Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
ENDOCARDIUM infection that is usually caused by STREPTOCOCCUS. Subacute infective endocarditis evolves over weeks and months with modest toxicity and rare metastatic infection.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A family of blood flukes of the class Trematoda which is found in animals and man. It Includes the genera Heterobilharzia, Schistosomatium, Schistosoma, Ornithobilharzia, Bilharziella, Trichobilharzia, Pseudobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

2-Deoxyglucose selectively inhibits Fc and complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages II. Dissociation of the inhibitory effects of 2-deoxyglucose on phagocytosis and ATP generation. (1/1165)

Macrophages incubated in 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dG)-containing medium showed a marked decrease in cellular ATP content, and were unable to ingest IgG- and complement-coated erythrocytes via the corresponding membrane receptors for these ligands. However, the inhibitory effects of 2-dG on Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis were not a consequence of lowered macrophage ATP levels since addition of glucose or mannose to the culture medium restored the capacity of the macrophages to ingest IgG- and C3-coated particles without increasing ATP levels. These results indicate that Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis (opsonin dependent) differs qualitatively from the ingestion of latex and zymosan particles (opsonin independent); they suggest that the same regulatory molecules govern the responses of phagocytic cells to signals initiated by both the Fc and C3 receptors. The possibility that these molecules are regulated by glycosylation is discussed.  (+info)

Influenza A virus accelerates neutrophil apoptosis and markedly potentiates apoptotic effects of bacteria. (2/1165)

Neutrophils are recruited into the airway in the early phase of uncomplicated influenza A virus (IAV) infection and during the bacterial superinfections that are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in IAV-infected subjects. In this report, we show that IAV accelerates neutrophil apoptosis. Unopsonized Escherichia coli had similar effects, although apoptotic effects of opsonized E coli were greater. When neutrophils were treated with both IAV and unopsonized E coli, a marked enhancement of the rate and extent of neutrophil apoptosis occurred as compared with that caused by either pathogen alone. Treatment of neutrophils with IAV markedly increased phagocytosis of E coli. Simultaneous treatment of neutrophils with IAV and E coli also elicited greater hydrogen peroxide production than did either pathogen alone. IAV increased neutrophil expression of Fas antigen and Fas ligand, and it also increased release of Fas ligand into the cell supernatant. These findings may have relevance to the understanding of inflammatory responses to IAV in vivo and of bacterial superinfection of IAV-infected subjects.  (+info)

Role of antibody and complement in opsonization of group B streptococci. (3/1165)

A requirement for the classic complement pathway in opsonization of group B streptococci was observed by using both a chemiluminescence and a radiolabeled bacterial uptake technique. The classic pathway increased levels of opsonization for types Ia and II stock and wild strains and for some type III wild strains. In contrast, other type III wild strains and the type III stock strain had accelerated kinetics of uptake in the presence of an intact classic pathway, but the level of opsonization was unchanged from that with antibody alone. We could not demonstrate a significant role for the alternative pathway in opsonizing stock or wild strains of group B streptococci. Futhermore, electrophoretic and complement consumption analysis by hemolytic titration failed to reveal alternative pathway activation by the majority of strains of this group. Therapy aimed at supplying opsonins for these organisms will require the presence of type-specific antibody.  (+info)

Type-specific opsonophagocytosis of group A Streptococcus by use of a rapid chemiluminescence assay. (4/1165)

A whole-blood chemiluminescence (CL) assay was developed to determine the presence of type-specific opsonic antibodies against group A streptococcus (GAS). Convalescent sera with high bactericidal activities against an M-1 serotype were used to opsonize different M-types of GAS. CL responses were monitored for 20 min, and results were expressed as integral counts/minute per phagocyte. CL responses of phagocytes incubated with M-1 GAS opsonized with homologous (M-1) serum were significantly higher than responses of phagocytes incubated with heterologous (M-3) GAS. Adsorption of convalescent serum against the homologous, but not the heterologous, strain markedly reduced the CL response, demonstrating type specificity. The CL assay showed a high correlation with the indirect bactericidal test (r=0.90). In conclusion, this CL assay is a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible method for quantifying type-specific opsonic antibodies against GAS and will be a useful tool for future clinical, basic science, and epidemiological studies.  (+info)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer-membrane protein F epitopes are highly immunogenic in mice when expressed on a plant virus. (5/1165)

