Optic Nerve Diseases
Olfactory Nerve Diseases
Vagus Nerve Diseases
Optic Nerve Injuries
Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases
Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases
Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases
Trigeminal Nerve Diseases
Accessory Nerve Diseases
Facial Nerve Diseases
Abducens Nerve Diseases
Trochlear Nerve Diseases
Optic Nerve Neoplasms
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Oculomotor Nerve Diseases
Cranial Nerve Diseases
Optic Nerve Glioma
Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic
Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian
Optic Atrophies, Hereditary
Cranial Nerve Neoplasms
Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber
Optics and Photonics
Evaluation of focal defects of the nerve fiber layer using optical coherence tomography. (1/852)OBJECTIVE: To analyze glaucomatous eyes with known focal defects of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), relating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to clinical examination, NFL and stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photography, and Humphrey 24-2 visual fields. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prevalence study. PARTICIPANTS: The authors followed 19 patients in the study group and 14 patients in the control group. INTERVENTION: Imaging with OCT was performed circumferentially around the ONH with a circle diameter of 3.4 mm using an internal fixation technique. One hundred OCT scan points taken within 2.5 seconds were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measurements of NFL thickness using OCT were performed. RESULTS: In most eyes with focal NFL defects, OCTs showed significant thinning of the NFL in areas closely corresponding to focal defects visible on clinical examination, to red-free photographs, and to defects on the Humphrey visual fields. Optical coherence tomography enabled the detection of focal defects in the NFL with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 81%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of NFL thickness in eyes with focal defects showed good structural and functional correlation with clinical parameters. Optical coherence tomography contributes to the identification of focal defects in the NFL that occur in early stages of glaucoma. (+info)
Ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. (2/852)PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome) and T-cell lymphoma involving the skin and to describe the clinical course of the disease with selected examples. METHODS: A computerized diagnostic retrieval system was used to identify all patients with T-cell lymphoma involving the skin who were examined at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 1990. The medical records of affected patients were reviewed. RESULTS: During the 15-year interval from 1976 through 1990, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in 2,155 patients. Of these 2,155 patients, 42 (1.95%; 26 male and 16 female) had at least 1 ophthalmic abnormality attributable to the disease. The diagnoses in these 42 patients were mycosis fungoides in 19, clinical variants of T-cell lymphoma of the skin (most commonly, peripheral T-cell lymphoma) in 11, and Sezary syndrome in 12. Cicatricial eyelid ectropion was the most common finding, affecting 17 (40.4%) of the 42 patients. Thirty-seven patients had findings that, although probably not a direct consequence of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, have been cataloged in previous studies. CONCLUSION: Although ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are relatively uncommon, the manifestations of the disease are diverse and frequently difficult to treat. (+info)
Acquired mitochondrial impairment as a cause of optic nerve disease. (3/852)BACKGROUND: Blindness from an optic neuropathy recently occurred as an epidemic affecting 50,000 patients in Cuba (CEON) and had clinical features reminiscent of both tobacco-alcohol amblyopia (TAA) and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (Leber's; LHON). Selective damage to the papillomacular bundle was characteristic, and many patients also developed a peripheral neuropathy. Identified risk factors included vitamin deficiencies as well as exposure to methanol and cyanide. In all 3 syndromes, there is evidence that singular or combined insults to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are associated with a clinically characteristic optic neuropathy. PURPOSE: First, to test the hypothesis that a common pathophysiologic mechanism involving impairment of mitochondria function and, consequently, axonal transport underlies both genetic optic nerve diseases such as Leber's and acquired toxic and nutritional deficiency optic neuropathies. According to this hypothesis, ATP depletion below a certain threshold leads to a blockage of orthograde axonal transport of mitochondria, which, in turn, leads to total ATP depletion and subsequent cell death. Second, to address several related questions, including (1) How does impaired energy production lead to optic neuropathy, particularly since it seems to relatively spare other metabolically active tissues, such as liver and heart? (2) Within the nervous system, why is the optic nerve, and most particularly the papillomacular bundle, so highly sensitive? Although there have been previous publications on the clinical features of the Cuban epidemic of blindness, the present hypothesis and the subsequent questions have not been previously addressed. METHODS: Patients in Cuba with epidemic optic neuropathy were personally evaluated through a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic examination. In addition, serum, lymphocytes for DNA analysis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sural nerves, and eyes with attached optic nerves were obtained from Cuban patients, as well as from Leber's patients, for study. Finally, we developed an animal model to match the low serum folic acid and high serum formate levels found in the CEON patients, by administering to rats low doses of methanol after several months of a folic acid-deficient diet. Optic nerves and other tissues obtained from these rats were analyzed and compared with those from the Cuban patients. RESULTS: Patients from the Cuban epidemic of optic neuropathy with clinical evidence of a selective loss of the papillomacular bundle did much better once their nutritional status was corrected and exposure to toxins ceased. Patients with CEON often demonstrated low levels of folic acid and high levels of formate in their blood. Histopathologic studies demonstrated losses of the longest fibers (in the sural nerve) and those of smallest caliber (papillomacular bundle) in the optic nerve, with intra-axonal accumulations just anterior to the lamina cribrosa. Our animal model duplicated the serologic changes (low folic acid, high formate) as well as these histopathologic changes. Furthermore, ultrastructural examination of rat tissues demonstrated mitochondrial changes that further matched those seen on ultrastructural examination of tissues from patients with Leber's. CONCLUSION: Mitochondria can be impaired either genetically (as in Leber's) or through acquired insults (such as nutritional or toxic factors). Either may challenge energy production in all cells of the body. While this challenge may be met through certain compensatory mechanisms (such as in the size, shape, or number of the mitochondria), there exists in neurons a threshold which, once passed, leads to catastrophic changes. This threshold may be that point at which mitochondrial derangement leads to such ATP depletion that axonal transport is compromised, and decreased mitochondrial transport results in even further ATP depletion. Neurons are singularly dependent on the axonal transport of mitochondria. ( (+info)
