Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.
Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.
Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).
Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.

Injury-induced gelatinase and thrombin-like activities in regenerating and nonregenerating nervous systems. (1/264)

It is now widely accepted that injured nerves, like any other injured tissue, need assistance from their extracellular milieu in order to heal. We compared the postinjury activities of thrombin and gelatinases, two types of proteolytic activities known to be critically involved in tissue healing, in nonregenerative (rat optic nerve) and regenerative (fish optic nerve and rat sciatic nerve) neural tissue. Unlike gelatinases, whose induction pattern was comparable in all three nerves, thrombin-like activity differed clearly between regenerating and nonregenerating nervous systems. Postinjury levels of this latter activity seem to dictate whether it will display beneficial or detrimental effects on the capacity of the tissue for repair. The results of this study further highlight the fact that tissue repair and nerve regeneration are closely linked and that substances that are not unique to the nervous system, but participate in wound healing in general, are also crucial for regeneration or its failure in the nervous system.  (+info)

Experimental induction of retinal ganglion cell death in adult mice. (2/264)

PURPOSE: Retinal ganglion cells die by apoptosis during development and after trauma such as axonal damage and exposure to excitotoxins. Apoptosis is associated with changes in the expression of genes that regulate this process. The genes that regulate apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells have not been characterized primarily because previous studies have been limited to animal models in which gene function is not easily manipulated. To overcome this limitation, the rate and mechanism of retinal ganglion cell death in mice was characterized using optic nerve crush and intravitreal injections of the glutamate analog N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). METHODS: To expose retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to excitotoxins, adult CB6F1 mice were injected intravitreally in one eye with NMDA. In an alternative protocol to physically damage the axons in the optic nerve, the nerve was crushed using self-closing fine forceps. Each animal had one or the other procedure carried out on one eye. Loss of RGCs was monitored as a percentage of cells lost relative to the fellow untreated eye. Thy1 expression was examined using in situ hybridization. DNA fragmentation in dying cells was monitored using terminal transferase-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). RESULTS: RGCs comprise 67.5% +/- 6.5% (mean +/- SD) of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of control mice based on nuclear morphology and the presence of mRNA for the ganglion cell marker Thy1. One week after optic nerve crush, these cells started to die, progressing to a maximum loss of 57.8% +/- 8.1% of the cells in the GCL by 3 weeks. Cell loss after NMDA injection was dose dependent, with injections of 10 nanomoles having virtually no effect to a maximum loss of 72.5% +/- 12.1% of the cells in the GCL within 6 days after injection of 160 nanomoles NMDA. Cell death exhibited features of apoptosis after both optic nerve crush and NMDA injection, including the formation of pyknotic nuclei and TUNEL staining. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative RGC death can be induced in mice using two distinct signaling pathways, making it possible to test the roles of genes in this process using transgenic animals.  (+info)

Differential T cell response in central and peripheral nerve injury: connection with immune privilege. (3/264)

The central nervous system (CNS), unlike the peripheral nervous system (PNS), is an immune-privileged site in which local immune responses are restricted. Whereas immune privilege in the intact CNS has been studied intensively, little is known about its effects after trauma. In this study, we examined the influence of CNS immune privilege on T cell response to central nerve injury. Immunocytochemistry revealed a significantly greater accumulation of endogenous T cells in the injured rat sciatic nerve than in the injured rat optic nerve (representing PNS and CNS white matter trauma, respectively). Use of the in situ terminal deoxytransferase-catalyzed DNA nick end labeling (TUNEL) procedure revealed extensive death of accumulating T cells in injured CNS nerves as well as in CNS nerves of rats with acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but not in injured PNS nerves. Although Fas ligand (FasL) protein was expressed in white matter tissue of both systems, it was more pronounced in the CNS. Expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens was found to be constitutive in the PNS, but in the CNS was induced only after injury. Our findings suggest that the T cell response to central nerve injury is restricted by the reduced expression of MHC class II antigens, the pronounced FasL expression, and the elimination of infiltrating lymphocytes through cell death.  (+info)

Bilateral optic nerve injury. (4/264)

Bilateral optic nerve injury is a rare condition and is reported in 5-6 percent of all optic nerve injuries. However, there is no published series on bilateral optic nerve injury. Analysis of 31 cases of bilateral optic nerve involvement seen amongst 275 patients with optic nerve injury (11.5 percent) is discussed. Road traffic accident which is the most common cause of optic nerve injury, was recorded in 61 percent. Shotgun injury and blast in jury was the cause in 22.5 percent of cases. All the patients except 4 received steroids. Anterior cranial fossa fracture and opacity of paranasal sinuses were recorded in a third of the patients. Visual evoked potentials were recorded in 27 patients. Improvement in vision was noticed in 23 patients (74 percent). However, among the 62 eyes, 39 eyes showed improvement (62.8 percent). Possible reasons for better outcome in bilateral optic nerve injury are discussed.  (+info)

Bax antisense oligonucleotides reduce axotomy-induced retinal ganglion cell death in vivo by reduction of Bax protein expression. (5/264)

Following transection of the optic nerve (ON), retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) upregulate Bax protein expression and undergo apoptosis. The present study aimed at reducing Bax expression in order to test whether Bax plays a causative role in the induction of secondary RGC apoptosis. Following injection into the vitreous, fluoresceinated oligonucleotides transfected RGCs in vivo at the injection site in the temporal superior retina. Following ON lesion, and repeated injections of a partially phosphorothioated Bax antisense oligonucleotide, but not following injection of control oligonucleotides, expression of Bax protein was locally inhibited, and the number of surviving RGCs was increased in Bax antisense treated rats 8 days after axotomy. Our results indicate that Bax induction is a prerequisite for the execution of RGC apoptosis following ON axotomy. While the Bax antisense strategy offers an exciting perspective to inhibit secondary neuronal degeneration in vivo, both limited transfection efficacy, and the temporal restriction of this effect currently limit the use of this approach with respect to clinical applications for the treatment of neurodegeneration.  (+info)

R-esp1, a rat homologue of drosophila groucho, is differentially expressed after optic nerve crush and mediates NGF-induced survival of PC12 cells. (6/264)

The differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect alterations in gene expression in the superior colliculus after optic nerve crush in adult rats. One of the most prominent changes observed was the selective induction of R-esp1, a homologue of the Drosophila enhancer of split locus (Groucho). Therefore, we studied the influence of R-esp1 on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced cell survival of PC12 cells. Overexpression of R-esp1 promotes cell survival even in the absence of NGF and, conversely, it is reduced by antisense-mediated inhibition of R-esp1 expression. In conclusion, we propose a novel model in which R-esp1 protein mediates the NGF-signaling pathway.  (+info)

Optic nerve crush: axonal responses in wild-type and bcl-2 transgenic mice. (7/264)

Retinal ganglion cells of transgenic mice overexpressing the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in neurons show a dramatic increase of survival rate after axotomy. We used this experimental system to test the regenerative potentials of central neurons after reduction of nonpermissive environmental factors. Survival of retinal ganglion cells 1 month after intracranial crush of the optic nerve was found to be 100% in adult bcl-2 mice and 44% in matched wild-type (wt) mice. In the optic nerve, and particularly at the crush site, fibers regrowing spontaneously or simply sprouting were absent in both wt and bcl-2 mice. We attempted to stimulate regeneration implanting in the crushed nerves hybridoma cells secreting antibodies that neutralize central myelin proteins, shown to inhibit regeneration (IN-1 antibodies) (Caroni and Schwab, 1988). Again, we found that regeneration of fibers beyond the site of crush was virtually absent in the optic nerves of both wt and bcl-2 mice. However, in bcl-2 animals treated with IN-1 antibodies, fibers showed sprouting in the proximity of the hybridoma implant. These results suggest that neurons overexpressing bcl-2 are capable of surviving axotomy and sprout when faced with an environment in which inhibition of regeneration has been reduced. Nevertheless, extensive regeneration does not occur, possibly because other factors act by preventing it.  (+info)

Visual outcome in optic nerve injury patients without initial light perception. (8/264)

PURPOSE: To assess the prognosis for recovery of vision in patients with blindness due to head injury, and to analyse the predictive value of visual evoked potential (VEP). METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with unilateral/bilateral blindness as a result of minor head injury were studied with regard to their visual status, CT scan, MRI scan and serial VEPs. Steroids were given to those presenting within one month of injury, 5 patients among them received methyl prednisolone. Transethmoidal decompression was done in 6 patients. RESULTS: Visual improvement was recorded in 23 patients. Initial VEP failed to reveal any wave in 29 patients and was abnormal in 71. All the 14 patients in whom VEPs were repeatedly normal, irrespective of initial VEP status, showed varying degrees of visual improvement and none of the 15 patients with persistently negative VEPs showed visual improvement. CONCLUSION: Recovery of VEP from no response to abnormal wave or abnormal wave to normal VEP were indicators of relatively good visual prognosis. Overall, 23 patients showed visual improvement, but did not return to normal. Mode of injury, CT findings and timing of surgery did not influence the outcome.  (+info)

