The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).
The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.
Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.

PDGF (alpha)-receptor is unresponsive to PDGF-AA in aortic smooth muscle cells from the NG2 knockout mouse. (1/1964)

A line of null mice has been produced which fails to express the transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2. Homozygous NG2 null mice do not exhibit gross phenotypic differences from wild-type mice, suggesting that detailed analyses are required to detect subtle alterations caused by the absence of NG2. Accordingly, dissociated cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells from null mice were compared to parallel cultures from wild-type mice for their ability to proliferate and migrate in response to specific growth factors. Both null and wild-type smooth muscle cells exhibited identical abilities to proliferate and migrate in response to PDGF-BB. In contrast, only the wild-type cells responded to PDGF-AA in both types of assays. NG2 null cells failed to proliferate or migrate in response to PDGF-AA, implying a defect in the signaling cascade normally initiated by activation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor. In agreement with this idea, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in response to PDGF-AA treatment occured only in wild-type cells. Failure to observe autophosphorylation of the PDGF (alpha)-receptor in PDGF-AA-treated null cells indicates that the absence of NG2 causes a defect in signal transduction at the level of (alpha)-receptor activation.  (+info)

Why is the retention of gonadotrophin secretion common in children with panhypopituitarism due to septo-optic dysplasia? (2/1964)

Septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier syndrome) is a developmental anomaly of mid-line brain structures and includes optic nerve hypoplasia, absence of the septum pellucidum and hypothalamo-pituitary abnormalities. We describe seven patients (four female, three male) who had at least two out of the three features necessary for the diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia. Four patients had hypopituitarism and yet normal gonadotrophin secretion: one of these also had anti-diuretic hormone insufficiency; three had isolated GH deficiency and yet had premature puberty, with the onset of puberty at least a year earlier than would have been expected for their bone age. In any progressive and evolving anterior pituitary lesion it is extremely unusual to lose corticotrophin-releasing hormone/ACTH and TRH/TSH secretion and yet to retain gonadotrophin secretion. GnRH neurons develop in the nasal mucosa and migrate to the hypothalamus in early fetal life. We hypothesise that the arrival of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus after the development of a midline hypothalamic defect may explain these phenomena. Progress in spontaneous/premature puberty in children with De Morsier syndrome may have important implications for management. The combination of GH deficiency and premature puberty may allow an apparently normal growth rate but with an inappropriately advanced bone age resulting in impaired final stature. GnRH analogues may be a therapeutic option. In conclusion, some patients with De Morsier syndrome appear to retain the ability to secrete gonadotrophins in the face of loss of other hypothalamic releasing factors. The migration of GnRH neurons after the development of the midline defect may be an explanation.  (+info)

Injury-induced gelatinase and thrombin-like activities in regenerating and nonregenerating nervous systems. (3/1964)

It is now widely accepted that injured nerves, like any other injured tissue, need assistance from their extracellular milieu in order to heal. We compared the postinjury activities of thrombin and gelatinases, two types of proteolytic activities known to be critically involved in tissue healing, in nonregenerative (rat optic nerve) and regenerative (fish optic nerve and rat sciatic nerve) neural tissue. Unlike gelatinases, whose induction pattern was comparable in all three nerves, thrombin-like activity differed clearly between regenerating and nonregenerating nervous systems. Postinjury levels of this latter activity seem to dictate whether it will display beneficial or detrimental effects on the capacity of the tissue for repair. The results of this study further highlight the fact that tissue repair and nerve regeneration are closely linked and that substances that are not unique to the nervous system, but participate in wound healing in general, are also crucial for regeneration or its failure in the nervous system.  (+info)

Directional and spectral reflectance of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer. (4/1964)

PURPOSE: To measure and describe the reflectance properties of a mammalian retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the RNFL reflectance. METHODS: An isolated rat retina suspended across a slit in a black membrane and mounted in a black perfusion chamber provided high quality images of the RNFL. Imaging microreflectometry was used to measure RNFL reflectance at wavelengths from 400 nm to 830 nm and as a function of illumination angle. RESULTS: The directional reflectance of rat RNFL at all wavelengths was consistent with the theory of light scattering by cylinders; each nerve fiber bundle scattered light into a conical sheet coaxial with the bundle. There was no evidence of a noncylindrical component at any wavelength. Measured reflectance spectra were consistent between animals, similar to ones previously measured in macaque, and varied with scattering angle. All spectra could be described by a two-mechanism cylindrical scattering model with three free parameters. CONCLUSIONS: At all wavelengths the reflectance of rat RNFL arises from light scattering by cylindrical structures. The highly directional nature of this reflectance can be an important source of measurement variability in clinical assessment of the RNFL. The reflectance spectra reveal a combination of mechanisms: At wavelengths shorter than approximately 570 nm the reflectance comes from cylinders with diameters much smaller than the wavelength, but at wavelengths longer than approximately 680 nm the reflectance comes from cylinders with effective diameters of 350 nm to 900 nm.  (+info)

Test-retest variability of frequency-doubling perimetry and conventional perimetry in glaucoma patients and normal subjects. (5/1964)

PURPOSE: To compare the test-retest variability characteristics of frequency-doubling perimetry, a new perimetric test, with those of conventional perimetry in glaucoma patients and normal control subjects. METHODS: The study sample contained 64 patients and 47 normal subjects aged 66.16+/-11.86 and 64.26+/-7.99 years (mean +/- SD), respectively. All subjects underwent frequency-doubling perimetry (using the threshold mode) and conventional perimetry (using program 30-2 of the Humphrey Field Analyzer; Humphrey Instruments, San Leandro, CA) in one randomly selected eye. Each test was repeated at 1-week intervals for five tests with each technique over 4 weeks. Empirical 5th and 95th percentiles of the distribution of threshold deviations at retest were determined for all combinations of single tests and mean of two tests, stratified by threshold deviation. The influence of visual field eccentricity and overall visual field loss on variability also were examined. RESULTS: Mean test time with frequency-doubling perimetry in patients and normal control subjects was 5.90 and 5.25 minutes, respectively, and with conventional perimetry was 17.20 and 14.01 minutes, respectively. In patients, there was a significant correlation between the results of the two techniques, in the full field and in quadrants, whereas in normal subjects there was no such correlation. In patients, the retest variability of conventional perimetry in locations with 20-dB loss was 120% (single tests) and 127% (mean tests) higher compared with that in locations with 0-dB loss. Comparative figures for frequency-doubling perimetry were 40% and 47%, respectively. Variability also increased more with threshold deviation in normal subjects tested with conventional perimetry. In both patients and normal subjects, variability increased with visual field eccentricity in conventional perimetry, but not in frequency-doubling perimetry. Both techniques showed an increase in variability with overall visual field damage. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency-doubling perimetry has different test-retest variability characteristics than conventional perimetry and may have potential for monitoring glaucomatous field damage.  (+info)

CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. (6/1964)

PURPOSE: To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS: The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were applied intravitreally every 5 days. Animals were allowed to survive for 3 or 4 weeks. Regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were labeled by applying the dye Fluoro-Gold to the distal end of the peripheral nerve graft 3 days before the animals were killed. RESULTS: Intravitreal application of ciliary neurotrophic factor substantially enhanced the regeneration of damaged axons into a sciatic nerve graft in both experimental conditions (intracranial and intraorbital optic nerve transections) but did not increase the survival of distally axotomized RGCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 failed to enhance axonal regeneration of distally axotomized RGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurons of the adult central nervous system can regenerate in response to trophic supply after injury, and ciliary neurotrophic factor is at least one of the trophic factors that can promote axonal regeneration of axotomized RGCs.  (+info)

Evaluation of focal defects of the nerve fiber layer using optical coherence tomography. (7/1964)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze glaucomatous eyes with known focal defects of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), relating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to clinical examination, NFL and stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photography, and Humphrey 24-2 visual fields. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prevalence study. PARTICIPANTS: The authors followed 19 patients in the study group and 14 patients in the control group. INTERVENTION: Imaging with OCT was performed circumferentially around the ONH with a circle diameter of 3.4 mm using an internal fixation technique. One hundred OCT scan points taken within 2.5 seconds were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measurements of NFL thickness using OCT were performed. RESULTS: In most eyes with focal NFL defects, OCTs showed significant thinning of the NFL in areas closely corresponding to focal defects visible on clinical examination, to red-free photographs, and to defects on the Humphrey visual fields. Optical coherence tomography enabled the detection of focal defects in the NFL with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 81%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of NFL thickness in eyes with focal defects showed good structural and functional correlation with clinical parameters. Optical coherence tomography contributes to the identification of focal defects in the NFL that occur in early stages of glaucoma.  (+info)

The optic disc in glaucoma. I: Classification. (8/1964)

Five different descriptive types of glaucomatous optic discs are described, based on the examination of X2 magnification stereophotographs of 252 patients from the files of the Glaucoma Service at Wills Eye Hospital. The method of analysis is described in detail. These types include: overpass cupping, cupping without pallor of the neuroretinal rim, cupping with pallor of the neuroretinal rim, focal notching of the neuroretinal rim, and bean-pot cupping. These morphological types may be caused by variations in factors contributing to the pathogenesis of glaucomatous eyes. Recognition of these differing types may help in determining the factors in each case.  (+info)

Optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography is strongly correlated with invasive ICPmeasurements and may serve as a sensitive and noninvasive method for detecting elevated ICP in TBI patients after decompressive craniectomy 1).. Optic nerve sheath diameter measured by transorbital ultrasound imaging is an accurate method for detecting intracranial hypertension that can be applied in a broad range of settings. It has the advantages of being a non-invasive, bedside test, which can be repeated multiple times for re-evaluation 2).. Evolution of ultrasound technology and the development of high frequency (, 7.5 MHz) linear probes with improved spatial resolution have enabled excellent views of the optic nerve sheath.. The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), measured at a fixed distance behind the retina has been evaluated to diagnose and measure intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage 3) 4).. The optic nerve sheath is fairly easy to visualize by ultrasonography ...
Optic nerve sheath ultrasound is a noninvasive method for the assessment of the risk of raised ICP. The subarachnoid spaces surrounding the optic nerve communicate with the intracranial cavity and changes in cerebrospinal fluid pressure are transmitted along the optic nerve sheath.20 In the anterior part of the optic nerve and particularly in the retrobulbar segment, the nerve is only surrounded by orbital fat. The retrobulbar optic nerve sheath is therefore distensible and can inflate in case of raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Comparing ocular ultrasonography with gold standard measures of ICP (invasive devices), values of ONSD above 5.8 mm have been shown to be associated with a 95% risk of raised ICP (i.e. , more than 20 mmHg).13 Such values were obtained in 19% of our preeclamptic patients, suggesting a substantial incidence of raised ICP in this population. However, we were not able to show any relationship between preeclampsia severity and the magnitude of ONSD enlargement. This can ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inclusion of optic nerve involvement in dissemination in space criteria for multiple sclerosis. AU - Brownlee, Wallace J.. AU - Miszkiel, Katherine A.. AU - Tur, Carmen. AU - Barkhof, Frederik. AU - Miller, David H.. AU - Ciccarelli, Olga. PY - 2018/9/18. Y1 - 2018/9/18. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of including optic nerve involvement in dissemination in space (DIS) criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).METHODS: We studied 160 patients with CIS: 129 with optic neuritis (ON) and 31 with non-ON CIS. MRI brain/spinal cord was done at the time of presentation and a follow-up MRI brain after 3-12 months. We evaluated optic nerve involvement clinically or with visual evoked potentials (VEPs, n = 42). We investigated the performance of the McDonald 2017 DIS criteria and modified DIS criteria including optic nerve involvement for development of clinically definite MS after ∼15 years.RESULTS: In the ON group, ...
Bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. a. Coronal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a patient with bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. The optic nerves are the ti
The sonographic assessment of the optic nerve sheath diameter with gravitational challenge can distinguish open from closed spinal cerebrospinal fluid fistulas in spontaneous intracranial hypotension patients. A response to the gravitational challenge, that is, no more collapse of the optic nerve sh …
Purpose: To investigate the functions of the glaucoma-associated protein, myocilin, in the optic nerve.. Methods: Optic nerve astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were isolated from postnatal day 6 (P6) or P7 mice. Optic nerves were examined by electron microscopy. Binding of myocilin to the Lingo-1/NgR1 complex was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation from the optic nerve and by binding assays using myocilin-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins. Conductivity of the optic nerve was evaluated by a visual evoked potential test. Changes in gene expression were measured by RNA sequencing.. Results: Myocilin was first detected in optic nerve astrocytes at P6 and its level increased with age. Myocilin was also detected in astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes that were isolated and cultured from the optic nerve. Addition of purified myocilin to immature oligodendrocytes stimulated their differentiation and increased mRNAs encoding myelin-associated proteins (MBP, MAG and MOG) when compared with untreated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilateral optic nerve infiltration in central nervous system leukemia. AU - Schocket, Lisa S.. AU - Massaro-Giordano, Mina. AU - Volpe, Nicholas J.. AU - Galetta, Steven L.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - PURPOSE: To report the case of a 58-year-old man with sequential bilateral retrolaminar leukemic infiltration of the optic nerves who presented with normal-appearing optic nerves and no optic nerve enhancement. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHODS: A 58-year-old man with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) developed progressive vision loss to no light perception in both eyes over four days. RESULTS: The patient received 14 doses of external beam irradiation and 10 cycles of intrathecal cytarabine. Despite treatment, he developed optic nerve pallor, and visual acuity remained no light perception in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: In a patient with leukemia, leukemic optic nerve infiltration may occur even with normal-appearing optic nerves and a normal magnetic resonance image. ...
Assessment of the Intra- and Inter-Observer Reliabilities of Ultrasonographically Measured Optic Nerve Sheath Diameters in Normal Adults, Li-juan Wang, Li-min Chen, Ying Chen, Yang
Optic nerve regeneration (ONR) following injury is a model for central nervous system regeneration. In zebrafish, ONR is rapid - neurites cross the lesion and enter the optic tectum within 7 days; in mammals regeneration does not take place unless astrocytic reactivity is suppressed. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is used as a marker for retinal and optic nerve astrocytes in both fish and mammals, even though it has long been known that astrocytes of optic nerves in many fish, including zebrafish, express cytokeratins and not GFAP. We used immunofluorescence to localize GFAP and cytokeratin in wild-type zebrafish and transgenic zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of a GFAP promoter to determine the pattern of expression of intermediate filaments in retina and optic nerve. GFAP labeling and GFAP gene expression as indicated by GFP fluorescence was found only in the Müller glial cells of the retina. Within Müller cells, GFP fluorescence filled the entire cell while
The ONSD was measured at five points (T0-T4). The baseline ONSD was measured via ultrasonography (FUJIFILM®, Sonosite Inc., USA) in the supine position. We placed the linear probe lightly over the closed upper eyelids. The diameter of the optic nerve sheath was measured at a point 3.0 mm behind the optic disc. The ONSD appears as a vertical hypoechoic band surrounded by retrobulbar echogenic fat tissue on a monitor, perpendicular to the ultrasonic probe (Fig. 2). Using gel, the linear probe (13-16 MHz) was gently applied-transversely at 3-5 mm-to the patients upper eyelids to avoid excessive pressure, by two experienced examiners (one resident and one non-resident). For the purpose of ensuring inter-observer reliability, both examiners averaged over two measurements each for the first 10 random patients in the study. The ONSD was measured twice in each eye and calculated as the average of the four values. T0 was measured 5 min after induction of anesthesia in the supine position, when vital ...
Studies on the rat optic nerve in the past 5 years have produced two surprises. First, they demonstrated that there are two biochemically, developmentally and functionally distinct types of astrocytes in the optic nerve, and probably in white matter tracts throughout the CNS: one seems to be responsible for inducing endothelial cells to form the blood-brain barrier while the other seems to service nodes of Ranvier. Second, they showed that oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes develop from a common bipotential (O-2A) progenitor cell that seems to migrate into the developing optic nerve, and may well migrate all over the CNS to wherever myelination is required; this implies that the neuroepithelial cells of the optic stalk are restricted to forming type-1 astrocytes. Some of the findings in the optic nerve may be relevant to the problem of CNS regeneration after injury. These include the following. (1) Reactive gliosis in white matter tracts seems to be mainly a function of type-1 astrocytes. ...
purpose. To investigate changes in optic nerve head (ONH) circulation, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), and ONH cupping after stimulation of the optic nerve.. methods. Electrodes were fixed above the optic chiasma in rabbits under general anesthesia. Screw-type electrodes for VEP recording were fixed on the dura. ONH circulation, intraocular pressure (IOP), and blood pressure (BP) were measured after the passage of a current of 0.1 mA for 0.1 second (weak stimulation), 1 mA for 1 second (moderate), 5 mA for 10 seconds (strong), or 25 mA for 10 seconds (severe). Normalized blur (NB), indicative of tissue blood flow and velocity, was measured in the ONH after each stimulation, by using a laser speckle circulation analyzer. Changes in VEP and ocular fundus were also recorded. The ratio of cup area (CA) to disc area (DA) was measured before and 4 weeks after stimulation. After all experiments, the ONH was histologically examined.. results. Weak stimulation increased NB in ONH for 10 minutes, whereas ...
Body parts change considerably during the fetal period and early childhood. A number of studies have examined morphological changes in the orbit with increasing age,1-9 but only a few studies have measured changes in the opening angle of the optic nerve and orbit after birth in normal subjects.7-9 We measured the opening angle of the optic nerve and orbit using axial CT images in 147 normal Japanese children aged from 6 months to 18 years.. In an autopsy study, Zimmermann et al7 measured the angle formed by two lines running from the optic chiasm to the site where the optic nerves are attached to each eye. They reported that the opening angle of the optic nerve measured by this method decreased slightly during the fetal period, and that the angle was ∼71.5° at birth and ∼68° in adults. This early study involved measurements on autopsied heads, and the method used to measure the opening angle of the optic nerve differed from that used in our study, so a direct comparison may not be ...
Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative optic neuropathies caused by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve deterioration. Without - and often despite - current therapeutic intervention, glaucoma ultimately results in progressive and irreversible vision loss. The initial insult in glaucoma pathogenesis is believed to occur at the lamina cribrosa, a collagenous structure where RGC axons exit the eye and coalesce to form the optic nerve1. Optic nerve crush (ONC) delivers an acute, mechanical injury to the nerve at this location. Rodent models of ONC have been widely utilized to examine glaucomatous disease pathophysiology as well as to advance the development of novel therapeutics.. ONC is performed on anesthetized mice by exposing the optic nerve through the bulbar conjunctiva and transiently pinching the nerve just behind the globe using self-closing forceps2. Genes within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway such as pJNK and pJUN are upregulated following ONC, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localisation of connective tissue and inhibition of autofluorescence in the human optic nerve and nerve head using a modified picrosirius red technique and confocal microscopy. AU - Brotchie, D. AU - Birch, M. AU - Roberts, N. AU - Howard, Vyvyan. AU - Smith, VA. AU - Grierson, I. PY - 1999/2. Y1 - 1999/2. M3 - Article. VL - 87. SP - 77. EP - 85. JO - Journal of Neuroscience Methods. JF - Journal of Neuroscience Methods. SN - 0165-0270. IS - 1. ER - ...
ONHA - Optic Nerve Head Analyzer. Looking for abbreviations of ONHA? It is Optic Nerve Head Analyzer. Optic Nerve Head Analyzer listed as ONHA
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of chronic MS lesions in the cerebrum, brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve on T1-weighted MRI. AU - Gass, A.. AU - Filippi, M.. AU - Rodegher, M. E.. AU - Schwartz, A.. AU - Comi, G.. AU - Hennerici, M. G.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - We analyzed the prevalence of severely hypointense lesions on T1- weighted MRI in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve from 65 patients with MS. About half of 1,274 supratentorial lesions were classified as severely hypointense. Severe hypointensity was not seen in the optic nerve and spinal cord, and in only one of 168 chronic brainstem lesions. Tissue destruction in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve of MS patients does not usually result in severely hypointense lesions.. AB - We analyzed the prevalence of severely hypointense lesions on T1- weighted MRI in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve from 65 patients with MS. About half of 1,274 supratentorial lesions were classified as severely hypointense. ...
In adult visual system, goldfish can regrow their axons and fully restore their visual function even after optic nerve transection. The optic nerve regeneration process in goldfish is very long and...
A variety of strategies can be used to both protect and repair damaged optic nerves; however, work currently advances slowly, in part because of the need to thoroughly test such strategies in at least two species of animals before trying them in humans and in part because of the considerable cost involved in animal research. Nevertheless, with funding from institutions such as the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the Hirschhorn Foundation as well as from individual donors, we have been able to develop reproducible models of optic nerve damage in rats, mice, and, most importantly, in monkeys. These models allow us to test various substances that have the potential to reduce the amount of optic nerve damage caused by various insults or to restore vision that is lost from optic nerve damage. With this knowledge, we can then begin testing on humans. ...
In addition, we will present and then include the MOONSTRIP unpublished prospective blinded study conducted at a level one tertiary care trauma centre. Investigators of this study were given visual materials and readings prior to attending didactic and hands-on supervised ultrasound training sessions. During these sessions, quality assurance data were collected to ensure all investigators met acceptable standards.. In this study, all patients referred to the trauma centre will undergo assessment in accordance with advanced trauma life support protocol. If assessment warrants investigation for increased ICP, a CT scan will be performed. An investigator blinded to the CT scan will assess the patient based on the following inclusion criteria: age ≥16 years, following trauma, and ONSD sonography required to be performed within 1 hour of the CT scan. All patients will be consented prior to enrolment. Exclusion criteria includes: penetrating trauma to the head or significant ocular trauma; patient ...