Diabetes mellitus: a risk factor in patients with Graves' orbitopathy. (4/852)AIMS: To assess the prevalence of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and to investigate the complications of surgery for GO in these patients. METHODS: The records of 482 consecutive patients with GO referred in a 5 year period were studied. Those patients who also had DM were selected for further study. The prevalence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was registered, as well as the prevalence and course of DON. In the patients who underwent surgery for GO the postoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS: Out of 482 patients with GO, 15 (3.1%) also had DM. Eight (1.7%) had IDDM, 7 (1.4%) had NIDDM. Five patients (33.3%) three with IDDM and two with NIDDM developed DON with 50% improvement of visual acuity after treatment, whereas in the whole population of 482 GO patients 19 had DON (3.9%), showing 69.4% improvement of vision after treatment. 10 patients with GO and DM were operated for GO; in one of them an optic atrophy developed as a result of a postoperative haemorrhage directly after a three wall orbital decompression by coronal approach. No other postoperative complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IDDM in patients with GO is higher than in the normal population. DON occurs much more frequently in patients with GO and DM than in the total group of GO patients and seems to have a worse visual prognosis. (+info)
Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery associated with transsphenoidal encephalocele: a neural crest syndrome? (5/852)We describe two original cases of internal carotid artery dysgenesis associated with a malformative spectrum, which includes transsphenoidal encephalocele, optic nerve coloboma, hypopituitarism, and hypertelorism. Cephalic neural crest cells migrate to various regions in the head and neck where they contribute to the development of structures as diverse as the anterior skull base, the walls of the craniofacial arteries, the forebrain, and the face. Data suggest that the link between these rare malformations is abnormal neural crest development. (+info)
Visual function and brain organization in non-decussating retinal-fugal fibre syndrome. (6/852)Functional neuroimaging, psychophysical and electrophysiological investigations were performed in a patient with non-decussating retinal-fugal fibre syndrome, an inborn achiasmatic state in which the retinal projections of each eye map entirely to the ipsilateral primary visual cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that for monocularly presented simple visual stimuli, only the ipsilateral striate cortex was activated. Within each hemisphere's striate cortex, the representation of the two hemifields overlapped extensively. Despite this gross miswiring, visual functions that require precise geometrical information (such as vernier acuity) were normal, and there was no evidence for the confounding of visual information between the overlapping ipsi-lateral and contralateral representations. Contrast sensitivity and velocity judgments were abnormal, but their dependence on the orientation and velocity of the targets suggests that this deficit was due to ocular instabilities, rather than the miswiring per se. There were no asymmetries in performance observed in visual search, visual naming or illusory contour perception. fMRI analysis of the latter two tasks under monocular viewing conditions indicated extensive bilateral activation of striate and prestriate areas. Thus, the remarkably normal visual behavior achieved by this patient is a result of both the plasticity of visual pathways, and efficient transfer of information between the hemispheres. (+info)
Surgical management of symptomatic intrasellar arachnoid cysts--two case reports. (7/852)Two patients with symptomatic intrasellar arachnoid cyst were successfully treated. A 67-year-old female with a cyst 20 mm in diameter developed headache and visual disturbance. She was treated by transsphenoidal surgery. A 59-year-old male with a cyst measuring 35 x 30 x 50 mm causing headache, visual disturbance, and deterioration of consciousness was managed by wide resection of the cyst wall via craniotomy. Postoperative courses in both patients were uneventful. Transsphenoidal surgery may be suitable for small to medium-sized cysts, although tight packing of the sella is mandatory to prevent leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. However, craniotomy is recommended for large intra- and suprasellar arachnoid cysts to avoid this complication, and to achieve sufficient communication between the cyst and the subarachnoid cistern. (+info)
Idiopathic sclerotic inflammation of the orbit with left optic nerve compression in a patient with multifocal fibrosclerosis. (8/852)We present the MR imaging findings in a 43-year-old male patient with bilateral idiopathic sclerosing inflammation of the orbit. Bilateral enhancing retrobulbar masses, with concentric compression of the retrobulbar segment of the left optic nerve, were seen. MR imaging proved to be the only means to distinguish between the different intraorbital structures and to determine the exact site of optic nerve compression. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of MR imaging findings of this entity. (+info)
Optic nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the optic nerve, which is the nerve responsible for transmitting visual information from the retina to the brain. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including vision loss, eye pain, and changes in visual perception. Some common optic nerve diseases include: 1. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve, often caused by elevated pressure inside the eye. 2. Optic neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss, eye pain, and sensitivity to light. 3. Optic atrophy: A condition in which the optic nerve becomes thin and weak, leading to vision loss. 4. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: A genetic disorder that causes progressive vision loss, often starting in young adulthood. 5. Optic nerve drusen: Small deposits of calcium and other minerals that can form on the optic nerve, causing vision loss. 6. Optic nerve glioma: A type of brain tumor that can affect the optic nerve, causing vision loss and other symptoms. Treatment for optic nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. In some cases, medications or surgery may be used to manage symptoms or slow the progression of the disease. Early detection and treatment are important for preserving vision and preventing further damage to the optic nerve.
Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black flies, which breed in fast-flowing, clear rivers and streams. Ocular onchocerciasis is a form of the disease that affects the eyes. It is caused by the migration of adult worms from the skin to the eyes, where they can damage the retina, optic nerve, and other structures in the eye. Symptoms of ocular onchocerciasis may include vision loss, eye pain, redness, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, the infection can lead to blindness. Ocular onchocerciasis is a major public health problem in many parts of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. It is preventable and treatable with anti-parasitic drugs, but early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent permanent vision loss.
Optic neuritis is a medical condition that affects the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. It is characterized by inflammation and swelling of the optic nerve, which can cause a range of symptoms, including vision loss, pain, and sensitivity to light. The exact cause of optic neuritis is not always clear, but it is often associated with viral infections, such as herpes simplex virus, or with autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis. Other possible causes include exposure to certain medications or toxins, head injuries, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment for optic neuritis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing any underlying causes. This may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, as well as physical therapy or other supportive measures to help patients recover from vision loss. In some cases, corticosteroids may be used to reduce inflammation and speed up recovery. However, the long-term prognosis for optic neuritis can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms.