Maintenance of ocular viability is one of the major impediments to successful whole eye transplantation. We provide a comprehensive understanding of the current literature to help guide future studies in order to overcome this hurdle. A systematic multistage review of published literature was performed. Three specific questions were addressed: (1) Is recovery of visual function following eye transplantation greater in cold-blooded vertebrates when compared with mammals? (2) Is outer retina function following enucleation and reperfusion improved compared with enucleation alone? (3) Following optic nerve transection, is there a correlation between RGC survival and either time after transection or proximity of the transection to the globe? In a majority of the studies performed in the literature, recovery of visual function can occur after whole eye transplantation in cold-blooded vertebrates. Following enucleation (and reperfusion), outer retinal function is maintained from four to nine hours. ...
Purpose: Phosphorylation is a major type of protein post-translational modification. In this study, we evaluated the phosphoproteomic changes in the retina induced by optic nerve crush (ONC) in the mouse, an acute model of central nervous system (CNS) axonal injury. The functional role of an identified major phosphoprotein was further studied. Methods: Intraorbital ONC was performed in adult C57BL/6J mice. Retinas were collected at 0, 6, and 12 h following optic nerve injury. Retinal proteins labeled with CyDye-C2 were subjected to 2D-PAGE. 2D gel phosphoprotein staining was performed, followed by in-gel and cross-gel image analysis. The ratio change of protein differential phosphorylation following ONC was obtained. Proteins with significant changes in phosphorylation (ratios ≥ 1.5) in retinas of the injured eyes compared to the control eyes were spot-picked, tryptic digested, and peptide fragments were analyzed by MALDI-TOF (MS) and TOF/TOF (tandem MS/MS). Proteins identity was based on 10 or more
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optic nerve transection in monkeys may result in secondary degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. AU - Levkovitch-Verbin, H.. AU - Quigley, H. A.. AU - Kerrigan-Baumrind, L. A.. AU - DAnna, S. A.. AU - Kerrigan, D.. AU - Pease, M. E.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Purpose. Interest in neuroprotection for optic neuropathies is, in part, based on the assumption that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die, not only as a result of direct (primary) injury, but also indirectly as a result of negative effects from neighboring dying RGCs (secondary degeneration). This experiment was designed to test whether secondary RGC degeneration occurs after orbital optic nerve injury in monkeys. Methods. The superior one third of the orbital optic nerve on one side was transected in eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Twelve weeks after the partial transection, the number of RGC bodies in the superior and inferior halves of the retina of the experimental and control eyes and the number and ...
Background: Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) can be caused by direct or indirect injury. Direct optic injury usually results from optic nerve avulsion or laceration, or from direct fracture of the optic canal. Indirect optic injury is caused by increa
Purpose: : Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an irreversible vision-threatening complication often found in head injuries. Following optic nerve trauma, the bodys innate immune cells scavenge the trauma site for debris while releasing cytokines that cause additional damage and cell death beyond that of the initial insult. While neuronal cell loss stemming directly from the initial insult is irreversible, the secondary inflammation from cytokine release may be prevented. The purpose of our study is to further elucidate mechanisms by which exogenous agonists can effect anti-inflammation and ultimately curb the damage from TON before it is irreversible. Under stress or ischemia such as TON, local tissue concentrations of adenosine are likely to increase due to the release of ATP and its conversion to adenosine by ectonucleotidases including CD73. The released adenosine is anti-inflammatory, as seen in other organ systems, by stimulating the adenosine receptor A2AAR. We tested the hypothesis that ...
The pathophysiology of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy (TON) is thought to be multifactorial, and some researchers have also postulated a primary and secondary mechanism of injury.TON is categorized as direct or indirect.In indirect TON cases, the injury to the axons is thought to be induced by shearing forces that are transmitted to the fibers or to the vascular supply of the nerve. Studies have shown that forces applied to the frontal bone and malar eminences are transferred and concentrated in the area near the optic canal. The tight adherence of the optic nerves dural sheath to the periosteum within the optic canal is also thought to contribute to this segment of the nerve being extremely susceptible to the deformative stresses of the skull bones. Such injury leads to ischemic injury to the axons of the retinal ganglion cells within the optic canal. At present, no studies validate a particular approach to the management of TON. There are three management lines for these patients that include ...
Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an acute injury of the optic nerve associated with severe visual dysfunction, which may be a result of secondary mechanical injury and vascular disorder of the optic nerve due to trauma. We analyzed the natural course of axonal loss and blood flow disturb...
Ten years blindness caused traumatic optic neuropathy were overcome after two weeks treatment with therapeutic electrical stimulation
Axon regeneration failure accounts for permanent functional deficits following CNS injury in adult mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In analyzing axon regeneration in different mutant mouse lines, we discovered that deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust regeneration of injured optic nerve axons. This regeneration-promoting effect is efficiently blocked in SOCS3-gp130 double-knockout mice, suggesting that SOCS3 deletion promotes axon regeneration via a gp130-dependent pathway. Consistently, a transient upregulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was observed within the retina following optic nerve injury. Intravitreal application of CNTF further enhances axon regeneration from SOCS3-deleted RGCs. Together, our results suggest that compromised responsiveness to injury-induced growth factors in mature neurons contributes significantly to regeneration failure. Thus, developing strategies to ...
Online Doctor Chat - Treatment for optic nerve injury post accident, Ask a Doctor about when and why Acupuncture is advised, Online doctor patient chat conversation by Dr. Chakravarthy Mazumdar
Evidence that activation of P2X7R does not exacerbate neuronal death after optic nerve transection and focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Exp Neurol. 2017 Jun 29;: Authors: Caglayan B, Caglayan AB, Beker MC, Yalcin E, Beker M, Kelestemur T, Sertel E, Ozturk G, Kilic U, Sahin F, Kilic E Abstract Conflicting data in the literature about the function of P2X7R in survival following...
Thinking about this, calcification, irritation and increased gliosis in kind C tubers might not exclusively show regressive alterations but also a distinctive
Welcome to the switchBoard official Blog!. SwitchBoard is an In Innovative Training Network (ITN) funded by the European Commissions Horizon 2020 programme under the Marie Curie Actions. The duration of the project is 48 months, starting on November 01, 2015.. The switchBoard consortium brings together eleven beneficiaries from eight different countries, combining the expertise of seven academic partners with excellent research and teaching records, one non-profit research organisation, and three fully integrated private sector partners. This European Training Network (ETN) is supported by six Partner Organisations as well as a management team experienced in multi-site training activities and counselled by a scientifically accomplished advisory board.. Taken together, the switchBoard training network provides an international, interdisciplinary platform to educate young scientists at the interface of neurobiology, information processing and neurotechnology.. ...
Purpose: Prominin-1 (CD133) is a 5-transmembrane glycoprotein found in both humans and rodents. Prominin-1 was originally identified as a stem cell marker and has recently been identified in neuronal and glial stem cells. It also acts as a key regulator of disk morphogenesis during early retinal development, and mutations in the prominin-1 gene result in retinal degeneration. We recently reported that Prominin-1 interacts with VEGF-A165, enhancing its activity. We have developed a short peptide derived from Prominin-1, PR1P, which also enhances VEGF-A165 activity. We investigated the effects of PR1P on cell death and regeneration of damaged retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of optic nerve injury.. Methods: Retina and optic nerves obtained from Fischer rats following an optic nerve (ON) crush were utilized in this experiment. 1mm3 Hydron polymer pellets containing either PR1P or vehicle were cast and implanted into the retrobulbar space at the time of crush. Electroretinogram (ERG) assessment ...
Magdeburg, Germany and Hongkong, China. May 17, 2017 - Electrical stimulation of the brain by applying current to the eye may help retinal nerve cells to survive injury. While these neurons may not be restored to full function, they are prevented from dying. But to achieve survival, their interconnections, the dendritic tree, needs to disconnect rapidly for the protective action to unfold. In a study published in Scientific Reports, researchers from Magdeburg University (Germany) and The Chinese University of Hong Kong report that for rats and mice, repetitive transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS) may help preserve visual neurons from cell death after injury.. Because the tissue at the back of the eye, the retina, is part of the brain, researchers can directly observe how brain cells react in the living animal. The researchers repeatedly monitored neurons in both rat and mouse retinas after an optic nerve injury and measured neuronal death after this lesion. Surprisingly, a ...
Secondary outcome measures to assess optic nerve injury will be changes from baseline in the RNFL thickness at week 24, and changes from baseline in low- and high-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual field changes at weeks 12 and 24 ...
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Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a rare devastating complication of traumatic head injury and is an ophthalmic emergency. Herein, we report a rare case of a 46-year-old gentleman who experienced severe blurring of vision, binocular diplopia, and pain over his left eye following a fall from a tree about three meters in height. Examinations revealed the visual acuity was 6/60 with a marked relative afferent pupillary defect and generalized ophthalmoplegia over his left eye. Emergency computed tomography (CT) brain and orbit showed a left frontotemporoparietal extradural hemorrhage, comminuted frontotemporoparietal and greater wing of sphenoid fracture with a bony spur impinging the lateral rectus and indirectly on the optic nerve. A diagnosis of left frontotemporoparietal bone fracture with traumatic optic neuropathy was made. An emergency left craniotomy, elevation of depressed skull fracture, and evacuation of clot was done. Postoperatively, his visual acuity showed marked improvement with visual
0076] The mechanisms by which elevated IOP leads to RGC loss in glaucoma have remained elusive. Genetic linkage analyses, post-mortem studies, cell culture data, and in vivo studies have suggested that TNFα may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease; however, under certain conditions, TNFα is not cytotoxic to RGCs in a mixed cellular environment, and is neuroprotective to RGCs following optic nerve injury in vivo. Thus, there has been no mechanistic understanding of how TNFα might contribute to RGC loss in vivo, nor any direct evidence that it actually mediates RGC cytotoxicity in glaucoma. Using a mouse model in which IOP was elevated via laser surgery, it was shown herein that TNFα does indeed mediate the cytotoxic effects of OH on RGCs through an indirect route that involves microglial activation and the loss of oligodendrocytes. Following laser surgery to produce angle closure in normal mice, IOP increased by 70% and remained elevated for at least 2 months. Elevated IOP was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoproteasome deficiency protects in the retina after optic nerve crush. AU - Schuld, Nathan J.. AU - Hussong, Stacy A.. AU - Kapphahn, Rebecca J.. AU - Lehmann, Ute. AU - Roehrich, Heidi. AU - Rageh, Abrar A.. AU - Heuss, Neal D.. AU - Bratten, Wendy. AU - Gregerson, Dale S.. AU - Ferrington, Deborah A.. PY - 2015/5/15. Y1 - 2015/5/15. N2 - The immunoproteasome is upregulated by disease, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, suggesting an expanded role for the immunoproteasome in stress signaling that goes beyond its canonical role in generating peptides for antigen presentation. The signaling pathways that are regulated by the immunoproteasome remain elusive. However, previous studies suggest a role for the immunoproteasome in the regulation of PTEN and NF-κB signaling. One well-known pathway upstream of NF-κB and downstream of PTEN is the Akt signaling pathway, which is responsible for mediating cellular survival and is modulated after optic nerve crush (ONC). ...
|span||b|Purpose:|/b| The present study examines the role of |i|Sox11|/i| in the initial response of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to axon damage and in optic nerve regeneration in mouse. |b|Methods:|/b| Markers of retinal injury were identified using the normal retina database and optic nerve crush (ONC)|/span| …
Free, official information about 2011 (and also 2012-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 950.0, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease, characterized by degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). There has been little progress in developing efficient strategies for neuroprotection in glaucoma. We profiled the retina transcriptome of Lister Hooded rats at 2 weeks after optic nerve crush (ONC) and applied systems biology approaches to better understand the molecular mechanisms related with the retinal remodeling after induction of RGC degeneration. We observed a higher Relative Expression Variability after ONC. Gene expression stability was used as a measure of transcription control and disclosed a robust reduction in the number of very stably expressed genes. Enrichment analysis showed that Complement cascade and Notch signaling pathway were the main affected pathways after ONC. To expand our studies of these two pathways, we examined the coordination of gene expressions within each pathway and with the entire transcriptome. ONC increased the number of synergistically
indicates lab trainees. *Peragine DE, *Pokarowski M, Mendoza-Viveros L, Swift-Gallant A, Cheng H-YM, Bentley GE, Holmes MM. 2017. RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) suppresses sexual maturation in a eusocial mammal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 114(5): 1207-1212. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1616913114.. Park KK, Luo X, *Mooney SJ, Yungher BJ, Belin S, Wang C, Holmes MM, He Z. 2017. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 525(2): 380-388.. Mosley M, Shah C, Morse KA, Miloro SA, Holmes MM, Ahern TH, Forger NG. 2017. Patterns of cell death in the perinatal mouse forebrain. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 525(1): 47-64. Holmes MM. 2016. Social control of adult neurogenesis: A comparative approach. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, pii: S0091-3022(16)30005-X. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2016.02.001.. *Peragine DE, *Yousuf Y, *Fu Y, Swift-Gallant A, *Ginzberg K, Holmes MM. 2016. Contrasting effects of ...