The bipotential glial progenitor cells (O-2A progenitors), which during development of the rat optic nerve give rise to oligodendrocytes and type 2 astrocytes, are stimulated to divide in culture by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and there is evidence that PDGF is important for development o …
Background The results of studies on changes in intracranial pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery are inconsistent. Meanwhile, previous neurosurgery studies have suggested that propofol and sevoflurane have inconsistent effects on cerebral blood flow and cerebr...
Optic nerve regeneration is a treatment thats used to restore damaged axons in the optic nerve so that vision returns. Although...
Optic neuropathy refers to damage to the optic nerve due to any cause. Damage and death of these nerve cells, or neurons, leads to characteristic features of optic neuropathy. The main symptom is loss of vision, with colors appearing subtly washed out in the affected eye. On medical examination, the optic nerve head can be visualised by an ophthalmoscope. A pale disc is characteristic of long-standing optic neuropathy. In many cases, only one eye is affected and patients may not be aware of the loss of color vision until the doctor asks them to cover the healthy eye. Optic neuropathy is often called optic atrophy, to describe the loss of some or most of the fibers of the optic nerve. In medicine, atrophy usually means shrunken but capable of regrowth, so some argue that optic atrophy as a pathological term is somewhat misleading, and the term optic neuropathy should be used instead. In short, optic atrophy is the end result of any disease that damages nerve cells anywhere between the ...
Anoxic Injury of MammAan Central m t e Matter: Decreased Susceptibility in Myelin-deficient Optic Nerve Stephen G. Waxman, MD, PhD, Peter K. Davis, BS, Joel A. Black, PhD, and Bruce R. Ransom, &ID, PhD The rat optic nerve, a typical central nervous system white matter tract, rapidly loses excitability when it is exposed to anoxia and is irreversibly damaged by prolonged anoxia. Neonatal optic nerve is extremely resistant to anoxia-induced dysfunction and injury; the adult pattern of response to anoxia appears between 10 and 20 days postnatal, that is, during the period of oligodendroglial proliferation and myelination. To test the hypothesis that myelination, or associated events, confer anoxic susceptibility on developing white matter, we analyzed the effects of anoxia on the myelin-deficient (md) strain of rat. Acutely isolated optic nerves from 19- to 21-day-old md rats and control optic nerves from unaffected male littermates were maintained in vitro at 3 7 T , and exposed to a standard ...
There are some new procedures such as Non-Invasive Current Stimulation practiced by Dr. Anton Fedorov that have shown improvement in those with optic nerve damage. Learn more about this exciting new procedure here.
Glaucoma is a common ocular disorder that is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by the dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although many studies have implicated various molecules in glaucoma, no mechanism has been shown to be responsible for the earliest detectable damage to RGCs and their axons in the optic nerve. Here, we show that the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway is activated in the optic nerve head at the earliest stages of disease in an inherited mouse model of glaucoma. This resulted in proinflammatory monocytes entering the optic nerve prior to detectable neuronal damage. A 1-time x-ray treatment prevented monocyte entry and subsequent glaucomatous damage. A single x-ray treatment of an individual eye in young mice provided that eye with long-term protection from glaucoma but had no effect on the contralateral eye. Localized radiation treatment prevented detectable neuronal damage and dysfunction in treated eyes, despite the continued
My current research interest is related with the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of normal tension glaucoma. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder of the optic nerve, characterized by accelerated retinal ganglion cell death, subsequent axonal loss, optic nerve damage and eventual blindness. The morphological changes in the optic nerve are often asymptomatic and undetectable with conventional diagnostic methods. New imaging technologies are now available to diagnose glaucoma, including Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT), time-domain and more recently the spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Our goal is by using these novel imaging technologies to find and describe morphological features of the optic nerve which are characteristic of glaucoma and can be used to distinguish glaucomatous optic nerve damage from non-glaucomatous changes. In the past, I was involved in many different research projects, including corneal endothelial cell transplantation, corneal wound healing, the ...
We performed pressure on the left optic nerves of 24 pigs and injected intravenous thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) to 12 of these pigs in order to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration in the optic nerves. The histopathologic, ultrastructural and biochemical examinations of the optic nerves were made at the 24th hour, 7th, 15th and 30th days. although the light-microscopic examinations were normal, ultrastructural changes of the uncompressed optic nerves were interesting. Histopathologic and ultrastructural investigation of the compressed optic nerves showed significant degenerative changes in the non-TRH-applied group. Ultrastructural comparison yielded lighter degenerative changes in the TRH-applied group but there was no clue showing the stimulation of regeneration. We observed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the nontraumatized optic nerves due to the cellular stress. The SOD values were found to be low in highly damaged left compressed optic nerves indicating the ...
Although we have made other attempts to preserve vision in Optic Nerve Meningioma patients, these efforts failed to preserve vision in the affected eye. Among the challenges, is the reasonable certainty that the tumor will progress. If it begins at the apex of the orbit near the Optic Canal (the channel through which the Optic Nerve enters the skull, to travel backwards to the Occipital Lobe of the Brain), then early definitive surgery is required, even if it means sacrificing the Optic Nerve and thus the vision in that eye. Failure to do so may well lead to progression of the tumor to cause bilateral (both sides) blindness.. Radiosurgery has a place in the treatment, to attempt to control these tumors, particularly in patients who refuse to permit exenteration (removal of all the contents) of the Orbit. There are no easy decisions in the management of this difficult clinical problem. HEMANGIOMA. The most common tumor, in our large experience of Orbital Tumors, is a Hemangioma. Hemangiomas are ...
Optic nerve hypoplasia can be associated with central nervous system (CNS) malformations which put the patient at risk for other problems, including seizure disorder and developmental delay. Hormone deficiencies occur in most children, regardless of associated midline brain abnormalities or pituitary gland abnormalities on MRI. In fact, most children with growth hormone deficiency have a normal MRI.. ...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Machanic on treatment for optic nerve damage in the eye: A thorough exam can help determine the extent of the damage in many cases along with visual field and oct testing. A neuroophthalmic exam may be required in addition to an MRI or ct scan in some cases. for topic: Treatment For Optic Nerve Damage In The Eye
Optic Nerve Definition The optic nerve is the second nerve out of the twelve cranial nerves. It is a sensory paired nerve transmitting visual or sight information from the retina of the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the impulses from retina to the brain in the form of images. During the embryonic
This review article explains major optic nerve disorders and cell replacement therapy. This article also signifies new innovative methods, biopharmaceuticals, implantable biomaterials, devices and diagnostic tools developed for restoration of vision. It asserts notable technological advancements made for regeneration of neurons and restoration of visual system network. However, for finding quick solutions of optical- neuronal disorders more advanced biomaterial cell scaffolds and concurrent efforts are needed to revitalize visual-neural receptor system. This article stresses upon novel bioengineered methods mainly required to activate endogenous stem and progenitor cells, which could reawaken cells in dormancy, instructing them to promote repair and regeneration in optic nerve cells and retina. For better management of optic nerve disorders, the important role of tissues, genes, growth factors and proteins, nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and all underlying mechanisms should fully be investigated. This
Risk factors for the development of glaucoma include intraocular (eye) pressure (although it is important to recognise that glaucoma frequently develops with so-called normal intraocular pressure [IOP]), increasing age, positive family history for glaucoma and ethnicity. POAG is most common in white Caucasians and black individuals of African origin. PACG is most common in South-East Asians and worldwide about 33% of individuals with primary glaucoma have PACG. PACG is associated with a greater risk of blindness in comparison with POAG. Although elevated IOP is the major risk factor for glaucoma the condition is not considered to be a direct consequence of the pressure, but to relate to IOP-associated risk factors such as stress susceptibility of the optic nerve supporting structures and optic nerve blood flow, that are affected by IOP. Certain individuals can sustain a degree of IOP elevation without the development of glaucoma and are referred to as having Ocular Hypertension (OH), although ...
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Optic Nerve Label music on CD, MP3 and Vinyl available at Juno Records. Listen to Optic Nerve now using our online music player. Optic Nerve
A variety of studies demonstrate that ocular blood flow is altered in diabetes and retinal perfusion abnormalities have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.. Various animal and human studies have demonstrated that retinal and optic nerve blood flow increase in response to diffuse luminance flicker. Based on studies with ERG, this effect has been attributed to augmented activity in the retinal ganglion cells and associated axons indicating a coupling mechanism between neuronal activity and retinal blood flow. Whereas a variety of studies describe the effects of flickering light on retinal and optic nerve head blood flow, the knowledge about this coupling in the diabetic retina is sparse.. In view of the fact that neural activity and blood flow are strongly coupled in the human retina, one could hypothesize that neurodegenerative changes in the retina could contribute to the vascular dysregulation and in turn lead to changes of ocular perfusion. The ...
The optic nerve is located in the back of the eye. It is also called the second cranial nerve or cranial nerve II. It is the second of several pairs of cranial nerves.
Definition of Drusen of the optic nerve head with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Today: Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE)-M-2 Sample Start: Flight Engineer (FE)-5 Wiseman configured the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and inserted the second sample for an ACE-M-2 investigation run.. In the ACE-M-2 investigation, a model colloidal system is used to observe the microscopic behavior of liquids and gases separating from each other, near the critical point, via a process called spinodal decomposition.. Ocular Health: Wiseman assisted Commander (CDR) Swanson and FE-6 Gerst in taking ultrasound images of their eyes. All three USOS crewmembers took cardiac echo measurements of each other as part of the Ocular Health data collection. The ultrasound images will be used to identify changes in globe morphology, including flattening of the posterior globe, and document optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve sheath tortuosity, globe axial measurements, and choroidal engorgement. The Ocular Health protocol calls for a systematic gathering of ...
Diapason Experiment: Flight Engineer (FE)-5 Mastracchio set up and powered on the Diapason instrument for the final test run. This experiment studies nano-particle migration and capture achieved by very small thermal gradients. The particle size range allows the monitoring of combustion-generated pollution and the identification of atmospheric contaminants on-board ISS.. Ocular Health (OH) Measurements: FE-6 Wakata completed a series of activities in support of the OH payload, to satisfy his flight day 10 session. With FE-5 Mastracchio performing as the Crew Medical Officer (CMO), ocular and cardiac ultrasound scans and blood pressure measurements of Wakata were collected. In-flight data collection was assisted by remote guidance from the ground to ensure proper positioning and data collection. Ocular ultrasound is used to identify changes in globe morphology, including flattening of the posterior globe, and document optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve sheath tortuosity, globe axial ...
Glaucoma is a disease occurring where the optic nerve sustains damage. Glaucoma is found most frequently in older persons, persons of African-American heritage, people with a family history of Glaucoma and persons with underlying health problems such as diabetes or hypertension and sometimes in people taking certain medications such as steroids.. Glaucoma occurs where the small fibers making up the optic nerve are damaged or progressively dying-off. The loss of these fibers of the optic nerve cause small islands or pockets of visual loss. Damage to the fibers of the optic nerve is usually caused by pressure on the optic nerve. Many persons with Glaucoma do not initially recognize the symptoms; small areas or pockets of visual loss. As the disease progresses, these small areas enlarge or join together and larger areas of one?s field of vision are lost or missing. In most cases, the progression of the problem is slow and sometimes barely noticeable. However, in some instances the pressure can ...
The larger optic cups and smaller neuroretinal rims found in older subjects may be taken to mean that there is loss of the neuroretinal tissue with age, or that subjects born more recently are born with more neuroretinal tissue. In order to determine whether the differences related to age represent an aging change or a cohort effect, longitudinal studies are needed. Two such studies have been outlined.4042 It can be seen that, given the small changes predicted by this study (0.28% per year in rim area) and the variability arising from the measurement technique, a very long period between examinations is needed to detect change (18 years to detect a 5% change). Alternatively, multiple examinations over a shorter period would mitigate the effect of measurement error.. The morphological changes (loss of neuroretinal rim and increase in cupping) parallel the loss of optic nerve axons that is known to occur in glaucoma.46 A number of histological studies have found an age related decline in optic ...