Olfactory nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the olfactory nerve, which is responsible for transmitting odor signals from the nasal cavity to the brain. These diseases can result in a loss of smell or anosmia, as well as other symptoms such as nasal congestion, headache, and facial pain. There are several types of olfactory nerve diseases, including: 1. Olfactory neuroblastoma: A rare type of cancer that affects the olfactory nerve and nasal cavity. 2. Olfactory granulomatosis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of the olfactory nerve and nasal cavity. 3. Olfactory bulbectomies: Surgical procedures that remove part or all of the olfactory bulb, which is the part of the brain that processes smell signals. 4. Olfactory epithelial dysfunction: A condition in which the olfactory epithelium, the specialized tissue in the nasal cavity that contains the olfactory receptors, becomes damaged or dysfunctional. 5. Olfactory disorders due to head trauma: Trauma to the head can cause damage to the olfactory nerve or the olfactory bulb, leading to anosmia or other olfactory disorders. Treatment for olfactory nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies. In some cases, the olfactory nerve may be able to regenerate, leading to partial or complete recovery of smell function.
Vagus nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the vagus nerve, which is the 10th cranial nerve in the human body. The vagus nerve is responsible for controlling various bodily functions, including heart rate, digestion, and breathing. Vagus nerve diseases can be classified into two main categories: disorders that affect the vagus nerve itself and disorders that affect the organs and systems that the vagus nerve controls. Disorders that affect the vagus nerve itself include: 1. Vagus nerve injury: This can occur due to trauma, surgery, or other medical procedures. 2. Vagus nerve compression: This can occur due to tumors, inflammation, or other conditions that put pressure on the vagus nerve. 3. Vagus nerve neuropathy: This is a condition in which the nerve becomes damaged or diseased, leading to symptoms such as weakness, numbness, and tingling. Disorders that affect the organs and systems that the vagus nerve controls include: 1. Gastrointestinal disorders: The vagus nerve plays a role in regulating the digestive system, and disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, gastroparesis, and inflammatory bowel disease can affect the vagus nerve. 2. Cardiovascular disorders: The vagus nerve regulates heart rate and blood pressure, and disorders such as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and hypertension can affect the vagus nerve. 3. Respiratory disorders: The vagus nerve regulates breathing, and disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma can affect the vagus nerve. Treatment for vagus nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms experienced by the patient. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Optic nerve injuries refer to any damage or trauma that affects the optic nerve, which is the main nerve responsible for transmitting visual information from the retina to the brain. These injuries can result from a variety of causes, including blunt or penetrating trauma to the eye, head or brain, infections, tumors, or other medical conditions. Optic nerve injuries can cause a range of visual symptoms, including loss of vision, decreased visual acuity, double vision, and sensitivity to light. In some cases, optic nerve injuries can be temporary and resolve on their own, while in other cases, they can be permanent and result in significant vision loss or blindness. Treatment for optic nerve injuries depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the injury. In some cases, treatment may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying cause of the injury. In other cases, treatment may focus on managing symptoms and preserving remaining vision.
Hypoglossal nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the hypoglossal nerve, which is the twelfth cranial nerve in the human body. The hypoglossal nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of the tongue, and any damage or dysfunction to this nerve can result in a range of symptoms and complications. Some common hypoglossal nerve diseases include: 1. Hypoglossal nerve palsy: This is a condition in which the hypoglossal nerve is damaged or paralyzed, leading to weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles. This can result in difficulty swallowing, speech problems, and drooling. 2. Hypoglossal nerve tumor: A tumor that develops on the hypoglossal nerve can cause compression of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles, difficulty swallowing, and speech problems. 3. Hypoglossal nerve injury: Trauma to the head or neck can cause injury to the hypoglossal nerve, leading to symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles, difficulty swallowing, and speech problems. 4. Hypoglossal nerve inflammation: Inflammation of the hypoglossal nerve, such as that caused by an infection or autoimmune disorder, can lead to symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles, difficulty swallowing, and speech problems. Treatment for hypoglossal nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or repair an injury to the nerve. In other cases, medications or physical therapy may be used to manage symptoms and improve function.
Vestibulocochlear nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the vestibulocochlear nerve, which is also known as the eighth cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for transmitting signals from the inner ear to the brain, allowing us to hear and maintain balance. Vestibulocochlear nerve diseases can affect either the hearing portion of the nerve (cochlear) or the balance portion of the nerve (vestibular). Some common vestibulocochlear nerve diseases include: 1. Meniere's disease: This is a disorder that affects the inner ear and can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), vertigo, and a feeling of fullness in the ear. 2. Acoustic neuroma: This is a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve and can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and vertigo. 3. Labyrinthitis: This is an inflammation of the inner ear that can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, vertigo, and ringing in the ears. 4. Vestibular neuronitis: This is an inflammation of the vestibular nerve that can cause symptoms such as vertigo, dizziness, and nausea. Treatment for vestibulocochlear nerve diseases depends on the specific disorder and its severity. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be sufficient to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or repair damage to the nerve.
Glossopharyngeal nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the glossopharyngeal nerve, which is the ninth cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is responsible for controlling several functions in the body, including swallowing, taste sensation in the back of the throat, and movement of the muscles in the throat and neck. Glossopharyngeal nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or tumors. Some common examples of glossopharyngeal nerve diseases include: 1. Bell's palsy: This is a condition that causes sudden weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face, including the muscles of the tongue and mouth. 2. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia: This is a type of chronic pain that affects the glossopharyngeal nerve. It is characterized by severe, recurring episodes of pain that can be triggered by eating, drinking, or talking. 3. Tumors: Tumors in the head and neck can compress or damage the glossopharyngeal nerve, leading to symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and pain. 4. Infections: Infections such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause inflammation of the glossopharyngeal nerve, leading to symptoms such as pain, difficulty swallowing, and hoarseness. 5. Inflammation: Inflammation of the glossopharyngeal nerve, such as that caused by sarcoidosis or other autoimmune disorders, can lead to symptoms such as pain, difficulty swallowing, and hoarseness. Treatment for glossopharyngeal nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and the severity of symptoms. In some cases, medications such as pain relievers or antiviral drugs may be used to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the condition.
Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is the largest and most complex cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is responsible for sensation and motor function in the face, including the eyes, nose, mouth, and teeth. Trigeminal nerve diseases can be classified into two main categories: trigeminal neuralgia and trigeminal neuropathy. Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition characterized by severe, recurring facial pain that is often described as electric shock-like or stabbing. Trigeminal neuropathy, on the other hand, refers to a loss of sensation in the face, which can be caused by damage to the nerve. Other trigeminal nerve diseases include trigeminal schwannoma (a benign tumor that can compress the nerve), trigeminal meningioma (a benign tumor that can grow around the nerve), and trigeminal herpes zoster (a viral infection that can cause pain and inflammation in the face). Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medications or nerve blocks may be used to manage pain or reduce inflammation. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or repair damage to the nerve.
Accessory nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the accessory nerve, which is the eleventh cranial nerve. The accessory nerve is responsible for controlling muscles in the neck and shoulders, and it plays a crucial role in swallowing and speech. There are several types of accessory nerve diseases, including: 1. Accessory nerve paralysis: This occurs when the accessory nerve is damaged or injured, leading to weakness or paralysis of the muscles it controls. Causes can include trauma, surgery, infections, or tumors. 2. Accessory nerve schwannoma: This is a benign tumor that develops on the accessory nerve. It can cause weakness or paralysis of the muscles it controls, as well as pain or numbness in the neck or shoulder. 3. Accessory nerve compression: This occurs when the accessory nerve is compressed or pinched, leading to weakness or paralysis of the muscles it controls. Causes can include tumors, inflammation, or scar tissue. 4. Accessory nerve neuropathy: This is a condition in which the accessory nerve is damaged or inflamed, leading to weakness or paralysis of the muscles it controls. Causes can include infections, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. Treatment for accessory nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may include medications, physical therapy, surgery, or other interventions.
Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the facial nerve, which is responsible for controlling the muscles of the face and controlling various functions such as blinking, smiling, and chewing. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Some common facial nerve diseases include Bell's palsy, which is a condition that causes sudden weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, which is a viral infection that can cause facial paralysis and hearing loss, and facial nerve tumors, which can cause facial weakness, pain, and other symptoms. Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medications or physical therapy may be used to manage symptoms and promote recovery. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove tumors or repair damaged facial nerve tissue.
Abducens nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the sixth cranial nerve, also known as the abducens nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the movement of the eye muscles that allow the eyes to move laterally, or outward. Abducens nerve diseases can result in a variety of symptoms, including double vision, difficulty moving the eyes, and drooping eyelids. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, infection, or degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease. Treatment for abducens nerve diseases typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as managing any symptoms that may be present. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct the problem.
Trochlear nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the trochlear nerve, which is the fourth cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve is responsible for controlling the movement of the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which helps to rotate the eye laterally and maintain binocular vision. Some common trochlear nerve diseases include: 1. Trochlear nerve palsy: This is a condition in which the trochlear nerve is damaged or paralyzed, leading to weakness or paralysis of the superior oblique muscle. This can cause symptoms such as double vision, difficulty tracking objects, and eye misalignment. 2. Trochlear nerve tumors: Tumors that develop on the trochlear nerve can cause compression of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as double vision, eye misalignment, and difficulty tracking objects. 3. Trochlear nerve inflammation: Inflammation of the trochlear nerve can cause symptoms such as double vision, eye misalignment, and difficulty tracking objects. 4. Trochlear nerve injury: Trauma to the head or neck can cause injury to the trochlear nerve, leading to symptoms such as double vision, eye misalignment, and difficulty tracking objects. Treatment for trochlear nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove a tumor or to relieve pressure on the nerve. In other cases, medications or physical therapy may be used to manage symptoms.
Optic atrophy is a condition in which the optic nerve, which carries visual information from the eye to the brain, is damaged or degenerated. This can result in vision loss or blindness, depending on the severity of the damage. There are several types of optic atrophy, including primary optic atrophy, which is caused by damage to the optic nerve itself, and secondary optic atrophy, which is caused by damage to the eye or surrounding structures that affects the optic nerve. Some common causes of optic atrophy include glaucoma, head injuries, infections, and inherited genetic disorders. Treatment for optic atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to slow or prevent further damage to the optic nerve.
Optic nerve neoplasms refer to tumors or growths that develop on or near the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. These neoplasms can be either benign or malignant and can cause a variety of symptoms, including vision loss, eye pain, and changes in visual field. Treatment options for optic nerve neoplasms depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and the severity of their symptoms. Some common treatments for optic nerve neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the oculomotor nerve, which is responsible for controlling the movement of the eye muscles. The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve and is responsible for controlling six muscles in the eye, including the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, lateral rectus, inferior oblique, and superior oblique muscles. Oculomotor nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, infection, inflammation, tumors, and degenerative diseases. Some common oculomotor nerve diseases include: 1. Oculomotor nerve palsy: This is a condition in which the oculomotor nerve is damaged, leading to weakness or paralysis of the eye muscles. Symptoms may include drooping eyelids, double vision, and difficulty moving the eyes. 2. Myasthenia gravis: This is an autoimmune disorder that affects the muscles, including the muscles of the eye. Symptoms may include drooping eyelids, double vision, and difficulty moving the eyes. 3. Optic neuritis: This is an inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss and double vision. It can also affect the oculomotor nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the eye muscles. 4. Brainstem tumors: Tumors in the brainstem can compress the oculomotor nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the eye muscles. Symptoms may include drooping eyelids, double vision, and difficulty moving the eyes. 5. Multiple sclerosis: This is an autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system, including the oculomotor nerve. Symptoms may include drooping eyelids, double vision, and difficulty moving the eyes. Treatment for oculomotor nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or physical therapy. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of an oculomotor nerve disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Cranial nerve diseases refer to disorders or injuries that affect the cranial nerves, which are a group of 12 nerves that originate from the brain and control various functions of the head and neck. These nerves are responsible for controlling movement, sensation, and other functions such as hearing, taste, and smell. Cranial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, tumors, trauma, degenerative diseases, and genetic disorders. Some common examples of cranial nerve diseases include: 1. Bell's palsy: A condition that affects the seventh cranial nerve, causing facial paralysis or weakness on one side of the face. 2. Meningitis: An infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, which can affect any of the cranial nerves. 3. Trigeminal neuralgia: A condition that causes severe pain in the face, typically triggered by simple activities such as chewing or talking. 4. Multiple sclerosis: A chronic autoimmune disorder that can affect any part of the body, including the cranial nerves, causing symptoms such as numbness, weakness, and vision problems. 5. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the eighth cranial nerve, which controls hearing and balance. 6. Optic neuritis: An inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss or double vision. 7. Guillain-Barré syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis, including weakness in the cranial nerves that control eye movement and facial expression. Treatment for cranial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms experienced by the patient. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, or other interventions.
