The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).
The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.
Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.

PDGF (alpha)-receptor is unresponsive to PDGF-AA in aortic smooth muscle cells from the NG2 knockout mouse. (1/1964)

A line of null mice has been produced which fails to express the transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2. Homozygous NG2 null mice do not exhibit gross phenotypic differences from wild-type mice, suggesting that detailed analyses are required to detect subtle alterations caused by the absence of NG2. Accordingly, dissociated cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells from null mice were compared to parallel cultures from wild-type mice for their ability to proliferate and migrate in response to specific growth factors. Both null and wild-type smooth muscle cells exhibited identical abilities to proliferate and migrate in response to PDGF-BB. In contrast, only the wild-type cells responded to PDGF-AA in both types of assays. NG2 null cells failed to proliferate or migrate in response to PDGF-AA, implying a defect in the signaling cascade normally initiated by activation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor. In agreement with this idea, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in response to PDGF-AA treatment occured only in wild-type cells. Failure to observe autophosphorylation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor in PDGF-AA-treated null cells indicates that the absence of NG2 causes a defect in signal transduction at the level of (alpha)-receptor activation.  (+info)

Why is the retention of gonadotrophin secretion common in children with panhypopituitarism due to septo-optic dysplasia? (2/1964)

Septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier syndrome) is a developmental anomaly of mid-line brain structures and includes optic nerve hypoplasia, absence of the septum pellucidum and hypothalamo-pituitary abnormalities. We describe seven patients (four female, three male) who had at least two out of the three features necessary for the diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia. Four patients had hypopituitarism and yet normal gonadotrophin secretion: one of these also had anti-diuretic hormone insufficiency; three had isolated GH deficiency and yet had premature puberty, with the onset of puberty at least a year earlier than would have been expected for their bone age. In any progressive and evolving anterior pituitary lesion it is extremely unusual to lose corticotrophin-releasing hormone/ACTH and TRH/TSH secretion and yet to retain gonadotrophin secretion. GnRH neurons develop in the nasal mucosa and migrate to the hypothalamus in early fetal life. We hypothesise that the arrival of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus after the development of a midline hypothalamic defect may explain these phenomena. Progress in spontaneous/premature puberty in children with De Morsier syndrome may have important implications for management. The combination of GH deficiency and premature puberty may allow an apparently normal growth rate but with an inappropriately advanced bone age resulting in impaired final stature. GnRH analogues may be a therapeutic option. In conclusion, some patients with De Morsier syndrome appear to retain the ability to secrete gonadotrophins in the face of loss of other hypothalamic releasing factors. The migration of GnRH neurons after the development of the midline defect may be an explanation.  (+info)

Injury-induced gelatinase and thrombin-like activities in regenerating and nonregenerating nervous systems. (3/1964)

It is now widely accepted that injured nerves, like any other injured tissue, need assistance from their extracellular milieu in order to heal. We compared the postinjury activities of thrombin and gelatinases, two types of proteolytic activities known to be critically involved in tissue healing, in nonregenerative (rat optic nerve) and regenerative (fish optic nerve and rat sciatic nerve) neural tissue. Unlike gelatinases, whose induction pattern was comparable in all three nerves, thrombin-like activity differed clearly between regenerating and nonregenerating nervous systems. Postinjury levels of this latter activity seem to dictate whether it will display beneficial or detrimental effects on the capacity of the tissue for repair. The results of this study further highlight the fact that tissue repair and nerve regeneration are closely linked and that substances that are not unique to the nervous system, but participate in wound healing in general, are also crucial for regeneration or its failure in the nervous system.  (+info)

Directional and spectral reflectance of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer. (4/1964)

PURPOSE: To measure and describe the reflectance properties of a mammalian retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the RNFL reflectance. METHODS: An isolated rat retina suspended across a slit in a black membrane and mounted in a black perfusion chamber provided high quality images of the RNFL. Imaging microreflectometry was used to measure RNFL reflectance at wavelengths from 400 nm to 830 nm and as a function of illumination angle. RESULTS: The directional reflectance of rat RNFL at all wavelengths was consistent with the theory of light scattering by cylinders; each nerve fiber bundle scattered light into a conical sheet coaxial with the bundle. There was no evidence of a noncylindrical component at any wavelength. Measured reflectance spectra were consistent between animals, similar to ones previously measured in macaque, and varied with scattering angle. All spectra could be described by a two-mechanism cylindrical scattering model with three free parameters. CONCLUSIONS: At all wavelengths the reflectance of rat RNFL arises from light scattering by cylindrical structures. The highly directional nature of this reflectance can be an important source of measurement variability in clinical assessment of the RNFL. The reflectance spectra reveal a combination of mechanisms: At wavelengths shorter than approximately 570 nm the reflectance comes from cylinders with diameters much smaller than the wavelength, but at wavelengths longer than approximately 680 nm the reflectance comes from cylinders with effective diameters of 350 nm to 900 nm.  (+info)

Test-retest variability of frequency-doubling perimetry and conventional perimetry in glaucoma patients and normal subjects. (5/1964)

PURPOSE: To compare the test-retest variability characteristics of frequency-doubling perimetry, a new perimetric test, with those of conventional perimetry in glaucoma patients and normal control subjects. METHODS: The study sample contained 64 patients and 47 normal subjects aged 66.16+/-11.86 and 64.26+/-7.99 years (mean +/- SD), respectively. All subjects underwent frequency-doubling perimetry (using the threshold mode) and conventional perimetry (using program 30-2 of the Humphrey Field Analyzer; Humphrey Instruments, San Leandro, CA) in one randomly selected eye. Each test was repeated at 1-week intervals for five tests with each technique over 4 weeks. Empirical 5th and 95th percentiles of the distribution of threshold deviations at retest were determined for all combinations of single tests and mean of two tests, stratified by threshold deviation. The influence of visual field eccentricity and overall visual field loss on variability also were examined. RESULTS: Mean test time with frequency-doubling perimetry in patients and normal control subjects was 5.90 and 5.25 minutes, respectively, and with conventional perimetry was 17.20 and 14.01 minutes, respectively. In patients, there was a significant correlation between the results of the two techniques, in the full field and in quadrants, whereas in normal subjects there was no such correlation. In patients, the retest variability of conventional perimetry in locations with 20-dB loss was 120% (single tests) and 127% (mean tests) higher compared with that in locations with 0-dB loss. Comparative figures for frequency-doubling perimetry were 40% and 47%, respectively. Variability also increased more with threshold deviation in normal subjects tested with conventional perimetry. In both patients and normal subjects, variability increased with visual field eccentricity in conventional perimetry, but not in frequency-doubling perimetry. Both techniques showed an increase in variability with overall visual field damage. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency-doubling perimetry has different test-retest variability characteristics than conventional perimetry and may have potential for monitoring glaucomatous field damage.  (+info)

CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. (6/1964)

PURPOSE: To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS: The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were applied intravitreally every 5 days. Animals were allowed to survive for 3 or 4 weeks. Regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were labeled by applying the dye Fluoro-Gold to the distal end of the peripheral nerve graft 3 days before the animals were killed. RESULTS: Intravitreal application of ciliary neurotrophic factor substantially enhanced the regeneration of damaged axons into a sciatic nerve graft in both experimental conditions (intracranial and intraorbital optic nerve transections) but did not increase the survival of distally axotomized RGCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 failed to enhance axonal regeneration of distally axotomized RGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurons of the adult central nervous system can regenerate in response to trophic supply after injury, and ciliary neurotrophic factor is at least one of the trophic factors that can promote axonal regeneration of axotomized RGCs.  (+info)

Evaluation of focal defects of the nerve fiber layer using optical coherence tomography. (7/1964)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze glaucomatous eyes with known focal defects of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), relating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to clinical examination, NFL and stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photography, and Humphrey 24-2 visual fields. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prevalence study. PARTICIPANTS: The authors followed 19 patients in the study group and 14 patients in the control group. INTERVENTION: Imaging with OCT was performed circumferentially around the ONH with a circle diameter of 3.4 mm using an internal fixation technique. One hundred OCT scan points taken within 2.5 seconds were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measurements of NFL thickness using OCT were performed. RESULTS: In most eyes with focal NFL defects, OCTs showed significant thinning of the NFL in areas closely corresponding to focal defects visible on clinical examination, to red-free photographs, and to defects on the Humphrey visual fields. Optical coherence tomography enabled the detection of focal defects in the NFL with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 81%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of NFL thickness in eyes with focal defects showed good structural and functional correlation with clinical parameters. Optical coherence tomography contributes to the identification of focal defects in the NFL that occur in early stages of glaucoma.  (+info)

The optic disc in glaucoma. I: Classification. (8/1964)

Five different descriptive types of glaucomatous optic discs are described, based on the examination of X2 magnification stereophotographs of 252 patients from the files of the Glaucoma Service at Wills Eye Hospital. The method of analysis is described in detail. These types include: overpass cupping, cupping without pallor of the neuroretinal rim, cupping with pallor of the neuroretinal rim, focal notching of the neuroretinal rim, and bean-pot cupping. These morphological types may be caused by variations in factors contributing to the pathogenesis of glaucomatous eyes. Recognition of these differing types may help in determining the factors in each case.  (+info)

Optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography is strongly correlated with invasive ICPmeasurements and may serve as a sensitive and noninvasive method for detecting elevated ICP in TBI patients after decompressive craniectomy 1).. Optic nerve sheath diameter measured by transorbital ultrasound imaging is an accurate method for detecting intracranial hypertension that can be applied in a broad range of settings. It has the advantages of being a non-invasive, bedside test, which can be repeated multiple times for re-evaluation 2).. Evolution of ultrasound technology and the development of high frequency (, 7.5 MHz) linear probes with improved spatial resolution have enabled excellent views of the optic nerve sheath.. The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), measured at a fixed distance behind the retina has been evaluated to diagnose and measure intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage 3) 4).. The optic nerve sheath is fairly easy to visualize by ultrasonography ...
Optic nerve sheath ultrasound is a noninvasive method for the assessment of the risk of raised ICP. The subarachnoid spaces surrounding the optic nerve communicate with the intracranial cavity and changes in cerebrospinal fluid pressure are transmitted along the optic nerve sheath.20 In the anterior part of the optic nerve and particularly in the retrobulbar segment, the nerve is only surrounded by orbital fat. The retrobulbar optic nerve sheath is therefore distensible and can inflate in case of raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Comparing ocular ultrasonography with gold standard measures of ICP (invasive devices), values of ONSD above 5.8 mm have been shown to be associated with a 95% risk of raised ICP (i.e. , more than 20 mmHg).13 Such values were obtained in 19% of our preeclamptic patients, suggesting a substantial incidence of raised ICP in this population. However, we were not able to show any relationship between preeclampsia severity and the magnitude of ONSD enlargement. This can ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inclusion of optic nerve involvement in dissemination in space criteria for multiple sclerosis. AU - Brownlee, Wallace J.. AU - Miszkiel, Katherine A.. AU - Tur, Carmen. AU - Barkhof, Frederik. AU - Miller, David H.. AU - Ciccarelli, Olga. PY - 2018/9/18. Y1 - 2018/9/18. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of including optic nerve involvement in dissemination in space (DIS) criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).METHODS: We studied 160 patients with CIS: 129 with optic neuritis (ON) and 31 with non-ON CIS. MRI brain/spinal cord was done at the time of presentation and a follow-up MRI brain after 3-12 months. We evaluated optic nerve involvement clinically or with visual evoked potentials (VEPs, n = 42). We investigated the performance of the McDonald 2017 DIS criteria and modified DIS criteria including optic nerve involvement for development of clinically definite MS after ∼15 years.RESULTS: In the ON group, ...
Bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. a. Coronal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a patient with bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. The optic nerves are the ti
The sonographic assessment of the optic nerve sheath diameter with gravitational challenge can distinguish open from closed spinal cerebrospinal fluid fistulas in spontaneous intracranial hypotension patients. A response to the gravitational challenge, that is, no more collapse of the optic nerve sh …
Purpose: To investigate the functions of the glaucoma-associated protein, myocilin, in the optic nerve.. Methods: Optic nerve astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were isolated from postnatal day 6 (P6) or P7 mice. Optic nerves were examined by electron microscopy. Binding of myocilin to the Lingo-1/NgR1 complex was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation from the optic nerve and by binding assays using myocilin-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins. Conductivity of the optic nerve was evaluated by a visual evoked potential test. Changes in gene expression were measured by RNA sequencing.. Results: Myocilin was first detected in optic nerve astrocytes at P6 and its level increased with age. Myocilin was also detected in astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes that were isolated and cultured from the optic nerve. Addition of purified myocilin to immature oligodendrocytes stimulated their differentiation and increased mRNAs encoding myelin-associated proteins (MBP, MAG and MOG) when compared with untreated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilateral optic nerve infiltration in central nervous system leukemia. AU - Schocket, Lisa S.. AU - Massaro-Giordano, Mina. AU - Volpe, Nicholas J.. AU - Galetta, Steven L.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - PURPOSE: To report the case of a 58-year-old man with sequential bilateral retrolaminar leukemic infiltration of the optic nerves who presented with normal-appearing optic nerves and no optic nerve enhancement. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHODS: A 58-year-old man with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) developed progressive vision loss to no light perception in both eyes over four days. RESULTS: The patient received 14 doses of external beam irradiation and 10 cycles of intrathecal cytarabine. Despite treatment, he developed optic nerve pallor, and visual acuity remained no light perception in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: In a patient with leukemia, leukemic optic nerve infiltration may occur even with normal-appearing optic nerves and a normal magnetic resonance image. ...
Assessment of the Intra- and Inter-Observer Reliabilities of Ultrasonographically Measured Optic Nerve Sheath Diameters in Normal Adults, Li-juan Wang, Li-min Chen, Ying Chen, Yang
Optic nerve regeneration (ONR) following injury is a model for central nervous system regeneration. In zebrafish, ONR is rapid - neurites cross the lesion and enter the optic tectum within 7 days; in mammals regeneration does not take place unless astrocytic reactivity is suppressed. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is used as a marker for retinal and optic nerve astrocytes in both fish and mammals, even though it has long been known that astrocytes of optic nerves in many fish, including zebrafish, express cytokeratins and not GFAP. We used immunofluorescence to localize GFAP and cytokeratin in wild-type zebrafish and transgenic zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of a GFAP promoter to determine the pattern of expression of intermediate filaments in retina and optic nerve. GFAP labeling and GFAP gene expression as indicated by GFP fluorescence was found only in the Müller glial cells of the retina. Within Müller cells, GFP fluorescence filled the entire cell while
The ONSD was measured at five points (T0-T4). The baseline ONSD was measured via ultrasonography (FUJIFILM®, Sonosite Inc., USA) in the supine position. We placed the linear probe lightly over the closed upper eyelids. The diameter of the optic nerve sheath was measured at a point 3.0 mm behind the optic disc. The ONSD appears as a vertical hypoechoic band surrounded by retrobulbar echogenic fat tissue on a monitor, perpendicular to the ultrasonic probe (Fig. 2). Using gel, the linear probe (13-16 MHz) was gently applied-transversely at 3-5 mm-to the patients upper eyelids to avoid excessive pressure, by two experienced examiners (one resident and one non-resident). For the purpose of ensuring inter-observer reliability, both examiners averaged over two measurements each for the first 10 random patients in the study. The ONSD was measured twice in each eye and calculated as the average of the four values. T0 was measured 5 min after induction of anesthesia in the supine position, when vital ...
Studies on the rat optic nerve in the past 5 years have produced two surprises. First, they demonstrated that there are two biochemically, developmentally and functionally distinct types of astrocytes in the optic nerve, and probably in white matter tracts throughout the CNS: one seems to be responsible for inducing endothelial cells to form the blood-brain barrier while the other seems to service nodes of Ranvier. Second, they showed that oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes develop from a common bipotential (O-2A) progenitor cell that seems to migrate into the developing optic nerve, and may well migrate all over the CNS to wherever myelination is required; this implies that the neuroepithelial cells of the optic stalk are restricted to forming type-1 astrocytes. Some of the findings in the optic nerve may be relevant to the problem of CNS regeneration after injury. These include the following. (1) Reactive gliosis in white matter tracts seems to be mainly a function of type-1 astrocytes. ...
purpose. To investigate changes in optic nerve head (ONH) circulation, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), and ONH cupping after stimulation of the optic nerve.. methods. Electrodes were fixed above the optic chiasma in rabbits under general anesthesia. Screw-type electrodes for VEP recording were fixed on the dura. ONH circulation, intraocular pressure (IOP), and blood pressure (BP) were measured after the passage of a current of 0.1 mA for 0.1 second (weak stimulation), 1 mA for 1 second (moderate), 5 mA for 10 seconds (strong), or 25 mA for 10 seconds (severe). Normalized blur (NB), indicative of tissue blood flow and velocity, was measured in the ONH after each stimulation, by using a laser speckle circulation analyzer. Changes in VEP and ocular fundus were also recorded. The ratio of cup area (CA) to disc area (DA) was measured before and 4 weeks after stimulation. After all experiments, the ONH was histologically examined.. results. Weak stimulation increased NB in ONH for 10 minutes, whereas ...
Body parts change considerably during the fetal period and early childhood. A number of studies have examined morphological changes in the orbit with increasing age,1-9 but only a few studies have measured changes in the opening angle of the optic nerve and orbit after birth in normal subjects.7-9 We measured the opening angle of the optic nerve and orbit using axial CT images in 147 normal Japanese children aged from 6 months to 18 years.. In an autopsy study, Zimmermann et al7 measured the angle formed by two lines running from the optic chiasm to the site where the optic nerves are attached to each eye. They reported that the opening angle of the optic nerve measured by this method decreased slightly during the fetal period, and that the angle was ∼71.5° at birth and ∼68° in adults. This early study involved measurements on autopsied heads, and the method used to measure the opening angle of the optic nerve differed from that used in our study, so a direct comparison may not be ...
Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative optic neuropathies caused by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve deterioration. Without - and often despite - current therapeutic intervention, glaucoma ultimately results in progressive and irreversible vision loss. The initial insult in glaucoma pathogenesis is believed to occur at the lamina cribrosa, a collagenous structure where RGC axons exit the eye and coalesce to form the optic nerve1. Optic nerve crush (ONC) delivers an acute, mechanical injury to the nerve at this location. Rodent models of ONC have been widely utilized to examine glaucomatous disease pathophysiology as well as to advance the development of novel therapeutics.. ONC is performed on anesthetized mice by exposing the optic nerve through the bulbar conjunctiva and transiently pinching the nerve just behind the globe using self-closing forceps2. Genes within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway such as pJNK and pJUN are upregulated following ONC, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localisation of connective tissue and inhibition of autofluorescence in the human optic nerve and nerve head using a modified picrosirius red technique and confocal microscopy. AU - Brotchie, D. AU - Birch, M. AU - Roberts, N. AU - Howard, Vyvyan. AU - Smith, VA. AU - Grierson, I. PY - 1999/2. Y1 - 1999/2. M3 - Article. VL - 87. SP - 77. EP - 85. JO - Journal of Neuroscience Methods. JF - Journal of Neuroscience Methods. SN - 0165-0270. IS - 1. ER - ...
ONHA - Optic Nerve Head Analyzer. Looking for abbreviations of ONHA? It is Optic Nerve Head Analyzer. Optic Nerve Head Analyzer listed as ONHA
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of chronic MS lesions in the cerebrum, brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve on T1-weighted MRI. AU - Gass, A.. AU - Filippi, M.. AU - Rodegher, M. E.. AU - Schwartz, A.. AU - Comi, G.. AU - Hennerici, M. G.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - We analyzed the prevalence of severely hypointense lesions on T1- weighted MRI in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve from 65 patients with MS. About half of 1,274 supratentorial lesions were classified as severely hypointense. Severe hypointensity was not seen in the optic nerve and spinal cord, and in only one of 168 chronic brainstem lesions. Tissue destruction in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve of MS patients does not usually result in severely hypointense lesions.. AB - We analyzed the prevalence of severely hypointense lesions on T1- weighted MRI in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve from 65 patients with MS. About half of 1,274 supratentorial lesions were classified as severely hypointense. ...
In adult visual system, goldfish can regrow their axons and fully restore their visual function even after optic nerve transection. The optic nerve regeneration process in goldfish is very long and...
A variety of strategies can be used to both protect and repair damaged optic nerves; however, work currently advances slowly, in part because of the need to thoroughly test such strategies in at least two species of animals before trying them in humans and in part because of the considerable cost involved in animal research. Nevertheless, with funding from institutions such as the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the Hirschhorn Foundation as well as from individual donors, we have been able to develop reproducible models of optic nerve damage in rats, mice, and, most importantly, in monkeys. These models allow us to test various substances that have the potential to reduce the amount of optic nerve damage caused by various insults or to restore vision that is lost from optic nerve damage. With this knowledge, we can then begin testing on humans. ...
In addition, we will present and then include the MOONSTRIP unpublished prospective blinded study conducted at a level one tertiary care trauma centre. Investigators of this study were given visual materials and readings prior to attending didactic and hands-on supervised ultrasound training sessions. During these sessions, quality assurance data were collected to ensure all investigators met acceptable standards.. In this study, all patients referred to the trauma centre will undergo assessment in accordance with advanced trauma life support protocol. If assessment warrants investigation for increased ICP, a CT scan will be performed. An investigator blinded to the CT scan will assess the patient based on the following inclusion criteria: age ≥16 years, following trauma, and ONSD sonography required to be performed within 1 hour of the CT scan. All patients will be consented prior to enrolment. Exclusion criteria includes: penetrating trauma to the head or significant ocular trauma; patient ...
The bipotential glial progenitor cells (O-2A progenitors), which during development of the rat optic nerve give rise to oligodendrocytes and type 2 astrocytes, are stimulated to divide in culture by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and there is evidence that PDGF is important for development o …
Background The results of studies on changes in intracranial pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery are inconsistent. Meanwhile, previous neurosurgery studies have suggested that propofol and sevoflurane have inconsistent effects on cerebral blood flow and cerebr...
Optic nerve regeneration is a treatment thats used to restore damaged axons in the optic nerve so that vision returns. Although...
Optic neuropathy refers to damage to the optic nerve due to any cause. Damage and death of these nerve cells, or neurons, leads to characteristic features of optic neuropathy. The main symptom is loss of vision, with colors appearing subtly washed out in the affected eye. On medical examination, the optic nerve head can be visualised by an ophthalmoscope. A pale disc is characteristic of long-standing optic neuropathy. In many cases, only one eye is affected and patients may not be aware of the loss of color vision until the doctor asks them to cover the healthy eye. Optic neuropathy is often called optic atrophy, to describe the loss of some or most of the fibers of the optic nerve. In medicine, atrophy usually means shrunken but capable of regrowth, so some argue that optic atrophy as a pathological term is somewhat misleading, and the term optic neuropathy should be used instead. In short, optic atrophy is the end result of any disease that damages nerve cells anywhere between the ...
Anoxic Injury of MammAan Central m t e Matter: Decreased Susceptibility in Myelin-deficient Optic Nerve Stephen G. Waxman, MD, PhD, Peter K. Davis, BS, Joel A. Black, PhD, and Bruce R. Ransom, &ID, PhD The rat optic nerve, a typical central nervous system white matter tract, rapidly loses excitability when it is exposed to anoxia and is irreversibly damaged by prolonged anoxia. Neonatal optic nerve is extremely resistant to anoxia-induced dysfunction and injury; the adult pattern of response to anoxia appears between 10 and 20 days postnatal, that is, during the period of oligodendroglial proliferation and myelination. To test the hypothesis that myelination, or associated events, confer anoxic susceptibility on developing white matter, we analyzed the effects of anoxia on the myelin-deficient (md) strain of rat. Acutely isolated optic nerves from 19- to 21-day-old md rats and control optic nerves from unaffected male littermates were maintained in vitro at 3 7 T , and exposed to a standard ...
There are some new procedures such as Non-Invasive Current Stimulation practiced by Dr. Anton Fedorov that have shown improvement in those with optic nerve damage. Learn more about this exciting new procedure here.
Glaucoma is a common ocular disorder that is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by the dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although many studies have implicated various molecules in glaucoma, no mechanism has been shown to be responsible for the earliest detectable damage to RGCs and their axons in the optic nerve. Here, we show that the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway is activated in the optic nerve head at the earliest stages of disease in an inherited mouse model of glaucoma. This resulted in proinflammatory monocytes entering the optic nerve prior to detectable neuronal damage. A 1-time x-ray treatment prevented monocyte entry and subsequent glaucomatous damage. A single x-ray treatment of an individual eye in young mice provided that eye with long-term protection from glaucoma but had no effect on the contralateral eye. Localized radiation treatment prevented detectable neuronal damage and dysfunction in treated eyes, despite the continued