Optical methods for recording electrical activity in the goldfish optic tectum were evaluated. Tectal slices, with a short section of the optic nerve attached, were stained with a fluorescent styryl dye. Potential- dependent fluorescence changes following optic nerve stimulation were monitored with a photodiode. We found that large optical signals could be obtained. Experimental manipulations of the slice bathing solution permitted us to identify several events that contributed to the optical response, including activity in afferent fibers, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, and presumptive glial depolarizations. These results suggest that voltage-sensitive dyes can provide a useful alternative method for monitoring synaptic responses in the goldfish tectum, and may prove valuable in studying changes in the functional synaptic organization of the tectum following manipulations of the retinotectal pathway.. ...
Tumors on optic nerves may cause progressive vision loss and can be fatal if untreated. See Houston Methodist for more information about optic nerve tumors.
Optic Nerve Disorders Drug Development Pipeline Review, 2018 Optic Nerve Disorders Drug Development Pipeline Review, 2018 Summary Optic neuropathy is an inherited form of vision loss. Symptoms - Market research report and industry analysis - 11999358
A previously fit and healthy 26-year-old lady with no significant medical history presented with a two-month history of headaches. The headaches were prolonged, generalised, and unusually severe for the patient. Examination revealed papilloedema. The patient’s optic nerve sheath diameter was measured 3 mm posterior to the globe and found to be 7.5 mm. The patient subsequently had computed tomography scan of her brain that showed an optic nerve sheath diameter of 7.56 mm as measured 3 mm posterior to the globe. After an obstructive lesion was ruled out on the computed tomography scan, a lumbar puncture was then performed and cerebrospinal fluid was drained. An ultrasound of the optic nerve sheath diameter was repeated showing a reduced diameter of 5.6 mm. The patient was admitted to the neurology unit and ultimately diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This case report highlights the potential of rapidly identifying elevated intracranial pressure
What is the optic nerve?. The optic nerve is in the center of the retina and is a circular to oval pinkish area measuring 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter. From the center of the nerve radiate the major blood vessels of the retina. The optic nerve itself carries over one million nerves that connect the retina ((the layer of the eye that carries the vision cells) with the occipital lobe (the part of the brain that interprets vision) like a cable wire.. What is optic nerve atrophy?. Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and color vision. ONA that occurs as a child may result in nystagmus (rhythmic involuntary eye movements).. What causes optic nerve atrophy?. ONA causes include: tumor, trauma, decreased blood supply (ischemia) or oxygen supply (hypoxia) causing swelling, heredity, hydrocephalus, toxins, infection, and rare degenerative disorders. Onset can be from birth through adulthood.. How is optic nerve atrophy ...
Description of disease Optic nerve atrophy. Treatment Optic nerve atrophy. Symptoms and causes Optic nerve atrophy Prophylaxis Optic nerve atrophy
BACKGROUND: In some cases of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, brain imaging displays signs compatible with raised intracranial pressure. We aimed to estimate the incidence of raised intracranial pressure in preeclampsia using ocular ultrasonography.. METHODS: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements were compared in 26 preeclamptic and 25 healthy pregnant women. For each optic nerve, two measurements were made (transverse plane and sagittal plane) using a 7.5 MHz ultrasound linear probe. Preeclamptic patients were followed-up until postpartum day 7.. RESULTS: Median ONSD values were significantly greater in preeclamptic patients compared with healthy pregnant women at delivery (5.4 mm (95% CI: 5.2, 5.7) vs. 4.5 mm (95% CI: 4.3, 4.8), P , 0.0001). At delivery, 5/26 (19%) of preeclamptic patients had ONSD values above 5.8 mm (value associated in the literature with 95% risk of raised intracranial pressure) whereas none of the healthy pregnant group had such high ONSD values. In the ...
intra-parenchymal monitoring using optical fiber catheter. Non invasive methods have been suggested, including ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) which is the most interesting one. The ONSD measured ultrasonically is correlated with ICP level in adults with severe TBI. A diameter over 5,9 mm predicts ICH within the first 24 hours. In children, ONSD average values have been worked out, and an ONSD increase is found in children suffering from hydrocephalus with IH and in children with TBI. ICH precocious detection is fundamental in children sensitive to ICH because their cerebral development is not finished yet. Difficulties met for ICP monitoring implementation in infants and its invasive nature are often disliked by clinicians. A non-invasive exam is then essential to allow a better care of children with ICH in intensive care unit ...
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This Optic Nerve Hypoplasia web portal has been generously supported by The Karl Kirchgessner Foundation.Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (ONH) is the under-development or absence of the optic nerve combined with possible brain and endocrine abnormalities. It is also known as Septo-Optic Dysplasia or DeMorsiers Syndrome.Now at epidemic proportions, ONH is the leading ocular cause of
The type of visual field loss will depend on which portions of the optic nerve were damaged. In general, the location of the damage in relation to the optic chiasm (see diagram above) will affect the areas of vision loss. Damage to the optic nerve that is anterior, or in front of the optic chiasm (toward the face) causes loss of vision in the eye on the same side as the damage. Damage at the optic chiasm itself typically causes loss of vision laterally in both visual fields or bitemporal hemianopsia (see image to the right). Such damage may occur with large pituitary tumors, such as pituitary adenoma. Finally, damage to the optic tract, which is posterior to, or behind the chiasm, causes loss of the entire visual field from the side opposite the damage, e.g. if the left optic tract were cut, there would be a loss of vision from the entire right visual field. Injury to the optic nerve can be the result of congenital or inheritable problems like Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy, glaucoma, ...
Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is characterized by mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and colour vision. Optic nerve disease is complicated and there are a number of pathophysiologic mechanisms that can lead to retinal ganglion cell impairment or death. ONA is associated with myriad causes including tumour, trauma, glaucoma, ischemia, heredity, hydrocephalus, toxins, infection and some rare degenerative disorders. Clinically, the neuroprotective or exogenic therapies that restore lost visual system connectivity in retinal degenerative disease are non-existent and translatable techniques for the replacement of lost retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and photoreceptors are in their infancy [1]. Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons or for restoring neural circuits. Recent evidence suggests stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous ...
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People can now undergo optic nerve atrophy stem cell treatment in Delhi, India at GSCC. It is the best stem cell center for optic nerve atrophy globally.
Group 1: In the Eu-DH group, induction of deliberate hypotension to a goal MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was accomplished within 30 min of the second baseline FMS injection with an approximate dose of 15-25 mg/kg intravenous labetalol. Thereafter, labetalol was administered to maintain the target MAP of 50-55 mm Hg, reaching a total dose of approximately 30-40 mg/kg over the duration of the experiment. The final FMS injection was performed 1 h after the MAP had been reduced to 50-55 mm Hg. Group 2: In the Hypo-DH group, induction of hypovolemic hypotension to a MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was initiated after the second baseline FMS injection by rapid exsanguination via the femoral arterial catheter of approximately 30% of the estimated blood volume in the first hour. To prevent reflex tachycardia and provide more consistent hemodynamics at a goal MAP of 50-55 mm Hg, approximately 10-20 mg labetalol was administered during the first hour of exsanguination. Further exsanguination occurred throughout the experiment to ...
7-year-old child was seen in the office on 10/6/2009. She had difficulty seeing the blackboard in school. She was checked for glasses and it was noted at that time that she had unusual looking optic nerves. You saw her and suggested she come here for an evaluation. She does not have her new prescription yet. VISUAL ACUITY: Vision OU is 20/50. AMSLER GRID: Both eyes are normal. SLIT LAMP EXAM: Normal with clear lenses. EXTENDED OPHTHALMOSCOPY: OD: Vertical C/D ratio is 0.0. There are no hemorrhages. There are no cotton-wool spots around the optic nerve. There is an anomalous branching pattern of the retinal vessels. OS: Vertical C/D ratio is 0.0. There is an optic nerve drusen on the inferior edge of the optic nerve. There are no hemorrhages. There are no cotton-wool spots. There is an anomalous retinal vascular pattern. PHOTOGRAPHS: Photos confirm clinical findings. ULTRASOUND: Ultrasound shows calcification of the optic nerve head in each eye. IMPRESSION: 1. PSEUDOPAPILLEDEMA - BOTH EYES 2. ...
There is no treatment to reverse atrophy of the optic nerve; however, limiting further optic nerve damage (if possible) is the goal. For example, reduction of increased fluid pressure around the brain and spinal cord (hydrocephalus) may prevent further optic nerve damage. Spectacles may be prescribed to correct refractive error. When optic atrophy is unilateral protection of the good eye is essential and wearing of protective lenses should be stressed. Magnifiers or tinted lenses may also improve visual function.. ...
Optic atrophy refers to the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve with the resulting picture of a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy. Optic atrophy is an end stage that arises from myriad causes of optic nerve damage anywhere along the path from the retina to the lateral geniculate. Since the optic nerve transmits retinal information to the brain, optic atrophy is associated with vision loss. Optic atrophy is somewhat of a misnomer as atrophy implies disuse, and thus optic nerve damage is better termed optic neuropathy.
Ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is the loss of structure and function of a portion of the optic nerve due to obstruction of blood flow to the nerve (i.e. ischemia). ION is typically classified as either anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or posterior ischemic optic neuropathy according to the part of the optic nerve that is affected. People affected will often complain of a loss of visual acuity and a visual field, the latter of which is usually in the superior or inferior field. ...
EphA receptors and their ligands the ephrin-As, expressed as retinal and tectal gradients, are required for the development of retino-tectal topography [Neuron 25 (2000) 563] and its restoration during goldfish optic nerve regeneration [Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 25 (2004) 56]. We have reported previously that, during regeneration, a transient EphA3/A5 gradient is formed by differential expression across the entire retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population [Neurosci. Abs. 33 (2003) 358.2; Exp. Neurol. 183 (2003) 593]. In retino-recipient tectal layers, ephrin-A2 is normally expressed by only a sub-population of cells, but during regeneration, there is a graded increase with more expressing cells caudally than rostrally [Exp. Neurol. 166 (2000) 196]. Here, we examine the characteristics of tectal ephrin-A2 expression during regeneration. We report that the level of ephrin-A2 expression is comparable for all ephrin-A2-positive cells in normal animals and during regeneration. Using double-labelling
Kamil was diagnosed with Optic Nerve Atrophy, a condition that affects the optic nerve, which carries impulses from the eye to the brain.
The birth defect known as optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), characterized by an underdeveloped optic nerve, has emerged as the single leading cause of childhood blindness and visual impairment in the United States and Europe. Since the first description of ONH, research has made tremendous progress in understanding the clinical significance of ONH. It is now clear that ONH is a pervasive disease of child neurodevelopment associated with overall miswiring of the brain that results in visual impairment and profound systemic and functional morbidity. A review of the disease summarizes the clinical profile associated with ONH. The prenatal determinants of ONH are largely unknown owing to a lack of systematic research in a large sample of cases. A review of literature identified a broad spectrum of suggested risk factors born primarily out of anecdotal reports and highly selective case samples. This dissertation includes two analyses aimed at clarifying the prenatal risk profile. The first is a ...
Background: Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) can be caused by direct or indirect injury. Direct optic injury usually results from optic nerve avulsion or laceration, or from direct fracture of the optic canal. Indirect optic injury is caused by increa
DefinitionOptic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to the brain.Alternative NamesOptic atrophy; Optic neuropathy
Berry; Et-Al, 2004: Optic nerve regeneration after intravitreal peripheral nerve implants: Trajectories of axons regrowing through the optic chiasm into the optic tracts (vol 28, pg 721, 1999)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. AU - Brown, Nadean L. AU - Patel, S.. AU - Brzezinski, J.. AU - Glaser, Thomas M. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The vertebrate retina contains seven major neuronal and glial cell types in an interconnected network that collects, processes and sends visual signals through the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal neuron differentiation is thought to require both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, yet few intrinsic gene products have been identified that direct this process. Math5 (Atoh7) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is specifically expressed by mouse retinal progenitors. Math5 is highly homologous to atonal, which is critically required for R8 neuron formation during Drosophila eye development. Like R8 cells in the fly eye, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the first neurons in the vertebrate eye. Here we show that Math5 mutant mice are fully viable, yet lack RGCs and optic nerves. ...