Optic Nerve Glioma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. It is most commonly found in children and young adults, and is usually benign (non-cancerous). However, in some cases, it can be malignant (cancerous). The symptoms of Optic Nerve Glioma may include vision loss, eye pain, and changes in the appearance of the eye. Treatment options for Optic Nerve Glioma may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Optic neuropathy, ischemic refers to a type of damage to the optic nerve caused by a lack of blood flow to the nerve. This can be due to a variety of factors, including blockages in the blood vessels that supply blood to the optic nerve, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain medications. Symptoms of ischemic optic neuropathy may include vision loss, pain in the eye, and sensitivity to light. Treatment may involve medications to lower blood pressure or blood sugar, as well as surgery to improve blood flow to the optic nerve. In some cases, vision loss may be permanent.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. This damage can lead to gradual vision loss and, in severe cases, blindness. There are several types of glaucoma, including open-angle glaucoma, closed-angle glaucoma, and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type and typically affects both eyes. It occurs when the drainage system in the eye becomes blocked, causing increased pressure inside the eye. Closed-angle glaucoma is less common and occurs when the iris blocks the drainage system, causing a sudden increase in eye pressure. Normal-tension glaucoma occurs when the eye pressure is within the normal range, but the optic nerve is still damaged. Symptoms of glaucoma may include blurred vision, eye pain, redness, and sensitivity to light. However, many people with glaucoma have no symptoms until the disease is advanced. That's why regular eye exams are important for early detection and treatment. Treatment for glaucoma typically involves lowering eye pressure with medication, laser therapy, or surgery. The goal of treatment is to slow or stop the progression of the disease and preserve vision.
Papilledema is a condition in which the optic disc (the part of the eye that contains the nerve fibers that carry visual information from the eye to the brain) becomes swollen and enlarged. This swelling is caused by increased pressure within the skull, which can be due to a variety of factors such as brain tumors, hydrocephalus (an accumulation of fluid in the brain), or other conditions that cause increased pressure within the skull. Papilledema can cause vision loss and other visual symptoms, and it is typically diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam and imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment for papilledema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to reduce pressure within the skull.
Hereditary optic atrophies are a group of genetic disorders that affect the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. These disorders can cause progressive vision loss, often starting in childhood or adolescence, and can eventually lead to blindness. There are several different types of hereditary optic atrophies, including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), which is caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA, and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), which is caused by mutations in the OPA1 gene. Other types of hereditary optic atrophies include autosomal recessive optic atrophy (AROA), which is caused by mutations in the OPA3 gene, and X-linked optic atrophy (XLOA), which is caused by mutations in the OPA1 or OPA8 genes. Hereditary optic atrophies are typically inherited in an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that an affected individual has a 50% chance of passing the condition on to their offspring. There is currently no cure for hereditary optic atrophies, but treatment may help to slow the progression of the disease and manage symptoms.
Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to tumors that develop on the cranial nerves, which are the nerves that emerge from the brainstem and control various functions such as movement, sensation, and autonomic functions. These tumors can be either benign or malignant and can affect any of the 12 cranial nerves. Symptoms of cranial nerve neoplasms may include facial weakness, numbness or tingling in the face or extremities, difficulty swallowing, double vision, hearing loss, and balance problems. Treatment options for cranial nerve neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber (also known as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. It is caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited from the mother. The symptoms of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy typically begin in adolescence or early adulthood, and may include gradual vision loss, difficulty with night vision, and a loss of color vision. The vision loss is usually bilateral (affecting both eyes) and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as dizziness, ringing in the ears, and weakness or numbness in the legs. There is currently no cure for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, but treatment may help to slow the progression of the disease and manage symptoms. This may include vitamin therapy, visual aids, and in some cases, surgery.
Glaucoma, open-angle, is a type of glaucoma that occurs when the drainage system in the eye becomes blocked or damaged, leading to an increase in pressure within the eye. This increased pressure can damage the optic nerve, which can result in vision loss or blindness if left untreated. In open-angle glaucoma, the drainage system of the eye is not completely blocked, but rather the angle between the iris and the cornea becomes narrower, reducing the amount of fluid that can drain out of the eye. This can cause the pressure within the eye to gradually increase over time, leading to damage to the optic nerve. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma and is often referred to as "the sneak thief of sight" because it typically progresses slowly and without noticeable symptoms in the early stages. However, if left untreated, it can cause significant vision loss or blindness. Treatment for open-angle glaucoma typically involves medications to lower the pressure within the eye, laser surgery, or surgery to improve the drainage of fluid from the eye.
