...
The biological inspired optimization techniques have proven to be powerful tools for solving scheduling problems. Marriage in ... Marriage in Honeybee Optimization to Scheduling Problems: 10.4018/978-1-61350-086-6.ch008: ... "Marriage in Honeybee Optimization to Scheduling Problems." Hybrid Algorithms for Service, Computing and Manufacturing Systems: ... "Marriage in Honeybee Optimization to Scheduling Problems." In Hybrid Algorithms for Service, Computing and Manufacturing ...
The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the ... A separate section is devoted to a subject that is not encountered in all optimization problems but is particularly important ... Next the connection with optimization methods is made by presenting a general formulation of geophysical inverse problems. This ... The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically ...
... optimization problem arises as a side constraint. One of the motivating factors was the concept of the Stackelberg solution in ... engineers and economists started to pay c10se attention to the optimization problems in which another (lower-Ievel) ... Nonsmooth Approach to Optimization Problems with Equilibrium Constraints. Theory, Applications and Numerical Results. Authors: ... Nonsmooth Approach to Optimization Problems with Equilibrium Constraints. Book Subtitle. Theory, Applications and Numerical ...
Optimization Models and Mathematical Solutions. Authors. * Julia Kallrath Series Title. Applied Optimization. Series Volume. 91 ... Online Storage Systems and Transportation Problems with Applications. Optimization Models and Mathematical Solutions. Authors: ... The second problem originates in the health sector and leads to a vehicle routing problem. Reasonable solutions for the offline ... It is shown that this logistic problem leads to an NP-hard Batch PreSorting problem which is not easy to solve optimally in ...
Approaches for performing simulation optimization for solving a constrained optimization problem are generally disclosed. One ... data processing problems, network flow problems, and optimal control problems. A constrained optimization problem generally ... Optimization problems associated with constraints are referred to as constrained optimization problems. Some examples include ... Conventionally, to solve a constrained optimization problem, the problem is first represented in a mathematical formulation, ...
... either ending at an optimal solution of the equivalent problem with a complementarity constraint, or converging to an optimal ... which are successfully applied in global optimization. Some illustrative examples and results on computational experiments are ... we propose a method for finding the global optimum of a class of nonlinear bilevel programming problems. The main idea of this ... Global optimization algorithm for solving bilevel programming problems with quadratic lower levels. Paul B. Hermanns 1, and ...
Real world problems in engineering domain are generally large scale or nonlinear or constrained optimization problems. Since ... Numerical results of the structural design optimization problems are reported and compared. As shown, the solutions by the ... Also we can say, our results indicate that the proposed approach may yield better solutions to engineering problems than those ... algorithm is presented to search the optimal solution of the problem in the feasible region of the entire search space. ...
4) The problem of overfitting. 5) Regularization for linear models. Do you have technical problems? Write to us: [email protected] ... And well start with the discussion of overfitting problem. So suppose that we have a classification problem. And weve just ... Overfitting problem and model validation. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser ... There are some problems with this approach with holdout set. For example, if the sample is small, we want to see what happens ...
Dynamic optimization problems can be numerically solved by direct, indirect and Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman methods. In this paper ... The proposed hybrid method is illustrated with a pressure-constrained batch reactor optimization problem associated with the ... A novel hybrid optimization algorithm for diferential-algebraic control problems. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. [online]. 2007, vol.24, n ... transformation of the original problem into a standard nonlinear programming problem that provides control and state variables ...
Chaotic Tornadogenesis Optimization Algorithm for Data Clustering Problems: 10.4018/IJSSCI.2018010104: This article describes ... "Chaotic Tornadogenesis Optimization Algorithm for Data Clustering Problems," International Journal of Software Science and ... Recently a new optimization algorithm TOA was developed to address these problems. However, the standard TOA is too often ... "Chaotic Tornadogenesis Optimization Algorithm for Data Clustering Problems." IJSSCI 10.1 (2018): 38-64. Web. 21 Feb. 2018. doi: ...
Applying Ant Colony Optimization algorithms to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem.; Author: geoyar; Updated: 13 Sep 2013; ... The Traveling Salesman Problem. The quote from the "Ant Colony Optimization": The Traveling Salesman Problem is a problem of a ... I was always interested in Artificial Intelligence problems. So when I saw the article "Genetic and Ant Colony Optimization ... Ant Colony Optimization to solve a classic Asymmetric Travelling Sales Man Problem ...
A particular focus will be given to optimization problems that arise in the application areas telecommunication, traffic and ... Several algorithms for the above mentioned fundmental combinatorial optimization problems were developed and analyzed within ... analyze and experimentally evaluate algorithms for fundamental combinatorial optimization problems. ... Approximating connected facility location problems via random facility sampling and core detouring. In Proceedings of the 19th ...
... processing several optimization iterations simultaneously, reducing multidimensional optimization problems using multiple Peano ... we describe the Globalizer software system for solving the global optimization problems. The system is designed to maximize the ... capabilities with shared and distributed memory and with large numbers of processors to solve the global optimization problems ... potential of the modern high-performance computational systems in order to solve the most time-consuming optimization problems ...