PURPOSE To introduce high-resolution, digital three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the connective tissues of the optic nerve head (ONH). METHODS Trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three monkeys with early glaucoma (EG; one eye normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were embedded in paraffin and serial sectioned at 3-mum thickness from the vitreous surface through the orbital optic nerve, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Each image was aligned, and then the scleral canal wall, sclera, border tissue of Elschnig, Bruchs membrane, lamina cribrosa, optic nerve septa, pial sheath, and vasculature were delineated as unique objects. Delineated images were stacked, color mapped, and volume rendered and then serial sagittal and transverse digital sections of the resultant voxel geometries were viewed and measured. RESULTS Substantial differences in the 3-D architecture of the peripapillary sclera, scleral canal wall, and lamina cribrosa were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early astrocyte redistribution in the optic nerve precedes axonopathy in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. AU - Cooper, Melissa L.. AU - Crish, Samuel D.. AU - Inman, Denise M.. AU - Horner, Philip J.. AU - Calkins, David J.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by the Melza M. and Frank Theodore Barr Foundation through the Glaucoma Research Foundation (DJC, PJH), Departmental Unrestricted and Senior Investigator Awards from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc. (DJC), and the Vanderbilt Vision Research Center NEI Core Grant ( 5P30EY008126-19 , DJC). The authors would like to thank John Collyer and Megan Flint for help with programing and image processing and Brian Carlson and Wendi Lambert for their assistance. Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Glaucoma challenges the survival of retinal ganglion cell axons in the optic nerve through processes dependent on both aging and ocular pressure. Relevant stressors likely ...
1.The optic nerve leaves via the optic foramen and forms the optic nerve where it passes posteriorly to form the optic chiasm.. 2.Post the optic chiasm all lesions will be contralateral, and form the optic tract (consists ipsilateral temporal and contra-lateral nasal fibres) and synapse at the lateral geniculate body in the thalamus.. 3.The optic radiation passes deep in the parietal lobe and temporal lobe (via Meyers loop) and ends in the calcarine cortex in the occipital lobe.. ...
Ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is the loss of structure and function of a portion of the optic nerve due to obstruction of blood flow to the nerve (i.e. ischemia). ION is typically classified as either anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or posterior ischemic optic neuropathy according to the part of the optic nerve that is affected. People affected will often complain of a loss of visual acuity and a visual field, the latter of which is usually in the superior or inferior field. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optic Nerve Head Drusen. T2 - The Relationship Between Intraocular Pressure and Optic Nerve Structure and Function: Response. AU - Shyne, Michael. AU - Van Stavern, Gregory P.. AU - Nolan, Kaitlyn W.. AU - Lee, Michael S.. AU - Mcclelland, Collin M.. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. UR - U2 - 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000738. DO - 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000738. M3 - Letter. C2 - 30540636. AN - SCOPUS:85061476198. VL - 39. SP - 143. EP - 144. JO - Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. JF - Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. SN - 1070-8022. IS - 1. ER - ...
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Purpose: It is essential to identify hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) because they are at risk for developmental delay, seizures, or death. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of neurohypophyseal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with ONH.Design: Cross-sectional study.Participants: One hundred one children with clinical ONH who underwent MRI of the brain and orbits and a detailed pediatric endocrinologic evaluation.Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on 1.5-Tesla scanners. The imaging protocol included sagittal T1-weighted images, axial fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery/T2-weighted images, and diffusion-weighted images of (Read more...) Full Story →. ...
Rods, cones and nerve layers in the retina. The front (anterior) of the eye is on the left. Light (from the left) passes through several transparent nerve layers to reach the rods and cones (far right). A chemical change in the rods and cones send a signal back to the nerves. The signal goes first to the Retina bipolar cell and Retina horizontal cell(yellow layer), then to the Retina amacrine cell and Retinal ganglion cell(purple layer), then to the optic nerve fibres. The signals are processed in these layers. First, the signals start as raw outputs of points in the rod and cone cells. Then the nerve layers identify simple shapes, such as bright points surrounded by dark points, edges, and movement. (Based on a drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1911 ...
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Optic Nerve Diseases symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Optic Nerve Diseases (Optic nerve disorder) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an acute injury of the optic nerve associated with severe visual dysfunction, which may be a result of secondary mechanical injury and vascular disorder of the optic nerve due to trauma. We analyzed the natural course of axonal loss and blood flow disturb...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Study of optic nerve head perfusion in glaucomatous patients by Color Doppler Imaging with a contrast agent. AU - Montanari, P.. AU - Bianchi, R.. AU - Oldani, A.. AU - Ratiglia, R.. AU - Raiteri, M.. AU - Berardinelli, L.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - Color Doppler Imaging. KW - Optic nerve head perfusion. KW - Primary open-angle glaucoma. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 11235525. AN - SCOPUS:0034496101. VL - 78. SP - 35. EP - 36. JO - Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, Supplement. JF - Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, Supplement. SN - 1395-3931. IS - 232. ER - ...
As the majority of Glaucomas develop slowly without pain (except for acute angle-closure glaucoma) it is recommended that you receive regular eye examinations to detect if there is any damage or deterioration to the optic nerve fibres. Once damage has been done to the optic nerve it is irreversible and your ophthalmologist can only control the development of the disease with either a series of ongoing treatments or surgery.. A thorough physical examination of the eye will be taken. This will include testing of your vision, peripheral visual field and microscopic examination of the retina, optic nerve head, arteries and veins as well as special scans and photos of these structures in order to accurately determine the type of glaucoma and the most appropriate treatment. If there is evidence of optic nerve damage and commonly an increase in intraocular pressure (but not in all cases) you will be treated and reviewed regularly to adequately monitor the eye so that your glaucoma is managed correctly. ...
To determine whether optic nerve myelin of goldfish carries mammalian- like neurite growth inhibitory proteins which can be neutralized by the antibody IN-1, myelin fractions of fish optic nerves were used as substrates for fish retinal ganglion cell axons and rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Axonal growth was monitored and compared with that of IN- 1 treated preparations. Growth of fish retinal axons and rat DRG neurites was substantial on goldfish optic nerve myelin and no improvement was observed with IN-1. In contrast, rat CNS myelin allowed only poor growth, and number of axons and length of DRG neurites increased significantly with IN-1. In addition, proteins of fish optic nerve myelin and bovine CNS myelin were extracted, reconstituted in liposomes and applied to growth cones. When goldfish myelin proteins in liposomes were seeded onto growth cones, 77% of fish and 89% of rat DRG growth cones continued to elongate, and the proportion of elongating fish growth cones (80%) did not ...
Look up optic nerve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Optic Nerve may refer to: Optic nerve, the anatomical structure Optic ... a comic book series Optic Nerve (CD-ROM), a Red Hot Benefit Series tribute to David Wojnarowicz Optic Nerve Studios, a special ... Nerve (GCHQ), a mass surveillance program run by the British intelligence agency GCHQ Optic Nerve (comics), ... make-up effects studio run by Glenn Hetrick This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Optic Nerve. If ...
... (or optic glioma), a form of glioma which affects the optic nerve, is often one of the central nervous ... and can involve the optic nerve or optic chiasm. Optic gliomas are usually associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in 30% of ... Enlargement of the optic nerve along with a downward kink in the mid-orbit is usually observed. While CT scans allow for optic ... Optic nerve gliomas are diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT scans. The tumor adopts a fusiform appearance, ...
... (ONH) is a medical condition arising from the underdevelopment of the optic nerve(s). This condition is ... Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital condition in which the optic nerve is underdeveloped (small). Many times, de ... Patients with ONH exhibit an optic nerve that appears smaller than normal and different in appearance from small optic nerves ... The visual prognosis in optic nerve hypoplasia is quite variable. Occasionally, optic nerve hypoplasia may be compatible with ...
Most optic nerve melanocytomas are small, black, and do not grow. Most optic nerve tumors (65 percent) are gliomas that occur ... extraocular motility Optic nerve melanocytoma does not usually produce symptoms or grow. If they slowly grow, optic nerve ... If the tumor is next to the optic nerve, growth can compress the nerve and cause gradual loss of vision and unilateral ... An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. Melanocytomas are typically a benign meaning they ...
... collects Optic Nerve #1-4, ISBN 1-896597-12-2) Summer Blonde (2002, collects Optic Nerve #5-8, SC: ISBN 1-896597-57-2, HC: ISBN ... collects Optic Nerve #9-11, HC: ISBN 1-897299-16-8) Killing and Dying (2015, collects Optic Nerve #12-14, HC: ISBN 1-770462-09- ... Optic Nerve is a comic book series by cartoonist Adrian Tomine. Originally self-published by Tomine in 1991 as a series of mini ... "Summer Blonde", the title story, was first seen in Optic Nerve #7, and is centered on a beautiful young woman named Vanessa who ...
Optic Nerve as described in the documents collected one still image every 5 minutes per user, attempting to comply with human ... Optic Nerve is a mass surveillance programme run by the British signals intelligence agency Government Communications ... Optic Nerve worked by collecting the information from GCHQ's large network of Internet cable taps, feeding into systems ...
... s (ONSM) are rare benign tumors of the optic nerve. 60-70% of cases occur in middle age females, ... The tumors grow from cells that surround the optic nerve, and as the tumor grows, it compresses the optic nerve. This causes ... Dutton JJ (1992). "Optic nerve sheath meningiomas". Surv Ophthalmol. 37 (3): 167-83. doi:10.1016/0039-6257(92)90135-G. PMID ... About 1-2% of all meningiomas are optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Meningiomas have an incidence of ~4.18/100,000 persons each ...
Optic Nerve is an interactive CD-ROM showcasing the life and work of multimedia artist David Wojnarowicz. The disc includes ... Optic Nerve was originally available from New York City's New Museum bookstore. At that time, four dollars received from the ... Information page on Optic Nerve at the Red Hot Organization website Fever: The Art of David Wojnarowicz (Articles with short ...
... is a rare defect of the optic nerve that causes moderate to severe visual field defects. Coloboma of ... the optic nerve is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc in which there is a defect of the inferior aspect of the optic nerve ... a diagnosis of optic nerve coloboma precludes a person from certain occupations. Although both optic nerve colobomas and ... An optic nerve coloboma is easily differentiated from morning glory anomaly. Colobomas affect only the inferior aspect of the ...
Human brainstem anterior view Optic tract and optic nerve Optic tract Cerebrum. Deep dissection. Inferior dissection. Cerebral ... The neural circuitry of the pupillary light reflex includes the optic tract which joins the optic nerve to the brachium of the ... It is a continuation of the optic nerve that relays information from the optic chiasm to the ipsilateral lateral geniculate ... Similarly, the neural circuitry of the pupillary dark reflex includes the optic tract which joins the optic nerve to the ...
"UbuWeb Film & Video: Barbara Hammer - Optic Nerve (1985)". Retrieved December 4, 2021. "OPTIC NERVE". Barbara Hammer. ... Optic Nerve, First Prize, Ann Arbor Film Festival (1986) First Prize, Onion City Film Festival (1986) Optic Nerve, Cineprobe, ... She was chosen by the Whitney Biennial in 1985, 1989, and 1993, for her films Optic Nerve, Endangered, and Nitrate Kisses, ... Optic Nerve (1985) Hot Flash (1985) Would You Like to Meet Your Neighbor? A New York Subway Tape (1985) Bedtime Stories (1986) ...
Her work has also been included in other Op Art shows such as Optic Nerve: Perceptual Art of the 1960s, at the Columbus Museum ... Optic Nerve. Perceptual Art of the 1960s, Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus; Bit International [Nove] tendencije: Computer und ...
ISBN 978-1597112949 - (July 20, 2015). "Optic nerve". Goings On About Town. Art. The New Yorker. 91 (20): 9. Reviews the 'Sarah ...
"Optic Nerve". 6 October 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2017. Panero, James, Gallery Chronicle, The New Criterion, April, 2015 ...
"I Am a Wallet". Optic Nerve. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2015. (Use dmy dates from April ... the album was remastered and re-released with a bonus LP of tracks taken from the first four singles by Optic Nerve Recordings ...
... , optic nerve pit, or optic disc pit (ODP) is rare a congenital excavation (or regional depression) of the optic disc ... Optic pits are associated with other abnormalities of the optic nerve including large optic nerve size, large inferior ... "Optic Nerve Pit". American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. March 2014. "Optic Pits". EyeWiki. American ... The optic disc originates from the optic cup when the optic vesicle invaginates and forms an embryonic fissure (or groove). ...
Optic Nerve Films". Business in Vancouver. Marke Andrews (2016-04-19). "Profile: Kevin Eastwood, founder, Optic Nerve Films". ... Optic Nerve Films". Business in Vancouver. "About Kevin Eastwood". Optic Nerve Films. Retrieved 10 July ...
... optic nerve coloboma; and The development in infancy of seizures that are called infantile spasms. Other types of defects of ...
"Optic Nerve Recordings". Party Day - Sorted!. Optic Nerve Recordings. Retrieved 16 March 2021. Party Day - official website ... and released by Optic Nerve Recordings. "Row The Boat Ashore" c/w "Poison" (1983, Party Day Records) "Spider" c/w "Flies" (1984 ... Optic Nerve Recordings) "Party Day" on Real Time 5 (1983, Unlikely Records [cassette]) "Rabbit Pie" on Giraffe in Flames (1984 ...