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- Glaucoma is a group of diseases that are the leading cause of blindness in the United States. (medlineplus.gov)
- Glaucoma usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises and damages the optic nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
- Glaucoma-increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that leads to optic nerve damage and loss of vision. (senior.com)
- Mediterranean in his opening address noted that glaucoma was a group of diseases that could steal sight without warning or symptoms. (who.int)
- Glaucoma, a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. (timeshighereducation.com)
- In this project, the candidate will work with Dr Wang https://medicine.nus.edu.sg/researchers/wang-jiongwei/ or https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7986-6082 ), Prof Tina Wong ( https://www.snec.com.sg/profile/tina-wong ) and Prof Gert Storm https://www.uu.nl/en/research/pharmaceutics/research/gert-storm ) to develop advanced therapeutic solutions using state-of-the-art nanotechnology for glaucoma. (timeshighereducation.com)
- Early intervention is crucial in preventing vision loss from a disease such as glaucoma, which may not cause symptoms until significant and irreversible damage has taken place. (butlereyecenter.com)
- These firsts include measuring corneal thickness to accurately measure intraocular pressure, the first optic nerve head analyzers, endoscopic laser surgery, non-scarring selective laser trabeculoplasty, and most recently, non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (canaloplasty), and minimally invasive glaucoma surgery. (fortworth2020.com)
- Glaucoma is a vision-threatening disease caused by damage to the optic nerve. (fortworth2020.com)
- Glaucoma is a common, asymptomatic group of eye diseases that causes damage to the eye's optic nerve, resulting in progressive, irreversible vision loss. (globaldata.com)
- The optic chiasm volume differed significantly between the control and advanced NTG groups ( p = 0.0003) and between early and advanced glaucoma patients ( p = 0.004). (mdpi.com)
- In ophthalmology, OCT has applications in scanning the retina to predict and diagnose retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy , and it can scan the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer to track damage from glaucoma. (medscape.com)
- Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve. (southgroveeyecare.com)
- Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases and adolescents are estimated to be ma. (who.int)
- Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
- Over the past few years, there has been remarkable development in the area of optic neuritis. (lww.com)
- Antiaquaporin4 antibodies and antimyelin oligodendrocytes antibodies are now considered as distinct entities of optic neuritis with their specific clinical presentation, neuroimaging characteristics, treatment options, and course of the disease. (lww.com)
- Similarly, there has been a substantial change in the treatment of optic neuritis which was earlier limited to steroids and interferons. (lww.com)
- The development of new immunosuppressant drugs and monoclonal antibodies has reduced the relapses and improved the prognosis of optic neuritis as well as an associated systemic disease. (lww.com)
- This review article tends to provide an update on the approach and management of optic neuritis. (lww.com)
- The landscape of optic neuritis (ON) is rapidly changing with the discovery of new antibodies, advent of latest investigations, and revised diagnostic criteria. (lww.com)
- We searched PubMed and Medline for studies published during the last 10 years with the general term "optic neuritis" and specific terms like "typical optic neuritis," "atypical optic neuritis," "multiple sclerosis," "neuromyelitis optic neuritis," and "myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody. (lww.com)
- Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
- In conclusion, the prevalence rates of myopic choroidal neovascularization, retinal choroidal atrophy, and optic neuropathy were significantly higher with posterior staphyloma. (elsevierpure.com)
- 6. Optic atrophy with a reproducible visual field defect detected by confrontation visual field testing. (who.int)
- The disease has particular predilection to the optic nerves, spinal cord, brainstem, basal ganglia, and cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. (cdc.gov)
- of nerves in the brain and spinal cord. (msdmanuals.com)
- A demyelinating disease is any condition that causes damage to the protective covering (myelin sheath) that surrounds nerve fibers in your brain, the nerves leading to the eyes (optic nerves) and spinal cord. (mayoclinic.org)
- Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) - inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, predominantly of the optic nerve and spinal cord. (mayoclinic.org)
- Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system considered as a demyelinating disease because it causes damage to the myelin that coats nerve fibers for the impulses to the brain, optic nerve and spinal cord. (bvsalud.org)
- The role of HHV-6 in acute multifocal neurologic disease in immunocompetent adults requires additional observation, and its role in multiple sclerosis is in question. (cdc.gov)
- Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. (mayoclinic.org)
- Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects the brain, optic nerve (which helps. (medlineplus.gov)
- Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a chronic disease that affects the central nervous system (the brain and. (medlineplus.gov)
- An estimated 2.3 million people worldwide live with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS is a hard-to-predict disease of the central nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
- Many are the feelings that patients with this disease have since the start of receiving the diagnosis until the time to take to be a bearer of Multiple Sclerosis. (bvsalud.org)
- Therefore, it is hoped will learn ways of coping used by patients with multiple sclerosis in relation to this disease. (bvsalud.org)
- It is unclear if this occurs in the retina, another disease target. (opticnervenetwork.com)
- Once it reaches the retina, light is changed into nerve signals that are sent to the brain. (senior.com)
- As the disease progresses, some blood vessels that nourish the retina are blocked. (senior.com)
- Scan acquisition has been simplified with real-time en-face imaging displaying a 12x9 mm view of the retina during acquisition to assist the operator in scanning the desired location and new reports with a wider field of view for enhanced capabilities. (clarionmedical.com)
- It is a powerful clinical tool that transforms the way you assess the retina, optic disc and cornea. (clarionmedical.com)
- Quantify the thickness of the retina, nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex (GCC) and the cornea. (clarionmedical.com)
- Real-time en face display provides a 12x9mm view of the retina during scan acquisition to assist the operator in scanning the desired location. (clarionmedical.com)
- The iFusion transforms the way you assess the retina, optic disc and the cornea. (clarionmedical.com)
- Optical coherence tomography (OCT) "revolutionized ophthalmology - allowing rapid detection of diseases of the retina that impair vision," according to the Lasker Foundation. (medscape.com)
- By providing high-resolution cross-section and enface images of the retina, as well as vasculature with OCT angiography, in a rapid and noninvasive manner that is user and patient friendly, we can diagnose diseases and monitor treatment effects in a personalized manner with improved accuracy," Kim said. (medscape.com)