Ischemic lesions could lead to secondary degeneration in remote regions of the brain. However, the spatial distribution of secondary degeneration along with its role in functional deficits is not well understood. In this study, we explored the spatial and connectivity properties of white matter (WM) secondary degeneration in a focal unilateral sensorimotor cortical ischemia rat model, using advanced microstructure imaging on a 14 T MRI system. Significant axonal degeneration was observed in the ipsilateral external capsule and even remote regions including the contralesional external capsule and corpus callosum. Further fiber tractography analysis revealed that only fibers having direct axonal connections with the primary lesion exhibited a significant degeneration. These results suggest that focal ischemic lesions may induce remote WM degeneration, but limited to fibers tied to the primary lesion. These
Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI. To test this hypothesis, we documented acute changes in microglia, axons, and oligodendroglia over time using two-photon excitation and an ex vivo laser-induced SCI (LiSCI) model. We utilized double transgenic mice that express GFP in either microglia or oligodendroglia, and YFP in axons, and we applied the lipophilic fluorescent dye (Nile Red) to visualize myelin. We found that treatment with Pam3CSK4 initiated one ...
We show that RGC degeneration is an early event after immunization with MOG, preceding the onset of clinical EAE. In addition, we show that RGC bodies are lost before their axons, which, at the time of significant RGC loss, still appear in full numbers but with signs of degeneration detectable at the ultrastructural level. These findings might indicate that the cause/trigger appears to develop within the retina and is not secondary to optic nerve injury, as is believed to occur during the clinical phase of the disease (Trapp et al., 1998; Meyer et al., 2001; Dutta and Trapp, 2007). Additionally, we observe no demyelination or infiltration of immune cells into the optic nerve parenchyma during the induction phase of optic neuritis, although small numbers of T-cells could be observed in the optic nerve meninges and choroid of the retina. It must be noted, however, that subclinical changes found to be present in the optic nerve may still be responsible for onset of degeneration, as has been ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Cycloheximide reduces retinal ganglion cell death induced by tectal ablation in neonatal rats. AU - Harvey, Alan. AU - Cui, Q.. AU - Robertson, Donald. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. M3 - Conference paper. VL - 4. SP - 36. EP - 36. BT - Australian Neuroscience Society Meeting. A2 - Powis, D.. PB - Australian Neuroscience Society. CY - Melbourne. ER - ...
Pacemaker syn- drome without a pacemaker. 129 for infantile esotropia,92 losttslipped muscle and. Of these 13 are buy online Forzest neurons whose output oline the muscle contractions, and one is a pacemaker neuron. Traumatic optic neuropathy.
A variety of strategies can be used to both protect and repair damaged optic nerves; however, work currently advances slowly, in part because of the need to thoroughly test such strategies in at least two species of animals before trying them in humans and in part because of the considerable cost involved in animal research. Nevertheless, with funding from institutions such as the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the Hirschhorn Foundation as well as from individual donors, we have been able to develop reproducible models of optic nerve damage in rats, mice, and, most importantly, in monkeys. These models allow us to test various substances that have the potential to reduce the amount of optic nerve damage caused by various insults or to restore vision that is lost from optic nerve damage. With this knowledge, we can then begin testing on humans. ...
Chorus from smoking in any respect prices. It harms the blood vessels in your eyes, as with the remainder of your physique. Moreover, smoking causes issues comparable to cataracts, macular degeneration and optic nerve injury. If you cannot cease, at the very least lower manner again.. Use any eye drops on occasion however not in extra. They supply aid, but additionally trigger issues too. If eye drops arent adequately soothing your eyes, it is best to converse with somebody within the eyecare business that can assist you out.. If in case you have puffy eyelids, use cucumbers to cut back the water retention. Get some chilly cucumbers and lower them into quarter inch slices. Place them in your eyelids throughout some enjoyable, closed-eye time of at the very least ten minutes. You may scale back irritation with inexperienced tea baggage soaked in cool water.. Know the historical past of your loved oness eye well being historical past. A variety of situations or illnesses are hereditary. Because ...
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first that combines VBM and TBSS to investigate secondary degeneration in subgroups of patients who have had a stroke with different outcomes in hand function, and the differences in FA maps between CPH and PPH detected by the 2 methods were extremely consistent. Moreover, further quantitative analysis based on ROIs detected by group differences in our VBM analysis demonstrated that secondary degeneration arose in widespread regions of normal-appearing white matter after stroke, and the degree of degeneration correlated with outcomes in hand function.. Secondary degeneration of the pyramidal tract after focal motor pathway stroke has been reported in previous studies with use of DTI. At early or chronic stages, there is a reduction in FA value on the affected side in the fiber tract distal to the primary lesion. Moreover, the early decrease of FA correlates positively with motor deficits, and the more pronounced the degeneration of the pyramidal ...
Optic Nerve Definition The optic nerve is the second nerve out of the twelve cranial nerves. It is a sensory paired nerve transmitting visual or sight information from the retina of the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the impulses from retina to the brain in the form of images. During the embryonic
At first, RNMO was regarded as a subtype of MS, because both of them have a relapsing-remitting course. However, increasing evidence supports the concept that RNMO is a distinctive disorder.2-12 Some previous studies have confirmed that NAWM and NAGM had occult damage in patients with MS.15-18 Such damage may be caused by occult brain tissue lesions (confirmed by pathologic studies28-31) and by the secondary degeneration resulting from MS visible lesions. Some authors have reported that patients with NMO had occult damage in GM and adaptive reorganization in functional cortices.20,21 However, whether such damage was present in brain WM and its possible mechanism (occult brain tissue lesions, secondary degeneration caused by lesions in the spinal cord and optic nerve, or both) need to be determined.. In this study, we first analyzed the MD and FA histograms of the BT to globally investigate whether patients with RNMO had abnormal brain diffusion. We found that they had a higher average MD than ...
The motivations of the kidnapper are a mystery and the final fate of the woman… well youll have to watch and determine for yourself. The film, although short, does not play out like someones home movie. Rather, Optic Nerve has made a film that looks professionally made and manages to, in a very short time, both intrigue and disturb the viewer with the story that unfolds. If you have some time to kill on the internet, check out Number 8 from Optic Nerve Productions and see for yourself, all it will cost you is the time you invest.. ...
There are some new procedures such as Non-Invasive Current Stimulation practiced by Dr. Anton Fedorov that have shown improvement in those with optic nerve damage. Learn more about this exciting new procedure here.
Optic nerve definition, either one of the second pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the retina to the brain. See more.
Did you know that in the human body there is a nerve that connects the eyeball to the anus? Its called the Anal Optic Nerve, and it is responsible for giving people a shitty outlook on life. If you dont believe it, try to pull a hair from your ass and see if it doesnt…
Nerve transection is a condition in which nerve fibers that run throughout the body are cut. There are several common causes of...
When my wife first started taking copaxone in 2006 it was described to us as a protective coating the mimics myellin and protects the damaged nerves from the immune system. Even the Teva website uses language like COPAXONE is believed ...
Autophagy is an essential recycling pathway implicated in neurodegeneration either as a pro-survival or a pro-death mechanism. Its role after axonal injury is still uncertain. Axotomy of the optic nerve is a classical model of neurodegeneration. It induces retinal ganglion cell death, a process also occurring in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. We analyzed autophagy induction and cell survival following optic nerve transection (ONT) in mice. Our results demonstrate activation of autophagy shortly after axotomy with autophagosome formation, upregulation of the autophagy regulator Atg5 and apoptotic death of 50% of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after 5 days. Genetic downregulation of autophagy using knockout mice for Atg4B (another regulator of autophagy) or with specific deletion of Atg5 in retinal ganglion cells, using the Atg5flox/flox mice reduces cell survival after ONT, whereas pharmacological induction of autophagy in vivo increases the number of surviving cells. In conclusion, ...
Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative optic neuropathies caused by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve deterioration. Without - and often despite - current therapeutic intervention, glaucoma ultimately results in progressive and irreversible vision loss. The initial insult in glaucoma pathogenesis is believed to occur at the lamina cribrosa, a collagenous structure where RGC axons exit the eye and coalesce to form the optic nerve1. Optic nerve crush (ONC) delivers an acute, mechanical injury to the nerve at this location. Rodent models of ONC have been widely utilized to examine glaucomatous disease pathophysiology as well as to advance the development of novel therapeutics.. ONC is performed on anesthetized mice by exposing the optic nerve through the bulbar conjunctiva and transiently pinching the nerve just behind the globe using self-closing forceps2. Genes within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway such as pJNK and pJUN are upregulated following ONC, ...
Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
What is the optic nerve?. The optic nerve is in the center of the retina and is a circular to oval pinkish area measuring 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter. From the center of the nerve radiate the major blood vessels of the retina. The optic nerve itself carries over one million nerves that connect the retina ((the layer of the eye that carries the vision cells) with the occipital lobe (the part of the brain that interprets vision) like a cable wire.. What is optic nerve atrophy?. Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and color vision. ONA that occurs as a child may result in nystagmus (rhythmic involuntary eye movements).. What causes optic nerve atrophy?. ONA causes include: tumor, trauma, decreased blood supply (ischemia) or oxygen supply (hypoxia) causing swelling, heredity, hydrocephalus, toxins, infection, and rare degenerative disorders. Onset can be from birth through adulthood.. How is optic nerve atrophy ...
In the adult mammalian CNS, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) stabilize neuronal structure and restrict compensatory sprouting following injury. The Nogo receptor family members NgR1 and NgR2 bind to MAIs and have been implicated in neuronal inhibition. We found that NgR1 and NgR3 bind with high affinity to the glycosaminoglycan moiety of proteoglycans and participate in CSPG inhibition in cultured neurons. Nogo receptor triple mutants (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr2(-/-); Ngr3(-/-); which are also known as Rtn4r, Rtn4rl2 and Rtn4rl1, respectively), but not single mutants, showed enhanced axonal regeneration following retro-orbital optic nerve crush injury. The combined loss of Ngr1 and Ngr3 (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr3(-/-)), but not Ngr1 and Ngr2 (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr2(-/-)), was sufficient to mimic the triple mutant regeneration phenotype. Regeneration in Ngr1(-/-); Ngr3(-/-) mice was further enhanced by simultaneous ablation of Rptpσ (also known as Ptprs), a known CSPG ...
By: Raul Reyes , Monday, February 06, 2017 1:45 PM. Research from The University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston has shed new light on what causes the permanent vision loss sometimes seen in the wake of a head injury. The findings are detained in The American Journal of Pathology.. When someone suffers a head trauma, sometimes there is damage to the optic nerve that is responsible for passing information between the eyes and the brain. When the optic nerve is injured, there are tears and swelling in the affected area that causes the nerve cells to die. This type of injury is called traumatic optic neuropathy, or TON, and results in irreversible vision loss. At this point, there is no effective treatment for TON and the mechanisms of the optic nerve cell death have been largely unclear. Wenbo Zhang, UTMB associate professor in the department of ophthalmology & visual sciences, and his team found that inflammation brought on by white blood cells play a role in head trauma-induced vision loss. ...
Studies on the rat optic nerve in the past 5 years have produced two surprises. First, they demonstrated that there are two biochemically, developmentally and functionally distinct types of astrocytes in the optic nerve, and probably in white matter tracts throughout the CNS: one seems to be responsible for inducing endothelial cells to form the blood-brain barrier while the other seems to service nodes of Ranvier. Second, they showed that oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes develop from a common bipotential (O-2A) progenitor cell that seems to migrate into the developing optic nerve, and may well migrate all over the CNS to wherever myelination is required; this implies that the neuroepithelial cells of the optic stalk are restricted to forming type-1 astrocytes. Some of the findings in the optic nerve may be relevant to the problem of CNS regeneration after injury. These include the following. (1) Reactive gliosis in white matter tracts seems to be mainly a function of type-1 astrocytes. ...
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS ...
Optic nerve regeneration is a treatment thats used to restore damaged axons in the optic nerve so that vision returns. Although...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Machanic on treatment for optic nerve damage in the eye: A thorough exam can help determine the extent of the damage in many cases along with visual field and oct testing. A neuroophthalmic exam may be required in addition to an MRI or ct scan in some cases. for topic: Treatment For Optic Nerve Damage In The Eye
Kidney Disease Autism Autoimmune Diseases COPD Degenerative/Osteoarthritis Diabetes Emphysema Erectile Dysfunction Hair Loss Heart Disease Kidney Disease Liver Disease Macular Degeneration Multiple Sclerosis Optic Nerve Injuries Pulmonary Fibrosis Retinitis Pigmentosa Rheumatoid Arthritis Spinal Cord Injuries Sports Injuries Stem Cell Facelift Stroke Total Body Rejuvenation Stem Cell Research1. The Regulation of Inflammatory Mediators in Acute Kidney Injury...
There is no treatment to reverse atrophy of the optic nerve; however, limiting further optic nerve damage (if possible) is the goal. For example, reduction of increased fluid pressure around the brain and spinal cord (hydrocephalus) may prevent further optic nerve damage. Spectacles may be prescribed to correct refractive error. When optic atrophy is unilateral protection of the good eye is essential and wearing of protective lenses should be stressed. Magnifiers or tinted lenses may also improve visual function.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Fig. 26. Partial occupation of postsynaptic contacts. (a) The contact (arrow) has a degenerate terminal (D) and an F terminal (F) adjacent to it. (b) The contact (arrow) is shared by an F terminal (F) and an unidentified profile (U). Magnification X 50,000. (from Lund and Lund, 1971). There is as yet no evidence for local excitatory connections in the SGL. Electrophysiological studies are consistent with the anatomical organization, in that retinal input to the SGL is monosynaptic and there is no evidence for local network related activity even when inhibition is blocked (Isa et al., 1998). In addition, contralateral enucleation 14 days prior to recording is sufficient to result in a complete loss of excitatory inputs to the SGL in vitro following intracollicular stimulation (Miyamoto et al 1990). However, the study of Turner et al. (2001) suggest that this is not always the case: optic tract stimulation 3-9 months after optic nerve transection leads to excitation in the SC and this is likely ...