Stop The Rain was re-released on Optic Nerve Recordings in April 2022, entering in at 39 in the singles chart. Billy Sloan (18 ... "Optic Nerve Recordings". Retrieved 13 December 2021. Ann Fotheringham (23 September 2021). "'The 'weegies are a lively crowd ...
The optic nerve head, or optic disc is the anterior end of the nerve that is in the eye and hence is visible with an ... "Optic nerve axons and acquired alterations in the appearance of the optic disc". Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 81: 1034-91. PMC ... "Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy secondary to optic nerve head drusen - A case report and review of literature". Indian ... The optic nerve is a cable connection that transmits images from the retina to the brain. It consists of over one million ...
... optic disc drusen, which is present on the optic nerve head. Both age-related drusen and optic disc drusen can be observed by ... Optical coherence tomography scans of the orbits or head, calcification at the head of the optic nerve without change in size ... Davis PL, Jay WM (December 2003). "Optic nerve head drusen". Semin Ophthalmol. 18 (4): 222-42. doi:10.1080/08820530390895244. ... Optic disc drusen Silvestri G, Williams MA, McAuley C, Oakes K, Sillery E, Henderson DC, Ferguson S, Silvestri V, Muldrew KA ( ...
In 2017 Optic nerve records re-released "What Went Wrong This Time" in a limited edition single, on colored vinyl. "What Went ... Optic Nerve Recordings. Retrieved 29 April 2021. Official site Details of the band's John Peel sessions The Siddeleys on ...
Miami's Optic Nerve Video Festival, now in its 15th prestigious year at the Museum of Contemporary Art, caters to the latter ... MOCA's Optic Nerve was recognized as an important forum for emerging artists working in film. Over 220 artists have been ... "Optic Nerve Film Screening". North Miami Museum of Contemporary Art. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2014. Thomason, John ... "Optic Nerve Video Festival at Museum of Contemporary Art". Boco Ratan Magazine. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015. ...
Optic Nerve (Director) (1972). Project One (Motion picture). San Francisco. Event occurs at 4:10 minutes in. Felsenstein, Lee ( ...
OPA1 Optic atrophy-7; 612989; TMEM126A Optic nerve coloboma with renal disease; 120330; PAX2 Optic nerve hypoplasia and ... CYP2C Optic atrophy 1; 165500; OPA1 Optic atrophy and cataract; 165300; OPA3 Optic atrophy and deafness; 125250; ... CRLF1 Coloboma of optic nerve; 120430; PAX6 Coloboma, ocular; 120200; PAX6 Coloboma, ocular; 120200; SHH Colon cancer, somatic ... SOX2 Optic nerve hypoplasia; 165550; PAX6 Oral-facial-digital syndrome 1; 311200; OFD1 Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency; ...
Optic Nerve (Spanish: El nervio óptico, published in 2014 by Editorial Mansalva), her first foray into narrative, has been ... An extract from Optic Nerve. Books in Anagrama editorial Articles in Artforum magazine (CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), CS1 ... Williams, John (April 18, 2019). "In 'Optic Nerve,' a Woman Trains a Sharp Eye on Art and Her Life". The New York Times. p. 25 ... In 2019 she received Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Prize for "La luz negra". The Optic Nerve (Catapult Press, 2022, trans. by ...
"Optic Nerve Structure and Pathologies". Pathobiology of Human Disease - A Dynamic Encyclopedia of Disease Mechanisms. Academic ... Peripheral nerve studies have shown that even a 0.5 °C increase in body temperature can slow or block the conduction of nerve ... With an increased body temperature, nerve impulses are either blocked or slowed in a damaged nerve. Once the body temperature ... fatigue pain concentration difficulties urinary urgency worsen of existing optic neuropathy (although optic neuropathy may ...
"The Optic Nerve - Human Anatomy". Photius Coutsoukis. Dehaene S, Spelke E, Pinel P, Stanescu R, Tsivkin S (May 1999). "Sources ... In vision, about half the neurons of the optic nerve from each eye cross to project to the opposite hemisphere, and about half ... In hearing, about 90% of the neurons of the auditory nerve from one ear cross to project to the auditory cortex of the opposite ...
... monesi probably had a constricted optic canal, which contains the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery, corresponding to vision. ... Eumegamyines additionally typically have a well developed stylomastoid foramen, which funnels the facial nerve, and a short ear ...
... and less commonly there may be twisted retinal blood vessels or optic nerve hypoplasia. The eye anomalies can result in an ...
... near the optic nerves and optic chiasm. Thus, tumor growth can impinge nerve function and result in vision loss and diplopia. ... Craniofacial resection can help preserve the optic nerves and brain while removing the cribriform plate, olfactory bulb, dura ...
Coloboma of lens ala nasi Coloboma of macula type B brachydactyly Coloboma of macula Coloboma of optic nerve Coloboma of optic ... Ceramidase deficiency Ceramide trihexosidosis Ceraunophobia Cerebellar agenesis Cerebellar ataxia areflexia pes cavus optic ...
Thus, the general hypothesis was for long that the arrangement of nerve fibres in the optic chiasm in primates and humans has ... Isaac Newton proposed that the optic nerve of humans and other primates has a specific architecture on its way from the eye to ... that the degree of optic fibre decussation in the optic chiasm is contrariwise related to the degree of frontal orientation of ... The evolution has resulted in small, and gradual fluctuations to the direction of the nerve pathways in the OC. This ...
In the biological mechanism, taste signals are transduced by nerves in the brain into electric signals. E-tongue sensors ... "Highly sensitive and wide-dynamic-range side-polished fiber-optic taste sensor". Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. doi:10.1016 ... Taste quality perception and recognition are based on the building or recognition of activated sensory nerve patterns by the ...
In the posterior segment of the eye, typically diagnosed at the region of the optic nerve or macula, deforming the eye in a way ...
REL had proven up to the task in the optics field, but when they expanded into electronics, trouble began. The first order for ... He noted in his diary that Philips stated: ...and said there was a general deterioration of the nerves these days, people were ...
... which contain the axons of the optic nerve) The Classical Rod Pathway described the role of AII amacrine cells in the mammalian ...
70% type 1, 30% type 2) Optic disc edema (unilateral in 60% cases) Only mild optic nerve dysfunction Disc edema is diagnosed by ... into and surrounding the optic nerve and disruption of axoplasmic flow resulting from microvascular disease of the optic nerve ... is an ocular complication of diabetes mellitus characterized by optic disc swelling and edema of optic nerve head. The ... Edema is seen in and around the optic nerve head also. Intraretinal hemorrhages and hard exudates may also be seen. Currently ...
The vitreous chamber is the largest of the three chambers and is located behind the lens and in front of the optic nerve. This ...
Hernandez MR, Igoe F, Neufeld AH (1986). "Extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102 (2): 139- ...
For example, when N < 3, nerves cannot cross without intersecting. Hence anthropic and other arguments rule out all cases ... Stachel, John (2005). "Fresnel's (Dragging) Coefficient as a Challenge to 19th Century Optics of Moving Bodies." (PDF). In Kox ... ISBN 978-0-521-87622-3. Rose, H. H. (21 April 2008). "Optics of high-performance electron microscopes". Science and Technology ...
A highly sensitive optic nerve has been shown to have visual discrimination and spatial memory comparable to those of a rat. ... These nerves protrude through microscopic holes at the end of the snout, which also has mucus glands on the end that act as ...
... appear as a single color to the human eye because of blurring by the optics and spatial integration by nerve cells in the eye. ...
A shield is applied to cover the eye until anesthesia has worn off (that also anesthetizes the optic nerve) and vision resumes ...
... she has also investigated the role of ephrins in axon growth and the formation of the optic chiasm. In addition, her studies ... Her research provides leads for future therapies for nerve damage and neurodevelopmental disorders. In 1977, Holt received her ... "Ephrin-B2 and EphB1 Mediate Retinal Axon Divergence at the Optic Chiasm, Neuron". Neuron. 39 (6): 919-935. doi:10.1016/j.neuron ... "for pioneering understanding of the key molecular mechanisms involved in nerve growth, guidance and targeting which has ...
... electro-optics, and materials engineering. Around forty percent (by award value) of Georgia Tech's research, especially ... in Higgins boats crossing the English Channel on the morning of D-Day leading their men in the song to calm their nerves. It is ...
... a tiny part of the hypothalamus located directly above the point at which the optic nerves from the two eyes cross. The SCN ... but it ordinarily receives input from the optic nerves, through the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), that allows daily light- ... The optic tectum allows actions to be directed toward points in space, most commonly in response to visual input. In mammals, ... Most of the space in the brain is taken up by axons, which are often bundled together in what are called nerve fiber tracts. A ...
Damage to peripheral nerves may impair sensation, movement, gland, or organ function depending on which nerves are affected; in ... V. Hypertensive optic neuropathy". Ophthalmology. 93 (1): 74-87. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(86)33773-4. PMID 3951818./ Kawana T, ... These nerves are not under a person's conscious control and function automatically. Autonomic nerve fibers form large ... In cases of polyneuropathy, many nerve cells in various parts of the body are affected, without regard to the nerve through ...
... this being due to pulling on the posterior pole by the optic nerve. Among his numerous publications is Klinische Vorträge über ...
Optic disc drusen - globules progressively calcify in the optic disc, compressing the vascularization and optic nerve fibers ( ... a disconnection between the optic nerve and the brain and/or spinal cord (H57.9) Red eye - conjunctiva appears red typically ... Dysthyroid exophthalmos it is shown that if your eye comes out that it will shrink because the optic fluids drain out (H10.0) ... Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy - genetic disorder; loss of central vision,. (H47.3) ...
Morrison JC (2006). "Integrins in the optic nerve head: potential roles in glaucomatous optic neuropathy (an American ... the optic nerve) is a hallmark of glaucoma. The inconsistent relationship of glaucomatous optic neuropathy with increased ... Often, the optic nerve shows an abnormal amount of cupping. If treated early, it is possible to slow or stop the progression of ... Conversely, optic nerve damage may occur with normal pressure, known as normal-tension glaucoma. The mechanism of open-angle ...
This is generally thought to be due to an optic form of ataxia since it is facilitated by the visual presence of an object with ... Lay summary in: "Alien Hand Syndrome: Nerve Impulses Can Cause Movement Even When Person Is Unaware". ScienceDaily. July 17, ...
"It was a huge auditory nerve and a very large cortex. The optic nerve," he said, "was smaller than the auditory nerve, just the ...
... he obtained the first record of the electrical impulses sent by a single optic nerve fibre when the receptors connected to it ... Hartline thus built up a detailed understanding of the workings of individual photoreceptors and nerve fibres in the retina, ...
Optic Nerve: Perceptual Art of the 1960s, Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus, Ohio, February 16-June 17, 2007. CLE OP: Cleveland ...
I consider it not so much the optic, as the motor and sympathetic nerves, and the mind, through which the impression is made. ...
2006). "Proteomics implicates peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 and optic nerve citrullination in glaucoma pathogenesis". Invest. ...
The medical officer hesitantly diagnosed a failure of his optic nerve, and he was told he would never be allowed to fly again. ...
Learn about optic nerve disorders and how they affect your vision. ... Your optic nerves carries visual images from the back of your eye to your brain. ... Optic Nerve Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * Optic Nerve Injuries (National ... Optic Nerve Atrophy (American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus) * Optic Nerve Drusen (American ...
... interventions resulting in optic nerve regeneration restored some components of vision, suggesting possible strategies through ... future research for patients with optic nerve damage. ... Optic Nerve Regeneration in Mice Linked to Improved Vision. ... an optic nerve crush model in mice treated with 3 interventions shown to act synergistically to stimulate growth of optic nerve ... Untreated mice with optic nerve injury lost synchrony with the rooms day/night light cycle, whereas treated mice had restored ...
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... lead to changes in the intrapapillary and parapapillary region of the optic nerve head. These changes can be described by the ... following variables: size and shape of the optic disk; size, shape, and pallor of the neuroretinal rim; size of the optic cup ... Optic nerve diseases, such as the glaucomas, lead to changes in the intrapapillary and parapapillary region of the optic nerve ... Ophthalmoscopic evaluation of the optic nerve head Surv Ophthalmol. 1999 Jan-Feb;43(4):293-320. doi: 10.1016/s0039-6257(98) ...
encoded search term (Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma) and Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma What to Read Next on Medscape ... Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Follow-up. Updated: May 11, 2021 * Author: Mitchell V Gossman, MD; Chief Editor: Edsel B Ing, MD ... Optic nerve sheath meningiomas--non-surgical treatment. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2009 Feb. 21(1):8-13. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Meningioma of the optic nerve sheath. Coronal section of T1-weighted MRI of the orbits that shows a left orbital mass lesion ...
... optic nerve inflammation) from Cleveland Clinic, including symptoms, tests to diagnose optic neuritis and treatment options. ... What is optic neuritis?. Optic neuritis (ON) is a condition in which the nerve to the eye (the optic nerve) becomes inflamed or ... Optic Neuritis Optic neuritis (ON) is a condition in which the nerve to the eye becomes inflamed or irritated. ON is a ... What causes optic neuritis (ON)?. The most common cause for ON is inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve. Demyelination ...
Optic nerve disorders. Optic nerve disorders include diagnosis codes indicating optic neuritis and other disorders of the optic ... Disorders of the optic nerve and visual pathways, any stage. Category total - includes any clinical stage below.. ... VEHSS identifies the annual prevalence of diagnosed Disorders of the Optic Nerve and Visual Pathways based on the presence of ... Diagnosed disorders of the optic nerve and visual pathways include a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one ...