- 2 3 4 5 6 ] However, a more recent population-based survey conducted in urban Mangalore has shown a prevalence of 8.3/100,000 for MS and 2.6/100,000 for neuromyelitis optic spectrum diseases (NMOSD). (lww.com)
- The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. (medlineplus.gov)
- Overview of Demyelinating Disorders Most nerve fibers inside and outside the brain are wrapped with many layers of tissue composed of a fat (lipoprotein) called myelin. (msdmanuals.com)
- This attack causes inflammation and injury to the nerve sheath and ultimately to the nerve fibers that it surrounds. (mayoclinic.org)
- It affects ones peripheral vision in earlier stages of the disease, but can lead to blindness if undetected for many years. (southgroveeyecare.com)
- The autoimmune reaction results in inflammation, which damages the myelin sheath and the nerve fiber under it. (msdmanuals.com)
- Classifying Degos disease as a vasculitis may not be appropriate because inflammation of the vessel walls is minimal and because immune complexes have not been found in the vessel walls. (medscape.com)
- Demyelination is the destruction of the tissues that wrap around nerves, called the myelin sheath. (msdmanuals.com)
- Much like the insulation around an electrical wire, the myelin sheath enables nerve signals (electrical impulses) to be conducted along the nerve fiber with speed and accuracy. (msdmanuals.com)
- When the myelin sheath is damaged (called demyelination), nerves do not conduct electrical impulses normally. (msdmanuals.com)
- When the myelin sheath is damaged, nerve impulses slow or even stop, causing neurological problems. (mayoclinic.org)
- By using drops to make your pupils bigger, an eye doctor can look inside your eyes at blood vessels and the optic nerve. (wakefamilyeyecare.com)
- It is likely that the differences in blood vessels in each area of the body (eg, skin, brain, intestines) help explain the different phenotypes of disease. (medscape.com)
- 2. Severe retinal nerve fiber layer thinning of the optic nerve in the superior and inferior quadrant analysis by OCT with a corresponding visual field defect in the superior and inferior hemifield, and/or visual field loss within 5 degrees of fixation in at least one hemifield. (who.int)
- Electronic medical records driven big data analytics in retinal diseases, report number 1: non-oncological retinal diseases in children and adolescents in India. (cdc.gov)
- Aetna considers the use of chelation therapy experimental and investigational in the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease (e.g., atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease , coronary artery disease, individuals who had a myocardial infarction), neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. (aetna.com)
- Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness in American adults. (senior.com)
- The incidence of Gastrointestinal Diseases, including Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, is growing at an epidemic rate. (agemed.org)
- Understand how Exosomes can be applied clinically to various areas such as cardiac health, cancer, retinal and optic nerve conditions and gastrointestinal diseases. (agemed.org)
- In the systemic variant of Degos disease, the gastrointestinal tract is affected in 50% of cases. (medscape.com)
- The US Preventive Services Task Force external icon recommends vision screening for all children at least once between age 3 and 5 years to detect amblyopia or risk factors for the disease. (cdc.gov)
- The purpose of this Medtech app by AMA OPTICS, INC. is to help detect optic nerve disease and amblyopia (lazy eye), the number one cause of permanent vision loss in children and young adults, while also measuring color vision, stereopsis, and visual acuity. (pentalog.com)
- Degos' disease (malignant atrophic papulosis) as a fatal cause of acute abdomen: report of a case. (degosdisease.org)
- Degos' disease, otherwise known as "malignant atrophic papulosis," is a rare condition characterized by typical cutaneous lesions. (degosdisease.org)
- Diagnosis: malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease). (degosdisease.org)
- In 1941, in an article entitled "Multiple Hautrekrosen bei Thromboangiitis obliterans," Kohlmeier described a case of a disease that has now been termed malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP) or Degos disease (DD). (medscape.com)
- [ 7 ] reiterated that malignant atrophic papulosis/Degos disease has both a (1) limited, cutaneous type and a (2) systemic, fatal variant. (medscape.com)
- This case fits well in the spectrum of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous systems of children and young adults, which occur in close temporal relationship with several infectious illnesses and immunizations ( 2 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- Ocular infection gives rise to a spectrum of disease. (medscape.com)
- Track change and predict trends in RNFL and GCC thickness and precisely measure angles to aid in disease diagnosis. (clarionmedical.com)
- Visualize and quantify 6mm of epithelial, stromal and total corneal thickness to identify areas of thickening or thinning related to dry eye disease, keratoconus, or previous refractive surgery. (clarionmedical.com)
- Its usefulness stems from a single, comprehensive report that depicts: retinal thickness and GCC® thickness with normative comparison, symmetry analysis, FLV% and GLV%, proprietary Optovue GCC metrics that provide important information to aid in ocular disease diagnosis and management and eight high resolution B-scans. (clarionmedical.com)
- He had assigned Huang, then an MD-PhD candidate at MIT, to explore interferometry with short-coherence light to match the ability of femtosecond laser optics to distinguish skin layers and measure corneal thickness in animal eyes. (medscape.com)
- OCT has also improved our understanding of disease progression and pathophysiology. (medscape.com)
- There is no cure for demyelinating diseases, but disease-modifying therapies can alter the disease progression in some patients. (mayoclinic.org)
- The symptoms and progression of demyelinating diseases varies between patients. (mayoclinic.org)
- We report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with sudden visual loss, a history of postprandial abdominal pain, malabsorption, and skin lesions typical of systemic Degos' disease. (degosdisease.org)
- [ 1 ] This is supported by the fact that eculizumab, a C5 blocker, can effectively treat systemic Degos disease. (medscape.com)
- Degos disease occurs both in a limited benign, cutaneous form and in a potentially lethal multiorgan, systemic variant. (medscape.com)
- Intestinal perforation is the most severe complication and the most common cause of death in systemic Degos disease. (medscape.com)
- approximately 20% of cases of systemic Degos disease involve the CNS. (medscape.com)
- Unlike lupus, (1) Degos disease does not involve the face, (2) it does not respond to therapies such as corticosteroids that at least abate lupus, (3) it does not manifest with photosensitivity, (4) viral inclusions are present in some cells in patients with Degos disease, and (5) systemic Degos disease is universally fatal, usually within 1-2 years, whereas lupus (even if severe) takes years to be fatal. (medscape.com)
- Why Can Eye Exams Detect a Disease? (wakefamilyeyecare.com)
- PURPOSE: In Alzheimer's disease, central brain neurons show evidence for early hyperactivity. (opticnervenetwork.com)
- Here, we tested for imaging biomarker manifestation of prodromal hyperactivity in rod mitochondria in vivo in experimental Alzheimer's disease. (opticnervenetwork.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Results from three OCT bioenergy biomarkers raise the novel possibility of early rod hyperactivity in vivo in a common Alzheimer's disease model. (opticnervenetwork.com)
- Considered one of the most prestigious prizes for biomedical research, the Lasker Awards honor individuals who have "made major advances in the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, cure, and prevention of human disease. (medscape.com)
