Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
Optic Nerve Injuries
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian
Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Optics and Photonics
Optic Nerve Glioma
Optic Atrophies, Hereditary
Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber
A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))
Blood Group Antigens
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.
Cell Membrane Permeability
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Kidney Tubules, Collecting
Kidney Concentrating Ability
Optic Disk Drusen
Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)
Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Fiber Optic Technology
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino Acid Sequence
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
Evoked Potentials, Visual
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Disease Models, Animal
Deamino Arginine Vasopressin
Visual Field Tests
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 184.108.40.206.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Saline Solution, Hypertonic
Gene Expression Regulation
Antimony Potassium Tartrate
In Situ Hybridization
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cranial Nerve Neoplasms
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation
PAX2 Transcription Factor
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives
No data available that match "optic aquaporin 4"
Papers: 17 Jun 2013 - 24 Jun 2013 | Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum
Progressive Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Motor Impairment | Dementia and Cognitive Impairment | JAMA Neurology | JAMA Network
... optic neuritis, or transverse myelitis. Only 5% of cases of central nervous system sarcoidosis occur in the absence of systemic ... neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder remains unlikely in the absence of aquaporin-4 antibodies, ... 4.. Salvarani C, Brown RD Jr, Hunder GG. Adult primary central nervous system vasculitis: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2012; ... 4.. Salvarani C, Brown RD Jr, Hunder GG. Adult primary central nervous system vasculitis: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2012; ...
Episode 95 with Dr. Michael Levy on T cells in neuromyelitis optica | Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum
Levy used aquaporin-4 reactive T cells, they could induce NMO in a mouse model, giving a clue to the role of T cells in the ... And it works really well and causes optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, just like in the patient. ... Many tissues contain aquaporin-4, but the T cells decide which aquaporin-4 to attack. They are a thoughtful type of cell, and ... How does a mouse with aquaporin-4 get to an age where you can actually get these T cells out of it? Whats the use of aquaporin ...
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... as the first and only subcutaneous treatment for adults living with anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive neuromyelitis ... that primarily damages the optic nerve(s) and spinal cord, causing blindness, muscle weakness and paralysis. Enspryng ... In Europe, sales increased 4% as the strong demand for Tecentriq, Ocrevus, Hemlibra, Kadcyla and Perjeta was able to offset the ... Evrysdi (risdiplam, first approved in 2020; CHF 8 million*4). For the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in adults and ...
NEUROMYELITIS OPTICA - Natural Ophthalmics
The aquaporin protein is in high concentration in the optic nerves, spinal cord, hypothalamus and periventricular regions of ... Optic neuritis arising from MS does not necessarily need corticosteroid therapy, but optic neuritis arising from NMO does. ... There will also be enhancement of the optic nerves if an optic neuritis is present. ... 8-13 The subsequent inflammatory reaction in the optic nerves gives rise to optic neuritis and the spinal cord damage results ...
What Is Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD)?
... is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the optic nerve and the spinal cord. ... When the disease affects the optic nerve (optic neuritis), it can result in pain inside the eye and possibly blurry vision or ... About 70% of patients with NMOSD have elevated levels of an antibody called anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). These antibodies ... Doctors also can use MRI or evoked responses to assess the status of the optic nerve. In evoked responses, they shine a light ...
The role of imaging in diagnosing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences
... prior to optic nerve or spinal cord disease. Defining antibody negative neuromyelitis optica, and distinguishing it from other ... Since the discovery of pathogenic aquaporin-4 antibodies the neuromyelitis optica spectrum has widened significantly: brain ... Since the discovery of pathogenic aquaporin-4 antibodies the neuromyelitis optica spectrum has widened significantly: brain ... prior to optic nerve or spinal cord disease. Defining antibody negative neuromyelitis optica, and distinguishing it from other ...
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bsnrtrainees - British Society of Neuroradiologists - Trainee Blog
Ata Siddiqui gave the first of his two talks on the orbit, highlighting important and unusual pathologies and focusing on optic ... help to narrow it with a study looking at the specific imaging features pointing towards an aquaporin-4 positive neuromyelitis ... and here for a protocol for the investigation of optic neuritis) and touching on imaging for papilloedema (see here for a ... as only 4% will be due to aneurysm. They also found evidence to support the hypothesis that perimesencephalic haemorrhage is ...
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Neuritis and transverse myelitis2
- Finding antibodies to aquaporin-4 is indicative of NMO. (msdiscovery.org)
- In neuromyelitis optica, there is the thought that the disease involves an antibody, the anti-aquaporin-4 antibody, that that antibody is involved in causing the disease. (msdiscovery.org)
- If you add the antibody, there is more aquaporin-4 damage, and it recruits compliment, which causes that damage. (msdiscovery.org)
- About 70% of patients with NMOSD have elevated levels of an antibody called anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). (neuromyelitisnews.com)
- And those T cells attack the aquaporin-4, and it does so only in the optic nerves and the spinal cord and also a little bit in the brain. (msdiscovery.org)
- The aquaporin protein is in high concentration in the optic nerves, spinal cord, hypothalamus and periventricular regions of the brain. (natoph.com)
- 5,6,8-13 The subsequent inflammatory reaction in the optic nerves gives rise to optic neuritis and the spinal cord damage results in transverse myelitis. (natoph.com)
- It primarily leads to inflammation of the optic nerve - the nerve that sends and receives signals from the eye - and the spinal cord. (neuromyelitisnews.com)
- But when Dr. Levy used aquaporin-4 reactive T cells, they could induce NMO in a mouse model, giving a clue to the role of T cells in the disease, and possibly opening up a new therapeutic avenue. (msdiscovery.org)
- And what we demonstrated in this model is that we could recreate the disease simply by developing T cells against aquaporin-4. (msdiscovery.org)
- Once considered a variant of MS, NMO is now recognized as a separate demyelinating disorder with pleiotropic presentations, due to the identification of a specific autoantibody response against the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the majority of individuals with the disease. (natoph.com)
- When the disease affects the optic nerve (optic neuritis), it can result in pain inside the eye and possibly blurry vision or vision loss. (neuromyelitisnews.com)
- Early on in the disease, it may be hard to differentiate NMOSD from multiple sclerosis (MS), because optic neuritis and myelitis can appear in both conditions. (neuromyelitisnews.com)
- As a result of COVID-19, they decreased in the second quarter (-6%) and since summer first signals of recovery are seen (-4% in the third quarter). (longevitymedicine.me)
- We raised T cells in mice that don't have aquaporin-4. (msdiscovery.org)
- These mice see aquaporin-4 as a foreign antigen and mount an aggressive immune response against them, and we harvest those T cells from that animal. (msdiscovery.org)
- And then we transfer those T cells to a naïve mouse that does contain aquaporin-4. (msdiscovery.org)
- Many tissues contain aquaporin-4, but the T cells decide which aquaporin-4 to attack. (msdiscovery.org)
- How does a mouse with aquaporin-4 get to an age where you can actually get these T cells out of it? (msdiscovery.org)
- Aquaporin is the predominant water channel in the CNS, regulating the flow of water in cells. (natoph.com)