The aim of the book is to cover the three fundamental aspects of research in equilibrium problems: the statement problem and ... Nonsmooth Optimization and Variational Inequality Models ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and ... On the existence of solutions to vector optimization problems; G. Mastroeni, M. Pappalardo. Equilibrium problems and ... Equilibrium Problems: Nonsmooth Optimization and Variational Inequality Models. by F. Giannessi(ed.) ; A. Maugeri(ed.) ; Panos ...
... algorithm to a flow shop scheduling problem. Permutation encoding of job indices ... This paper presents a method of applying particle swarm optimization (PSO) ...
  • Miloš SUBOTIC, Aleksandar MANASIJEVIC, Aleksandar KUPUSINAC , Parallelized Multiple Swarm Artificial Bee Colony (PMS-ABC) Algorithm for Constrained Optimization Problems , Studies in Informatics and Control , ISSN 1220-1766, vol. 29(1), pp. 77-86, 2020. (ici.ro)
  • Investigations and developments are made in recent decades to find optimal solutions for large and dynamic problems using nature-inspired algorithms (Chakraborty, Amrita, & Kumar Kar, 2017). (igi-global.com)
  • Many researchers have developed numerous optimization algorithms by looking into the nature, looking into the biology and tried to model some of the impressive and intellectual mechanisms (Pedrycz, & Witold, 2010) into new algorithms for different engineering applications (Bozorg-Haddad, & Omid, 2017). (igi-global.com)
  • Blum C, Blesa MJ (2017) A hybrid evolutionary algorithm based on solution merging for the longest arc-preserving common subsequence problem. (springer.com)
  • Jie Zhong, Yijun Huang, and Ji Liu , " Asynchronous Parallel Empirical Variance Guided Algorithms for the Thresholding Bandit Problem ", 2017. (rochester.edu)
  • Our Stable Bayesian Optimization work won " Best Student Paper Award " at the Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD), Springer 2017. (google.com)
  • We consider expensive optimization problems, that is to say problems where each evaluation of the objective function is expensive in terms of computing time, consumption of resources, or cost. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithms-A Review Pragati Loomba Sonali Tiwari And Neerja Negi Student, Faculty of Computer Applications Assistant Professor, Faculty of Computer Applications Manav Rachna International University Manav Rachna International University Faridabad Faridabad [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Abstract - Now a day nature-inspired algorithms become a current trend and is applicable to almost every area. (bartleby.com)
  • Abstract: Load frequency control problem is considered as one of the most important issues in the design & operation of power systems. (bartleby.com)
  • Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development: an Overview PrakashS.V.'* Abstract The Environmental problems that we face today require long-term potential actions for sustainable development. (bartleby.com)
  • A traditional hyper-heuristic framework has two levels, namely, the high level strategy (heuristic selection mechanism and the acceptance criterion) and low level heuristics (a set of problem specific heuristics). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Due to the different landscape structures of different problem instances, the high level strategy plays an important role in the design of a hyper-heuristic framework. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The performance of the presented framework is compared to that of existing techniques for constrained derivative-free optimization. (springer.com)
  • The comparisons between CPLEX, IWO and genetic algorithm (GA) shows that the performance of the IWO algorithm is much better than the older algorithms and can be considered as an alternative to algorithms, such as GA in product portfolio optimization problems. (aimsciences.org)
  • A. A. El-Fergany, "Solution of Economic Load Dispatch Problem with Smooth and Non-Smooth Fuel Cost Functions Including Line Losses Using Genetic Algorithm," International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 706-710, doi:10.7763/IJCEE.2011.V3.407, Oct. 2011. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Simulated Annealing can be said to be the ancestor of Genetic Algorithms, with it's less constrained methodology, it's specification of criterion for the progress of the optimization procedure and the application of random shocks. (fu-lu-shou.net)
  • Using diploid representation with dominance scheme is one of the approaches developed for genetic algorithms to address dynamic optimization problems. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • Since problem size increases with the size of the time series, synthesis of energy systems leads to complex optimization problems. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this paper, we propose an interior-point method for linearly constrained optimization problems (possibly nonconvex). (arxiv.org)
  • This paper presents topology optimization of capillary, the typical two-phase flow with immiscible fluids, where the level set method and diffuse-interface model are combined to implement the proposed method. (global-sci.org)
  • Then the topology optimization problem for the two-phase flow is constructed for the cost functional with general formulation. (global-sci.org)
  • Problem denitions and evaluation criteria for the CEC 2005 special session on real-parameter optimization," Tech. Rep., Nanyang Technological University, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Our 3D EM simulation software is user-friendly and enables you to choose the most appropriate method for the design and optimization of devices operating in a wide range of frequencies. (cst.com)
  • Identify the actions that will produce the best results, while operating within resource limitations and other relevant restrictions, using a powerful array of optimization, simulation and project scheduling techniques. (sas.com)