A synthetic peptide (peptide 10) representing a surface-exposed, linear B cell epitope from outer-membrane (OM) protein F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown previously to afford protection in mice from P. aeruginosa infection. This peptide was expressed in tandem with the protein F peptide 18 on each of the two coat proteins of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). The chimaeric virus particles (CVPs) expressing the peptides on the S (small) coat protein (CPMV-PAE4) and L (large) coat protein (CPMV-PAE5) were used to immunize mice. Following subcutaneous immunization in Freund's and QuilA adjuvants, CPMV-PAE4 induced antibodies predominantly against peptide 18, whereas CPMV-PAE5 produced antibodies exclusively against peptide 10, indicating that the site of peptide expression on CPMV influences its immune recognition. The anti-peptide antibodies elicited by CPMV-PAE5 were predominantly of the IgG2a isotype, indicating a highly polarized TH1-type response. The peptide-specific IgG2a strongly recognized the whole F protein, but more importantly, recognized protein F in all seven Fisher-Devlin immunotypes of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the peptide-specific IgG2a in CVP/QS-21 adjuvant-immunized mice was shown to bind complement and to augment phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by human neutrophils in vitro. The ability of CPMV-PAE5 to induce P. aeruginosa-specific opsonic IgG2a gives it potential for further development as a protective vaccine against P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Participation of cofilin in opsonized zymosan-triggered activation of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells through rapid dephosphorylation and translocation to plasma membranes. (6/1165)

We studied the roles of cofilin, an actin-binding phosphoprotein, in superoxide production of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ). OZ caused dephosphorylation of cofilin as well as a transient increase of F-actin. Both reactions were complete within 30 s. Okadaic acid (OA) magnified the OZ-triggered O2--production 3.3-fold at 1 microM, but inhibited it completely at 5 microM. We used these critical concentrations to study the effects of OA on changes in phosphorylation and intracellular localization of cofilin. The OZ-induced dephosphorylation of cofilin was inhibited by 5 microM OA but not by 1 microM OA. Subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting revealed that 1 microM OA increased cofilin on the phagosomal membranous fraction but 5 microM OA decreased it. At 1 microM, OA increased translocation of p47phox to membranes, which may explain in part the enhancing effect of 1 microM OA. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that: (i) Cofilin diffused throughout the cytosol of resting cells, but accumulated at the plasma membranes forming phagocytic vesicles in activated cells. (ii) At 1 microM, OA had little effect on the OZ-evoked translocation of cofilin, whereas 5 microM OA suppressed it completely. (iii) OA alone, which could not trigger the phagocytic respiratory burst, did not cause any change in the distribution of cofilin at such concentrations. Furthermore, in a superoxide-producing cell-free system employing membranous and cytosolic fractions, affinity-purified anti-cofilin antibody showed an enhancing effect. These results suggest that cofilin participates in the superoxide production of the OZ-activated phagocytes through dephosphorylation and translocation. The roles of cofilin in the activated leukocytes will be discussed.  (+info)

Relationship between cell surface carbohydrates and intrastrain variation on opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (7/1165)