My current research interest is related with the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of normal tension glaucoma. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder of the optic nerve, characterized by accelerated retinal ganglion cell death, subsequent axonal loss, optic nerve damage and eventual blindness. The morphological changes in the optic nerve are often asymptomatic and undetectable with conventional diagnostic methods. New imaging technologies are now available to diagnose glaucoma, including Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT), time-domain and more recently the spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Our goal is by using these novel imaging technologies to find and describe morphological features of the optic nerve which are characteristic of glaucoma and can be used to distinguish glaucomatous optic nerve damage from non-glaucomatous changes. In the past, I was involved in many different research projects, including corneal endothelial cell transplantation, corneal wound healing, the ...
We performed pressure on the left optic nerves of 24 pigs and injected intravenous thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) to 12 of these pigs in order to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration in the optic nerves. The histopathologic, ultrastructural and biochemical examinations of the optic nerves were made at the 24th hour, 7th, 15th and 30th days. although the light-microscopic examinations were normal, ultrastructural changes of the uncompressed optic nerves were interesting. Histopathologic and ultrastructural investigation of the compressed optic nerves showed significant degenerative changes in the non-TRH-applied group. Ultrastructural comparison yielded lighter degenerative changes in the TRH-applied group but there was no clue showing the stimulation of regeneration. We observed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the nontraumatized optic nerves due to the cellular stress. The SOD values were found to be low in highly damaged left compressed optic nerves indicating the ...
Although we have made other attempts to preserve vision in Optic Nerve Meningioma patients, these efforts failed to preserve vision in the affected eye. Among the challenges, is the reasonable certainty that the tumor will progress. If it begins at the apex of the orbit near the Optic Canal (the channel through which the Optic Nerve enters the skull, to travel backwards to the Occipital Lobe of the Brain), then early definitive surgery is required, even if it means sacrificing the Optic Nerve and thus the vision in that eye. Failure to do so may well lead to progression of the tumor to cause bilateral (both sides) blindness.. Radiosurgery has a place in the treatment, to attempt to control these tumors, particularly in patients who refuse to permit exenteration (removal of all the contents) of the Orbit. There are no easy decisions in the management of this difficult clinical problem. HEMANGIOMA. The most common tumor, in our large experience of Orbital Tumors, is a Hemangioma. Hemangiomas are ...
Optic nerve hypoplasia can be associated with central nervous system (CNS) malformations which put the patient at risk for other problems, including seizure disorder and developmental delay. Hormone deficiencies occur in most children, regardless of associated midline brain abnormalities or pituitary gland abnormalities on MRI. In fact, most children with growth hormone deficiency have a normal MRI.. ...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Machanic on treatment for optic nerve damage in the eye: A thorough exam can help determine the extent of the damage in many cases along with visual field and oct testing. A neuroophthalmic exam may be required in addition to an MRI or ct scan in some cases. for topic: Treatment For Optic Nerve Damage In The Eye
Optic Nerve Definition The optic nerve is the second nerve out of the twelve cranial nerves. It is a sensory paired nerve transmitting visual or sight information from the retina of the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the impulses from retina to the brain in the form of images. During the embryonic
This review article explains major optic nerve disorders and cell replacement therapy. This article also signifies new innovative methods, biopharmaceuticals, implantable biomaterials, devices and diagnostic tools developed for restoration of vision. It asserts notable technological advancements made for regeneration of neurons and restoration of visual system network. However, for finding quick solutions of optical- neuronal disorders more advanced biomaterial cell scaffolds and concurrent efforts are needed to revitalize visual-neural receptor system. This article stresses upon novel bioengineered methods mainly required to activate endogenous stem and progenitor cells, which could reawaken cells in dormancy, instructing them to promote repair and regeneration in optic nerve cells and retina. For better management of optic nerve disorders, the important role of tissues, genes, growth factors and proteins, nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and all underlying mechanisms should fully be investigated. This
Risk factors for the development of glaucoma include intraocular (eye) pressure (although it is important to recognise that glaucoma frequently develops with so-called normal intraocular pressure [IOP]), increasing age, positive family history for glaucoma and ethnicity. POAG is most common in white Caucasians and black individuals of African origin. PACG is most common in South-East Asians and worldwide about 33% of individuals with primary glaucoma have PACG. PACG is associated with a greater risk of blindness in comparison with POAG. Although elevated IOP is the major risk factor for glaucoma the condition is not considered to be a direct consequence of the pressure, but to relate to IOP-associated risk factors such as stress susceptibility of the optic nerve supporting structures and optic nerve blood flow, that are affected by IOP. Certain individuals can sustain a degree of IOP elevation without the development of glaucoma and are referred to as having Ocular Hypertension (OH), although ...
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Optic Nerve Label music on CD, MP3 and Vinyl available at Juno Records. Listen to Optic Nerve now using our online music player. Optic Nerve
A variety of studies demonstrate that ocular blood flow is altered in diabetes and retinal perfusion abnormalities have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.. Various animal and human studies have demonstrated that retinal and optic nerve blood flow increase in response to diffuse luminance flicker. Based on studies with ERG, this effect has been attributed to augmented activity in the retinal ganglion cells and associated axons indicating a coupling mechanism between neuronal activity and retinal blood flow. Whereas a variety of studies describe the effects of flickering light on retinal and optic nerve head blood flow, the knowledge about this coupling in the diabetic retina is sparse.. In view of the fact that neural activity and blood flow are strongly coupled in the human retina, one could hypothesize that neurodegenerative changes in the retina could contribute to the vascular dysregulation and in turn lead to changes of ocular perfusion. The ...
The optic nerve is located in the back of the eye. It is also called the second cranial nerve or cranial nerve II. It is the second of several pairs of cranial nerves.
Definition of Drusen of the optic nerve head with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Today: Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE)-M-2 Sample Start: Flight Engineer (FE)-5 Wiseman configured the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and inserted the second sample for an ACE-M-2 investigation run.. In the ACE-M-2 investigation, a model colloidal system is used to observe the microscopic behavior of liquids and gases separating from each other, near the critical point, via a process called spinodal decomposition.. Ocular Health: Wiseman assisted Commander (CDR) Swanson and FE-6 Gerst in taking ultrasound images of their eyes. All three USOS crewmembers took cardiac echo measurements of each other as part of the Ocular Health data collection. The ultrasound images will be used to identify changes in globe morphology, including flattening of the posterior globe, and document optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve sheath tortuosity, globe axial measurements, and choroidal engorgement. The Ocular Health protocol calls for a systematic gathering of ...
Diapason Experiment: Flight Engineer (FE)-5 Mastracchio set up and powered on the Diapason instrument for the final test run. This experiment studies nano-particle migration and capture achieved by very small thermal gradients. The particle size range allows the monitoring of combustion-generated pollution and the identification of atmospheric contaminants on-board ISS.. Ocular Health (OH) Measurements: FE-6 Wakata completed a series of activities in support of the OH payload, to satisfy his flight day 10 session. With FE-5 Mastracchio performing as the Crew Medical Officer (CMO), ocular and cardiac ultrasound scans and blood pressure measurements of Wakata were collected. In-flight data collection was assisted by remote guidance from the ground to ensure proper positioning and data collection. Ocular ultrasound is used to identify changes in globe morphology, including flattening of the posterior globe, and document optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve sheath tortuosity, globe axial ...
Glaucoma is a disease occurring where the optic nerve sustains damage. Glaucoma is found most frequently in older persons, persons of African-American heritage, people with a family history of Glaucoma and persons with underlying health problems such as diabetes or hypertension and sometimes in people taking certain medications such as steroids.. Glaucoma occurs where the small fibers making up the optic nerve are damaged or progressively dying-off. The loss of these fibers of the optic nerve cause small islands or pockets of visual loss. Damage to the fibers of the optic nerve is usually caused by pressure on the optic nerve. Many persons with Glaucoma do not initially recognize the symptoms; small areas or pockets of visual loss. As the disease progresses, these small areas enlarge or join together and larger areas of one?s field of vision are lost or missing. In most cases, the progression of the problem is slow and sometimes barely noticeable. However, in some instances the pressure can ...
The larger optic cups and smaller neuroretinal rims found in older subjects may be taken to mean that there is loss of the neuroretinal tissue with age, or that subjects born more recently are born with more neuroretinal tissue. In order to determine whether the differences related to age represent an aging change or a cohort effect, longitudinal studies are needed. Two such studies have been outlined.4042 It can be seen that, given the small changes predicted by this study (0.28% per year in rim area) and the variability arising from the measurement technique, a very long period between examinations is needed to detect change (18 years to detect a 5% change). Alternatively, multiple examinations over a shorter period would mitigate the effect of measurement error.. The morphological changes (loss of neuroretinal rim and increase in cupping) parallel the loss of optic nerve axons that is known to occur in glaucoma.46 A number of histological studies have found an age related decline in optic ...
Optical methods for recording electrical activity in the goldfish optic tectum were evaluated. Tectal slices, with a short section of the optic nerve attached, were stained with a fluorescent styryl dye. Potential- dependent fluorescence changes following optic nerve stimulation were monitored with a photodiode. We found that large optical signals could be obtained. Experimental manipulations of the slice bathing solution permitted us to identify several events that contributed to the optical response, including activity in afferent fibers, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, and presumptive glial depolarizations. These results suggest that voltage-sensitive dyes can provide a useful alternative method for monitoring synaptic responses in the goldfish tectum, and may prove valuable in studying changes in the functional synaptic organization of the tectum following manipulations of the retinotectal pathway.. ...
Tumors on optic nerves may cause progressive vision loss and can be fatal if untreated. See Houston Methodist for more information about optic nerve tumors.
Optic Nerve Disorders Drug Development Pipeline Review, 2018 Optic Nerve Disorders Drug Development Pipeline Review, 2018 Summary Optic neuropathy is an inherited form of vision loss. Symptoms - Market research report and industry analysis - 11999358
A previously fit and healthy 26-year-old lady with no significant medical history presented with a two-month history of headaches. The headaches were prolonged, generalised, and unusually severe for the patient. Examination revealed papilloedema. The patient’s optic nerve sheath diameter was measured 3 mm posterior to the globe and found to be 7.5 mm. The patient subsequently had computed tomography scan of her brain that showed an optic nerve sheath diameter of 7.56 mm as measured 3 mm posterior to the globe. After an obstructive lesion was ruled out on the computed tomography scan, a lumbar puncture was then performed and cerebrospinal fluid was drained. An ultrasound of the optic nerve sheath diameter was repeated showing a reduced diameter of 5.6 mm. The patient was admitted to the neurology unit and ultimately diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This case report highlights the potential of rapidly identifying elevated intracranial pressure
What is the optic nerve?. The optic nerve is in the center of the retina and is a circular to oval pinkish area measuring 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter. From the center of the nerve radiate the major blood vessels of the retina. The optic nerve itself carries over one million nerves that connect the retina ((the layer of the eye that carries the vision cells) with the occipital lobe (the part of the brain that interprets vision) like a cable wire.. What is optic nerve atrophy?. Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and color vision. ONA that occurs as a child may result in nystagmus (rhythmic involuntary eye movements).. What causes optic nerve atrophy?. ONA causes include: tumor, trauma, decreased blood supply (ischemia) or oxygen supply (hypoxia) causing swelling, heredity, hydrocephalus, toxins, infection, and rare degenerative disorders. Onset can be from birth through adulthood.. How is optic nerve atrophy ...
Description of disease Optic nerve atrophy. Treatment Optic nerve atrophy. Symptoms and causes Optic nerve atrophy Prophylaxis Optic nerve atrophy
BACKGROUND: In some cases of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, brain imaging displays signs compatible with raised intracranial pressure. We aimed to estimate the incidence of raised intracranial pressure in preeclampsia using ocular ultrasonography.. METHODS: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements were compared in 26 preeclamptic and 25 healthy pregnant women. For each optic nerve, two measurements were made (transverse plane and sagittal plane) using a 7.5 MHz ultrasound linear probe. Preeclamptic patients were followed-up until postpartum day 7.. RESULTS: Median ONSD values were significantly greater in preeclamptic patients compared with healthy pregnant women at delivery (5.4 mm (95% CI: 5.2, 5.7) vs. 4.5 mm (95% CI: 4.3, 4.8), P , 0.0001). At delivery, 5/26 (19%) of preeclamptic patients had ONSD values above 5.8 mm (value associated in the literature with 95% risk of raised intracranial pressure) whereas none of the healthy pregnant group had such high ONSD values. In the ...
intra-parenchymal monitoring using optical fiber catheter. Non invasive methods have been suggested, including ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) which is the most interesting one. The ONSD measured ultrasonically is correlated with ICP level in adults with severe TBI. A diameter over 5,9 mm predicts ICH within the first 24 hours. In children, ONSD average values have been worked out, and an ONSD increase is found in children suffering from hydrocephalus with IH and in children with TBI. ICH precocious detection is fundamental in children sensitive to ICH because their cerebral development is not finished yet. Difficulties met for ICP monitoring implementation in infants and its invasive nature are often disliked by clinicians. A non-invasive exam is then essential to allow a better care of children with ICH in intensive care unit ...
StemCellCareIndia providing best Optic Nerve Atrophy Stem Cell Treatment, optic nerve damage, optic nerve transplant, optic nerve regeneration and optic nerve atrophy stem cell treatment in Delhi, India
This Optic Nerve Hypoplasia web portal has been generously supported by The Karl Kirchgessner Foundation.Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (ONH) is the under-development or absence of the optic nerve combined with possible brain and endocrine abnormalities. It is also known as Septo-Optic Dysplasia or DeMorsiers Syndrome.Now at epidemic proportions, ONH is the leading ocular cause of
The type of visual field loss will depend on which portions of the optic nerve were damaged. In general, the location of the damage in relation to the optic chiasm (see diagram above) will affect the areas of vision loss. Damage to the optic nerve that is anterior, or in front of the optic chiasm (toward the face) causes loss of vision in the eye on the same side as the damage. Damage at the optic chiasm itself typically causes loss of vision laterally in both visual fields or bitemporal hemianopsia (see image to the right). Such damage may occur with large pituitary tumors, such as pituitary adenoma. Finally, damage to the optic tract, which is posterior to, or behind the chiasm, causes loss of the entire visual field from the side opposite the damage, e.g. if the left optic tract were cut, there would be a loss of vision from the entire right visual field. Injury to the optic nerve can be the result of congenital or inheritable problems like Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy, glaucoma, ...
Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is characterized by mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and colour vision. Optic nerve disease is complicated and there are a number of pathophysiologic mechanisms that can lead to retinal ganglion cell impairment or death. ONA is associated with myriad causes including tumour, trauma, glaucoma, ischemia, heredity, hydrocephalus, toxins, infection and some rare degenerative disorders. Clinically, the neuroprotective or exogenic therapies that restore lost visual system connectivity in retinal degenerative disease are non-existent and translatable techniques for the replacement of lost retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and photoreceptors are in their infancy [1]. Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons or for restoring neural circuits. Recent evidence suggests stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous ...
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Looking for online definition of optic nerve swelling in the Medical Dictionary? optic nerve swelling explanation free. What is optic nerve swelling? Meaning of optic nerve swelling medical term. What does optic nerve swelling mean?
Group 1: In the Eu-DH group, induction of deliberate hypotension to a goal MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was accomplished within 30 min of the second baseline FMS injection with an approximate dose of 15-25 mg/kg intravenous labetalol. Thereafter, labetalol was administered to maintain the target MAP of 50-55 mm Hg, reaching a total dose of approximately 30-40 mg/kg over the duration of the experiment. The final FMS injection was performed 1 h after the MAP had been reduced to 50-55 mm Hg. Group 2: In the Hypo-DH group, induction of hypovolemic hypotension to a MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was initiated after the second baseline FMS injection by rapid exsanguination via the femoral arterial catheter of approximately 30% of the estimated blood volume in the first hour. To prevent reflex tachycardia and provide more consistent hemodynamics at a goal MAP of 50-55 mm Hg, approximately 10-20 mg labetalol was administered during the first hour of exsanguination. Further exsanguination occurred throughout the experiment to ...