NMOSD is a rare autoimmune disease that attacks the optic nerves and spinal cord. Uplizna is the second approved treatment for ... most often those in the optic nerves and spinal cord. Individuals with NMOSD typically have attacks of optic neuritis, which ... FDA Approves New Therapy for Rare Disease Affecting Optic Nerve, Spinal Cord. Second FDA Approved Therapy for Neuromyelitis ... FDA Approves New Therapy for Rare Disease Affecting Optic Nerve, Spinal Cord ...
Hints: Click on a [map] link to show a map of that region. Click on a [studies] link to search within your current results for studies in that region. Use the back button to return to this list and try another region. Studies with no locations are not included in the counts or on the map. Studies with multiple locations are included in each region containing locations ...
Optic nerve hypoplasia is characterized by decreased number of optic nerve axons. ... Optic nerve hypoplasia, bilateral H47.033. Disease. Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is characterized by decreased number of optic ... High-Resolution Imaging of the Optic Nerve and Retina in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia. Ophthalmology. 2015;122:1330-1339. ... The differential diagnoses include optic nerve atrophy, optic nerve coloboma, peripapillary staphyloma, morning glory disc ...
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Weve put together the ten most essential nutrients for the health of our optic nerve, all found in Viteyes® Optic Nerve ... Optic Nerve Support supplement to help maintain your optic nerve health long-term. ... Calcium is essential in the proper functioning of all our nerve cells. This is especially important to our optic nerve, as ... Certain vitamins and minerals are essential in maintaining the cells and nerve fibers that comprise our optic nerve. ...
Part of The Optic Sevens Reissue Series Tracks: A1: THE SUN, A SMALL STAR A2: MEREDITH B1: IT TAKES NO GENTLEMAN B2: FUNNY ...
Optic Nerve Head (ONH) detection is a crucial step in retinal image analysis algorithms. The goal of ONH detection is to find ... and Matched filter edge detector are applied for detection of the Optic Nerve Head either in the normal fundus images or in the ... Automated optic nerve head detection in fluorescein angiography fundus images. *M. Tavakoli, M. H. Bahreini Toosi, R. Pourreza ... Effect of two different preprocessing steps in detection of optic nerve head in fundus images. *M. Tavakoli, M. Nazar, A. ...
A 36 year old man developed slowly progressive unilateral visual loss due to a cystic lesion of the intraorbital optic nerve. ... Pathologically the lesion was an epithelium lined cyst entirely within the atrophic nerve. The cyst lining consisted of ...
Certain conditions will affect the optic nerve, and some may damage these fibers. ... Your optic nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers located at the back of your eye. These fibers send information to your brain to ... A number of eye diseases or conditions may cause damage to your optic nerve. These conditions include optic neuritis and optic ... Your optic nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers located at the back of your eye. These fibers send information to your brain to ...
The relationship between arachnoid hyperplasia in optic nerve glioma and meningioma of the optic nerve sheath in childhood is ... reported of an optic nerve glioma with a marked degree of arachnoid hyperplasia which was initially diagnosed as an optic nerve ... Hyperplasia of the arachnoid was also the underlying cause for expansion of the optic canal. ...
Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumors arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath and represent ~20% of ... Optic nerve meningiomas account for approximately a third of all optic nerve neoplasms; optic nerve gliomas are the most common ... Optic nerve meningiomas arise from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath, and as such are on the inside of the dura ... Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumors arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath and represent ~20% of ...
Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ciliochoroidal melanoma with tumour extension into the optic nerve ... poor vision and high intraocular pressure are clinical indicators of optic nerve tumour invasion. ...
Activation of the BMP canonical signaling pathway in human optic nerve head tissue and isolated optic nerve head astrocytes and ... Optic nerve head extracellular matrix in primary optic atrophy and experimental glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990; 108:1020-4. [ ... The optic nerve head in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997; 115:389-95. [PMID: 9076213] ... Optic nerve head astrocytes (n=3) and LC cells (n=3) were treated with various concentrations of recombinant TGF-β2 (1.25, 2.5 ...
MRI of the optic nerve sheath and globe in cats with and without presumed intracranial hypertension. ... Dive into the research topics of MRI of the optic nerve sheath and globe in cats with and without presumed intracranial ...
Astrocytes abundant in the optic nerve were distinct from pOPCs and had a greater number of processes and more complicated ... examined the three-dimensional ultrastructure of OPCs in comparison with other glial cells in the early postnatal optic nerve ... I upload the SBF-SEM images of newborn mouse optic nerve with 13 separate folders that are grouped into 4 datasets. I used ... I upload the SBF-SEM images of newborn mouse optic nerve with 13 separate folders that are grouped into 4 datasets. I used ...
"This piece entitled "optic nerve" is a simple but effective pitch shifter, granular shifter and vocoder...It has controls for ...
The sections of the optic nerve heads were examined after immunostaining with antibodies to MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3), TNF ... Conclusion: There is increased immunostaining for MMPs, TNF-α and TNF-α receptor i in the glaucomatous optic nerve head, which ... The sections of the optic nerve heads were examined after immunostaining with antibodies to MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3), TNF ... Conclusion: There is increased immunostaining for MMPs, TNF-α and TNF-α receptor i in the glaucomatous optic nerve head, which ...
Tagged Nerve, Optic How To Repair Optic Nerve Damage. For people having optic nerve atrophy, at the moment no proven treatment ... Optic Nerve Disorders Healing Optic Nerve Damage Repair Healing from How to fix optic nerve damage eye drops ... These conditions include optic neuritis and optic nerve atrophy. This pressure limits or cuts off blood flow to the optic nerve ... Optic nerve damage affects your vision quite severely. The optic nerve is composed of approximately 1.5 million nerve fibers at ...
The average number of mitochondria per unit area of axon within axons of normal cat optic nerve and optic nerve in which ... The average number of mitochondria per unit area of axon within axons of normal cat optic nerve and optic nerve in which ... The average number of mitochondria per unit area of axon within axons of normal cat optic nerve and optic nerve in which ... The average number of mitochondria per unit area of axon within axons of normal cat optic nerve and optic nerve in which ...
... are clinically relevant parameters for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Although these measures have a high heritability, little ... The size of the optic nerve head, referred to as disc area (DA), and the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), ... PURPOSE: The size of the optic nerve head, referred to as disc area (DA), and the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), are ... A genetic epidemiologic study of candidate genes involved in the optic nerve head morphology. ...
... the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) can be used to estimate intracranial pressure (ICP). However, it remains unclear whether ... the primary injury or surgical craniectomy may alter the dynamics of the CSF circulation or structure of the optical nerve ... From: Diagnostic and prognostic value of the optic nerve sheath diameter with respect to the intracranial pressure and ... ONSD optic nerve sheath diameter, GOS glasgow outcome score, GOS 1 dead, GOS 2 vegetative state, GOS 3 severe disability, GOS 4 ...
Small areas with unduly low attenuation coefficients were found in one or both optic nerves in 52% of patients in whom the ... 1978) Computerized tomography of brain and optic nerve in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 36 (3). pp ... The optic nerves were also examined in 53 of these patients. Areas compatible with demyelinating lesions were found in the ... optic nerves were examined. While these areas may represent demyelinating lesions their significance remains uncertain in view ...
  • Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. (
  • These conditions include optic neuritis and optic nerve atrophy. (
  • For people having optic nerve atrophy, at the moment no proven treatment reverses the damage incurred. (
  • Progressive encephalopathy with edema, hypsarrhythmia and optic atrophy (PEHO) syndrome is a distinct neurodevelopmental disorder. (
  • Patients without optic nerve atrophy and brain imaging abnormalities but fulfilling other PEHO criteria are often described as a PEHO-like syndrome. (
  • One patient with PEHO syndrome and a de novoGNAO1 mutation was found to have an additional de novo mutation in HESX1 that is associated with optic atrophy. (
  • Glaucoma usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises and damages the optic nerve. (
  • If these findings are confirmed and extended to other models, they may ultimately offer promise to patients with glaucoma or optic nerve damage. (
  • This effect helps to both ward off and slow the progress of glaucoma - a disease characterized by damage to the optic nerve. (
  • Ginkgo may also help improve blood flow, which could have some effect on improving blood flow to the optic nerve in people with glaucoma. (
  • Results: The intensity of the immunostaining and the number of stained cells for MMPs, TNF-α, or TNF-α receptor 1 were greater in the glaucomatous optic nerve heads, particularly in eyes with normal-pressure glaucoma compared with age- matched controls. (
  • Conclusion: There is increased immunostaining for MMPs, TNF-α and TNF-α receptor i in the glaucomatous optic nerve head, which suggests increased expression of these proteins in glaucoma and thereby implies a role in the tissue remodeling and degenerative changes seen in glaucomatous optic nerve heads. (
  • In glaucoma, the most common optic neuropathy, sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP) challenges RGC axons early, including degradation of anterograde transport to the superior colliculus (SC). (
  • Here we developed a novel metric to quantify organization of astrocyte processes in the optic nerve relative to axon degeneration in the DBA/2 J hereditary mouse model of glaucoma. (
  • Glaucomatous optic neuropathy (or simply glaucoma), a neurodegenerative disease projected to affect some 11 million people by 2020 [ 37 ], selectively targets RGCs and their axons. (
  • Can Automated Imaging for Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis Aid Glaucoma Detection? (
  • Glaucoma in general is more than a single disease entity: it is a group of conditions characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration (detectable by pathological cupping of the optic disc) and loss of visual function, ultimately resulting in total blindness. (
  • In the early 1970s researchers found marijuana had the ability to lower the elevated eye pressures that damage the optic nerve and cause blindness from glaucoma. (
  • Imagine a future in which it is possible to: protect nerve cells from damage, regenerate eyesight lost from glaucoma, predict one's risk for glaucoma before the disease appears and prevent glaucoma from developing at all. (
  • The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. (
  • This study used an optic nerve crush model in mice treated with 3 interventions shown to act synergistically to stimulate growth of optic nerve fibers. (
  • Certain vitamins and minerals are essential in maintaining the cells and nerve fibers that comprise our optic nerve. (
  • Your optic nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers located at the back of your eye. (
  • Certain conditions will affect the optic nerve, and some may damage these fibers. (
  • This pressure limits or cuts off blood flow to the optic nerve, damaging the nerve fibers. (
  • The optic nerve is composed of approximately 1.5 million nerve fibers at the back of the eye that carry visual messages from the retina to the brain. (
  • Thus, when there is damage to the middle of the optic chiasm (point B in the figure above), it causes the fibers that are crossing over (from the nasal side of each retina) to be damaged. (
  • The temporal fibers aren't damaged since they don't cross over in the optic chiasm. (
  • At that point, the right optic tract carries information from the temporal fibers of the right retina and the nasal fibers from the left retina-both of which deal only with the left visual field. (
  • Structures located within the cone (after passing through the annulus of Zinn) include the motor innervations to the rectus muscles (cranial nerves III and VI) and the afferent sensory fibers from the globe, which are carried by the short and long posterior ciliary nerves before joining the nasociliary nerve (a branch of cranial nerve V1). (
  • Afferent fibers from the globe travel via the long and short posterior ciliary nerves. (
  • The fibers then join the nasociliary nerve, which is a branch of the superior division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V1). (
  • It occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly targets the fatty substance that protects the nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD, de Morsier syndrome) is used to describe the association between ONH and the absence of septum pellucidum, deficiency of pituitary hormones and agenesis of corpus callosum. (
  • Clinical manifestations of septo-optic dysplasia include visual impairment, hypopituitarism, and developmental delays. (
  • Dr. Hoyt attributed the discovery of the association of optic nerve hypoplasia with septum pellucidum agenesis to de Morsier, and resurrected the term septo-optic dysplasia syndrome. (
  • ONH/SOD Optic Nerve Hypoplasia/Septo Optic Dysplasia Parent Support- MAGIC -Facebook support group operated by the MAGIC Foundation for families of children with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia, Septo Optic Dysplasia and related conditions. (
  • Arachnoid hyperplasia in optic nerve glioma: confusion with orbital meningioma. (
  • A case is reported of an optic nerve glioma with a marked degree of arachnoid hyperplasia which was initially diagnosed as an optic nerve meningioma. (
  • The relationship between arachnoid hyperplasia in optic nerve glioma and meningioma of the optic nerve sheath in childhood is discussed. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Large optic nerve glioma. (
  • Large optic nerve glioma. (
  • Twelve cases of optic nerve glioma seen over a 28 year period are analysed herein in this autopsy study. (
  • Two child ren had a diagnosis of astrocytoma, two a diagnosis of medulloblastoma, one a diagnosis of optic nerve glioma, and one a diagnosis of ependymoma. (
  • The ophthalmologic exam may help in showing abnormalities at the back of the eye in the optic disc, which is the part of the optic nerve visible using an instrument called an ophthalmoscope. (
  • To establish the correlation between clinical grading of papilloedema and diffusion abnormalities of optic nerve head (ONH) on diffusion -weighted imaging (DWI). (