Streptococcus pneumoniae undergoes spontaneous phase variation between a transparent and an opaque colony phenotype, the latter being more virulent in a murine model of sepsis. Opaque pneumococci have previously been shown to express lower amounts of C polysaccharide (cell wall teichoic acid) and in this study were shown to have a higher content of capsular polysaccharide by immunoelectron microscopy. This report then examined the relationship between expression of these two cell surface carbohydrate structures and their relative contribution to the increased virulence of opaque variants. Comparison of genetically related strains showed that the differential content of capsular polysaccharide did not affect the amount of teichoic acid as measured by a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast, when the teichoic acid structure was altered by replacing choline in the growth medium with structural analogs, the quantity of capsular polysaccharide as measured by a capture ELISA was decreased, demonstrating a linkage in the expression of the two surface carbohydrate structures. A standardized assay was used to assess the relative contribution of cell surface carbohydrates to opsonophagocytosis. The opaque variants required 1.2- to 30-fold more immune human serum to achieve 50% opsonophagocytic killing than did related transparent variants (types 6B and 9V). The opsonophagocytic titer was proportional to the quantity of capsular polysaccharide rather than teichoic acid. The major factor in binding of the opsonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), was also the amount of capsular polysaccharide rather than the teichoic acid ligand. Only for the transparent variant (type 6B), which bound more CRP, was there enhanced opsonophagocytic killing in the presence of this serum protein. Increased expression of capsular polysaccharide, therefore, appeared to be the major factor in the decreased opsonophagocytic killing of opaque pneumococci.  (+info)

Avidity as a determinant of the protective efficacy of human antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. (8/1165)

Antibodies reactive with capsular polysaccharides are considered the principal mediators of immunity against invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS) antibody avidity can influence protective efficacy. We measured the avidities of individual adult postvaccination immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibodies to PPS serotypes 6B and 23F and examined the relationship between avidity and opsonophagocytic and mouse-protective activities. The avidities of PPS 6B- and PPS 23F-specific IgG2 antibodies ranged from 6 to 31 nM-1 and from 3 to 20 nM-1, respectively. We observed an inverse correlation between the magnitude of avidity and the amount of antibody required to protect mice against lethal bacteremia caused by serotype 6B pneumococci. Similarly, higher-avidity antibodies were more effective than lower-avidity antibodies in vitro in mediating complement-dependent opsonophagocytosis of both 6B and 23F pneumococci. These data suggest that in adults, PPS antibodies are sufficiently polymorphic to possess biologically significant variations in avidity. We conclude that avidity functions as an important determinant of anticapsular antibody protective efficacy against pneumococci.  (+info)