7-year-old child was seen in the office on 10/6/2009. She had difficulty seeing the blackboard in school. She was checked for glasses and it was noted at that time that she had unusual looking optic nerves. You saw her and suggested she come here for an evaluation. She does not have her new prescription yet. VISUAL ACUITY: Vision OU is 20/50. AMSLER GRID: Both eyes are normal. SLIT LAMP EXAM: Normal with clear lenses. EXTENDED OPHTHALMOSCOPY: OD: Vertical C/D ratio is 0.0. There are no hemorrhages. There are no cotton-wool spots around the optic nerve. There is an anomalous branching pattern of the retinal vessels. OS: Vertical C/D ratio is 0.0. There is an optic nerve drusen on the inferior edge of the optic nerve. There are no hemorrhages. There are no cotton-wool spots. There is an anomalous retinal vascular pattern. PHOTOGRAPHS: Photos confirm clinical findings. ULTRASOUND: Ultrasound shows calcification of the optic nerve head in each eye. IMPRESSION: 1. PSEUDOPAPILLEDEMA - BOTH EYES 2. ...
There is no treatment to reverse atrophy of the optic nerve; however, limiting further optic nerve damage (if possible) is the goal. For example, reduction of increased fluid pressure around the brain and spinal cord (hydrocephalus) may prevent further optic nerve damage. Spectacles may be prescribed to correct refractive error. When optic atrophy is unilateral protection of the good eye is essential and wearing of protective lenses should be stressed. Magnifiers or tinted lenses may also improve visual function.. ...
Optic atrophy refers to the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve with the resulting picture of a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy. Optic atrophy is an end stage that arises from myriad causes of optic nerve damage anywhere along the path from the retina to the lateral geniculate. Since the optic nerve transmits retinal information to the brain, optic atrophy is associated with vision loss. Optic atrophy is somewhat of a misnomer as atrophy implies disuse, and thus optic nerve damage is better termed optic neuropathy.
Ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is the loss of structure and function of a portion of the optic nerve due to obstruction of blood flow to the nerve (i.e. ischemia). ION is typically classified as either anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or posterior ischemic optic neuropathy according to the part of the optic nerve that is affected. People affected will often complain of a loss of visual acuity and a visual field, the latter of which is usually in the superior or inferior field. ...
EphA receptors and their ligands the ephrin-As, expressed as retinal and tectal gradients, are required for the development of retino-tectal topography [Neuron 25 (2000) 563] and its restoration during goldfish optic nerve regeneration [Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 25 (2004) 56]. We have reported previously that, during regeneration, a transient EphA3/A5 gradient is formed by differential expression across the entire retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population [Neurosci. Abs. 33 (2003) 358.2; Exp. Neurol. 183 (2003) 593]. In retino-recipient tectal layers, ephrin-A2 is normally expressed by only a sub-population of cells, but during regeneration, there is a graded increase with more expressing cells caudally than rostrally [Exp. Neurol. 166 (2000) 196]. Here, we examine the characteristics of tectal ephrin-A2 expression during regeneration. We report that the level of ephrin-A2 expression is comparable for all ephrin-A2-positive cells in normal animals and during regeneration. Using double-labelling
Kamil was diagnosed with Optic Nerve Atrophy, a condition that affects the optic nerve, which carries impulses from the eye to the brain.
The birth defect known as optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), characterized by an underdeveloped optic nerve, has emerged as the single leading cause of childhood blindness and visual impairment in the United States and Europe. Since the first description of ONH, research has made tremendous progress in understanding the clinical significance of ONH. It is now clear that ONH is a pervasive disease of child neurodevelopment associated with overall miswiring of the brain that results in visual impairment and profound systemic and functional morbidity. A review of the disease summarizes the clinical profile associated with ONH. The prenatal determinants of ONH are largely unknown owing to a lack of systematic research in a large sample of cases. A review of literature identified a broad spectrum of suggested risk factors born primarily out of anecdotal reports and highly selective case samples. This dissertation includes two analyses aimed at clarifying the prenatal risk profile. The first is a ...
Background: Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) can be caused by direct or indirect injury. Direct optic injury usually results from optic nerve avulsion or laceration, or from direct fracture of the optic canal. Indirect optic injury is caused by increa
DefinitionOptic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to the brain.Alternative NamesOptic atrophy; Optic neuropathy
Berry; Et-Al, 2004: Optic nerve regeneration after intravitreal peripheral nerve implants: Trajectories of axons regrowing through the optic chiasm into the optic tracts (vol 28, pg 721, 1999)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. AU - Brown, Nadean L. AU - Patel, S.. AU - Brzezinski, J.. AU - Glaser, Thomas M. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The vertebrate retina contains seven major neuronal and glial cell types in an interconnected network that collects, processes and sends visual signals through the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal neuron differentiation is thought to require both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, yet few intrinsic gene products have been identified that direct this process. Math5 (Atoh7) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is specifically expressed by mouse retinal progenitors. Math5 is highly homologous to atonal, which is critically required for R8 neuron formation during Drosophila eye development. Like R8 cells in the fly eye, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the first neurons in the vertebrate eye. Here we show that Math5 mutant mice are fully viable, yet lack RGCs and optic nerves. ...
PURPOSE To introduce high-resolution, digital three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the connective tissues of the optic nerve head (ONH). METHODS Trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three monkeys with early glaucoma (EG; one eye normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were embedded in paraffin and serial sectioned at 3-mum thickness from the vitreous surface through the orbital optic nerve, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Each image was aligned, and then the scleral canal wall, sclera, border tissue of Elschnig, Bruchs membrane, lamina cribrosa, optic nerve septa, pial sheath, and vasculature were delineated as unique objects. Delineated images were stacked, color mapped, and volume rendered and then serial sagittal and transverse digital sections of the resultant voxel geometries were viewed and measured. RESULTS Substantial differences in the 3-D architecture of the peripapillary sclera, scleral canal wall, and lamina cribrosa were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early astrocyte redistribution in the optic nerve precedes axonopathy in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. AU - Cooper, Melissa L.. AU - Crish, Samuel D.. AU - Inman, Denise M.. AU - Horner, Philip J.. AU - Calkins, David J.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by the Melza M. and Frank Theodore Barr Foundation through the Glaucoma Research Foundation (DJC, PJH), Departmental Unrestricted and Senior Investigator Awards from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc. (DJC), and the Vanderbilt Vision Research Center NEI Core Grant ( 5P30EY008126-19 , DJC). The authors would like to thank John Collyer and Megan Flint for help with programing and image processing and Brian Carlson and Wendi Lambert for their assistance. Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Glaucoma challenges the survival of retinal ganglion cell axons in the optic nerve through processes dependent on both aging and ocular pressure. Relevant stressors likely ...
1.The optic nerve leaves via the optic foramen and forms the optic nerve where it passes posteriorly to form the optic chiasm.. 2.Post the optic chiasm all lesions will be contralateral, and form the optic tract (consists ipsilateral temporal and contra-lateral nasal fibres) and synapse at the lateral geniculate body in the thalamus.. 3.The optic radiation passes deep in the parietal lobe and temporal lobe (via Meyers loop) and ends in the calcarine cortex in the occipital lobe.. ...
Ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is the loss of structure and function of a portion of the optic nerve due to obstruction of blood flow to the nerve (i.e. ischemia). ION is typically classified as either anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or posterior ischemic optic neuropathy according to the part of the optic nerve that is affected. People affected will often complain of a loss of visual acuity and a visual field, the latter of which is usually in the superior or inferior field. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optic Nerve Head Drusen. T2 - The Relationship Between Intraocular Pressure and Optic Nerve Structure and Function: Response. AU - Shyne, Michael. AU - Van Stavern, Gregory P.. AU - Nolan, Kaitlyn W.. AU - Lee, Michael S.. AU - Mcclelland, Collin M.. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. UR - U2 - 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000738. DO - 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000738. M3 - Letter. C2 - 30540636. AN - SCOPUS:85061476198. VL - 39. SP - 143. EP - 144. JO - Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. JF - Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. SN - 1070-8022. IS - 1. ER - ...
nerve degeneration - MedHelps nerve degeneration Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for nerve degeneration. Find nerve degeneration information, treatments for nerve degeneration and nerve degeneration symptoms.
Purpose: It is essential to identify hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) because they are at risk for developmental delay, seizures, or death. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of neurohypophyseal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with ONH.Design: Cross-sectional study.Participants: One hundred one children with clinical ONH who underwent MRI of the brain and orbits and a detailed pediatric endocrinologic evaluation.Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on 1.5-Tesla scanners. The imaging protocol included sagittal T1-weighted images, axial fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery/T2-weighted images, and diffusion-weighted images of (Read more...) Full Story →. ...
Rods, cones and nerve layers in the retina. The front (anterior) of the eye is on the left. Light (from the left) passes through several transparent nerve layers to reach the rods and cones (far right). A chemical change in the rods and cones send a signal back to the nerves. The signal goes first to the Retina bipolar cell and Retina horizontal cell(yellow layer), then to the Retina amacrine cell and Retinal ganglion cell(purple layer), then to the optic nerve fibres. The signals are processed in these layers. First, the signals start as raw outputs of points in the rod and cone cells. Then the nerve layers identify simple shapes, such as bright points surrounded by dark points, edges, and movement. (Based on a drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1911 ...
Find the best sarcoidosis of the optic nerve doctors in New Delhi. Get guidance from medical experts to select sarcoidosis of the optic nerve specialist in New Delhi from trusted hospitals -
Optic Nerve Diseases symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Optic Nerve Diseases (Optic nerve disorder) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an acute injury of the optic nerve associated with severe visual dysfunction, which may be a result of secondary mechanical injury and vascular disorder of the optic nerve due to trauma. We analyzed the natural course of axonal loss and blood flow disturb...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Study of optic nerve head perfusion in glaucomatous patients by Color Doppler Imaging with a contrast agent. AU - Montanari, P.. AU - Bianchi, R.. AU - Oldani, A.. AU - Ratiglia, R.. AU - Raiteri, M.. AU - Berardinelli, L.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - Color Doppler Imaging. KW - Optic nerve head perfusion. KW - Primary open-angle glaucoma. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 11235525. AN - SCOPUS:0034496101. VL - 78. SP - 35. EP - 36. JO - Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, Supplement. JF - Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, Supplement. SN - 1395-3931. IS - 232. ER - ...
As the majority of Glaucomas develop slowly without pain (except for acute angle-closure glaucoma) it is recommended that you receive regular eye examinations to detect if there is any damage or deterioration to the optic nerve fibres. Once damage has been done to the optic nerve it is irreversible and your ophthalmologist can only control the development of the disease with either a series of ongoing treatments or surgery.. A thorough physical examination of the eye will be taken. This will include testing of your vision, peripheral visual field and microscopic examination of the retina, optic nerve head, arteries and veins as well as special scans and photos of these structures in order to accurately determine the type of glaucoma and the most appropriate treatment. If there is evidence of optic nerve damage and commonly an increase in intraocular pressure (but not in all cases) you will be treated and reviewed regularly to adequately monitor the eye so that your glaucoma is managed correctly. ...
To determine whether optic nerve myelin of goldfish carries mammalian- like neurite growth inhibitory proteins which can be neutralized by the antibody IN-1, myelin fractions of fish optic nerves were used as substrates for fish retinal ganglion cell axons and rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Axonal growth was monitored and compared with that of IN- 1 treated preparations. Growth of fish retinal axons and rat DRG neurites was substantial on goldfish optic nerve myelin and no improvement was observed with IN-1. In contrast, rat CNS myelin allowed only poor growth, and number of axons and length of DRG neurites increased significantly with IN-1. In addition, proteins of fish optic nerve myelin and bovine CNS myelin were extracted, reconstituted in liposomes and applied to growth cones. When goldfish myelin proteins in liposomes were seeded onto growth cones, 77% of fish and 89% of rat DRG growth cones continued to elongate, and the proportion of elongating fish growth cones (80%) did not ...
The instructor will insert fingers between the frontal lobe and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa to gently raise the frontal lobe to display the olfactory bulb as it lies on the cribriform plate (842/N9). If possible, identify the olfactory tract extending posteriorly from the bulb to the inferior surface of the hemisphere. The bulbs can be teased away from the cribiform plate so that bulbs and tracts remain with the brain. Additional elevation of the two frontal lobes will display the optic nerves and chiasm (N101) in the midline about 2 ½ inches posterior to the crista galli. With a small pair of scissors the optic nerves are cut leaving the optic chiasm on the brain. (It is best to sever all cranial nerves with a scissors; pressure on them even with a sharp scalpel is likely to tear them from the brain). Immediately posterior to each optic nerve are the internal carotid arteries (893/N132). In the midline the very slender infundibulum (N100) (stalk of the hypophysis) is seen passing ...
1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.[edit]. The use of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) for the assessment of ICP dates back to ... 8.1 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.. *8.2 2. Ophthalmodynamometry or the measurement of the retinal venous outflow pressure (VOP ... While the ONSD can at any given point along the optic nerve be measured with a precision of ,1mm, reliability of derived ICP ... It cannot be applied in cases of ocular trauma or conditions that selectively affect the optic nerve, and gives erroneously ...
Complete crossing of the optic nerve[edit]. Complete crossing (decussation) of the nerves at the optic chiasm in birds has also ... Complete decussation of the optic tract has been seen as a method of ensuring the open eye strictly activates the contralateral ... Some evidence indicates that this alone is not enough as blindness would theoretically prevent USWS if retinal nerve stimuli ...
Her work has also been included in other Op Art shows such as Optic Nerve: Perceptual Art of the 1960s, at the Columbus Museum ... Optic Nerve. Perceptual Art of the 1960s, Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus; Bit International [Nove] tendencije: Computer und ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "I Am a Wallet". Optic Nerve. Archived from the original on 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2015- ... the album was remastered and re-released with a bonus LP of tracks taken from the first four singles by Optic Nerve Recordings ...
Optic Nerve Films". Business in Vancouver. Marke Andrews (2016-04-19). "Profile: Kevin Eastwood, founder, Optic Nerve Films". ... Optic Nerve Films". Business in Vancouver. "About Kevin Eastwood". Optic Nerve Films. Retrieved 10 July ...
... optic nerve coloboma; and The development in infancy of seizures that are called infantile spasms. Other types of defects of ...
"Optic Nerve Recordings". Party Day - Sorted!. Optic Nerve Recordings. Retrieved 16 March 2021. Party Day - official website ... and released by Optic Nerve Recordings. "Row The Boat Ashore" c/w "Poison" (1983, Party Day Records) "Spider" c/w "Flies" (1984 ... Optic Nerve Recordings) "Party Day" on Real Time 5 (1983, Unlikely Records [cassette]) "Rabbit Pie" on Giraffe in Flames (1984 ...
... optic disc drusen, which is present on the optic nerve head. Both age-related drusen and optic disc drusen can be observed by ... Optical coherence tomography scans of the orbits or head, calcification at the head of the optic nerve without change in size ... Davis PL, Jay WM (December 2003). "Optic nerve head drusen". Semin Ophthalmol. 18 (4): 222-42. doi:10.1080/08820530390895244. ... Optic disc drusen Silvestri G, Williams MA, McAuley C, Oakes K, Sillery E, Henderson DC, Ferguson S, Silvestri V, Muldrew KA ( ...
In 2017 Optic nerve records re-released "What Went Wrong This Time" in a limited edition single, on colored vinyl. "What Went ... Optic Nerve Recordings. Retrieved 29 April 2021. Official site Details of the band's John Peel sessions The Siddeleys on ...
Optic Nerve (Director) (1972). Project One (Motion picture). San Francisco. Event occurs at 4:10 minutes in. Felsenstein, Lee ( ...
Optic Nerve. (1999) Red Hot + Indigo. (2001) Red Hot + Riot: The Music and Spirit of Fela Kuti. (2002) ... Optic Nerve, the tribute to artist-activist David Wojnarowicz. (Because of the focus of this release, it is not considered part ...
OPA1 Optic atrophy-7; 612989; TMEM126A Optic nerve coloboma with renal disease; 120330; PAX2 Optic nerve hypoplasia and ... CYP2C Optic atrophy 1; 165500; OPA1 Optic atrophy and cataract; 165300; OPA3 Optic atrophy and deafness; 125250; ... CRLF1 Coloboma of optic nerve; 120430; PAX6 Coloboma, ocular; 120200; PAX6 Coloboma, ocular; 120200; SHH Colon cancer, somatic ... SOX2 Optic nerve hypoplasia; 165550; PAX6 Oral-facial-digital syndrome 1; 311200; OFD1 Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency; ...