I am from India. I have gone thru all the postings and my case is similar to some. I met with an accident around 15 years back in which the Optic nerve of my right eye got damaged and as a result I am ...
Kamil was diagnosed with Optic Nerve Atrophy, a condition that affects the optic nerve, which carries impulses from the eye to the brain.
Damage to the optic nerve is incurable, according to MedlinePlus. When the optic nerve is damaged, the persons vision dims over time, and his field of vision is narrowed. Eventually, the person no...
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Optic neuritis refers to a disease that interferes with optic nerve function whether inflammation is present or not, though it usually is. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
Hello I was on Copaxone before being placed on Tysabri. I recently tested positive for the JC Virus so they have taken me off Tysabri and placed me back on Copaxone. When I was first on Copaxone, I was not ...
The following articles have been tagged with the term optic nerve. Rebuild Your Vision gives you industry-leading information to help you protect and preserve your vision naturally.
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R) Erwin Georgi, Lines, (L) Moira Holohan, Look at the Signs.. Moira Holohans Look at the Sign used not only live action but video montage, painted animation, green screen and found sound. Hers is a good example of the additive nature of almost every work in the show. After incorporating multiple image sources, very few of the artists used synchronous sound, meaning sound generated by the image being filmed, so the audio was yet another source of sensory information for the brain to integrate.. Even when the media was reduced to a more classical combination - single image, single audio track - the pace was rapid-fire. Two loosely narrative works, including Justin H. Longs In Search of Miercoles - another winner, and Eve as a Young Girl, Vanessa Cruzs Kentridge-style animation, were almost jittery.. There were few meditative moments in Optic Nerve, all instant recognition, nothing requiring a little reflection to fully comprehend. For this reason, the show seemed very of the moment, blissfully ...
Neuro for the Rest of Us COPE # 36665-NO 2 TPA credits and The Differential Diagnosis of Optic Nerve Edema COPE #34951-PM 2 Regular ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Disorders of the Optic Nerve in Dogs. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
Using CORTIZONE-5 ONT 0.5% during pregnancy may raise the risk of children developing some disorder (commpon for some such kind of drugs), however it depends upon how CORTIZONE-5 ONT 0.5% ingredients pass through placenta and may have effect on baby - Strength of CORTIZONE-5 ONT 0.5% is major factor in determination of such side effects, The possible danger in pregnancy are under research. DOCTOR ESTEVE S.A. Canada publish leaflet about CORTIZONE-5 ONT 0.5% every update to describe possible risks of using CORTIZONE-5 ONT 0.5% side effect in pregnancy and pregnant women. You may download DOCTOR ESTEVE S.A. issued leaflet regarding side effects of CORTIZONE-5 ONT 0.5% - HYDROCORTISONE. Pregnancy Side Effects can be easily know by Atc code of CORTIZONE-5 ONT 0.5% ATC CODE.. ...
Whether the effect is real or not, I am a scientist (the wrong kind sadly, you wouldnt want to stare at what I stare at all day), and I have a theory along these lines. Actually I wrote it on The Malaysian Insider website recently, but they didnt publish it. I dont know why…. I read a research paper a long time ago about pre-processing in the optic nerve. It seems there are some responses your eyes can make that dont need the involvement of your brain. Like a knee-jerk response to a tap below the knee-cap, it happens before you know it. The paper was about different responses in the optic nerves to different objects in the field of vision.. They found that the optic nerve responded much more strongly to some geometric shapes than others. The top performing shape causing saccade (fast snap of eye to target of attention) was circles with a dot in the middle. One of the suggestions I recall from the paper (I can no longer find it, but it is really real - believe or not?) was that the ...
Whether the effect is real or not, I am a scientist (the wrong kind sadly, you wouldnt want to stare at what I stare at all day), and I have a theory along these lines. Actually I wrote it on The Malaysian Insider website recently, but they didnt publish it. I dont know why…. I read a research paper a long time ago about pre-processing in the optic nerve. It seems there are some responses your eyes can make that dont need the involvement of your brain. Like a knee-jerk response to a tap below the knee-cap, it happens before you know it. The paper was about different responses in the optic nerves to different objects in the field of vision.. They found that the optic nerve responded much more strongly to some geometric shapes than others. The top performing shape causing saccade (fast snap of eye to target of attention) was circles with a dot in the middle. One of the suggestions I recall from the paper (I can no longer find it, but it is really real - believe or not?) was that the ...
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when dessert was served the conversation was on its peak, coffee was great, but my frequently looking at the vasarelys, talking to the ambassador ,looking at the vasarelys again and again made the stripes in his lapel flag wave friendly ... ReplyDelete ...
If You Dont Want Me Now is an early beat shaker, recorded at the back end of 1963. This side should have been the one to promote with its infectious Beatles influenced riff, rat-a-tat-tat drums, vocal harmony parts, sax and what sounds like an electric piano. Im sure this would have been mopped up by the beat teens, its also an early Shel Talmy co-production job by the way ...
നേത്രനാഡി (optic nerve) ദൃഷ്ടിപടലത്തിലേക്കു കടക്കുന്ന ഭാഗത്തെയാണ് അന്ധബിന്ധു (Blind spot ) എന്ന് പറയുന്നത് . പ്രകാശത്തെ സംബന്ധിച്ചിടത്തോളം ഒരു അചേതന മണ്ഡലമാണിത്. മനുഷ്യനിൽ ഇതിന് ഉദ്ദേശം രണ്ടു മി.മീ. വ്യാസം വരും. 1688-ൽ ഫ്രഞ്ച് ഭൌതിക ശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞയായ എഡ്മെ മാരിയൊണെറ്റി ആണ് അന്ധബിന്ദുവിന്റെ സാന്നിധ്യം ആദ്യമായി തെളിയിച്ചത്. ദൃശ്യതലത്തിന്റെ ഒരു ഭാഗം ഒരു കണ്ണിന്റെ അന്ധബിന്ദുവാൽ എപ്പോഴും ...
The product you are looking for wasnt found. Below are some similar products you may be interested in. Generally when a product isnt found its because an external site linked to a product that is no longer available or a merchant changed the product name ...
At 16, Shaina weighed 242 pounds. She also had developed a complication of obesity in which pressure builds up within the skull, damaging the optic nerve.
Brief Description: A discussion of the pathology, both gross and microscopic of the optic nerve and disease processes that involve it. ...
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... while also being used experimentally for the treatment of glaucoma and optic nerve injury. Due to its lipophilic nature and ... "Limited restoration of visual function after partial optic nerve injury; a time course study using the calcium channel blocker ... By blocking these channels and preventing Ca2+ release, lomerizine increases circulation in the optic nerve head. These effects ... especially for treatment of the optic nerve, is oral. In a clinical study, long-term lomerizine usage was shown to be both safe ...
After a fall, Robert suffered a severe head injury that resulted in a severed optic nerve. His doctor confined him to a dark ...
The complications of retrobulbar block are globe perforation, optic nerve injury, retrobulbar haemorrhage and extraocular ... The ciliary nerves, ciliary ganglion, oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve are anesthetized in retrobulbar block. As a result, ... O' Brien's block : It is also known as facial nerve trunk block. The block is done at the level of the neck of the mandible ... Facial nerve, which supplies the orbicularis oculi muscle, is blocked in addition for intraocular surgeries. Topical ...
... and optic nerve injury. Injury to the optic nerve requires neuro-ophthalmic examination, and may require neurosurgical ... Zone III: this zone contains the vitreous cavity, retina, and optic nerve; injuries commonly observed in this region are ... although avulsion of the optic nerve and TON were reported in only 3% of combat injuries. In the event that a victim of globe ... Visual outcomes for patients with ocular trauma due to blast injuries vary, and prognoses depend upon the type of injury ...
A lesion here produces a junctional scotoma in the superior temporal field of the optic nerve opposite the site of injury. Shin ... Wilbrand's knee: Inferonasal fibres of the optic nerve which go into the contralateral optic nerve 4 mm before crossing over to ... Horton JC (1997). "Wilbrand's knee of the primate optic chiasm is an artefact of monocular enucleation". Transactions of the ...
It may also have potential use in prevention and treatment of ischemic retinopathy and retinal and optic nerve injury.[medical ...
... "blinded with injured optic nerves, and lame with physical injuries to hip and back... Yet I worked my way back to fitness and ... drumhead-type injury) when his last ship was bombed". It is important to note that a drumhead injury was not a foot injury, but ... The US Navy's files do not record Hubbard spending any time on Java and do not show any evidence of wounds or injuries ... Hubbard himself told Scientologists in a taped lecture that he had suffered eye injuries after having had "a bomb go off in my ...
... in which he suffered a parietal lobe hematoma and an optic nerve injury. Less than 20 minutes later, Buddy Lazier lost control ... Bill Tempero, Rick DeLorto and Butch Brickell, who remained entered despite his injuries, would be absent. A few days earlier, ... but he suffered no major injuries. Pit stops under caution followed for the Foyt trio and Stewart, who stalled his car and fell ... who had not recovered in time from the injuries sustained at Walt Disney World. ...
... retina and optic nerve does not affect the degeneration process of retinal ganglion cells after acute injury of the optic nerve ... October 2008). "Up-regulation of P2X4 receptors in spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury mediates BDNF release and ... They become activated in response to nerve injury, as demonstrated by several animal models. Activated microglia release ... They respond to pathogens and injury by changing morphology and migrating to the site of infection/injury, where they destroy ...
... linded with injured optic nerves, and lame with physical injuries to hip and back" and was twice pronounced dead. Hubbard's ... The injury is no longer needed." "You can tell all the romantic tales you wish. ... But you know which ones were lies ... You ... He suffered serious injuries in a motorcycle accident in 1973 and had a heart attack in 1975 that required him to take ... According to the Church, In early 1945, while recovering from war injuries at Oak Knoll Naval Hospital, Mr. Hubbard conducts a ...
He had also crashed multiple times including a serious crash at Sepang, where he sustained an injury to his optic nerve during ... who was suffering from injuries during that season. He would move on to MotoGP in the for the following season. Sofuoğlu had ...
The experiment showed that after a partial crush injury of the optic nerve, rats injected with activated T cells which are ... Experiments conducted in animal models of spinal cord injury, brain injury, glaucoma, stroke, motor neuron degeneration, ... Immediately after an injury to the CNS, there is a local innate immune response. This response is mediated primarily by ... CD4+ T helper cells that were specifically activated by antigens associated with the lesion, arrive at the site of injury and ...
Usually urgent acute angle closure glaucoma - implies injury to the optic nerve with the potential for irreversible vision loss ... injury keratitis - a potentially serious inflammation or injury to the cornea (window), often associated with significant pain ... Because of injury, infection or inflammation, an area of opacity may develop which can be seen with a penlight or slit lamp. In ... Injury from contact lenses can lead to keratitis. iritis - together with the ciliary body and choroid, the iris makes up the ...
... atrophy of the optic nerve, albinism, and eye injury. It provides several services to persons from these conditions, including ...
Trauma, of course, can cause serious injury to the nerve. Direct optic nerve injury can occur from a penetrating injury to the ... Other optic nerve problems are less common. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the underdevelopment of the optic nerve resulting in ... Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is commonly known as "stroke of the optic nerve" and affects the optic nerve head (where the ... The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as CN II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from ...
... vascular blockages either in the retina or in the optic nerve, stroke or other brain injury, and macular degeneration, often ... in which nerve injuries to the limbs, such as trauma in which a limb's nerves are severed but the limb is spared from ... where the retinal ganglion cell axons that compose the optic nerve exit the retina. This location is called the optic disc. ... the optic nerve and even the visual cortex. A pathological scotoma may involve any part of the visual field and may be of any ...
... life-changing right eye injury in which his eye's optic nerve was injured, and he suffered a tear in its retina, which was re- ... He needed five stitches to close a cut to his right eyelid, his eye's optic nerve was injured, and he suffered a tear in its ... Scheyer said his eye had healed from the traumatic injury that he suffered in the NBA Summer League. On March 14, he had a D- ... It was just two months following his serious eye injury, however, and he was not 100%. On October 9, he was waived. After some ...
2011, Golub lost his eyesight from pressure on his optic nerve. In September 2012, he fell on the tracks of a subway, but was ... He was taken to the hospital with minor injuries.[2][4][5][6] Soon after, he released the album Train Keeps A-Rollin' with ...
Ischemic injury to the optic nerve causes inflammation and swelling. Because the posterior optic nerve passes through the optic ... nerve atrophy originating from the damaged posterior optic nerve progresses to involve the anterior optic nerve head. Four to ... The anterior optic nerve, a.k.a. the optic nerve head, is surrounded by the scleral canal, and is vulnerable to crowding of ... to the optic nerve. Despite the term posterior, this form of damage to the eye's optic nerve due to poor blood flow also ...
... found that Wallerian degeneration of an optic nerve injury took up to 10 to 14 days on average, further suggesting that slow ... axonal injury Digestion chambers Nerve injury Neuroregeneration Peripheral nerve injury Primary and secondary brain injury ... In healthy nerves, nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced in very small amounts. However, upon injury, NGF mRNA expression ... Within 4 days of the injury, the distal end of the portion of the nerve fiber proximal to the lesion sends out sprouts towards ...
... measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter to detect findings of increased intracranial pressure in adult head injury patients ... Correlation of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter with Direct Measurement of Intracranial Pressure. Acad Emerg Med. 2008: 15(2):201- ... as well as evaluating optic nerve sheath diameters as a potential indicator of other diseases in the central nervous system. ... For people who present signs of traumatic injury, the focused assessment with sonography for trauma or FAST exam is used to ...
Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... Glaucoma causes visual field loss as well as severs the optic nerve.[35] Early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma in patients ... Eye injuries, most often occurring in people under 30, are the leading cause of monocular blindness (vision loss in one eye) ... to the occipital lobe of the brain that prevent the brain from correctly receiving or interpreting signals from the optic nerve ...
The optic nerve can be damaged when exposed to direct or indirect injury. Direct optic nerve injuries are caused by trauma to ... can cause injury to the optic nerve, but this is readily manageable if it does not involve direct optic nerve injury and is ... The most common site of injury of the optic nerve is the intracanalicular portion of the nerve. Deceleration injuries from ... In ischemic optic neuropathies, there is insufficient blood flow (ischemia) to the optic nerve. The anterior optic nerve is ...
Bob fell and suffered several serious injuries, including a skull fracture and severed optic nerve. Doctors told him to stay in ... While convalescing from his injuries, Bob and Joseph searched for fluorescent materials, which Joseph had read about and wished ...
... optic nerve injuries MeSH C10.292.700.500 - optic nerve neoplasms MeSH C10.292.700.500.500 - optic nerve glioma MeSH C10.292. ... abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.292.262.500 - facial nerve injuries MeSH C10.292.262.750 - optic nerve injuries MeSH C10.292. ... abducens nerve injury MeSH C10.900.300.218.300 - facial nerve injuries MeSH C10.900.300.218.550 - optic nerve injuries MeSH ... optic nerve neoplasms MeSH C10.551.360.500.500 - optic nerve glioma MeSH C10.551.525.500 - neurofibromatosis 2 MeSH C10.551. ...
... leaving him with a permanently damaged optic nerve. The injury, combined with an academic issue with the NCAA, delayed his ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "After eye injury no limits in sight for ND's Katenda". 2012-01-20 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Injury leaves Eric Katenda partially blind". 2011-08-06. Retrieved 2012-02- ... However, Katenda suffered a "freak injury" to his left eye during a summer pick-up game, ...
Nerve injury Turner JE, Glaze KA (March 1977). "The early stages of Wallerian degeneration in the severed optic nerve of the ... Basic Nerve Pathology ( - An Introduction to the Pathology of Nerves. ... Digestion chambers are a histologic finding in nerves that are undergoing Wallerian degeneration. Digestion chambers consist of ...
Causes of optic nerve lesions include optic atrophy, optic neuropathy, head injury etc. Lesions involving the whole optic nerve ... The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, extends from the optic disc to the optic chiasma. Lesions in optic nerve ... The optic chiasm, or optic chiasma is the part of the brain where both optic nerves cross. It is located at the bottom of the ... The optic tract is a continuation of the optic nerve that relays information from the optic chiasm to the ipsilateral lateral ...
Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic ... GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national ... A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence ... in part by shuttling different compounds around in response to injury or other stimulus. ...
Sensory cranial and spinal nerves. *Optic (II). *Vestibulocochlear (VIII). *Olfactory (I). *Facial (VII) ... Type IV: (very small) High threshold pain receptors that communicate injury. Type II and Type III mechanoreceptors in ... The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs) detect sustained pressure. The lamellar corpuscles (also known as ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ...
It is also used for treatment of neuroblastoma, a form of nerve cancer. ... swelling of the optic disk (papilloedema, associated with IIH), photophobia and other visual disturbances.[6] ... coupled with the high cost of defending personal-injury lawsuits brought by some people who took the drug.[79] Generic ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ... They are not caused by outside factors, such as injury or diet. ... Optic neuropathy. *Ischemic *anterior (AION). *posterior (PION) ...
1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.[edit]. The use of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) for the assessment of ICP dates back to ... and can be used to identify patients who are at risk of developing cerebral ischemia in early phases of traumatic brain injury ... 8.1 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.. *8.2 2. Ophthalmodynamometry or the measurement of the retinal venous outflow pressure (VOP ... While the ONSD can at any given point along the optic nerve be measured with a precision of ,1mm, reliability of derived ICP ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ... BET 4: use of litmus paper in chemical eye injury". Emerg Med J. 26 (12): 887. doi:10.1136/emj.2009.086124. PMID 19934140.. ... Chemical eye injury may result when an acidic or alkaline substance gets in the eye.[8] Alkali burns are typically worse than ... Chemical injuries, particularly alkali burns, are medical emergencies, as they can lead to severe scarring and intraocular ...
Similar to hypertensive retinopathy, evidence of nerve fiber infarcts due to ischemia (cotton-wool spots) can be seen on ... In the brain, hypertensive encephalopathy - characterized by hypertension, altered mental status, and swelling of the optic ... Endothelial injury and dysfunction. *Fibrinoid necrosis of the arterioles. *Deposition of platelets and fibrin ... or swelling of the optic disc called papilledema. The brain shows manifestations of increased pressure within the cranium, such ...
... optic nerves and the spine but unfortunately his later discovered notes were disorganized and difficult to decipher due to his ... King AI, Viano DC, Mizeres N, States JD (April 1995). "Humanitarian benefits of cadaver research on injury prevention". The ... identification of seven pairs of cranial nerves, the difference between sensory and motor nerves, and the discovery of the ... it was approximated that improvements made to cars since cadaver testing have prevented 143,000 injuries and 4250 deaths. ...
The orbicularis oculi is a facial muscle; therefore its actions are translated by the facial nerve root. The levator palpebrae ... Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 26 (3): 318-25. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2006.00350.x. PMID 16684158.. ... eye injury, medication, and disease. The blinking rate is determined by the "blinking center", but it can also be affected by ... Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 28 (4): 345-53. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2008.00577.x. PMID 18565090.. ...
... whose axons form the optic nerve, are at the front of the retina; therefore the optic nerve must cross through the retina en ... In some instances, the cause of such detachment is injury to the eyeball that allows fluid or blood to collect between the ... It has three layers of nerve cells and two of synapses, including the unique ribbon synapse. The optic nerve carries the ... Nerve fiber layer (NFL) Ganglion cell axons travelling towards the optic nerve ...
... because the demyelinating inflammation can affect the optic nerve or spinal cord. Many are idiopathic. Both myelinoclastic and ... key aspects of promoting axon growth and remyelination after injury or disease.[25] ... Optic neuritis, though, occurs preferentially in females typically between the ages of 30 and 35.[18] Other conditions such as ... Rodriguez M, Siva A, Cross SA, O'Brien PC, Kurland LT (1995). "Optic neuritis: a population-based study in Olmsted County, ...
Spinal cord injury. *Spinal cord tumors. *Spinal muscular atrophy. *Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 - ... Septo-optic dysplasia. *Shaken baby syndrome. *Shingles. *Shy-Drager syndrome. *Sjögren's syndrome ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ... Trauma: Most trauma injuries cause madarosis from the psychological standpoint, known as trichotillomania ...
周围神经损伤分類(英语:Peripheral nerve injury classification) ... 闭孔内肌神经(英语:Obturator internus nerve). *梨状肌神经(英语:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神经(英语:Cutaneous nerve): 股后皮神经(英语:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... superior laryngeal nerve(英语:superior laryngeal nerve) *external laryngeal nerve(英语:external laryngeal nerve) ... 足底内侧神经(英语:medial plantar
Damage to the eye: optic stalk, optic cup, and lens vesicles, microphthalmia, cataracts, chorioretinitis, optic atrophy ... After primary infection, VZV is hypothesized to spread from mucosal and epidermal lesions to local sensory nerves. VZV then ... keeping the fingernails short to decrease injury from scratching, and the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to help with ... After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, ...
Peripheral nerves are more likely to be damaged, but the effects of the damage are not as widespread as seen in injuries to the ... Brain and spinal cord injury[edit]. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[86] Spinal injuries occur in two ... Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis, and sub-chondral ...
Optic neuritis-Inflammation of the optic nerve from infection or multiple sclerosis. You may have pain when you move your eye ... Eye infection, inflammation, or injury.. *Sjögren's syndrome, a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that destroys moisture ... Temporal arteritis-Inflammation of an artery in the brain that supplies blood to the optic nerve. ...
In the case of trauma-related syringomyelia, the surgeon operates at the level of the initial injury. The syrinx collapses at ... Syringomyelia causes a wide variety of neuropathic symptoms due to damage of the spinal cord and the nerves inside. Patients ... Furthermore, evidence also suggests that impact injuries to the thorax area highly correlate with the occurrence of a cervical- ... Symptoms may appear months or even years after the initial injury, starting with pain, weakness, and sensory impairment ...
Pressure on the part of the optic nerve known as the chiasm, which is located above the gland, leads to loss of vision on the ... traumatic brain injury, pregnancy (during which the pituitary enlarges) and treatment with estrogens. Hormonal stimulation ... Visual field testing is recommended as soon as possible after diagnosis,[1][4] as it quantifies the severity of any optic nerve ... After an apoplexy, the pressure inside the sella turcica rises, and surrounding structures such as the optic nerve and the ...
... which then travel up the optic nerve. ... allowing transmission to bypass nodes in case of injury. ... Tasaki I (1939). "Electro-saltatory transmission of nerve impulse and effect of narcosis upon nerve fiber". Am. J. Physiol. 127 ... Evans JW (1972). "Nerve axon equations. I. Linear approximations". Indiana U. Math. Journal. 21 (9): 877-885. doi:10.1512/iumj. ... Newmark J (2007). "Nerve agents". Neurologist. 13 (1): 20-32. doi:10.1097/01.nrl.0000252923.04894.53. PMID 17215724.. ...
In 1843 Emil du Bois-Reymond demonstrated the electrical nature of the nerve signal,[14] whose speed Hermann von Helmholtz ... Trepanation, the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a hole into the skull for the purpose of curing head injuries ... "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release ... "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres" [71] ...
Optic nerve (5%). *Uvea (2%). Mechanism[edit]. Childhood blindness has many causes, and each cause has its own method of ... Blindness may be due to genetic mutations, birth defects, premature birth, nutritional deficiencies, infections, injuries, and ...
周圍神經損傷分類(英語:Peripheral nerve injury classification) ... 閉孔內肌神經(英語:Obturator internus nerve). *梨狀肌神經(英語:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神經(英語:Cutaneous nerve): 股後皮神經(英語:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... 足底內側神經(英語:medial plantar nerve) (趾足底總神經(英語:common plantar digital nerves of medial plantar nerve) ... 神經學家
The optic canal contains the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) and the ophthalmic artery, and sits at the junction of the sphenoid ... separated from the supraorbital fissure by the optic strut. Injury to any one of these structures by infection, trauma or ... In addition, there is the optic canal, which contains the optic nerve, or cranial nerve II, and is formed entirely by the ... Tumors (e.g. glioma and meningioma of the optic nerve) within the cone formed by the horizontal rectus muscles produce axial ...
Screening for prevention of optic nerve damage due to chronic open angle glaucoma PMID 17054274 ... Interventions for iatrogenic inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury PMID 24740534 ... Topical anaesthetic or vasoconstrictor preparations for flexible fibre-optic nasal pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy PMID 21412890 ... Infraorbital nerve block for postoperative pain following cleft lip repair in children PMID 27074283 ...
Other types of tissue found in bones include bone marrow, endosteum, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels and cartilage. ... This can include determining the nutritional, health, age or injury status of the individual the bones were taken from. ... "Injuries Involving the Epiphyseal Plate". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 45 (3): 587-622. doi:10.2106/00004623-196345030-00019 ...
Injuries to the bowel can cause a delayed peritonitis. It is very important that these injuries be recognized as early as ... The key element is the use of a laparoscope, a long fiber optic cable system that allows viewing of the affected area by ... and can exert pressure on the phrenic nerve. This produces a sensation of pain that may extend to the patient's shoulders. For ... The resulting injuries can result in perforated organs and can also lead to peritonitis.[medical citation needed] ...
Optic chiasmEdit. Main article: Optic chiasm. The optic nerves from both eyes meet and cross at the optic chiasm,[31][32] at ... Scotoma is a type of blindness that produces a small blind spot in the visual field typically caused by injury in the primary ... The optic nerve then carries these pulses through the optic canal. Upon reaching the optic chiasm the nerve fibers decussate ( ... Optic radiationEdit. Main article: Optic radiation. The optic radiations, one on each side of the brain, carry information from ...
But at best, these approaches get only about 1 percent of the injured nerve fibers to regenerate and reconnect to the brain; ... researchers have tried to regenerate the injured optic nerve using different growth factors and/or agents that overcome natural ... such treatment could greatly benefit patients with optic nerve injury, glaucoma, and perhaps other types of nerve fiber (axon) ... This is the first study to demonstrate the role of zinc in optic nerve injury, but zinc has also been shown to have a role in ...
After 5 weeks, injury to the optic nerve was induced by short-term elevation of intraocular pressure. Retinal function was ... Forced exercise protects the aged optic nerve against intraocular pressure injury.. [Vicki Chrysostomou, Jelena M Kezic, Ian A ... We have previously shown that the optic nerve of mice becomes increasingly vulnerable to injury with advancing age. Here, we ... We found that exercise almost completely reversed age-related vulnerability of the optic nerve to injury such that exercised ...
The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) may be increased in brain-injured patients, especially children, with intracranial ... orbital fractures and optic nerve injury may occur in up to 10% of patients with head trauma [39]. The effect of these injuries ... increasing the pressure around the optic nerve and expanding the optic nerve sheath [29]. Although it is difficult to suggest a ... Injury Severity Score. Intensive Care Units. Intracranial Pressure. Male. Middle Aged. Optic Nerve / ultrasonography*. ...
... into an active regenerative state enabling these neurons to survive injury and to regenerate axons into the injured optic nerve ... into an active regenerative state enabling these neurons to survive injury and to regenerate axons into the injured optic nerve ... a degenerative or a regenerative state in ex vivo retinae 1 week after either optic nerve cut alone (ONC) or additional IS (ONC ... a degenerative or a regenerative state in ex vivo retinae one week after either optic nerve cut alone (ONC) or additional ...