Efficiency of a Pneumococcal Opsonophagocytic Killing Assay Improved by Multiplexing and by Coloring Colonies: For evaluating pneumococcal vaccines, the opsonop
The bodys capability to react to antigen depends on a persons age, antigen type, maternal factors and the area where the antigen is presented.[2] Neonates are said to be in a state of physiological immunodeficiency, because both their innate and adaptive immunological responses are greatly suppressed. Once born, a childs immune system responds favorably to protein antigens while not as well to glycoproteins and polysaccharides. In fact, many of the infections acquired by neonates are caused by low virulence organisms like Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. In neonates, opsonic activity and the ability to activate the complement cascade is very limited. For example, the mean level of C3 in a newborn is approximately 65% of that found in the adult. Phagocytic activity is also greatly impaired in newborns. This is due to lower opsonic activity, as well as diminished up-regulation of integrin and selectin receptors, which limit the ability of neutrophils to interact with adhesion molecules in the ...
Opsonization is a process in which harmful substances like viruses are coated in opsonin, which stimulates the immune system to...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Defective antibody-mediated opsonisation of S. pneumoniae in high risk patients detected by flow cytometry. AU - Obaro, S. K.. AU - Henderson, D. C.. AU - Monteil, Michele Anne. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Invasive pneumococcal infection continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially in patients with antibody deficiencies and disorders affecting the reticulo-endothelial system. Current recommendations for prophylaxis in these patients include immunization with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide capsular vaccines. Post-immunization responses are commonly assessed by measuring serum antibody levels. However, there is no defined protective antibody range and this approach fails to determine the functional capacity of the antibodies. A simple, reproducible flow cytometric method of assessing the antibody-mediated opsonic activity against S. pneumoniae is described. This assay detected defective opsonic function in post-immunized at-risk patients ...
Scavenger receptors are important components of the innate immune system in the lung, allowing alveolar macrophages to bind and phagocytose numerous unopsonized targets. Mice with genetic deletions of scavenger receptors, such as SR-A and MARCO, are susceptible to infection or inflammation from inhaled pathogens or dusts. However, the signaling pathways required for scavenger receptor-mediated phagocytosis of unopsonized particles have not been characterized. We developed a scanning cytometry-based high-throughput assay of macrophage phagocytosis that quantitates bound and internalized unopsonized latex beads. This assay allowed the testing of a panel of signaling inhibitors which have previously been shown to target opsonin-dependent phagocytosis for their effect on unopsonized bead uptake by human in vitro-derived alveolar macrophage-like cells. The non-selective scavenger receptor inhibitor poly(I) and the actin destabilizer cytochalasin D were used to validate the assay and caused near complete
Opsonophagocytic killing assays (OPAs) are important in vitro surrogate markers of protection in vaccine studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have previously reported the development of a 4-fold multiplexed OPA (MOPA) for the 13 serotypes in Prevnar 13. Because new conjugate vaccines with increased valence are being developed, we developed 4-fold MOPAs for an additional 13 serotypes: serotypes 6C and 6D, plus the 11 serotypes contained in Pneumovax but not in Prevnar 13. A high level of nonspecific killing (NSK) was observed for three serotypes (10A, 15B, and 33F) in multiple batches of baby rabbit complement. The NSK could be reduced by preadsorbing the complement with encapsulated, as well as unencapsulated, pneumococcal strains. The MOPA results compared well with the results of single-serotype OPA for all serotypes except for serotype 3. For serotype 3, the results obtained from the MOPA format were ~40% higher than those of the single-serotype format. Interassay precision of MOPA was ...
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In the present study, we demonstrate that opsonization of HIV with complement enhances both the infection of iDC and the transmission in trans of virus to CD4 T lymphocytes. Enhancement of infection of iDC observed following preincubation of virus with normal serum was complement-dependent and occurred with both R5- and X4-tropic primary isolates of HIV-1. Thus, productive infection of iDC was seen much earlier and was 5-fold higher with AC-OV than in the presence of corresponding HIC-OV and unopsonized virus. The virus produced in supernatant at day 6 was infectious as demonstrated by productive infection of IL-2-activated lymphocytes. In addition, proviral HIV-1 DNA was detected in iDC within 6 h of incubation with complement-opsonized HIV-1, the amounts of HIV-1 pol DNA measured by semiquantitative nested PCR being significantly higher in cells infected with opsonized HIV, as compared with cells infected with virus that had been preincubated with culture medium. These data extend previous ...