Optic Nerve (Spanish: El nervio óptico), her first foray into narrative, has been translated into ten languages. In 2018 she ... English translation: Optic Nerve, Harvill Secker/Catapult, 2019. La luz negra, Editorial Anagrama, 2018 Wajszczuk, Ana (October ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Williams, John (April 18, 2019). "In 'Optic Nerve,' a Woman Trains a Sharp Eye on Art ... An extract from Optic Nerve. Books in Anagrama editorial Articles in Artforum magazine. ...
He has studied also changes in the optic nerve in glaucoma, and has helped develop imaging techniques that aid in the early ... Varma co-wrote two ophthalmic books: Essentials of Eye Care: The Johns Hopkins Wilmer Handbook; and The Optic Nerve in Glaucoma ... Varma, Rohit (1993-01-01). The Optic Nerve in Glaucoma. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 978-0397510146. Advanced Glaucoma ...
In the optic nerve, the oligodendrocyte cells divided for the final time at five days, with the onset of myelin formation ... Through the rat optic nerve, early research made significant contributions to knowledge in the field of myelinogenesis. Studies ... The studies on a rat optic nerve revealed that 15 days post-natal is when an increase in myelination is observed. Before this ... This expression was similar to a period where the optic nerve showed a maximal myelination period of the axon. As the activity ...
Tasman, W. (1973-05-01). "The Retina and Optic Nerve". Archives of Ophthalmology. 89 (5): 422-436. doi:10.1001/archopht. ...
Optic nerve (5%). *Uvea (2%). Mechanism[edit]. Childhood blindness has many causes, and each cause has its own method of ...
"Optic Nerve: Poems with Photographs (review)". Subtle Tea. Retrieved 15 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). " ... Optic Nerve: Photopoems (Los Angeles: Red Hen Press, 2005). ISBN 1597090190 Phantom Limb, ed. Tobias Wolff (University of ... Her continuing exploration of the relationships between word and image led to the publication of Optic Nerve: Photopoems. In ...
Boitnott, J. Optic Nerve Sheath Ultrasound. EMSPOCUS. ... Ultrasound visualization of the optic nerve sheath has been shown to be useful as a surrogate for more invasive intracranial ...
In vertebrates the CNS also includes the retina and the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), as well as the olfactory nerves and ... Two pairs of cranial nerves; the olfactory nerves and the optic nerves are often considered structures of the CNS. This is ... These 12 nerves exist in the head and neck region and are called cranial nerves. Cranial nerves bring information to the CNS to ... Some peripheral nerves can be over 1 meter in length, such as the nerves to the big toe. To ensure signals move at sufficient ...
Most commonly optic nerve is involved. The most common finding is oculomotor nerve dysfunction leading to ophthalmoplegia. This ... The optic nerve may eventually be involved, with resulting visual loss. Jacod Syndrome is commonly associated with a tumor of ... Orbital apex syndrome, is a collection of cranial nerve deficits associated with a mass lesion near the apex of the orbit of ... is often accompanied by ophthalmic nerve dysfunction, leading to hypoesthesia of the upper face. ...
Marks, Paul (13 March 2006). "Optic nerve regrown with a nanofibre scaffold". New Scientist. Kleiner, Kurt (30 May 2006). " ... March - Nanotubes used as a scaffold for damaged nerve regeneration. May - Method of placing nanotube accurately is developed ...
Optic Nerve Perceptual Art Of The 1960s. London, New York: Merrell Publishers Limited, 2007. Bryan Robertson. Bridget Riley ... Op Art or Optic Art was now the latest trend in home décor and fashion. This form of modern art shares a strong relationship ...
... also had a large optic nerve. The three semicircular canals of the inner ear of Carcharodontosaurus ...
Optic Glioma/ Optic Nerve & Growth Factor Eye Drops. Natural Eye Care. Accessed from ... In vivo, oncomodulin promotes regeneration of the optic nerve in rats. It has also been found in different types of human and ... Eye drops with oncomodulin can be a useful method of promoting nerve regrowth in mild cases of optic gliomas. Oncomodulin has ... Yin, Yuqin; Cui, Qi; Gilbert, Hui-ya; Yang, Yang; Yang, ...
"Auditory evoked phosphenes in optic nerve disease". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 45 (1): 7-12. doi:10.1136/jnnp.45.1.7. ... "Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign". Neurology. 26 (11): 1100-4. doi:10.1212/wnl.26.11.1100. PMID ... Phosphenes that are induced by movement or sound may be associated with optic neuritis. Phosphenes can be directly induced by ... phosphenes can also be caused by some diseases of the retina and nerves, such as multiple sclerosis. The British National ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Colin Dabkowski (8 October 2010). "Kim Adams' 'Optic Nerve' lights up Babeville". The ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Optic Nerve". 6 October 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
The optic nerve was large in Carcharodontosaurus. Among dinosaurs, theropods had exceptionally large eyes. Deinonychosaurians, ...
The longitudinal fissure also pays a role in the optic nerve tract. This is shown in (figure 4.) with the optic chiasm, which ... Damage to the nerve past the optic chiasm, will cause loss or impairment to the corresponding eye. If the right side of the ... Optic and olfactory nerves. Inferior view. Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Inferior view. Deep dissection. Meninges and superficial ... The longitudinal fissure allows for this misdirection and crossover of nerves. The crossover seems to be counterintuitive, ...
"A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve". J. Physiol. 117 (4 ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ...
Wells, Martin J.; Wells, J. (1972). "Optic glands and the state of the testis in Octopus". Marine Behaviour and Physiology. 1 ( ... It contains tetrodotoxin, which causes paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. This causes ... The gonocoel is connected by the gonoduct to the mantle cavity, which it enters at the gonopore.[22] An optic gland creates ... Octopus reproductive organs mature due to the hormonal influence of the optic gland but result in the inactivation of their ...
No photoreceptors are found at the blind spot, the area where ganglion cell fibers are collected into the optic nerve and leave ... The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves. Photoreceptor cells are typically arranged in an irregular but ... ultimately leads to either the transmittance or inhibition of a neural signal that will be fed to the brain via the optic nerve ... When light activates the melanopsin signaling system, the melanopsin-containing ganglion cells discharge nerve impulses that ...
Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic ... A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence ...
"Biomedical Optics Express (ഭാഷ: ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്). 7 (7): 2597-2606. doi:10.1364/BOE.7.002597. ISSN 2156-7085. PMC 4948616. PMID ... "Table 1: Summary of sensory nerve supply". മൂലതാളിൽ നിന്നും February 14, 2013-ന് ആർക്കൈവ് ചെയ്തത്. ശേഖരിച്ചത് July 31, 2016.. ...
Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... Glaucoma causes visual field loss as well as severs the optic nerve.[35] Early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma in patients ... to the occipital lobe of the brain that prevent the brain from correctly receiving or interpreting signals from the optic nerve ...
Coloboma of optic nerve. *PAX8 *Congenital hypothyroidism 2. *PAX9 *STHAG3. 3.3. *FOXC1 *Axenfeld syndrome 3 ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ...
In neuroanatomy, crossings of peripheral nerves (such as the optic chiasm) are named for the letter Chi because of its Χ-shape. ...
Sensory cranial and spinal nerves. *Optic (II). *Vestibulocochlear (VIII). *Olfactory (I). *Facial (VII) ... The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs) detect sustained pressure. The lamellar corpuscles (also known as ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ... They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. ...
Coloboma (Coloboma of optic nerve). *Hydrophthalmos. *Norrie disease. Retrieved from " ...
It is also used for treatment of neuroblastoma, a form of nerve cancer. ... swelling of the optic disk (papilloedema, associated with IIH), photophobia and other visual disturbances.[6] ...
Nerve fiber layer. *Ganglion cell layer. *Inner plexiform layer. *Inner nuclear layer ...
দর্শন স্নায়ু (Optic nerve). *আলোকগ্রাহক কোষ (Photoreceptor cell). *দণ্ড কোষ (Rod cell) ... স্নায়ু (Nerve) *অন্তর্বাহী স্নায়ু (Afferent nerve). *বহির্বাহী স্নায়ু (Efferent nerve) / চেষ্টীয় স্নায়ু (Motor nerve) ...
... usually with no optic nerve damage or visual field loss.[1][2] ...
Rapport, Richard L. Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. Print. ... Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments ... Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896): German physician and physiologist, the discoverer of nerve action potential, and the father ... but lost his nerve at the last minute and walked out of the classroom, never to return. On his long walk home, he came up with ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ...
The light from a star travels over intervening space and causes a disturbance in the optic nerve ending in an occurrence in the ... The brain has ganglia and nerve fibers, has neuroglia and vessels, has different colors (is colored this way or that) and so on ...
In vertebrates, 1 represents the retina and 2 is the nerve fibers, including the optic nerve (3), whereas in the octopus eye, 1 ... നേത്രനാഡി (optic nerve) ദൃഷ്ടിപടലത്തിലേക്കു കടക്കുന്ന ഭാഗത്തെയാണ് അന്ധബിന്ധു (Blind spot ) എന്ന് പറയുന്നത് . പ്രകാശത്തെ ...
... specialized to conduct nerve impulses called action potentials) - and somas (the cell bodies of the neurons containing the ...
Coloboma of optic nerve. *PAX8 *Congenital hypothyroidism 2. *PAX9 *STHAG3. 3.3. *FOXC1 *Axenfeld syndrome 3 ...
Steve Quinn 02:36, 31 March 2010 (UTC) Optics, Electromagnetism, and Physics. ... 2018-10-02: Muscle & Nerve. *2018-10-02: Genes & Immunity. *2018-09-28: Journal of Gambling Studies ...
His company, Optic Nerve Studios, has won Emmy Awards for its work on Buffy, The X-Files, and Babylon 5, and has been nominated ... Glenn Hetrick, owner of Optic Nerve Studios and custom designer for Lady Gaga.. ,access-date=. requires ,url=. (help) ...
രണ്ടാമത്തെ കപാലനാഡിയാണ് നയനനാഡി (optic nerve). കണ്ണിലെ റെറ്റിനയിൽ നിന്നും ആരംഭിക്കുന്ന ഈ നാഡികൾ മസ്തിഷ്കത്തിലെ പ്രാഥമിക ദർ ... നട്ടെല്ലിൽ നിന്നും ഉദ്ഭവിക്കുന്ന പുരോ നാഡീമൂലവും (ventral nerve root) പൃഷ്ഠ നാഡീ മൂലവും (dorsal nerve root) സംയോജിച്ചാണ് ... സുഷുമ്നയിലെ പുരോ നാഡീമൂലം (ventral nerve root), പൃഷ്ഠനാഡീമൂലം (dorsal nerve root) എന്നിവയിൽ നിന്നാണ് സുഷുമ്നാ നാഡികൾ ... ഒരു നാഡീജാലിക (nerve net) പോലെയാണ് ഇവയുടെ നാഡീവ്യൂഹം. നാഡീകോശത്തിൽ ...
Large deep orbital dermoid cysts can cause pressure effects on the muscles and optic nerve, leading to diplopia and loss of ... helping to spare healthy tissue and the sensible optic nerves.[18]. *Enucleation of the Eye - Removal of the eye, but the ...
Decreased space may also lead to abnormal or missing tear ducts and nerve damage. Reconstructive surgery is usually required in ... Optic atrophy Refractory errors Small, low-set ears that may be rotated somewhat backwards and has a prominent (bulging) pinna ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ...
Similar to hypertensive retinopathy, evidence of nerve fiber infarcts due to ischemia (cotton-wool spots) can be seen on ... In the brain, hypertensive encephalopathy - characterized by hypertension, altered mental status, and swelling of the optic ... or swelling of the optic disc called papilledema. The brain shows manifestations of increased pressure within the cranium, such ...
Other optic nerve problems are less common. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the underdevelopment of the optic nerve resulting in ... Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is commonly known as "stroke of the optic nerve" and affects the optic nerve head (where the ... The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as CN II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from ... The optic nerve is composed of retinal ganglion cell axons and glial cells. Each human optic nerve contains between 770,000 and ...
She visited another hospital and was told she had optic neuritis. Steroid pulse therapy was suggested... ... There was only weak enhancement over the optic nerve tumor. These imaging findings were compatible with the diagnosis of optic ... Wilhelm H. Primary optic nerve tumours. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22(1):11-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Optic nerve glioma: an update. Int Ophthalmol. 2014;34(4):999-1005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The second cranial nerve [1]: a paired sensory nerve that runs from each eye to the brain. It is responsible for conveying ... optic nerve The second cranial nerve: a paired sensory nerve that runs from each eye to the brain. It is responsible for ... op·tic nerve • n. Anat. each of the second pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the retina at the ... optic nerve The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English © The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English 2009, originally ...
The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to the brain. ... Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. ... Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to the brain. ... This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. The optic nerve can also be damaged by ... Optic nerve atrophy causes vision to dim and reduces the field of vision. The ability to see fine detail will also be lost. ...
... Holly Zywicke,1 Cheryl Ann Palmer,2 Michael S. Vaphiades,3 and Kristen O. Riley1 ... There are fewer than 20 reported cases of optic nerve hemangioblastomas in the literature. We present a patient with visual ... decline found to have a mass arising from within the posterior orbital canal that grossly involved the optic nerve sheath. ...
I met with an accident around 15 years back in which the Optic nerve of my right eye got damaged and as a result I am ... ... then you say MRI shows optic nerve shrinks?. Do you mean optic nerve hypoplasia? If so there is no treatment for that and ... then you say MRI shows optic nerve shrinks?. Do you mean optic nerve hypoplasia? If so there is no treatment for that and ... Optic nerve damage vp832 I am from India. I have gone thru all the postings and my case is similar to some. I met with an ...
Optic Nerve present a reissue of Razorcuts Storyteller, originally released in 1988. Storyteller, which saw release in ... gets a 30th anniversary reissue as part of our Optic Sevens 2.0 reissue series. It is backed with the previously unreleased " ...
... procedures were first described by De Wecker in 1872 as an incision in the meninges surrounding the optic nerve in order to ... encoded search term (Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration) and Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration What to Read Next on Medscape. ... Optic nerve sheath fenestration for an isolated optic nerve glioma. J AAPOS. 2009. 13:88-90. ... and the optic nerve function should be assessed. If visual recovery occurs, it is often rapid with optic nerve function and ...
The glial tube that lines the optic nerve extends forward from the retrolaminar optic nerve through the lamina cribrosa to end ... and retrolaminar human optic nerve. The internal limiting lamina of the optic nerve has an extracellular composition similar to ... The nerve fibers of the optic nerve are enclosed and segmented by extracellular matrix. With immunostains, we localized ... The extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve.. Goldbaum MH1, Jeng SY, Logemann R, Weinreb RN. ...
"Idiopathic inflammation of optic nerve simulating optic nerve sheath meningioma: CT demonstration," Journal of Computer ... Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Masquerading as Optic Neuritis. R. Alroughani1,2 and R. Behbehani2,3 ... R. A. Sawaya, C. Sidani, N. Farah, and R. Hourani-Risk, "Presumed bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas presenting as optic ... J. J. Dutton, "Optic nerve sheath meningiomas," Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 167-183, 1992. View at Publisher ...
Fundus photograph shows optic disc atrophy, with optociliary shunt vessels (retinochoroidal collaterals, arrow) visible at the ... Optic nerve sheath meningioma Parts A, C reprinted from Arnold AC. Optic nerve meningioma. Focal Points: Clinical Modules for ... Coronal orbital MRI scan shows similar optic nerve sheath enhancement surrounding relatively normal, darker optic nerve on the ... diffuse enlargement of the right intraorbital optic nerve extending anteriorlyto the globe, with enhancement of the optic nerve ...
Check out Optic Nerve Flatiron Polarized Aviator #Sunglasses Brown Lens/ Gunmetal Frame #OpticNerve via @eBay ... opticnerve or #lesions that cause damaged areas of nerve pathways that control eye movements & #visualcoordination. Optic ... OpticNerve diseases will be the commonest among the list of causes of visual impairment, in fact optic #neuropathy is now one ... Hubble in a #bubble! #Scallop eyes act just like tiny #telescopes #Guanine #ConcaveMirrors #OpticNerve #Retina # ...
Learn about optic nerve disorders and how they affect your vision. ... Your optic nerves carries visual images from the back of your eye to your brain. ... Optic Nerve Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * Optic Nerve Injuries (National ... Optic Nerve Drusen (American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus) * Optic Nerve Pit (American Association ...
Optic Nerve Hypoplasia. En Español Read in Chinese What is the optic nerve?. The optic nerve is a collection of more than a ... What is optic nerve hypoplasia?. Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital condition in which the optic nerve is ... How is optic nerve hypoplasia diagnosed?. The diagnosis of ONH is typically made by the appearance of small/pale optic nerve on ... Is optic nerve hypoplasia associated with non-visual problems?. Optic nerve hypoplasia can be associated with central nervous ...
Optic Nerve Atrophy. En Español Read in Chinese What is the optic nerve?. The optic nerve is in the center of the retina and is ... What is optic nerve atrophy?. Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect ... How is optic nerve atrophy diagnosed?. Paleness (pallor) of the typically pinkish optic nerve is observed by the eye M.D. ... What treatment is available for optic nerve atrophy?. There is no treatment to reverse atrophy of the optic nerve; however, ...
Optic Nerve Pit. What is optic nerve pit?. An optic nerve pit is a small pocket adjacent to the optic nerve. A minute amount of ... What is the treatment of optic pit?. There is not treatment required for the optic pit itself, and there is no preventive ... How is optic pit diagnosed?. If the pit is not affecting vision, the patient will have no symptoms and will not complain. It is ... What is the effect of optic pit on vision?. The pit itself does not affect vision and most patients remain without any symptoms ...
The optic nerve head component of the human ERG.. Sutter EE1, Bearse MA Jr. ... This observation led to the hypothesis of a contributing source in the vicinity of the optic nerve head whose signal is delayed ... Waveforms and latencies of the hypothetical optic nerve head component derived from the two methods agree well with each other ... In combination, these findings provide strong evidence for a signal source near the optic nerve head. ...
Optic neuritis: The optic nerve becomes inflamed, usually due to an overactive immune system. The result: Pain and vision loss ... Behind the eye, your optic nerve carries these impulses to the brain. The macula is a small extra-sensitive area in the retina ...