Injury To Nerves And Spinal Cord 950-957 > Injury to optic nerve and pathways 950- ... Optic nerve injury. *ICD-9-CM 950.0 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis on a reimbursement ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM S04.019A Injury of optic nerve, unspecified eye, initial encounter ... ICD-9-CM codes are used in medical billing and coding to describe diseases, injuries, symptoms and conditions. ICD-9-CM 950.0 ...
... determine whether systemic simvastatin can suppress neuroinflammation in the optic nerve and rescue RGCs after the optic nerve ... after optic nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to ... on day 7 after the optic nerve was crushed. This reduction was ... We conclude that systemic simvastatin can reduce the death of RGCs induced by crushing the optic nerve possibly by suppressing ... Simvastatin (1.0 µM) significantly reduced the TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in cultured optic nerve astrocytes. ...
... facing life-long losses in sensation and motor function from spinal cord injury and related conditions in which axons are badly ... while in animals with optic nerve injury, axons regrew the entire length of the optic nerve tract. Evaluation of walking and ... When full-grown, the animals were divided into groups that sustained spinal cord injury or injury to the optic nerve tracts ... since there currently are no regenerative treatments for spinal cord injury or optic nerve injury," Dr. Li explained. ...
Role of serial ultrasonic optic nerve sheath diameter monitoring in head injury ... Ultrasound measurement of optic nerve diameter and optic nerve sheath diameter in healthy Chinese adults. Bmc Neurology 15: 106 ... Intra- and interobserver reliability of transorbital sonographic assessment of the optic nerve sheath diameter and optic nerve ... Noninvasive Transorbital Assessment of the Optic Nerve Sheath in Children: Relationship Between Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter, ...
... genes was used to compare the transcriptomes from models of acute optic nerve injury (AONI), chronic optic nerve injury (CONI) ... While optic nerve injury models result in RGC death, many other cell-types are also involved including retinal and optic nerve ... and chronic optic nerve injury in both the retina and the optic nerve, which could be mediated by cellular elements common to ... Following optic nerve injury (ONI), transcriptional changes occur that effect the course of injury response and the level to ...
We examined visually evoked potentials (VEP) in the primary visual cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the crushed nerve ... ABSTRACTIn adult mice with unilateral optic nerve crush injury (ONC), we studied visual response plasticity in the visual ... In adult mice with unilateral optic nerve crush injury (ONC), we studied visual response plasticity in the visual cortex ... Neurosteroid allopregnanolone reduces ipsilateral visual cortex potentiation following unilateral optic nerve injury ...
Histological evaluation of the optic nerves was carried out at 12 months post injury. Naïve mice (n = 6; 6-9 mo old C57BL/6 ... Overall, the degenerative changes in the optic nerves after r-mTBI in hTau mice at 12 months post injury were milder compared ... Optic nerve changes after mild traumatic brain injury in mice expressing human Tau ... Optic nerve changes after mild traumatic brain injury in mice expressing human Tau ...
Suramin Is a Potent Stimulator Of Retinal Ganglion Cell Regeneration After Optic Nerve Injury ... Suramin Is a Potent Stimulator Of Retinal Ganglion Cell Regeneration After Optic Nerve Injury ... Suramin Is a Potent Stimulator Of Retinal Ganglion Cell Regeneration After Optic Nerve Injury. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ... To address this, the influence of suramin on the survival and regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve ( ...
ABSTRACTIn optic neuropathies, the progressive deterioration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function leads to irreversible ... For the ON-OFF cells, the OFF component of response was also more susceptible to optic nerve injury than the ON component. ... Together, these data support the contention that RGCs functional degeneration in optic nerve injury is subtype dependent, a ... Different functional susceptibilities of mouse retinal ganglion cell subtypes to optic nerve crush injury ...
... md optic nerves showed that the md optic nerve CAP is less rapidly attenuated by anoxia than normally myelinated optic nerves. ... Acutely isolated optic nerves from 19- to 21-day-old md rats and control optic nerves from unaffected male littermates were ... Figure 4 shows the CAP from a 19- to 21-day unaffected littermate optic nerve (see Fig 4A) and an age-matched md optic nerve ( ... Figure 2 (top) shows, for comparison with md optic nerve, CAPS from a normal 2-day optic nerve in which the axons have not ...
Optic nerve MeSH Terms expand_less. expand_more. Area Under Curve Brain Brain Injuries Glasgow Coma Scale Humans Injury ... The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured by ultrasonography is among the indicators of intracranial pressure (ICP) ... Correlation between Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Measured by Computed Tomography and Elevated Intracranial Pressure in Patients ... The mean injury severity score (ISS) and glasgow coma scale (GCS) of all patients were 24.2±6.1 and 5.4±0.8, respectively. The ...
Protective effect of anthocyanin B2 on traumatic optic nerve injury in rats. Zhenbo ZHU, Jiyang LING, Jie ZHU, Yun ZHANG ✉ ... Zhu Z, Ling J, Zhu J, Zhang Y. Protective effect of anthocyanin B2 on traumatic optic nerve injury in rats. Panminerva Med 2020 ...
Treatment for optic nerve injury post accident, Ask a Doctor about when and why Acupuncture is advised, Online doctor patient ... Doctor : I guess the chaiama of the optic nerve was injured Doctor : dure to the injury User : then since theres no result in ... User : the reflex in optic nurve is slow Doctor : ok Doctor : which report says so User : my acupuncture doctor has the report ... Optic nerve injury causes. *Symptoms of optic nerve injury. *Treatment and cure for optic nerve injury ...
Treatment with human periodontal ligament stem cells in a rat model of optic nerve injury leads to enhanced retinal ganglion ... For more periodontal ligament stem cell-based studies and new stem cell therapies for optic nerve injury, stay tuned to the ... The apoptosis of mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) associated with optic nerve (ON) injury inhibits the regeneration of ... Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells - A New and Effective means to Treat Optic Nerve Injury?. ...
Inflammation-induced optic nerve regeneration (IIR) is thought to boost retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intrinsic growth capacity ... Optic nerves were collected at various postcrush intervals, and longitudinal sections were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser ... based approach that identifies discriminant molecular signals in and around optic nerve crush (ONC) sites.ONC was performed in ... but effects on the inhibitory glial environment of the optic nerve are unexplored. To investigate progrowth molecular changes ...
Optic nerve injury also induced Ki67+ cells in the optic nerve but not in the retina. Comparison of the retinal myeloid cell ... nerve can be a reservoir for activated microglia and other retinal myeloid cells in the retina following optic nerve injury. ... partial and full optic nerve transection (ONT), and parabiosis to determine the origin of injury induced retinal myeloid cells ... Comparison of optic nerve to retina following an ONC showed a much greater concentration of GFPhi cells and GFPlo microglia in ...
What is Optic nerve injuries? Meaning of Optic nerve injuries medical term. What does Optic nerve injuries mean? ... Looking for online definition of Optic nerve injuries in the Medical Dictionary? Optic nerve injuries explanation free. ... Optic nerve. (redirected from Optic nerve injuries). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. optic. [op´tik] ocular ... Optic nerve injuries , definition of Optic nerve injuries by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
Optic Nerve Injuries Pulmonary Fibrosis Retinitis Pigmentosa Rheumatoid Arthritis Spinal Cord Injuries Sports Injuries Stem ... Research progress of stem cells on glaucomatous optic... ... The optic nerve is the second of twelve paired cranial nerves ... Optic Nerve Injuries Autism Autoimmune Diseases COPD Degenerative/Osteoarthritis Diabetes Emphysema Erectile Dysfunction Hair ... next to the optic nerve, as close as possible to the area of injury. Damage to the optic nerve typically causes permanent and ...
... axon regeneration and survival after optic nerve injury (ONI). Severed optic axons fail to regenerate and ONI leads to life- ... Therapeutic Strategies for Repairing Optic Nerve Injury Li, Shuxin Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States ... Therapeutic Strategies for Repairing Optic Nerve Injury. Li, Shuxin / Temple University. NIH 2016. R01 EY. Therapeutic ... Therapeutic Strategies for Repairing Optic Nerve Injury. Li, Shuxin / Temple University. NIH 2014. R01 EY. Therapeutic ...
Loss of Arid1a Promotes Neuronal Survival Following Optic Nerve Injury *Xue-Qi Peng ...
... R. Nickells, H. Schmitt, M.E. Maes, C. Schlamp, ... "AAV2 Mediated Transduction of the Mouse Retina after Optic Nerve Injury." Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 58, no ... "AAV2 Mediated Transduction of the Mouse Retina after Optic Nerve Injury." Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. ... R. Nickells, H. Schmitt, M. E. Maes, and C. Schlamp, "AAV2 mediated transduction of the mouse retina after optic nerve injury ...
We investigated structural injury patterns in the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (p-RNFL) and ganglion cell inner ... One patient had a pale optic nerve head in both eyes, whereas the other two exhibited a normal appearance of the optic papilla ... Sheng, WY., Su, LY., Ge, W. et al. Analysis of structural injury patterns in peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer and ... We investigated structural injury patterns in the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (p-RNFL) and ganglion cell inner ...
FIRST EVER VISION RESTORATION AFTER OPTIC NERVE INJURY IN MICE In mammals, neural axons (nerves) fail to regenerate after ... FIRST EVER VISION RESTORATION AFTER OPTIC NERVE INJURY IN MICE Sunday, 23 April 2017. FIRST EVER VISION RESTORATION AFTER OPTIC ... After optic nerve crush, the axons of retinal ganglion cells fail to grow back beyond the lesion site, eventually resulting in ... to grow back to their specific brain regions and therefore to restore some aspects of visual acuity after optic nerve injury in ...
... the scientists restored vision in mice with optic nerve injury by using gene therapy to get the nerves to regenerate and - the ... A paradigm for treating glaucoma and optic nerve injury. While the study used a gene therapy virus called AAV to deliver the ... Drug cocktail could restore vision in optic nerve injury * Immune punch against parasites reveals potentially ancient cell ... Getting nerves to conduct. The key advance in restoring vision was getting the regenerated nerve fibers (axons) to not only ...
Optic Nerve Avulsion After Finger-Poke Injury. Patel, Tapan P.; Archer, Erica L.; Trobe, Jonathan D. ... Optic Nerve Head Drusen: The Relationship Between Intraocular Pressure and Optic Nerve Structure and Function. Nolan, Kaitlyn W ... Optical Coherence Tomography in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia: Correlation With Optic Disc Diameter, Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness, and ... MRI of the Optic Nerves and Chiasm in Patients With Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. Blanc, Christelle; Heran, Françoise; ...
... suppresses degeneration of nerve fibers and promotes its regeneration after optic nerve injury. ... Inhibition of CRMP2 phosphorylation promotes axonal regeneration after optic nerve injury A new study by Professor Toshio ... regions with many thin nerve fibers from regions with few thick nerve fibers. ... Endogenous retrovirus type W found to be a major contributor to nerve damage in MS Early disease stages of MS are primarily ...
  • those nerve fibers leading from the nasal side of the retina cross to the opposite side while those from the temporal side continue to the thalamus uncrossed. (
  • A bundle of nerve fibers that carries visual messages from the retina in the form of electrical signals to the brain. (
  • A research group from the University of California, under the leadership of Andrew D. Huberman , managed to induce optic nerve fibers to grow back to their specific brain regions and therefore to restore some aspects of visual acuity after optic nerve injury in mice . (
  • The key advance in restoring vision was getting the regenerated nerve fibers (axons) to not only form working connections with brain cells, but also to carry impulses (action potentials) all the way from the eye to the brain. (
  • The challenge was that the fibers regrow without the insulating sheath known as myelin, which helps propagate nerve signals over long distances. (
  • A new study by Professor Toshio Ohshima of Waseda University has found that the inhibition of phosphorylation of collapsing response mediator protein 2, a microtubule-binding protein, suppresses degeneration of nerve fibers and promotes its regeneration after optic nerve injury. (
  • Heuss et al determined that the GFP hi myeloid cells were not recruited from circulation but instead generated from optic nerve microglia and migrate along the optic nerve fibers into the retina after an injury. (
  • The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. (
  • Researchers from Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Harvard Medical School have described, for the first time, the adult brain's ability to compensate for a near-complete loss of auditory nerve fibers that link the ear to the brain. (
  • The pathophysiology of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy (TON) is thought to be multifactorial, and some researchers have also postulated a primary and secondary mechanism of injury.TON is categorized as direct or indirect.In indirect TON cases, the injury to the axons is thought to be induced by shearing forces that are transmitted to the fibers or to the vascular supply of the nerve. (
  • The optic nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs between the eye and the brain so that visual information can travel between them. (
  • It leaves the orbit (eye socket) via the optic canal, running postero-medially towards the optic chiasm, where there is a partial decussation (crossing) of fibres from the nasal visual fields of both eyes. (
  • Damage proximal to the optic chiasm causes loss of vision in the visual field of the same side only. (
  • In contrast, optic neuropathy involves the optic nerve or chiasm and may present with sudden onset of visual changes. (
  • Delayed radiation injury to the retrobulbar optic nerves and chiasm. (
  • Radiation-induced apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the adult rat optic chiasm. (
  • It was previously reported that 1-2% of patients taking ethambutol doses at 15-25 mg/kg/d could develop ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy (EON) [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • In the past, it was postulated that ethambutol exhibited neurophilic characteristics, and that EON was primarily manifested as a retrobulbar optic neuropathy [ 4 ]. (
  • By far, the three most common injuries to the optic nerve are from glaucoma, optic neuritis (especially in those younger than 50 years of age), and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (usually in those older than 50). (
  • Glaucoma is a group of diseases involving loss of retinal ganglion cells causing optic neuropathy in a pattern of peripheral vision loss, initially sparing central vision. (
  • Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy is a particular type of infarct that affects patients with an anatomical predisposition and cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • The synergistic damage may underlie the high incidence of traumatic brain injury and traumatic optic neuropathy in blast-injured service members given that explosive blasts are multiple injury events that occur in a very short time span. (