Following, we evaluated the result involving opsonization with various IgG subclasses for the amounts of workable intracellular bacterias. Infected THP-1 cellular material were lysed throughout 0��1% Triton X-100 as well as intracellular GDC-0449 mouse viable germs within the lysates have been and then counted through plating upon agar. Opsonization each and every in the IgG subclasses led to a greater number of recovered intra cellular feasible microorganisms than when using the non-specific control antibody. However, small, nevertheless important differences had been known while testing the different IgG subclasses individually. Opsonization using IgG3 led to the very best variety of retrieved intracellular workable germs SB-431542 (5��38?��?0��009 log10?CFU), followed tightly by IgG1 (5��29?��?0��012 log10?CFU), IgG4 (5��17?�� 0��017 log10?CFU) as well as IgG2 (5��02?��?0��011 log10?CFU). The number of recovered intra-cellular workable germs ...
This protocol provides an overview of the IncuCyte® Phagocytosis Assay methodology. It is compatible with the IncuCyte® Live-Cell Analysis System using your choice of phagocyte cells, in combination with IncuCyte® pHrodo® Bioparticles® for Phagocytosis reagents.. View this protocol. ...
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may be part of the humoral arm of innate immunity and behave as functional ancestor of antibodies by mediating agglutination, complement activation and opsonization (Martinez de la Torre 2010 ...
Results of phagocytosis inhibitory assays performed with use of different exogenous sugars (Glc, Gal, Man; at a final concentration 100 mM in PBS) and genistei
Definition of intracellular killing assay in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is intracellular killing assay? Meaning of intracellular killing assay as a finance term. What does intracellular killing assay mean in finance?
The complement cascade is responsible for more than just the lysis of the foreign cell; the different subcomponents released at each stage are responsible for a number of other biological functions.. Opsonisation. Opsonisation is the process of making a foreign cell more appealing to a phagocytic cell. This is useful as it helps to remove the foreign cell by phagocytosis. The complement component responsible for the opsonisation of cells is C3b. It increases the efficiency of phagocytes as they have specific receptors for the C3b component (C3bR). When the C3b binds to its receptor on the phagocyte, the process of phagocytosis begins and the foreign cell is engulfed.. Anaphylatoxin Formation. The peptide subcomponents C3a and C5a are anaphylatoxins meaning they have a number of inflammation properties. They are able to increase vascular permeability at the site of infection and they are also chemotactic. This means they are able to attract phagocytes into the site of infected tissue.. Both C3a ...
In myocardial infarction (MI), a plenty of cardiomyocytes undergo necrosis and necroptosis due to the lack of oxygen and nutrients. The dead cardiomyocytes are promptly engulfed by phagocytes. When the dead cells are not engulfed, the noxious contents of the cells are released outside, and thus, induce inflammation, and obstruct the function of organs. Therefore, phagocytosis is crucial for maintaining homeostasis of organs. Herein, we describe a protocol of an in vitro phagocytosis assay of necroptotic cells.
Yes. Whilst we have focussed on J774A.1 adherent cells in developing the phagocytosis application, the use of non-adherent phagocytic cell types should be possible. Care must be taken to ensure cells remain in the field of view - this may be facilitated by the use of plate coatings such as poly-D-lysine or Matrigel™.. ...
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During the process of opsonization, antigens are bound by antibody and/or complement molecules - phagocytic cells express receptors that bind opsonin molecules - with the antigen coated in these molecules, binding of the antigen to the phagocyte is greatly enhanced - targeted cell is destroyed by ...
தின்குழியமை (Phagocytosis) என்பது உயிரணுக்களின் கலமென்சவ்வினால், உயிரணுக்களுக்கு வெளியாக இருக்கும் திண்மப் பதார்த்தங்கள் வளைத்து எடுத்து விழுங்கப்படும் ஒரு உயிரணுச் செயல்முறையாகும். இது பெருவிழுங்கிகள் போன்ற தின்குழியங்களிலும் (phagocytes), அமீபா போன்ற அதிநுண்ணுயிரிகளிலும் நிகழும் ஒரு பொதுவான செயல்முறையாகும். அதிநுண்ணுயிரிகள் இந்த தின்குழியமை மூலம் உணவை உள்ளெடுப்பதனால், ...