It is now generally agreed that the glaucomatous optic nerve of the infant or child will show remarkable improvement in ... Optic Nerve Optic Disc Visual Field Defect Ocular Hypertension Lamina Cribrosa These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Spaeth G.L. (1983) Regression of Optic Nerve and Visual Field Defects in Glaucoma. In: Krieglstein G.K., Leydhecker W. (eds) ... It is now generally agreed that the glaucomatous optic nerve of the infant or child will show remarkable improvement in ...
Cranial nerve II is the optic nerve. The optic nerves are the second pair of the cranial nerves, and lead from the eyes to the ... The optic nerves hold the number II in the order of cranial nerves. ... The sensory cell bodies of the nerve fibers occur in ganglia within the eyes. Their axons (conductors of impulses away from ... Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear Nerve. *Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal Nerve. *Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Mandibular Nerve ...
Optic nerve head hypoplasia is a rare congenital anomaly, where the optic nerve is underdeveloped and slightly smaller than in ... The defective optic nerve has larger cup-disc ratio and a halo of hypopigmentation surrounding the disc. Retinal nerve fiber ... The OS fundus, however, displayed the classic appearance of optic nerve hypoplasia. ...
Optic nerve regeneration is a treatment thats used to restore damaged axons in the optic nerve so that vision returns. ... Optic nerve regeneration restores damaged axons in the optic nerve so that vision returns. Regeneration of the optic nerve is ... In rats, grafting or transplanting peripheral nerve cells onto an injured optic nerve promoted nerve regeneration, a technique ... The optic nerve is a large cable composed of ganglion cell axons, which acts as a viaduct conducting visual information from ...
... optic neuritis). Join the community to connect with others like you and learn about their real-world experiences. ... See how others experience optic nerve inflammation ( ...
Optic Nerve Head Drusen. Drusen in the retina is a common finding in aging retina, forming deposits in the retina between ...
encoded search term (Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma) and Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Medication. Updated: May 18, 2016 * Author: Mitchell V Gossman, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr ... Meningioma of the optic nerve sheath. Coronal section of T1-weighted MRI of the orbits that shows a left orbital mass lesion ... Optic nerve sheath meningiomas--non-surgical treatment. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2009 Feb. 21(1):8-13. [Medline]. ...
... which they found may clinically simulate optic nerve sheath meningioma. A 36-yea ... The authors report on a rare case of optic nerve meningeal hemangiopericytoma, ... The authors report on a rare case of optic nerve meningeal hemangiopericytoma, which they found may clinically simulate optic ... A clinical diagnosis of optic nerve sheath meningioma was made, and the tumor was completely excised along with enucleation, ...
The optic nerve is a bundle of fibers that transmits light impulses from the eye to the brain. A blockage in the blood supply ( ... ischemia) can cause optic neuropathy. Blockages can quickly interfere with the vitality of the nerve tissue that carries visual ... Stroke of the optic nerve is a term sometimes used to describe a group of disorders called occlusive eye diseases. ... Optic Nerve , Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). Submitted by admin on 12/30/10 "Stroke of the optic nerve" is a term ...
Tetzlaff cautions, however, that the hamster work involved a clean knife cut across the optic nerve, and "this is not how ... Using nanosized peptides, a team of researchers has built knitted scaffolds that may be used to regrow damaged optic nerves. ... But they rarely extend far enough to bridge the large gaps typical of most optic nerve injuries, he says. ... The MIT team has plans to explore whether the nanomaterial can be helpful long after the nerve damage has occurred. It may be ...
... the compression to the optic nerve axons decreases, thus improving perfusion of the optic nerve head. The paper presents young ... which is a form of calcium degeneration of optic nerve head axons. They are initially asymptomatic but may causes progressive ... and neovascularization adjacent to the optic nerve head. Useful diagnostic tools ophthalmoscopy, angiography, standard ... female patient with bilateral optic nerve drusen and progressive visual field defects (scotomas), which implies topical ...
When a car crash or explosion results in an optic nerve injury, eliminating an enzyme known to promote inflammation appears to ... The optic nerves connect the eyes to the brain and collect impulses the retina generates from light so that we can see. There ... "Right now when an optic nerve crush injury happens, there is not a lot we can do to help the eye recover," says Dr. Ruth B. ... They have shown for the first time in a mouse model of tough-to-treat optic nerve trauma, that removing the enzyme arginase 2, ...
  • She visited another hospital and was told she had optic neuritis. (
  • The visual symptoms that occur in #MS may be the result of optic neuritis - inflammation of the # opticnerve or #lesions that cause damaged areas of nerve pathways that control eye movements & #visualcoordination . (
  • Optic neuritis may result in blurring or graying. (
  • Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve. (
  • The combination of OCT and OCT angiography showed that multiple sclerosis is associated with retinal structural loss and decreased optic nerve head perfusion in eyes with and without a history of optic neuritis. (
  • The study included 68 eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with or without optic neuritis and 55 healthy control eyes examined at the Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University. (
  • A significant reduction in RNFL thickness and ONH-FI was found in eyes of MS patients, both with and without optic neuritis. (
  • In the group of MS patients with optic neuritis, the GCC thickness was significantly reduced. (
  • New data from clinical studies, such as beta-interferons for optic neuritis, will be presented for the management of each disorder. (
  • Optic neuritis is caused by an inflamed optic nerve. (
  • It provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development and key players involved in therapeutic development for optic neuropathy, glaucoma, Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and optic neuritis, and features dormant and discontinued products. (
  • Optic neuritis refers to inflammation of the optic nerve. (
  • Patients with ONSM are frequently misdiagnosed with optic neuritis . (
  • She was diagnosed with optic neuritis. (
  • Initially, they are often misdiagnosed as optic neuritis and therefore treated with corticosteroids, usually with only a discrete or no response. (
  • For this study, presence of an optic nerve lesion was defined as history of acute unilateral optic neuritis. (
  • The researchers found that for identifying unilateral optic neuritis, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an optimal peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer intereye difference threshold of 5 µm and ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer threshold of 4 µm (477 patients). (
  • Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve often caused by multiple sclerosis . (
  • How does optic neuropathy differ from optic neuritis? (
  • Neuritis is inflamation to the optic nerve. (
  • Could uv/sunlight cause optic neuritis? (
  • Sunlight does not cause optic neuritis . (
  • What causes optic neuritis? (
  • Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerves that presents with vision loss , pain with eye movement & "fading vision" when a person gets hot (like in the shower). (
  • For example, optic neuritis frequently recovers completely, when the cause is found and can be treated. (
  • Using the life-table method, the probability of developing MS may rise to 78% 15 years after an episode of optic neuritis. (
  • I have had optic neuritis many times in that eye. (
  • Could this be from the MS and all the episodes of optic neuritis leading to color vision damage? (
  • Maybe others with optic neuritis can comment here. (
  • Based on my own experience I think it s probably because of the optic neuritis, but only your doctor can determine that for certain. (
  • Parisi V. Correlation between morphological and functional retinal impairment in patients affected by ocular hypertension, glaucoma, demyelinating optic neuritis and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The optic nerve , also known as cranial nerve II , or simply as CN II , is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain . (
  • The fibers from the retina run along the optic nerve to nine primary visual nuclei in the brain, from which a major relay inputs into the primary visual cortex . (
  • Each human optic nerve contains between 770,000 and 1.7 million nerve fibers, [3] which are axons of the retinal ganglion cells of one retina. (
  • The optic nerve leaves the orbit (eye socket) via the optic canal , running postero-medially towards the optic chiasm , where there is a partial decussation (crossing) of fibers from the temporal visual fields (the nasal hemi-retina) of both eyes. (
  • each of the second pair of cranial nerves , transmitting impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye. (
  • Abnormalities of the optic nerve and retina. (
  • It does not separate the optic nerve from the adjacent sensory retina. (
  • obsolete term used to describe the multipolar neurons in the retina that give rise to the fibers of the optic nerve. (
  • The optic nerve is in the center of the retina and is a circular to oval pinkish area measuring 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter. (
  • From the center of the nerve radiate the major blood vessels of the retina. (
  • The optic nerve itself carries over one million nerves that connect the retina ((the layer of the eye that carries the vision cells) with the occipital lobe (the part of the brain that interprets vision) like a cable wire. (
  • The placements were selected to produce a different ratio of the signal contributions from the retina and the nerve head in the two recording channels. (
  • The local latencies also agree with the propagation delays measured in the nerve fiber layer of the monkey retina. (
  • The optic nerve is a large cable composed of ganglion cell axons, which acts as a viaduct conducting visual information from the retina to the brain. (
  • There are no nerves in the central nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord , and retina, that regenerate. (
  • The eye's blind spot is a result of the absence of photoreceptors in the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye. (
  • They have shown for the first time in a mouse model of tough-to-treat optic nerve trauma, that removing the enzyme arginase 2, which increases with injury, decreases neuron death in the retina as well as the degeneration of nerve fibers that connect neurons to each other and ultimately the brain, they report in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience . (
  • The optic nerves connect the eyes to the brain and collect impulses the retina generates from light so that we can see. (
  • In their model of optic nerve injury, they again found increased A2 expression after the injury and that neurons in the retina as well as retinal ganglion cells, the primary cell type in the optic nerve, began to die. (
  • Top row: Cross-sections through the mouse retina show very little free zinc (Zn2+) in normal mice (purple staining, left panel), but high levels after the optic nerve is injured (right. (
  • Ocular examination revealed no pathology in the optic nerve head or retina that could explain the abnormality of vision. (
  • Consistently, a transient upregulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was observed within the retina following optic nerve injury. (
  • Although ONH is commonly associated with hypoplasia of the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers, it can also be associated with hypoplasia of other layers in the inner and outer retina, including the outer nuclear and photoreceptor inner/outer segment layers, as evidenced by SD-OCT. (
  • A child's ability to see clearly (visual acuity) is affected due to nerve damage that occurs in the central part of the retina responsible for detail and color vision (macula). (
  • Serial histopathology sections revealed a connection between the holes overlying the optic pit and the subretinal space via a schisis-like cavity in the retina. (
  • Optic nerve atrophy, also known as optic neuropathy, simply defined, is the end result of any disease that damages nerve cells anywhere between the retina and a part of the thalamus that links the eye to the brain. (
  • The optic nerve is not part of the brain but it and the retina are considered to be part of the central nervous system. (
  • The optic nerve is responsible for carrying electrical impulses from the retina to our brain. (
  • The optic nerve is made up of ganglion nerve cells in the retina and glial cells. (
  • In optic nerve atrophy nerve fibers atrophy and are lost, the protective myelin sheath around them shrinks, gliosis occurs and the optic cup (where the optic nerve enters the retina) widens. (
  • Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. (
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) convey visual signals from the retina along their axons through the optic nerve to the brain. (
  • The optic disk appears raised above the surface of the nearby retina, and veins appear swollen. (
  • Optic degeneration or atrophy may occur after glaucoma, trauma, advanced degeneration of the retina, prolonged low pressure within the eye, or inflammation. (
  • it is darkly colored, with very noticeable reduction in the optic nerve and blood vessels of the retina. (
  • Among them is a layer of nerves called the retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL). (
  • The optic nerve carries the signal from the retina to the brain. (
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new technology that provides information about the retina, optic nerve, and nerve fiber layer (NFL) differently from other instruments. (
  • Neuron loss diminished as did the degeneration of nerve fibers, called axons that connect retinal ganglion cells to the brain, and glial activation was reduced. (
  • The optic nerve, which carries visual information from the eye to brain, is made up of axons projecting from neurons known as retinal ganglion cells. (
  • In mouse experiments, the researchers saw a dramatic elevation of zinc after injury to the optic nerve -- surprisingly, not in the damaged retinal ganglion cells themselves but in cells that communicate with them, interneurons known as amacrine cells. (
  • In analyzing axon regeneration in different mutant mouse lines, we discovered that deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust regeneration of injured optic nerve axons. (
  • 1 ONH is accompanied by congenital deficiency of retinal ganglion cells and axons that compose the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head. (
  • Normally, in humans and indeed in all mammals, there is no regenerative response, and the failure of injured or degenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to reconnect their axons through the optic nerve to their natural targets in the brain explains the irreversibility of such vision loss. (
  • Primary open angle glaucoma, the most common type of glaucoma, can be characterized by the slow and irreversible apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells, a unique optic nerve neuropathy and loss of visual function ( 2 ). (
  • Histopathological studies in LHON cases and a rat model mimicking CEON revealed a selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the corresponding axons, particularly in the temporal-central part of the optic nerve. (
  • This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. (
  • # OpticNerve diseases will be the commonest among the list of causes of visual impairment, in fact optic #neuropathy is now one of the commonest causes of blindness in both adults and children. (
  • A blockage in the blood supply (ischemia) can cause optic neuropathy. (
  • American Academy of Ophthalmology, What is Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy? (
  • They are initially asymptomatic but may causes progressive optic neuropathy. (
  • Frequent complications: progressive visual field scotoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, central retinal artery or vein occlusion, and neovascularization adjacent to the optic nerve head. (
  • Thus, they are also considered to be one of the causes of the progressive type of optic neuropathy with genetic etiology [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • In a study conducted at three German clinical centers (University of Göttingen, Charité Berlin, and University of Magdeburg), 82 patients were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, 33 with visual deficits caused by glaucoma and 32 with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy caused by inflammation, optic nerve compression (due to tumors or intracranial hemorrhage), congenital anomalies, or Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. (
  • In this study, we investigated whether the metabolic vulnerability observed during optic neuropathy in the DBA/2J (D2) model of glaucoma is due to dysfunctional mitochondria or impaired substrate delivery to axons, the latter based on our observation of significantly decreased glucose and monocarboxylate transporters in D2 optic nerve (ON), human ON, and mice subjected to acute glaucoma injury. (
  • In practice, optic neuropathy is not considered a disease, but rather a sign or symptom of potentially many disease processes. (
  • Ischemic optic neuropathy is caused by insufficient blood flow with an occlusion in blood supply vessels. (
  • One type, arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, is an ophthalmic emergency. (
  • In compressive optic neuropathy, lesions cause the optic nerve to become compressed. (
  • A similar condition in appearance is glaucomatous optic neuropathy. (
  • Infiltrative optic neuropathy occurs when the tumors or an inflammatory process invades the nerve or the space around it. (
  • Traumatic optic neuropathy develops after direct or indirect injury to the eye or sometimes to the back of the head. (
  • Mitochondria optic neuropathy involves failure in mitochondria functioning. (
  • Nutritional optic neuropathy occurs when nutritional deficiencies cause severe problems. (
  • Toxic optic neuropathy arises due to damage from various poisons, toxins, and some drugs. (
  • Hereditary optic neuropathy is caused by genetic mutations, including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. (
  • We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. (
  • The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. (
  • Optic neuropathy is an inherited form of vision loss. (
  • Maternally inherited Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), dominant optic atrophy (Kjer disease), the optic atrophy of Leigh's syndrome, Friedreich ataxia and a variety of other conditions are examples of inherited mitochondrial disorders with different etiologies. (
  • Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia (TAA), the Cuban epidemic of optic neuropathy (CEON) and other dietary (Vitamins B, folate deficiencies) optic neuropathies, as well as toxic optic neuropathies such as due to chloramphenicol, ethambutol, or more rarely to carbon monoxide, methanol and cyanide are probably all related forms of acquired mitochondrial dysfunction. (
  • Neuropathy is damage to the nerve, i.e. (
  • It suggests that, in people with fibromyalgia, small-fiber neuropathy (nerve damage) may be responsible for at least some of the pain. (