  • This study also supports the use of the VEP as a biomarker for traumatic optic neuropathy. (
  • To evaluate changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer following traumatic optic neuropathy. (
  • This is the first report documenting early transient increase followed by progressive loss of the retinal nerve fiber layer in traumatic optic neuropathy. (
  • Radiation-induced retinopathy and radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) are rare and disabling late-onset complications of ocular irradiation. (
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy. (
  • Kline LB, Kim JY, Ceballos R. Radiation optic neuropathy. (
  • Visual recovery from radiation-induced optic neuropathy. (
  • Investigating the efficacy of intravitreal injection of erythropoietin (EPO) in managing indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON) of different durations. (
  • Intravitreal injection of EPO may be effective and safe in treatment of recent and old indirect traumatic optic neuropathy. (
  • Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a blinding form of optic neuropathies in which the incidence of no light perception (NLP) varies from 22% to 78% with variable degrees of optic atrophy [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. (
  • ERC may be useful and worthy of further development for its adjunctive utilization in the treatment of optic neuropathy. (
  • For decades, treatment of compressive optic nerve neuropathy was conservative and involved the intravenous application of high-dose corticoids, which was combined with nerve growth factors in later years. (
  • There are two main indications for endonasal endoscopic optic nerve decompression: (1) traumatic optic nerve neuropathy (TON), and (2) optic nerve neuropathy from non-traumatic causes (nTON), such as tumorous conditions, inflammatory diseases, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). (
  • Endonasal endoscopic optic nerve decompression is a safe and highly effective treatment to reduce hydrostatic pressure on the optic nerve in cases of optic nerve neuropathy of various etiologies. (
  • This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. (
  • Treatment of optic neuritis is aimed at control of the primary cause of the disorder. (
  • Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve. (
  • Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve. (
  • Mechanism of delayed conduction of fellow eyes in patients with optic neuritis. (
  • However, inflammatory stimulation (IS) by intravitreal injection of Pam 3 Cys transforms RGCs into an active regenerative state enabling these neurons to survive injury and to regenerate axons into the injured optic nerve. (
  • In the current study, we investigated the signal propagation in single intraretinal axons as well as characteristic activity features of RGCs in a naive, a degenerative or a regenerative state in ex vivo retinae 1 week after either optic nerve cut alone (ONC) or additional IS (ONC + IS). (
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) convey visual signals from the retina along their axons through the optic nerve to the brain. (
  • Axonal injuries in the optic nerve normally result in permanent functional loss due to regenerative failure of RGCs. (
  • It remains unclear whether the reported changes are a consequence of decreased cell density or arise at single-cell level which would be necessary to investigate the health status of surviving RGCs or susceptibility to regenerative treatments after optic nerve cut. (
  • AONI models, like optic nerve crush and axotomy, damage the axons of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by pinching or transecting the optic nerve behind the globe of the eye. (
  • To address this, the influence of suramin on the survival and regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve (ON) injury was studied. (
  • Together, these data support the contention that RGCs' functional degeneration in optic nerve injury is subtype dependent, a fact that needs to be considered when developing treatments of glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell degeneration and other optic neuropathies. (
  • HIGHLIGHTS Light response impairment occurs earlier for OFF than ON RGCs post optic nerve injury. (
  • Gene therapy of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has promise as a powerful therapeutic for the rescue and regeneration of these cells after optic nerve damage. (
  • To investigate the potential therapeutic benefit of intravitreally implanted dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on axotomized adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) using in vitro and in vivo neural injury models. (
  • At 21 dpl, numbers of Brn-3a+ RGCs in parasagittal retinal sections and growth-associated protein-43+ axons in longitudinal optic nerve sections were quantified as measures of RGC survival and axon regeneration, respectively. (
  • To address this, we asked whether iASPP contributes to the survival of RGCs in an in vivo model of acute optic nerve damage. (
  • This study demonstrates a novel role for iASPP in the survival of RGCs, and provides further evidence of the importance of the ASPP family in the regulation of neuronal loss after axonal injury. (
  • Thus, anatomically, it is observed that 38% and 20% of RGCs are lost seven days post-optic nerve transection or crush, respectively. (
  • Either of the second pair of cranial nerves that arise from the retina and carry visual information to the thalamus and other parts of the brain. (
  • The optic nerve is the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but is considered to be part of the central nervous system, as it is derived from an outpouching of the diencephalon during embryonic development. (
  • Leber KA, Bergloff J, Pendl G. Dose-response tolerance of the visual pathways and cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to stereotactic radiosurgery. (
  • These data suggest that the known benefits of exercise also extend to the visual system and support further investigation of physical activity as a means of protecting against injury, dysfunction, and degeneration in the aging eye. (
  • Axonal injury in the optic nerve is associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and irreversible loss of vision. (
  • The system fundamental axonal injury-induced RGC degeneration can also take place in sufferers with TON. (
  • We performed pressure on the left optic nerves of 24 pigs and injected intravenous thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) to 12 of these pigs in order to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration in the optic nerves. (
  • By contrast, deletion of the p50 suppressor subunit promoted spontaneous and post-injury Wallerian degeneration. (
  • Glial cell proliferation and/or activation (gliosis) in the optic nerve usually occurs as a reactive change associated with optic nerve degeneration. (
  • Associated lesions, such as optic nerve degeneration, should be diagnosed separately. (
  • 1990. Unilateral degeneration of retina and optic nerve in Fischer-344 rats. (
  • 2006. Progressive ganglion cell loss and optic nerve degeneration in DBA/2J mice is variable and asymmetric. (
  • Lomerizine also shows neuroprotective effects against secondary degeneration resulting from injury in retinal ganglion cells. (
  • Human Periodontal Ligament‐Derived Stem Cells Promote Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and Axon Regeneration After Optic Nerve Injury. (
  • Intravitreal transplants of DPSCs promoted significant neurotrophin-mediated RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. (
  • At 7, 14, and 21 days postlesion (dpl), optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to measure the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness as a measure of axonal atrophy. (
  • Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. (
  • The procedure should be performed before any optic nerve atrophy can occur. (
  • The intervention should be performed prior to optic nerve atrophy. (
  • There are many causes of optic atrophy. (
  • Eye diseases, such as glaucoma , can also cause a form of optic nerve atrophy. (
  • There are also rare forms of hereditary optic nerve atrophy that affect children and young adults. (
  • Sometimes injuries to the face or head may result in optic nerve atrophy. (
  • Optic nerve atrophy causes vision to dim and reduces the field of vision. (
  • Damage from optic nerve atrophy cannot be reversed. (
  • Rarely, conditions that lead to optic atrophy may be treatable. (
  • Vision lost to optic nerve atrophy cannot be recovered. (
  • Many causes of optic nerve atrophy cannot be prevented. (
  • Methanol, which may be found in home-brewed alcohol, can cause optic nerve atrophy in both eyes. (
  • Secondary optic atrophy occurs a. following injury or direct pressure to the optic nerve b. (
  • For more than two decades, researchers have tried to regenerate the injured optic nerve using different growth factors and/or agents that overcome natural growth inhibition. (
  • While zinc has previously been linked to cell death, this is the first study to demonstrate that targeting zinc can protect damaged neurons in the eye and help regenerate axons through the optic nerve and among the first to show the effects of targeting zinc in a live animal model. (
  • Mammalian central nervous system axons fail to regenerate after injury. (
  • Severed optic axons fail to regenerate and ONI leads to life-long visual loss in patients. (
  • In mammals, neural axons (nerves) fail to regenerate after injury. (
  • But how was all this possible, if we know, nerves cannot regenerate? (
  • As reported online January 14 by the journal Cell , the scientists restored vision in mice with optic nerve injury by using gene therapy to get the nerves to regenerate and - the crucial step - adding a channel-blocking drug to help the nerves conduct impulses from the eye to the brain. (
  • Image Description: Injured CNS axons fail to regenerate in adult mammals and there are no effective regenerative strategies to treat patients with CNS injuries. (
  • Despite scar tissue (blue), axons were able to regenerate (white) after axon injury. (
  • A new study reports researchers have successfully directed stem cell derived neurons to regenerate lost tissue following corticospinal injury in rats. (
  • In adult mice with unilateral optic nerve crush injury (ONC), we studied visual response plasticity in the visual cortex following stimulation with sinusoidal grating. (
  • This growth-permissive molecular remodeling of the crush injury site extends our current understanding of IIR to include mechanisms extrinsic to the RGC. (
  • In the present study, we performed the MRI measurements of ADCs and MTR in the rat optic nerve crush injury model at one week and one month after the surgery. (
  • For the in vivo study, DPSCs or BMSCs were transplanted into the vitreous body of the eye after a surgically induced optic nerve crush injury. (
  • Retinal ischemia was induced by optic nerve crush injury in albino Balb/c mice. (
  • Following optic nerve crush injury, the mice treated with 400 mg/kg of ERC and LA exhibited an 84.87% and 86.71% reduction of fluorescent signal (cathepsin activity) respectively. (
  • The Phoenix MICRON III revealed stunning images of these GFP hi myeloid cells responding to optic nerve crush or transection in a distinct pattern in the retina. (
  • With a full optic nerve transection, the GFP hi myeloid cells radiate from the optic nerve and migrate into the retina over the course of several days (Figure 1 B1-C2), whereas with a partial nerve transection (Figure 1 E-F3), the GFP hi myeloid cells only migrate into a select wedge of the retina, presumably crawling along the damaged axons. (
  • Phoenix MICRON™ III fluorescent imaging of GFPhi myeloid cells migrating into the retina from the optic nerve after a full optic nerve transection (C1) or partial optic nerve transection (F2). (
  • Note the wedge pattern of the migration in the partial optic nerve transection (F2). (
  • A time-course analysis of gene regulation in the adult rat retina after intraorbital nerve crush (IONC) and intraorbital nerve transection (IONT). (
  • Direct TON can result from avulsion, transection, contusion by projectiles, or bone ships affecting the optic nerve. (
  • Very recently it has been shown the cytokine hormone erythropoietin (EPO) that had been long known and used as a valuable agent to promote hematopoiesis has been protective in experimental models of mechanical trauma, neuroinflammation, cerebral and retinal ischemia, and even in a human stroke trial, and most notably in optic nerve transection. (
  • Other conditions that damage the optic nerve include brain tumors, toxins, radiation, strokes and multiple sclerosis. (
  • It was often used in hematology to promote hematopoiesis and in neurology as neuroprotective cytokine in acute lesions like stroke and traumatic brain injury to prevent apoptosis [ 16 , 17 ] and in chronic neurodegenerative conditions like chronic progressive multiple sclerosis and chronic schizophrenia as a neuroregenerative agent to promote structural and functional healing [ 16 , 17 ]. (
  • This drug is currently used clinically for the treatment of migraines, while also being used experimentally for the treatment of glaucoma and optic nerve injury. (
  • Acutely isolated optic nerves from 19- to 21-day-old md rats and control optic nerves from unaffected male littermates were maintained in vitro at 3 7 T , and exposed to a standard 60-minute period of anoxia. (
  • The compound action potential was nearly abolished within 3 to 6 minutes after onset of anoxia in control optic nerves, while optic nerves from md rats displayed a slower decrease in compound action potential amplitude during anoxia, with a distinct action potential present even after 60 minutes of anoxia. (
  • Since md is an X chromosomelinked mutant Ell], amyelinated optic nerves in affected md rats can be compared with unaffected male littermate controls that show essentially normal myelination El 51. (
  • To investigate progrowth molecular changes associated with reactive gliosis during IIR, we developed an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS)-based approach that identifies discriminant molecular signals in and around optic nerve crush (ONC) sites.ONC was performed in rats, and IIR was established by intravitreal injection of a yeast cell wall preparation. (
  • Differential expression profiles and functional predication of circRNA in traumatic spinal cord injury of rats. (
  • Novel speed-controlled automated ladder walking device reveals walking speed as a critical determinant of skilled locomotion after a spinal cord injury in adult rats. (
  • A role for the tau protein in the pathogenesis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the consequences of repeated mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) has received recent attention because of the evidence from high profile autopsy cases and the increased amount of significant health consequences of repetitive mTBI. (
  • Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between ONSD measured by computed tomography (CT) and ICP in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, including death and disability. (
  • Why do some youngsters bounce back quickly from a traumatic brain injury, while others suffer devastating side effects for years? (
  • In 2005, the results of the Corticosteroid Randomization after Significant Head Injury (CRASH) trial raised concerns regarding the use of mega dose steroids in traumatic brain injury. (
  • Although the etiology of the increased risk of death was not determined, the findings of this study should be taken into consideration when managing cases of TON with concurrent traumatic brain injury. (
  • If proven to work similarly well in humans, such treatment could greatly benefit patients with optic nerve injury, glaucoma, and perhaps other types of nerve fiber (axon) injury within the central nervous system, such as spinal cord injury. (
  • Each year thousands of patients confront this reality, facing life-long losses in sensation and motor function from spinal cord injury and related conditions in which axons are badly damaged or severed. (