Electron microscopic studies of laboratory-passaged and animal-passaged isolates of Bacteroides fragilis showed significantly more capsular material around the latter. This observation correlated with increased survival of animal-passaged bacteria in rabbit intraperitoneal chambers and increased resistance to phagocytosis and opsonophagocytic killing by neutrophils. With an initial inoculum of 2.5 x 10(6) colony-forming units/ml, the number of bacteria surviving after incubation for 2 hr with neutrophils and pooled normal human serum was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater for animal-passaged than for laboratory-passaged bacteria. Neutrophil uptake of 14C-labeled animal-passaged and laboratory-passaged bacteria after incubation for 20 min was 45% and 63%, respectively (P less than 0.05). No significant difference in survival was found between animal-passaged and laboratory-passaged isolates of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. These findings suggest that on mechanism whereby the capsule of B. ...
Reduced opsonisation of protein A containing Staphylococcus aureus in sera with cryoglobulins from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phagocytic signaling strategies. T2 - Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis as a model system. AU - Cox, Dianne. AU - Greenberg, Steven. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Phagocytosis is a phylogenetically ancient process by which eukaryotic cells engulf insoluble substances whose size exceeds approximately 0.5 μ m. The engulfment process requires the concerted action of several fundamental cellular pathways and is governed by multiple transmembrane signaling events. Here we focus on phagocytosis mediated by a well-studied class of phagocytic receptors that recognize the Fc portion of IgG (Fcγ Rs).. AB - Phagocytosis is a phylogenetically ancient process by which eukaryotic cells engulf insoluble substances whose size exceeds approximately 0.5 μ m. The engulfment process requires the concerted action of several fundamental cellular pathways and is governed by multiple transmembrane signaling events. Here we focus on phagocytosis mediated by a well-studied class of phagocytic receptors ...
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In this paper we re-examine the roles of particle-bound IgG and C3 in phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes (E) by monolayers of purified human monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). We conclude that two fragments of the C3 molecule, that is, C3b and C3d, can function as opsonins if the phagocyte has the appropriate membrane receptors. Monocytes, that bind both C3b and C3d, respond to both as opsonins. PMN, which do not bind C3d, respond only to particles opsonized with C3b. C3 and IgG have separate roles in phagocytosis. IgG, through its Fc fragment, directly stimulates particle ingestion, but is relatively inefficient at inducing particle binding. On the other hand, C3 primarily mediates the binding of the particle via complement receptors. A marked synergy exists between C3 and IgG in inducing phagocytosis. Thus, opsonization of the particle with C3 can be a necessary condition for particle ingestion, although by itself C3 does not trigger phagocytosis. The opsonic effect of C3 can be ...
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We have studied the distribution of talin in J774 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages undergoing Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. At early stages of phagocytosis, talin accumulates in the cells cortical cytoplasm adjacent to the forming phagosome and extends into pseudopods that are encircling the particle. Talin colocalizes with F-actin at these sites. After particle ingestion is completed, F-actin and talin are no longer concentrated adjacent to phagosomes. Thus, talin and F-actin undergo dynamic and coordinate changes in their cytoplasmic location during Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. ...
Neutrophil chemiluminescence in burned patients.: Phagocytic and bactericidal assays showed that a close correlation was present between bactericidal activity a
Pre- vs. post-vaccination changes in correlations between IgG concentrations (ELISA titres) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6B, 14 and 23F induced by the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine were studied in paired serum samples received from elderly individ …
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to relish the marked cell). Opson in ancient Greece referred to the delicious side-dish of any meal, versus the sitos, or the staple of the meal. Opsonization (also, opsonisation) is the molecular mechanism whereby molecules, microbes, or apoptotic cells are chemically modified to have stronger interactions with - to be more delicious to - cell surface receptors on phagocytes and NK cells. With the antigen coated in opsonins, binding to immune cells is greatly enhanced. Opsonization also mediates phagocytosis via signal cascades from cell surface receptors. Opsonins aid the immune system in a number of ways. In a healthy individual, they mark dead and dying self cells for clearance by macrophages and neutrophils, activate complement proteins, and target cells for destruction ...