  • Optic neuropathy due to vascular disease sometimes recovers. (
  • For decades, treatment of compressive optic nerve neuropathy was conservative and involved the intravenous application of high-dose corticoids, which was combined with nerve growth factors in later years. (
  • There are two main indications for endonasal endoscopic optic nerve decompression: (1) traumatic optic nerve neuropathy (TON), and (2) optic nerve neuropathy from non-traumatic causes (nTON), such as tumorous conditions, inflammatory diseases, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). (
  • Endonasal endoscopic optic nerve decompression is a safe and highly effective treatment to reduce hydrostatic pressure on the optic nerve in cases of optic nerve neuropathy of various etiologies. (
  • The optic nerve is composed of retinal ganglion cell axons and glial cells . (
  • [4] Most of the axons of the optic nerve terminate in the lateral geniculate nucleus from where information is relayed to the visual cortex, while other axons terminate in the pretectal nucleus and are involved in reflexive eye movements. (
  • Optic nerve regeneration restores damaged axons in the optic nerve so that vision returns. (
  • Researchers are working on a man-made gel or polymer, based on the peripheral nerve grafts, which could be placed on an injured optic nerve to act as scaffolding or a guide for the axons to harness for regeneration. (
  • Oncomodulin is a cell growth factor which, when added to a dish of retinal nerve cells, practically doubled the growth of the axons. (
  • Once researchers are able to get the axons to regenerate, they will need to then make them grow to the right spots and make the right connection in order for the visual information to be transferred to the brain, so getting the axons to grow is just one part of the very complex puzzle of optic nerve regeneration. (
  • Gerald Schneider, one of the team members, estimates that 30,000 axons reconnected in the hamsters, compared with only around 30 in previous experiments using other approaches, such as nerve growth factors. (
  • Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) represent congenital anomaly, which is a form of calcium degeneration of optic nerve head axons. (
  • By reducing intraocular pressure, the compression to the optic nerve axons decreases, thus improving perfusion of the optic nerve head. (
  • This is a form of calcium degeneration of the axons of the optic nerve head (ONH). (
  • While zinc has previously been linked to cell death, this is the first study to demonstrate that targeting zinc can protect damaged neurons in the eye and help regenerate axons through the optic nerve and among the first to show the effects of targeting zinc in a live animal model. (
  • Hundreds of axons extended well past the site of nerve injury, compared to just a handful in the untreated mice. (
  • The optic nerve is comprised of over a million small nerve fibers (axons). (
  • The axoplasm of optic nerve axons moves bidirectionally at various speeds along an intra-axonal pressure gradient from the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) somata toward its synapse, and from the synapse towards the RGC somata. (
  • The axoplasmic flow of optic nerve axons is precarious even at normal intraocular pressures (IOP) as it moves from the intraocular optic nerve through the scleral lamina cribrosa to the intraorbital optic nerve. (
  • We show axons in glaucomatous optic nerve are energy depleted and exhibit chronic metabolic stress. (
  • The single audacious goal chosen was to regenerate neurons and their neural connections in the eye and visual system, and this was subsequently separated into two primary goals, replacing degenerated photoreceptors, and regenerating axons in the optic nerve. (
  • Astrocytes are the cell type of interest in this study as they are the major glial cell within the optic nerve head (ONH), providing a supportive role to the surrounding axons, while communicating with connective tissues and surrounding blood vessels ( 8 ). (
  • Anatomical peculiarities of optic nerve axons, such as the asymmetric pattern of myelination, may have functional implications on energy dependence and distribution of mitochondrial populations in the different sections of the nerve. (
  • However, inflammatory stimulation (IS) by intravitreal injection of Pam 3 Cys transforms RGCs into an active regenerative state enabling these neurons to survive injury and to regenerate axons into the injured optic nerve. (
  • In the current study, we investigated the signal propagation in single intraretinal axons as well as characteristic activity features of RGCs in a naive, a degenerative or a regenerative state in ex vivo retinae 1 week after either optic nerve cut alone (ONC) or additional IS (ONC + IS). (
  • Within brain and spinal cord these nerves connect to other nerves via synapses on both axons and dendrites. (
  • diffuse enlargement of the right intraorbital optic nerve extending anteriorlyto the globe, with enhancement of the optic nerve sheath. (
  • The immediate retrobulbar segment has a distinct enlargement of the subarachnoid space containing trabeculae (accessible via a medial or superomedial orbitotomy) while further along the intraorbital optic nerve, the subarachnoid space is smaller with broad septae and trabeculations ( 17 ). (
  • The optic nerve has been classified as the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but is technically part of the central nervous system , rather than the peripheral nervous system because it is derived from an out-pouching of the diencephalon ( optic stalks ) during embryonic development. (
  • However, most typically the optic nerve is grouped with the other eleven cranial nerves and considered to be part of the peripheral nervous system. (
  • The optic nerve component lengths are 1 mm in the globe, 24 mm in the orbit, 9 mm in the optic canal, and 16 mm in the cranial space before joining the optic chiasm. (
  • cranial part (the part within the cranial cavity, which ends at the optic chiasm). (
  • The optic nerves are the second pair of the cranial nerves, and lead from the eyes to the brain. (
  • The optic nerves hold the number II in the order of cranial nerves. (
  • Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) represent the congenital, developmental anomaly of the second cranial nerve. (
  • The optic nerve is the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but is considered to be part of the central nervous system as it is derived from an outpouching of the diencephalon during embryonic development. (
  • Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. (
  • Cranial nerves are paired nerves that emerge from the brain and the brainstem . (
  • One of the cranial nerves is the optic nerve. (
  • The optic nerve, also referred to as cranial nerve II (CN II), is a paired nerve that carries impulses for the sense of sight. (
  • ICD-10-PCS code 008G4ZZ for Division of Optic Nerve, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Central Nervous System and Cranial Nerves range. (
  • Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. (
  • Genetically, optic nerve head drusen are inherited in autosomal dominant (AD) type of inheritance with variable penetration. (
  • Can optic nerve head drusen cause vision loss? (
  • Roh S, Noecker RJ, Schumman J, Hedges TR III, Weiter JJ, Mattox C. Effect of optic nerve head drusen on nerve fiber layer thickness. (
  • Roh S, Noecker RJ, Schumman J. Evaluation of coexisting optic nerve head drusen and glaucoma with optical coherence tomography. (
  • Ocakoglu O, Ustundag C, Koyluoglu N, Oguz V, Kendiroglu G, Ozkan S. Long term follow-up of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with optic nerve head drusen. (
  • Do you mean optic nerve hypoplasia? (
  • Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital condition in which the optic nerve is underdeveloped (small) [See figure 2]. (
  • How is optic nerve hypoplasia diagnosed? (
  • What visual problems are associated with optic nerve hypoplasia? (
  • Is optic nerve hypoplasia associated with non-visual problems? (
  • Optic nerve hypoplasia can be associated with central nervous system (CNS) malformations which put the patient at risk for other problems, including seizure disorder and developmental delay. (
  • What tests should be done for children with optic nerve hypoplasia? (
  • An MRI scan is indicated for all children with optic nerve hypoplasia. (
  • Does optic nerve hypoplasia get worse over time? (
  • Is there any treatment for optic nerve hypoplasia? (
  • Fink C, Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M. "Failure of stem cell therapy to improve visual acuity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. (
  • Tychsen L, Lueder G, Stahl, E, Giangiacomo J: Stem cell therapy does not improve visual function or structure in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (septo-optic dysplasia). (
  • The OS fundus, however, displayed the classic appearance of optic nerve hypoplasia. (
  • Optic nerve head hypoplasia is a rare congenital anomaly, where the optic nerve is underdeveloped and slightly smaller than in the fellow eye. (
  • Background: Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (ONH) is a leading cause of blindness in children. (
  • The authors present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a long-term diagnosis of unilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) of unknown cause in the right eye. (
  • Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is one of the most common congenital optic nerve abnormalities and is a cause of vision loss in young children. (
  • This Optic Nerve Hypoplasia web portal has been generously supported by The Karl Kirchgessner Foundation. (
  • Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (ONH) is the under-development or absence of the optic nerve combined with possible brain and endocrine abnormalities. (
  • He directs the world's largest study into optic nerve hypoplasia, a leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in infants in the United States and Europe. (
  • Optic nerve hypoplasia is a failure of the optic nerve to develop fully. (
  • Optical coherence tomography of superior segmental optic hypoplasia. (
  • From the archives of the AFIP: pediatric orbit tumors and tumorlike lesions: neuroepithelial lesions of the ocular globe and optic nerve. (
  • The image shows bilateral enlargement of the optic nerves resulting from bilateral optic nerve gliomas (tumors) in a person with neurofibromatosis type 1. (
  • Optic nerve gliomas mostly affect kids under age 10 and those with the genetic condition neurofibromatosis type 1 (which causes tumors to grow on nerve tissue). (
  • Although optic nerve gliomas are serious tumors, they usually grow slowly, have a high cure rate, and rarely cause blindness. (
  • Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) are rare, slow-growing, benign tumors of the meninges surrounding the optic nerve. (
  • It is well recognized that there are differences between experimental models of optic nerve damage, and the model used by the investigators might not be the most representative of human optic nerve disease," Dr. Limb said. (
  • The extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve. (
  • With immunostains, we localized collagen types I through VI, laminin, and fibronectin in frozen sections of the extracellular matrix of the prelaminar, laminar, and retrolaminar human optic nerve. (
  • Selective degeneration of the smallest fibers (papillo-macular bundle) of the human optic nerve occurs in a large number of optic neuropathies characterized primarily by loss of central vision. (
  • In the experimental study, two silver-ball stimulating electrodes were placed on the dog optic nerve adjacent to the apex of the orbit and one recording electrode was placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm. (
  • Reproducible ONEPs were recorded intraoperatively from the electrode placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm in 14 of 15 patients. (
  • This follow-up MRI obtained 3 months later shows a distinct progressive disease with new expansive infiltrating lesions in the brain involving the right middle cerebellar peduncle, the pons (which is diffusely enlarged), the midbrain, the optic chiasm, the left hypothalamus, the left thalamus and the basal ganglia bilaterally (Figure 2A). (
  • There is also a remarkable progressive thickening and enhancement of the left optic nerve (Figure 2B), with extension beyond the intracanalicular segment into the prechiasmatic segment and the optic chiasm. (
  • Malignant glioma's of the optic pathway, such as optic nerve or optic chiasm, are pathologically classified as either anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) or glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). (
  • As the tumour grows, there can be contiguous spread to the optic chiasm and tract, and even extension into the hypothalamus, basal ganglia and internal capsule can be seen (2). (
  • The diagnosis of malignant optic pathway glioma's should be kept in mind in patients with lesions involving the optic nerves, the chiasm or optic pathways with additional infiltrating and aggressive lesions within the brain. (
  • The paper presents young female patient with bilateral optic nerve drusen and progressive visual field defects (scotomas), which implies topical hypotensive therapy. (
  • founded that the incidence of drusen is 10 times higher among members of the family with manifest optic nerve drusen [ 9 ]. (
  • Does anyone treat optic nerve or disc drusen? (
  • There is no reason to treat optic nerve drusen. (
  • Optic disc drusen (ODD) is the accumulations of calcified hyaline-like material within the substance of the optic nerve head. (
  • Optic disc drusen, especially if it is bilateral, may mimic the clinical presentation of papilledema. (
  • Optic disc drusen may be misdiagnosed as papilledema. (
  • Fiber tracts of the mammalian central nervous system (as opposed to the peripheral nervous system) are incapable of regeneration, and, hence, optic nerve damage produces irreversible blindness. (
  • There are hundreds of researchers doing hundreds of millions of dollars worth of research all over the world on optic nerve regeneration. (
  • May 23, 2012 - Interventions resulting in optic nerve regeneration restored some components of vision, according to the results of a mouse model study published online May 21 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (
  • However, in the past few years there have been several demonstrations that anatomical regeneration of the optic nerve can be partially induced after injury, following stimulation with various neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors. (
  • For the first time, Dr. Benowitz and colleagues showed that partial anatomical regeneration of the optic nerve is accompanied by partial recovery of function," Dr. Limb said. (
  • Although untreated blind mice were equally likely to walk over either end, mice that had optic nerve regeneration in response to the interventions spent less time over the "deep" end. (
  • What is Optic Nerve Regeneration? (
  • Regeneration of the optic nerve is currently impossible in humans, but research in this area has advanced significantly in the last few years and several promising ideas exist. (
  • Building nerve grafts and manipulating enzymes and other molecular components involved in cell growth are some of the techniques which are being investigated to attempt to engineer optic nerve regeneration. (
  • Nerves in other parts of the body are however capable of regeneration. (
  • In rats, grafting or transplanting peripheral nerve cells onto an injured optic nerve promoted nerve regeneration, a technique which may work in humans as well. (
  • The puzzle of optic nerve regeneration will probably be solved, at least in part, by manipulating molecular pathways in the body, and several promising ideas in this area involve the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, and a growth factor called oncomodulin. (
  • Over-production of this growth factor through gene therapy has resulted in regeneration of nerve connections in mice. (
  • When oncomodulin was placed on damaged optic nerves in rats, along with a chemical which amplifies the effects of oncomodulin, the result was a significant increase in optic nerve regeneration. (
  • This workshop focused on identifying promising strategies for optic nerve regeneration. (
  • This report summarizes input from the meeting and serves as guidance for future funding of research that focuses on optic nerve regeneration. (
  • Thus the AGI's goal of restoring vision through promoting successful optic nerve regeneration recognizes the critical importance of understanding and reversing regenerative failure. (
  • To understand progress to date in the sciences relevant to optic nerve regeneration, and more specifically to identify focal areas for funding, the NEI convened a workshop in November 2014 in Washington D.C. The workshop was chaired by Jeffrey Goldberg, University of California San Diego, and William Guido, University of Louisville. (
  • Participants ( see appendix ) represented a variety of research areas relevant to optic nerve regeneration, from developmental neurobiology to visual processing. (
  • To investigate the role of intracellular B-RAF signaling in promoting regeneration in the optic nerve after injury. (
  • We conclude that activation of B-RAF drives substantial axon regeneration in the crushed optic nerve via canonical B-RAF - MEK signaling. (
  • F) Optic nerve regeneration in absence of PTEN. (
  • Where can I find more information regarding septo-optic dysplasia? (
  • It is also known as Septo-Optic Dysplasia or DeMorsier's Syndrome. (
  • The optic nerve and the brain comprise the main anatomic components of neuro-ophthalmology. (
  • Although there are numerous handbooks and major texts describing all the common disorders of neuro-ophthalmology, Optic Nerve Disorders is the only practical reference book focusing only on common optic nerve disorders. (
  • In this issue of the Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology , optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) was performed for 2 different indications. (
  • For neuro-ophthalmology, OCT methods employed for retinal as well as glaucoma analysis are used, because some optic nerve pathologies have macular complications, but also because many retinal conditions may mimic optic nerve disease. (
  • These imaging findings were compatible with the diagnosis of optic nerve glioma. (
  • Optic nerve glioma: an update. (
  • Diagnosis and management of optic nerve glioma. (
  • Optic nerve glioma is a type of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (Grade 1 astrocytoma), which occurs more commonly in children and young adults. (
  • An optic nerve glioma (glee-OH-muh) is a type of brain tumor that forms in or around the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain. (
  • Although the procedure is most commonly performed for vision loss due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension, some cases exist of successful stabilization or reversal of vision loss due to optic nerve sheath hemorrhage, cryptococcal meningitis with papilledema, and intracranial breast cancer metastases with papilledema. (
  • Patients must undergo a complete ophthalmic history, neurologic examination, and an ophthalmic examination including visual acuity, color vision, pupillary assessment, motility, visual field testing, and funduscopic examination to evaluate for presence and extent of papilledema (swelling of optic nerve). (
  • Papilledema is swelling and protrusion of the optic disk caused by fluid buildup. (
  • Optical coherence tomography shows increased nerve fiber layer thickness in pseudo- and mild papilledema. (
  • These experimental and clinical results suggest the possibility of intraoperative monitoring of visual function in patients undergoing craniotomy for the treatment of lesions near the optic nerve. (