  • In a study published online in the journal Molecular Therapy , the Temple researchers describe the ability of Lin28-when expressed above its usual levels-to fuel axon regrowth in mice with spinal cord injury or optic nerve injury, enabling repair of the body's communication grid. (
  • When full-grown, the animals were divided into groups that sustained spinal cord injury or injury to the optic nerve tracts that connect to the retina in the eye. (
  • In mice with spinal cord injury, Lin28 injection resulted in the growth of axons to more than three millimeters beyond the area of axon damage, while in animals with optic nerve injury, axons regrew the entire length of the optic nerve tract. (
  • We observed a lot of axon regrowth, which could be very significant clinically, since there currently are no regenerative treatments for spinal cord injury or optic nerve injury," Dr. Li explained. (
  • Fatima M. Nathan et al, Upregulating Lin28a Promotes Axon Regeneration in Adult Mice with Optic Nerve and Spinal Cord Injury, Molecular Therapy (2020). (
  • Researchers at Oregon Health & Science University have developed a compound that stimulates repair of the protective sheath that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Dr. Li's group demonstrates that upregulating Lin28 gene in mature neurons induces significant long distance regeneration of both spinal cord axons and optic nerve in adult mice. (
  • New research from Uppsala University shows promising progress in the use of stem cells for treatment of spinal cord injury. (
  • Almost all pediatric patients who incur a spinal cord injury (SCI) will develop scoliosis, and younger patients are at highest risk for curve progression requiring surgical intervention. (
  • People who experience a spinal cord injury have an increased risk of developing a mental health disorder, a new study reports. (
  • A new study looks at the interplay between sensorimotor and visual representations of the body following spinal cord injury. (
  • A bilateral implant and brain-machine interface technology allowed a patient with a high spinal cord injury to control prosthetic arms with the power of thought. (
  • Researchers implanted specialized neural stem cell grafts directly into mice with spinal cord injuries. (
  • LIN28, a molecule that regulates cell growth could help in the treatment of spinal cord injury and optic nerve damage. (
  • Next, spinal cord injury must be ruled out by a thorough clinical and/or radiological examination. (
  • Melatonin treatment alleviates spinal cord injury-induced gut dysbiosis in mice. (
  • Exercise-induced alterations in sympathetic-somatomotor coupling in incomplete spinal cord injury. (
  • Oligodendrogliogenesis and axon remyelination after traumatic spinal cord injuries in animal studies: A systematic review. (
  • INTRODUCTION: The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) may be increased in brain-injured patients, especially children, with intracranial hypertension. (
  • To compare optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements in head injury patients with a group of normal subjects and investigate the significance of serial ONSD monitoring in head injury patients. (
  • On admission, the patient was assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), orbital ultrasound for optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), and CT brain scan. (
  • The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured by ultrasonography is among the indicators of intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation. (
  • Researchers at Boston Children's Hospital now show that a completely new approach -- chelating zinc that is released as a result of the injury -- gets cells to live longer, perhaps indefinitely, with dramatic levels of axon regeneration in a mouse model. (
  • Our findings show that Lin28 is a major regulator of axon regeneration and a promising therapeutic target for central nervous system injuries," explained Shuxin Li, MD, Ph.D., Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology and in the Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University and senior investigator on the new study. (
  • Extra Lin28 stimulated long-distance axon regeneration in all instances, though the most dramatic effects were observed following post-injury injection of Lin28. (
  • This is a proposal that uses novel, systemically deliverable, small inhibitory peptides to determine whether combined targeting of neuron-intrinsic and extracellular inhibitory factors markedly improves retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon regeneration and survival after optic nerve injury (ONI). (
  • By simultaneously targeting neuron-intrinsic and CNS environmental inhibitory factors, we aim to promote better RGC axon regeneration and survival in adult rodents with optic nerve injury than by targeting either one alone. (
  • The invention and use of systemically deliverable blocking peptides may advance our ability to treat optic nerve injury by promoting axon regeneration. (
  • The authors hope that these new results will promote the study of PDLSC transplantation and RGC protection in patients with optic nerve injuries. (
  • Indirect TON is caused by collision of the head or orbit or optic nerve against solid objects that results indirectly in compromise of blood supply by reactive vasospasm or increased intracanalicular pressure [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • 2002. Optic nerve and orbit. (
  • Damage to the optic nerve is incurable, according to MedlinePlus. (
  • The optic nerve is also damaged by cranial or temporal arteritis, notes MedlinePlus. (
  • There was minimal evidence of transduction of amacrine cells and astrocytes in the inner retina or optic nerve. (
  • Rarely, it can also originate from the retina or optic nerve. (
  • Therefore, you can get paralyzed after bone marrow damage and you can lose your eyesight if the optic nerve suffers a lesion. (
  • After optic nerve crush, the axons of retinal ganglion cells fail to grow back beyond the lesion site, eventually resulting in the death of ganglion cells, meaning blindness is irreversible for ever. (
  • The most important anatomical landmarks and topography have been described based on either cadaveric or CT scan studies, and include the opticocarotid recess, the distance between the optic nerve canal and the internal carotid artery, the ophthalmic artery, and the length of the optic nerve canal. (
  • The optic nerve, which carries visual information from the eye to brain, is made up of axons projecting from neurons known as retinal ganglion cells. (
  • In summary, with proper stimulation, adult nerves can be induced for long-distance, target specific regrowth and formation of new connections with the appropriate neurons at the taget site thus promoting the restoration of visual function. (
  • Glaucomatous optic nerve injury involves early astrocyte reactivity and late oligodendrocyte loss. (
  • Using an eye injection technique by our ophthalmologist who is specially trained in this technique called the "retrobulbar injection", stem cells are placed behind the eye, next to the optic nerve, as close as possible to the area of injury. (
  • Another set of adult mice, with normal Lin28 expression and similar injuries, were given injections of a viral vector (a type of carrier) for Lin28 to examine the molecule's direct effects on tissue repair. (
  • Many things damage the optic nerve, including injury. (
  • Optic nerve sonography in the diagnostic evaluation of adult brain injury. (
  • Hence, optic nerve sonography may serve as an additional diagnostic tool that could alert clinicians to the presence of elevated ICP, whenever invasive ICP evaluation is contraindicated and/or is not available. (
  • Histological evaluation of the optic nerves was carried out at 12 months post injury. (
  • Evaluation of optic nerve head circulation: review of the methods used. (
  • Case studies include both common and unusual types of ocular and surrounding tissue trauma, which provide practical guidance in the evaluation and treatment of eye injuries. (
  • Overall, the degenerative changes in the optic nerves after r-mTBI in hTau mice at 12 months post injury were milder compared to changes observed at a similar age (8 months) in wild type mice and, despite the localized myelin loss in some nerves, the overall level of cellularity was not different from naive mice or between the groups. (
  • Histopathologic and ultrastructural investigation of the compressed optic nerves showed significant degenerative changes in the non-TRH-applied group. (
  • Both high blood pressure (hypertension) as well as high pressure in the eye (ocular hypertension) can cause damage to the optic nerve, which may lead to gl. (
  • Arranged by ocular anatomy and subspecialty, with a detailed index permitting the reader to locate a discussion involving a specific type of ocular injury, this text covers ocular trauma in the pediatric and adult patient with medical and surgical treatment options, as well as potential complications. (
  • About 90 percent of sports-related ocular injuries are considered preventable. (
  • Thirty percent of ocular injuries among children younger than 16 years are sports related. (
  • 1 Among young persons five to 14 years of age, baseball is most frequently associated with ocular injury, while among persons 15 to 64 years of age, basketball is the leading cause of eye injuries. (
  • Top) Minor external trauma in the presence of severe ocular injury. (
  • With each athlete, physicians should obtain an ocular history, paying special attention to prior conditions such as a high degree of myopia, surgical aphakia, retinal detachment, eye surgery, and injury or infection. (
  • the rat optic nerve, a typical white matter tract, can be protected from anoxic injury by removal of calcium from the perfusate 141. (
  • Degenerative and inflammatory lesions of the optic nerve occur as a result of infections, toxic damage to the nerve, metabolic or nutritional disorders, or trauma. (
  • In addition, we are assessing the value of other imaging modalities such as OCT in the determination of optic nerve head changes that occur in early glaucoma. (
  • However, more recent studies postulate that no major complications occur, which may reflect the increasing use of the endonasal endoscopic route to the optic nerve and skull base as standard procedure, so that surgeons are becoming more comfortable with the technique. (
  • Therefore, unlike plasma FXIII-A, activation of FXIII-A in injured retina and optic nerve does not need the cleavage by thrombin, may occur the directly production of activated FXIII-A protein. (
  • Anoxic injury of mammalian central white matter Decreased susceptibility in myelin-deficient optic nerve. (
  • One characteristic of white matter that may contribute to its susceptibility to anoxic injury is the presence of myelin. (
  • To test the hypothesis that myelination, or associated events, confer susceptibility to anoxia, we analyzed the effects of anoxia on isolated optic nerves from the myelin-deficient (md) rat. (
  • Turning to the medical literature, they learned that a potassium channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), helps strengthen nerve signals when myelin is absent. (
  • Myelin is the fatty substance that covers and protects nerves. (
  • Researchers have found that Schwann cells, a special type of cells are capable of generating protective myelin sheath covers for the nerves at rates higher than earlier believed. (
  • The skull X-ray and computed tomography revealed a fracture of the right medial and lateral orbital walls as well as a partial injury to the medial rectus muscle . (
  • In all situations, high resolution computerized tomography (CT) is necessary to prove the diagnosis, especially in ITON by excluding compressive lesions or direct injury to the nerve by foreign bodies or bony chips [ 4 , 6 ]. (
  • Conventionally, indirect TON is managed by oral and/or intravenous high or megadose methyl prednisolone, surgical decompression of optic canal, combined therapy, or just observation. (
  • Studies have shown that forces applied to the frontal bone and malar eminences are transferred and concentrated in the area near the optic canal. (
  • The tight adherence of the optic nerve's dural sheath to the periosteum within the optic canal is also thought to contribute to this segment of the nerve being extremely susceptible to the deformative stresses of the skull bones. (
  • Such injury leads to ischemic injury to the axons of the retinal ganglion cells within the optic canal. (
  • There are basically two approaches for endoscopic optic nerve decompression: the extradural supraorbital "keyhole" approach, which provides access to the optic nerve canal roof and which is usually performed by neurosurgeons, and the endonasal endoscopic approach, which is widely used by otorhinolaryngologists. (
  • Factors influencing the outcome include the severity of the injury, initial visual acuity (light perception or better vs. no light perception), the time interval between trauma and intervention, and the type of injury, such as fracture lines directly through the optic nerve canal or probable avulsion trauma. (
  • For more periodontal ligament stem cell-based studies and new stem cell therapies for optic nerve injury, stay tuned to the Stem Cells Portal . (
  • Optic Nerve Injury Treatments using Stem Cells is now an option. (
  • Conditioned media collected from cultured rat DPSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were assayed for nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) secretion using ELISA. (
  • Fifty patients suffered from brain injury, whereas 26 had no intracranial pathology and served as control individuals. (
  • BOSTON (January 14, 2016) - Research from Boston Children's Hospital suggests the possibility of restoring at least some visual function in people blinded by optic nerve damage from glaucoma, estimated to affect more than 4 million Americans, or from trauma. (
  • Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer increased immediately after the trauma but then progressively decreased. (
  • Other factors like trauma and inflammation can cause ptosis as can a condition like Horner syndrome, an interruption of the facial nerve that leads to the brain. (
  • Three weeks after the injection of human PDLSCs into the vitreous body of adult Fischer rat eyes after an optic nerve crush (ONC) injury, the authors observed surviving cells as floating clusters, while some localized to the nerve fiber layer and the RGC layer. (
  • sAC was detected in the ganglion cell layer (asterisks) and RGC axons in the nerve fiber layer (arrows). (
  • An axon or nerve fiber is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. (
  • The presence of optic nerve gliosis should prompt careful examination of the retina (especially the ganglion cell and nerve fiber layers) for concurrent pathology. (
  • In optic neuropathies, the progressive deterioration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function leads to irreversible vision loss. (
  • Inflammation-induced optic nerve regeneration (IIR) is thought to boost retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intrinsic growth capacity through progrowth gene expression, but effects on the inhibitory glial environment of the optic nerve are unexplored. (
  • The optic nerve is composed of retinal ganglion cell axons and support cells. (
  • We investigated structural injury patterns in the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (p-RNFL) and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) caused by ethambutol treatment. (
  • A novel neuroprotectant against retinal ganglion cell damage in a glaucoma model and an optic nerve crush model in the rat. (
  • In their paper, "Optic nerve as a source of activated retinal microglia post-injury," Heuss et al investigate a population of microglia-like cells that proliferate in the retina after an optic nerve injury. (
  • They identify GFP hi myeloid cells in the CD11c GFP mouse that dynamically respond to injury, specifically contacting the injured areas and acting as dendritic cells in a manner distinct from GFP lo resident retinal microglia. (
  • At times ranging from 1 hour to 4 weeks after optic nerve crush (ONC), eyes received an intravitreal injection of AAV2 virus carrying the Cre recombinase. (
  • Systemic injection of dopamine or an agonist of its type 1 receptors significantly enhanced, via a T-cell-dependent mechanism, protection against neuronal death after CNS mechanical and biochemical injury. (
  • The optic nerve passes through the optic foramen of the skull and into the cranial cavity. (