- Advanced GCC imaging reveals ganglion cell and axon loss in optic nerve head disease. (clarionmedical.com)
- Healthcare professionals are therefore advised to consider imaging methods other than MRI and MRA for patients with moderate to end-stage renal disease. (medscape.com)
- The imaging test enables eye-care providers to identify vision-threatening disease early on, often before patients manifest signs and symptoms. (medscape.com)
- Demyelinating diseases were once considered rare in India with previous Indian studies showing that MS constitutes 0.32% to 1.58% of neurology admissions in hospitals, and a prevalence of approximately 1.33/100,000. (lww.com)
- Demyelinating disease: What can you do about it? (mayoclinic.org)
- What types of demyelinating disease affect the central nervous system, and what can you do about them? (mayoclinic.org)
- I had been looking for an OCT for several years that would do all of the clinical tests that I needed for my patients with ocular disease, offer a wellness exam, and fit my budget. (clarionmedical.com)
- Severe ocular disease at baseline (assessed just prior to the first study treatment, approximately 6-12 months after IVM pretreatment). (who.int)
- Individuals who are excluded with significant ocular disease will be referred for appropriate All ocular disease exclusion criteria apply to either eye. (who.int)
- These exclusions are needed to reduce the risk of study treatments worsening severe pre-existing ocular disease. (who.int)
- Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that people with diabetes may face as a complication of diabetes. (senior.com)
- During a comprehensive eye examination, eye diseases or other abnormalities that are not yet causing symptoms can be detected. (butlereyecenter.com)
- Cell therapy is also applied for treating eye traumas and inflammatory diseases that require conservative therapy (conjunctivitis, keratitis, etc. (virtus.ua)
- Although there remains to be seen major studies published in the use of exosomes in specifically Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), much research has been carried out in the animal model for IBD, also in human studies regarding autoimmune diseases. (agemed.org)
- Meanwhile, at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory , Swanson was working on intersatellite laser communications and high-speed fiber-optic networks. (medscape.com)
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- A comprehensive dilated eye exam external icon external icon by an optometrist or ophthalmologist (eye doctor) is necessary to find eye diseases in the early stages when treatment to prevent vision loss is most effective. (cdc.gov)
- We report a case of Degos' disease with GI involvement, which ultimately caused peritonitis, sepsis, and death, despite all treatment measures. (degosdisease.org)
- Inefficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins and infliximab in Degos' disease. (degosdisease.org)
- Degos disease is a rare disorder, characterized by the development of typical atrophic porcelain-white macules on the trunk and extremities. (degosdisease.org)
- Degos disease is extremely rare in children. (degosdisease.org)
- We report Degos disease in a teenager with an extended survival and the absence of internal involvement. (degosdisease.org)
- Broadly speaking, Degos disease is a vasculopathy or an endovasculitis. (medscape.com)
- In the skin, Degos disease initially manifests with erythematous, pink or red papules. (medscape.com)
- [ 4 ] contended in 2004 that Degos disease may not be a specific entity but, rather, may represent a common end point to a variety of vascular insults, many of which have not been fully elucidated. (medscape.com)
- [ 5 ] proposed that Degos disease is just a variant of lupus. (medscape.com)
- Guhl has noted a case of Wegener granulomatosis that manifested with multiple whitish papules, perhaps similar to those in Degos disease. (medscape.com)
- The etiology and the pathophysiology of Degos disease are unknown. (medscape.com)
- Some have classified Degos disease as a vasculitis, a mucinosis, or a thrombotic disorder. (medscape.com)
- Some authorities suggest that Degos disease involves a primary endothelial cell defect with secondary thrombosis, leading to infarctive changes. (medscape.com)
- Additionally, medications and toxic chemicals do not appear to induce Degos disease. (medscape.com)
- In molecular analysis of cases of Degos disease with only cutaneous lesions, no paramyxovirus was identified by polymerase chain reaction. (medscape.com)
- Erythema migrans, the characteristic skin rash of Lyme disease, occurs in two thirds of patients with Lyme disease and develops at an average of 7 days after the tick bite. (medscape.com)
- In the Ophthalmology Department of the Frontline Medicine Institute VIRTUS one can get therapeutic and surgical treatment of eye diseases. (virtus.ua)
- On the basis of the hypothetical dysimmune origin of this disease, we attempted treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, without success. (degosdisease.org)
- This in all likelihood allows for early detection of eye disease and better treatment outcomes. (argusopticians.com)
- Disease-modifying therapies can be used together with symptomatic treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
- Dexamethasone phosphate/DEMO is indicated in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adult and adolescent patients (aged 12 years and older with body weight at least 40 kg) who require supplemental oxygen therapy. (who.int)
- 8. Homonymous hemianopsia, quadrantopsia, bitemporal hemianopsia, or central scotoma related to cerebral vascular disease by Automated Visual field testing and confrontation visual field testing. (who.int)
- For patients presenting with later cutaneous manifestations, especially acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, questions must be directed at assessing the risk of tick bite (or previous manifestations of Lyme disease) from many years in the past. (medscape.com)
- Individuals at risk and those over the age of 40 should have regular, comprehensive eye examinations that included careful evaluation of the optic nerve and measurement of the eye pressure. (who.int)
- Because only approximately 25-30% of United States patients with early Lyme disease recall the tick bite, the clinician must direct the history toward the possibility of a tick bite. (medscape.com)
- The probability of a tick bite-and thus, the likelihood of contracting Lyme disease-is highest in persons who spend time outdoors (particularly in wooded, brushy, or grassy habitats) in a geographically endemic area. (medscape.com)
- Most cases of erythema migrans occur from late spring through early fall, because that is when ticks in the nymphal stage are seeking a blood meal, and nymphs account for 90% of Lyme disease cases. (medscape.com)
- Certain manifestations of Lyme disease are related to the particular strain of Borrelia involved. (medscape.com)
- Early localized Lyme disease refers to isolated erythema migrans and to an undifferentiated febrile illness. (medscape.com)
- The season is important, especially in patients with early disease. (medscape.com)
- Innovative educational programmes about eye diseases are needed to improve patients' knowledge and practices. (who.int)
- Un échantillon choisi à dessein de 50 patients souffrant de glaucome, âgés de 12 à 18 ans, consultant un centre de soins externes en ophtalmologie au Caire (Égypte) a bénéficié d'un programme éducatif sur cette maladie, visant à corriger leurs idées fausses et leurs attentes, et comportant des démonstrations et des formations de perfectionnement sur les soins oculaires. (who.int)
- Unlike syphilis, stage 3 disease may occur within 1 year of infection, not many years later. (medscape.com)