  • en 2022, et a reçu la prestigieuse note de 5 étoiles dans le CRN Partner Program Guide , une liste finale des programmes les plus importants des fournisseurs de technologies de pointe offrant des produits innovants et des services flexibles à travers le réseau informatique. (
  • Outpatient follow-up care of patients with optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) includes visual acuity testing and field testing, in addition to an imaging study in the form of MRI with gadolinium, preferably every year to check for recurrent disease. (
  • Miller NR. New concepts in the diagnosis and management of optic nerve sheath meningioma. (
  • Visual Outcome and Tumor Control After Conformal Radiotherapy for Patients With Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma. (
  • Results of fractionated targeted proton beam therapy in the treatment of primary optic nerve sheath meningioma. (
  • Milker-Zabel S, Huber P, Schlegel W, Debus J, Zabel-du Bois A. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in the management of primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas. (
  • Is primary optic nerve sheath schwannoma a misnomer? (
  • We present three cases of congenital optic disc anomalies in one family who underwent an extensive diagnostic workup to exclude any intracranial pathology. (
  • This injection provides akinesia of the extraocular muscles by blocking cranial nerves II, III, and VI, which prevents movement of the globe. (
  • Cranial nerve VI (abducens) innervates the lateral rectus muscle. (
  • Cranial nerve IV (trochlear) innervates the superior oblique muscle. (
  • Cranial nerve III (oculomotor) innervates all other extraocular muscles. (
  • While cranial nerves III and VI pass within the cone, cranial nerve IV travels outside of the muscle cone to innervate the superior oblique muscle. (
  • The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. (
  • Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM . (
  • Optic nerve diseases, such as the glaucomas, lead to changes in the intrapapillary and parapapillary region of the optic nerve head. (
  • VEHSS identifies the annual prevalence of diagnosed Disorders of the Optic Nerve and Visual Pathways based on the presence of International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 and ICD-10 codes in patient claims or electronic health record (EHR) systems. (
  • A number of eye diseases or conditions may cause damage to your optic nerve. (
  • BACKGROUND: Non-invasive tool of community diagnosis for onchocercal endemicity needs to be identified and ascertained for their utility and effectivity in order to facilitate the control of onchocerciacis in sub-Saharan Africa OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility and effectiveness of the Wu-Jones Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST) in detecting optic nerve diseases in onchocercal-endemic rural Africa. (
  • The concentration of mitochondria within non-myelinated axons of cat retina (0.55+/-0.18) was also determined and shown to be comparable to the values for the demyelinated optic axons (0.66+/-0.06). (
  • In the distal nerve, increased Cx43 also indicated with a higher level of intact anterograde transport from retina to SC. (
  • B-scan ultrasound can reveal an ovoid echogenic lesion at the junction of the retina and optic nerve. (
  • The direct ophthalmoscope allows you to look into the back of the eye to look at the health of the retina, optic nerve, vasculature and vitreous humor . (
  • With it, they can see the retina (which senses light and images), the optic disk (where the optic nerve takes the information to the brain), and blood vessels. (
  • Nerves at the back of your eye (retina) send messages to your brain through the optic nerve. (
  • Transporta los axones desde las CÉLULAS GANGLIONARES DE LA RETINA que se organizan en el QUIASMA ÓPTICO y continúan a través del TRACTO ÓPTICO hacia el cerebro. (
  • Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) is associated with glaucomatous neuropathy, primarily via the increased synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and remodeling of the optic nerve head (ONH). (
  • An intracanalicular lesion may cause marked visual loss with a very small tumor and clinical presentation may be similar to optic neuritis. (
  • Even in a case of non-juxtapapillary uveal melanoma, poor vision and high intraocular pressure are clinical indicators of optic nerve tumour invasion. (
  • Clinical Relevance: The MMPs and TNF-α may be components of astroglial activation that occurs in glaucomatous optic nerve heads. (
  • While these areas may represent demyelinating lesions their significance remains uncertain in view of poor correlation with clinical and electrophysiological parameters of optic nerve damage. (
  • Lumbar puncture is usually not necessary for isolated optic neuritis, but is sometimes used in assisting with the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. (
  • The biological alterations in the expression of these proteins may pay a role in the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. (
  • PURPOSE: The size of the optic nerve head, referred to as disc area (DA), and the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), are clinically relevant parameters for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. (
  • Magnesium is paramount in improving blood flow to the optic nerve, with studies showing how the mineral enhanced ocular circulation . (
  • This is necessary when there is a serious compromise in visual acuity due to the optic nerve. (
  • This imaging method is advantageous because it can scan the entire area of the optic disc to show posterior borders of deep, calcified drusen. (
  • Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is characterized by decreased number of optic nerve axons. (
  • ONH that only involves the superior segment is termed Superior Segmental Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (SSONH) . (
  • ONH that only involves the nasal quadrant is termed nasal optic disc hypoplasia. (
  • Optic nerve hypoplasia was identified in 12% of blind infants in Harris County in Texas in early 1980s. (
  • The following is a sampling of resources to information and supports concerning the various aspects of life with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (ONH). (
  • One Small Voice Foundation - Organization that funds research on Optic Nerve Hypoplasia and Hydrocephalus operated by the family of a child with both conditions. (
  • Field loss may be related to direct compression of the optic nerve and its vascular supply, predisposing the nerve to disc hemorrhages and ischemic optic neuropathy. (
  • This is due to thickening of the extraocular muscles, as well as a significant loss of vision due to compression of the optic nerve. (
  • Myelin wraps around the axons of many nerves. (
  • The average number of mitochondria per unit area of axon within axons of normal cat optic nerve and optic nerve in which demyelination had been induced with anti-galactocerebroside (GC) was determined using transmission electron microscopy. (
  • In early progression, as axons expand prior to loss, astrocyte processes become more parallel with migration to the nerve's edge without a change in overall coverage of the nerve. (
  • As axons degenerate, astrocyte parallelism diminishes with increased glial coverage and reinvasion of the nerve. (
  • The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. (
  • This plant-derived compound facilitates a steady supply of blood and nutrients to the optic nerve - this is important as fluctuations in blood supply and pressure can damage the optic nerve. (
  • Studies have shown that this neuroprotective vitamin is essential to allow the optic nerve to function properly and reduces the degeneration of optic nerve cells. (
  • loss of pupillary reflex, retinal and optic nerve degeneration, and the role of light toxicity. (
  • Tests for optic nerve disorders may include eye exams, ophthalmoscopy (an examination of the back of your eye), and imaging tests . (
  • Nerve Sheath Diameter (ONSD). (
  • For the early detection of glaucomatous optic nerve damage in ocular hypertensive eyes before the development of visual field loss, the most important variables are neuroretinal rim shape, optic cup size in relation to optic disk size, diffusely or segmentally decreased visibility of the RNFL, occurrence of localized RNFL defects, and presence of disk hemorrhages. (
  • As the link between your eyes and brain, maintaining optic nerve health is essential in protecting your eyesight, warding off optic concerns and boosting your overall eye health. (
  • Occasionally a unilateral tumor will grow posteriorly, across the chiasm and along the contralateral nerve. (
  • The disease may be very serious, since the orbit is a non-extensible osseous cavity, in which an inflammatory process such as this can compress the optic nerve and cause blindness. (
  • Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve. (
  • Gadolinium helps to indicate inflammation in the brain and optic nerve. (
  • Another powerful antioxidant, studies have shown that grape seed extract has a neuroprotective effect that extends especially to our optic nerve, in addition to being beneficial for general circulation, reducing inflammation as well as promoting wound healing. (
  • In Some Cases, Steroid Medications Are Used To Reduce Inflammation In The Optic Nerve. (
  • Though it's not totally clear why folate and vitamin B12 are so important for the health of the optic nerve, studies have shown that deficiencies in these essential nutrients can lead to serious eye problems such as optic neuropathy and can even result in blindness. (
  • NMOSD is a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. (
  • In patients with NMOSD, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and proteins in the body, most often those in the optic nerves and spinal cord. (
  • A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the brain and orbits (the eye sockets) with gadolinium contrast may confirm the diagnosis of acute demyelinating optic neuritis. (
  • Computerized tomography (CT) of the brain was carried out in 100 patients with established or suspected multiple sclerosis (MS). The optic nerves were also examined in 53 of these patients. (
  • Lazy Eye Syndrome, or amblyopia , a disorder in the optic nerve connecting the eye and the brain. (
  • A person who has optic neuritis might go on to develop multiple sclerosis. (
  • Optic neuritis is a condition that can happen because of a disease or without any specific known cause. (
  • Red-dot card test of the paracentral field as a screening test for optic nerve disease in onchocerciasis. (
  • But in some cases it could be a sign of MS, since the disease can cause the optic nerve in the eye to become inflamed. (
  • This is the point where the retinal arterioles and optic nerve entered the rear of the eyeball. (
  • Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ciliochoroidal melanoma with tumour extension into the optic nerve posteriorly and the extrascleral tissues anteriorly. (
  • I have students really look at things to stimulate the optic nerves," she says. (
  • Left untreated, it can compress your optic nerve, permanently affecting your eyesight. (
  • The most common cause for ON is inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve. (
  • Astrocytes abundant in the optic nerve were distinct from pOPCs and had a greater number of processes and more complicated Golgi apparatus morphology. (
  • A 36 year old man developed slowly progressive unilateral visual loss due to a cystic lesion of the intraorbital optic nerve. (
  • With papilledema, the intraorbital portion of the optic nerve is typically widened and will not decrease in width with prolonged lateral gaze (30 degree test). (
  • Drusen do not produce widening of the intraorbital nerve. (
  • El uso de ecografía ha entrado en el campo de la medicina del dolor, anestesia regional y del bibliographic search, data intervencionismo analgésico durante la última década, e incluso es el estándar de la práctica, por tanto, la capacitación y analysis, writing, revision and un adecuado aprendizaje en la ecografía deben ser parte del plan de estudios de cualquier programa de anestesiología. (
  • In addition, nerve fiber bundle defects involving the inferior field can be encountered, and these defects do not necessarily correspond to the position of the drusen on the optic disc. (
  • Delayed optic nerve complications after proton beam irradiation. (
  • But most of all, it means that you will not see any difference between Optic Nerve and other eyewear brands with a much higher price tag. (
  • Hyperplasia of the arachnoid was also the underlying cause for expansion of the optic canal. (
  • Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumors arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath and represent ~20% of all orbital meningiomas , the majority of which are direct extensions from intracranial meningiomas . (
  • Optic nerve meningiomas arise from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath, and as such are on the inside of the dura (remember that the arachnoid layer is immediately deep to the inner layer of the dura mater ). (
  • and visibility of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). (
  • Newer disc and/or nerve fiber layer imaging techniques (e.g. (
  • Heidelberg Engineering) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) classification. (
  • Once ONHD become clinically visible, thinning of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) can be observed through several modalities. (
  • Alterations in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer may include varying degrees of regional thinning, especially nasally, or diffuse loss of NFL. (
  • Optic Nerve Head (ONH) detection is a crucial step in retinal image analysis algorithms. (
  • A genetic epidemiologic study of candidate genes involved in the optic nerve head morphology. (
  • Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are globular, often calcified, hyaline bodies located within the optic nerve head. (
  • The optic nerve head is often elevated with blurred and/or irregular disc margins, giving the appearance of pseudopapilledema. (
  • Buried ONHD produce elevation of the disc and blurring of its margin, mimicking optic nerve head edema. (
  • If, like me, you can still remember the thrill of buying, say, the Mighty Lemon Drops' single 'Into The Heart Of Love' in a box with three badges and a postcard, or 'Head Gone Astray' by the Soup Dragons with a huge poster enclosed, then Optic Nerve Recordings might just find a place in your heart. (
  • A, Fluorescein angiogram demonstrates late pooling of dye in a petaloid pattern in the macula and staining of the optic nerve head. (
  • Papilloedema: diffusion-weighted imaging of optic nerve head. (
  • Other wires don't go into his head, but hang limp on the zip ties, weighted down by clusters of eyeballs whose optic nerves look like they've been melted onto the exposed wires. (
  • Retrobulbar block is type of regional anesthetic nerve block used in intraocular surgery. (
  • We are able to regenerate nerve cells in the eye which normally cannot regenerate, as is true for all central nervous system cells," senior author Larry Benowitz, PhD, from the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center and Laboratories for Neuroscience Research in Neurosurgery at Boston Children's Hospital, told Medscape Medical News in a telephone interview. (