  • HealthDay)-A new anatomic threshold may be useful for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis, according to a study published in the May issue of the Annals of Neurology . (
  • These thresholds may be useful in establishing the presence of asymptomatic and symptomatic optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis and could be useful in a new version of the diagnostic criteria," the authors write. (
  • Rutledge BK, Puliafito CA, Duker JS, Hee MR, Cox MS. Optical coherence tomography of macular lesions associated with optic nerve head pits. (
  • A clinical diagnosis of optic nerve sheath meningioma was made, and the tumor was completely excised along with enucleation, followed by postoperative adjuvant external beam radiotherapy. (
  • Based on physical signs, a presumptive diagnosis of optic nerve ischemia was made. (
  • A 17-year-old male was referred by another center with a diagnosis of optic disc edema. (
  • Injury to or neurodegeneration of the optic nerve underlies vision loss in many diseases, including glaucoma, ischemic and traumatic optic neuropathies, as well as retinal artery or vein occlusions, and many others. (
  • Traumatic injuries of the optic nerve may or may not recover. (
  • Share your knowledge on #ophthalmology @ #Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your #eye 's # opticnerve & gets worse over time. (
  • AU - Jonas,Jost B, AU - Budde,Wido M, AU - Stroux,Andrea, AU - Oberacher-Velten,Isabel M, PY - 2006/9/15/pubmed PY - 2006/11/15/medline PY - 2006/9/15/entrez SP - 654 EP - 60 JF - Clinical & experimental ophthalmology JO - Clin Exp Ophthalmol VL - 34 IS - 7 N2 - PURPOSE: To evaluate whether iris colour influences size and shape of the optic nerve head and risk for glaucoma progression. (
  • Following acute inflammation of the optic nerve region, as commonly seen in multiple sclerosis patients, the optic nerve often undergoes atrophy, thus representing permanent damage. (
  • The aim of this study is to assess a potential neuroprotective effect of amiloride in acute autoimmune inflammation of the optic nerve region. (
  • Optic nerve meningioma. (
  • Miller NR. New concepts in the diagnosis and management of optic nerve sheath meningioma. (
  • Visual Outcome and Tumor Control After Conformal Radiotherapy for Patients With Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma. (
  • The authors report on a rare case of optic nerve meningeal hemangiopericytoma, which they found may clinically simulate optic nerve sheath meningioma. (
  • Read RM, Spaeth GL (1974) The practical clinical appraisal of the optic disc in glaucoma: the natural history of cup progression and some specific disc-field correlations. (
  • Shiose Y, Kanda T (1974) Quantitative analysis of optic cup and its clinical application, II Considerations on clinical cases. (
  • Clinical evaluation revealed no light perception, severe proptosis and hypoglobus, optic atrophy, and optociliary shunt vessels. (
  • Optic Nerve Disorders also provides an update on the latest clinical techniques in diagnosing specific optic nerve disorders and gives the most recent theories on pathophysiology. (
  • Therefore, the diagnosis of raised ICP mostly relies on clinical examination and optic examination of the eye fundus. (
  • OCT was used to evaluate the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), that respectively reflect axonal damage and retinal ganglion cell loss. (
  • To evaluate quantitatively the structural damage of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in eyes with disc hemorrhage (DH). (
  • Usually retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning can be present in ODD. (
  • Optic atrophy which occurs in both eyes from time of birth (bilateral and congenital) may cause rhythmic, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus). (
  • Imaging congenital optic disc pits and associated maculopathy using optical coherence tomography. (
  • The glial tube that lines the optic nerve extends forward from the retrolaminar optic nerve through the lamina cribrosa to end anteriorly at the retinal pigment epithelium. (
  • The scleral lamina cribrosa is not simply a porous region of the sclera but a specialized extracellular matrix of the central nervous system whose movement during fluctuations in IOP can affect optic nerve axoplasmic flow. (
  • The primary stage is described as the "elevation of IOP and the activation of optic nerve glia in the lamina cribrosa" and includes disruption of both retrograde and anterograde axonal transport, including neurotrophins and motor proteins. (
  • The research presented here is intended to contribute to our knowledge of stage 1 of this disease, the "activation of the optic nerve glia in the lamina cribrosa" ( 7 ). (
  • An optic nerve pit is a small pocket adjacent to the optic nerve. (
  • We talked about options and the new dual injection technique MD Stem Cells helped develop using Bone Marrow Derived Adult Stem Cells (BMSC) and the possibility of intravitreal stem cells in addition to the injections adjacent to the optic nerves. (
  • the tumor was isointense on a T1-weighted image and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (Fig. 9.5).There was only weak enhancement over the optic nerve tumor. (
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was found to be arising from the optic nerve meninges with classical "stag-horn" pattern and abundant cellularity. (
  • This patient had a partial removal of the tumor because the tumor involved the optic nerves. (
  • The most typical symptom is progressive vision loss because of the tumor pressing on the optic nerve. (
  • In the remaining patient, the ONEP, recorded only after tumor removal because the optic nerve was stretched and extremely thin, was remarkably small and the patient developed unilateral blindness postoperatively. (
  • What is an epitheloid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor? (
  • When optic atrophy is unilateral protection of the good eye is essential and wearing of protective lenses should be stressed. (
  • Juxtapapillary subretinal pigment epithelial polypoid pseudocysts associated with unilateral tilted optic disc. (
  • To describe the histopathologic findings of an eye bank specimen containing an optic nerve pit with associated serous elevation of the macula and cavernous atrophy of the optic nerve. (
  • The left optic nerve and the optic tracts . (
  • My MRI always shows Left Optic nerve inflammation/damage. (
  • The brain and central nervous system are made up of nerve cells and glial cells. (
  • Glial cells support and protect the nerve cells. (
  • Glial cells are not nerve cells, but they are essential to optic nerve health because they protect and insulate the optic nerve and supply it with nutrients. (
  • Sonographic Measurement of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter: A Prognostic Tool for Childhood Cerebral Malaria? (
  • This study aims to look into the prognostic role of the sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in the context of that disease. (
  • For every millimeter bigger the nerve sheath diameter was, the risk of death within six months was four times as high in patients whose stroke was due to a blood vessel blockage, and six times as high in patients who had a bleeding stroke. (
  • The researchers are still studying whether differences in optic nerve sheath diameter from day one to day two were related to patients' risk of death or disability. (
  • We feel the optic nerve sheath diameter would just help the clinician make the decision sooner. (
  • The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), as measured using MRI, and ICP. (
  • If these findings are confirmed and extended to other models, they may ultimately offer promise to patients with glaucoma or optic nerve damage. (
  • Earlier, vision loss due to glaucoma or optic nerve damage was considered irreversible. (
  • ONH is diagnosed by an ophthalmologist, who will use an ophthalmoscope to look inside the eye to determine if the front surface of the optic nerve appears smaller than normal. (
  • The only large vessel to enter the optic nerve is a central retinal artery that has few branches within the optic nerve and provides several branches at the surface of the optic disc. (
  • Rarely, conditions that lead to optic atrophy may be treatable. (
  • Many diseases and conditions may lead to optic atrophy. (
  • Axonal injury in the optic nerve is associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and irreversible loss of vision. (
  • Milker-Zabel S, Huber P, Schlegel W, Debus J, Zabel-du Bois A. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in the management of primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas. (
  • We report two interesting cases of primary optic nerve sheath meningocele. (
  • Histological evidence of myelin pathology in LHON also suggests a role for oxidative stress, possibly affecting the oligodendrocytes of the optic nerves. (
  • It is widely acknowledged that hemorrhage inside the meningeal sheath, optic nerve swelling , and necrosis secondary to decreased blood flow could be the main pathology of TON. (
  • A man developed bilateral elevation of the # opticnerve head with blurring of the disc margins and elevated intracranial pressure. (
  • As a consequence, the fibers of the optic nerve are covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes , rather than Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system , and are encased within the meninges . (
  • The nerve fibers of the optic nerve are enclosed and segmented by extracellular matrix. (
  • Several diseases, such as glaucoma , can damage the optic nerve and cause permanent blindness. (
  • Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve of the eye, which carries visual information from the eye to the brain. (
  • Can glaucoma damage the optic nerve leading to blindness? (
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » Can glaucoma damage the optic nerve leading to blindness? (
  • Neuroophthalmological management of optic pathway gliomas. (
  • 1 Newer versions of the OCT allow better resolution, which makes it useful for management of optic nerve disease. (
  • For example, reduction of increased fluid pressure around the brain and spinal cord (hydrocephalus) may prevent further optic nerve damage. (
  • Schneider says that the scaffold could be included as one of many therapies, such as stem cells or growth factors, to help regenerate nerve connections in people who suffer strokes, spinal cord damage, and brain injuries. (
  • If proven to work similarly well in humans, such treatment could greatly benefit patients with optic nerve injury, glaucoma, and perhaps other types of nerve fiber (axon) injury within the central nervous system, such as spinal cord injury. (
  • Diffusion-weighted imaging of the spinal cord and optic nerve. (
  • The optic nerve and spinal cord are technically challenging to investigate with any magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique due to the effect of the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid and lipid, and the presence of nearby bony structures. (
  • With careful choice of pulse sequence and parameters, however, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements are now possible in the optic nerve, and both ADC and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements are becoming available in the spinal cord. (
  • It is comprised of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. (
  • The peripheral nervous system is comprised of the nerve cells that are not part of the brain or spinal cord and connects the CNS to the organs, glands, and extremities of the body. (
  • The brain and spinal cord communicates with what is occurring in the internal organs and limbs by nerve fibers where are like electrical wires with insulation (myelin) and the "copper" (axon). (
  • Is nerve injury the same as nerve damage or spinal cord damage? (
  • While spinal cord and nerves are both nervous tissue, nerves typically are structures that have branched outside the spinal cord. (
  • Injury to the sciatic nerve, for example, is not considered a spinal cord injury . (
  • It contends that spinal manipulation can affect the function of the optic nerve in some patients, presumably by increasing vascular perfusion. (
  • The presence of vascular risk factors did not correlate with ONH-FI, supporting the interpretation that the reduction of optic nerve perfusion is a sequela of MS rather than vascular comorbidities. (
  • The combination of perfusion and structural measurements enhances detection of optic nerve damage in MS ," the authors wrote. (
  • The abundant optic nerve blood supply maintains adequate optic nerve head perfusion through a process of vascular autoregulation. (
  • While there are different causes associated with this disorder, the end result is the same, which is a degeneration, or "wasting away," of the nerve. (
  • This, combined with earlier research on small nerve fiber damage in the skin, could mean that the degeneration is not confined to the central nervous system but may extend to the peripheral nervous system, which includes the nerves in the limbs, hands, and feet. (
  • Peripheral neuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome do not affect the optic nerve. (
  • The optic nerve is ensheathed in all three meningeal layers ( dura , arachnoid , and pia mater ) rather than the epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium found in peripheral nerves. (
  • Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and color vision. (
  • citation needed] Peripheral neuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome do not affect the optic nerve. (
  • Neurolemma (spelled also neurolema, neurilemma and neurilema, and used interchangeably with epineurium) is the insulating myelin layer that surrounds an individual peripheral nerve fiber. (
  • Each peripheral nerve provides what innervation to peripheral structures. (
  • I refer to it frequently when I want to relearn what peripheral nerve innervates what structure. (
  • Can peripheral autonomic nerves repair/heal? (
  • 2 Therefore, most reports of patients with ONH who underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) focus on a decrease in RNFL thickness and a small optic nerve. (
  • Stepwise incremental transection of the thickness of the nerve resulted in incremental amplitude reduction proportional to the transected area. (
  • In most of the study groups, size of the optic disc, neuroretinal rim, alpha zone and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy, retinal vessel diameter and central corneal thickness did not differ significantly between eyes with blue, green, brown and mixed iris colour. (
  • In Caucasian subjects, iris colour does not have a major association with the size of the optic nerve head structures, central corneal thickness and retinal arterial diameter. (
  • Measuring the thickness of the optic nerve sheath may be a simple test for increased intracranial pressure, said Vishnumurthy S. Hedna, M.D., lead researcher and assistant professor of neurology at the University of Florida College of Medicine in Gainesville, Fla. (
  • Gliomas of the optic nerve: histological, immunohistochemical (MIB-1 and p53), and MRI analysis. (
  • Optic pathway gliomas in neurofibromatosis-1: controversies and recommendations. (
  • Optic nerve gliomas form along the pathway of the optic nerve, which sends signals to the brain about what the eye sees. (
  • Doctors diagnose optic nerve gliomas with imaging tests such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT scans and vision testing. (
  • Optic nerve gliomas represent 2% of all brain tumours and are classified as low-grade gliomas of childhood and malignant high-grade gliomas of adulthood. (
  • Eye diseases, such as glaucoma , can also cause a form of optic nerve atrophy. (
  • Stroke of the optic nerve" is a term sometimes used to describe a group of disorders called occlusive eye diseases. (
  • Optic Nerve Diseases (medical condition): Any condition which impairs the function of the optic nerve. (
  • The following list attempts to classify Optic Nerve Diseases into categories where each line is subset of the next. (
  • Therefore, in most mammals, optic nerve damage results in irreversible blindness. (
  • There is now more light at the end of the tunnel for patients with low vision or blindness following glaucoma and optic nerve damage. (
  • Stefany's vision was extremely poor and she understood that although other patients with optic nerve damage had improved following treatment, we could not be certain how she might respond. (
  • In the study published in 2015, researchers looked at blood flow to the optic nerve and the RNFL. (
  • Updated genetic testing for hereditary optic neuropathies will also be covered. (
  • Histological evidence suggests impaired axonal transport of mitochondria in LHON and in the CEON-like rat model, indicating a possible common pathophysiology for this category of optic neuropathies. (
  • Tests for optic nerve disorders may include eye exams, ophthalmoscopy (an examination of the back of your eye), and imaging tests . (
  • With some optic nerve disorders, you may get your vision back. (
  • Optic Nerve Disorders is organized by optic nerve diagnoses commonly encountered in a neuro-ophthalmologic practice. (
  • Researchmoz added Most up-to-date research on "Optic Nerve Disorders Drug Development Pipeline Review, 2018" to its huge collection of research reports. (
  • This report provides an overview of the pipeline landscape for disorders of the optic nerve, the bundle of nerve fibers that transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. (
  • Molecular targets acted on by products in development for optic nerve disorders include kinases, growth factors and cannabinoid receptors. (
  • There are also rare forms of hereditary optic nerve atrophy that affect children and young adults. (
  • Hereditary, nutritional, and toxic optic atrophies. (
  • Optical coherence tomography in optic disc pit maculopathy treated by the macular buckling procedure. (
  • Untreated mice with optic nerve injury lost synchrony with the room's day/night light cycle, whereas treated mice had restored patterns of circadian entrainment. (
  • In addition, unlike untreated mice with optic nerve injury, those that received the intervention had a positive optomotor response: When placed on a platform surrounded by rotating vertical stripes, treated mice moved their heads reflexively to follow the pattern. (
  • AUGUSTA, Ga. (Feb. 11, 2019) - When a car crash or explosion results in an optic nerve injury, eliminating an enzyme known to promote inflammation appears to aid recovery, scientists report. (
  • Right now when an optic nerve crush injury happens, there is not a lot we can do to help the eye recover," says Dr. Ruth B. Caldwell, cell biologist in the Vascular Biology Center at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University. (
  • The optic nerve, when examined with an ophthalmoscope, has a gray-white appearance, which may not be apparent for 4-6 weeks from time of optic nerve injury. (
  • Injury to the optic nerve usually leads to partial or complete loss of sight. (
  • Optic nerves were dissected, sectioned and imaged two weeks after the injury. (
  • Nerve injury implies some kind of damage to the nerve itself. (
  • Optic nerve swelling or papilloedema can occur if intracranial pressure is raised following a brain injury (Figure 2). (
  • Factors influencing the outcome include the severity of the injury, initial visual acuity (light perception or better vs. no light perception), the time interval between trauma and intervention, and the type of injury, such as fracture lines directly through the optic nerve canal or probable avulsion trauma. (
  • The septa of the retrolaminar optic nerve appear as vascular inward extensions of the pia mater. (
  • Vascular luminal castings of rabbit eyes were microdissected and studied with scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the three-dimensional angioarchitecture of the optic nerve head. (
  • Moderately numerous vessels connect the retinal and ciliary vascular layers within the optic nerve head. (