This Application Note shows how a Microplate Reader provides an accurate, consistent method for quantifying macrophage phagocytosis. Read more.
Lack of αvβ5 integrin impairs RPE phagocytosis of POS. We examined primary RPE in culture from wild-type (a-c) and β5−/− (d-f) mice. Confocal x-y scans of transmitted light (a and d) and of apical αvβ5 integrin (green) and nuclei (red) in the same fields (b and e) were used to compare general cell morphology and to illustrate apical αvβ5 receptors in wild-type, but not in β5−/−, RPE. (c and f) Junction marker ZO-1 (blue) and nuclei (red) appeared similar by wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, β5−/− RPE in primary culture phagocytosed fewer FITC-POS (green) than wild-type RPE during a 1-h phagocytic challenge. (g) Quantification of in vitro phagocytosis assays showed reduced POS uptake by β5−/− RPE compared with wild-type RPE at all time points. Results represent means ± SD, n = 3, Students t test, P , 0.01 at 1-3 h. (h) RGD peptides inhibited POS uptake by wild-type but not by β5−/− RPE in a concentration-dependent manner. Bars show 1-h FITC-POS uptake ...
One vial of 2 mg sterile lyophilized solid sufficient for 100-200 live cell imaging phagocytosis tests in 96-well format. One vial of 2 mg sterile lyophilized solid sufficient for 100-200 live cell imaging phagocytosis tests in 96-well format. IncuCyte® pHrodo® Bioparticles® are sterile fluorogenic reagents ideally sui
Phagocytosis requires receptor-mediated recognition of particles, usually in the guise of infectious agents and apoptotic cells. Phagosomes fuse with lysosomes to generate phagolysosomes, which play a key role in enzymatic digestion of the internaliz
Solid particles are engulfed through the process of Phagocytosis. The particles that are engulfed through this biological process are termed as
Autore: Krysko - Vandenabeele, Categoria: Libri, Prezzo: € 173,45, Lunghezza: 0 pagine, Editore: Springer Verlag, Titolo: Phagocytosis of Dying Cells - From Molecular Mechanisms to Human Diseases
Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are viral diseases caused by one of four closely related viral serotypes and the most significant viral illnesses transmitted by mosquitoes to humans worldwide. Infec-tion with one of these serotypes provides immunity only to that specific serotype for life, so persons living in a dengue-endemic area can have more than one dengue infec-tion during their lifetime. Infections produce a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific (more) viral syndrome to severe and fa-tal hemorrhagic disease. Over 2.5 billion people, including travelers, are at risk of contracting dengue illness in such tropical regions of the world as South-east Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, South America, and parts of Africa. Each year tens of mil-lions of cases of DF occur and, depending on the year, up to hundreds of thousands of cases of DHF. The case-fatality rate of DHF in most countries is about 5%, but this can be reduced ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased monocyte phagocytosis in cancer patients. AU - Ruco, L. P.. AU - Procopio, A.. AU - Uccini, S.. AU - Baroni, C. D.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Phagocytosis of IgG opsonized sheep erythrocytes (EA) by peripheral blood monocytes was evaluated in 73 individuals: 29 patients with malignant neoplastic diseases, 24 patients with non-malignant diseases and 20 normal donors. In a 30-min assay, phagocytosis values observed in 16 of 29 cancer patients and in 3 of 24 control patients were above the upper limit of the 2 S.D. interval for the normal donor population. The enhanced EA phagocytosis was dependent on a higher percentage of phagocytic cells as well as on an increased phagocytic rate. Mean values of phagocytosis obtained for cancer patients were statistically different (P ,0.01) from those obtained for normal donors and control patients. According to a still limited number of observations, no association could be demonstrated between increased monocyte phagocytosis and ...
Alyssa J Rolfe is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: In Vitro Phagocytosis of Myelin Debris by Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages
TY - JOUR. T1 - Critical role for serum opsonins and complement receptors CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) in phagocytosis of Francisella tularensis by human dendritic cells (DC). T2 - Uptake of Francisella leads to activation of immature DC and intracellular survival of the bacteria. AU - Nasr, Abdelhakim Ben. AU - Haithcoat, Judith. AU - Masterson, Joseph E.. AU - Gunn, John S.. AU - Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia. AU - Klimpel, Gary R.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious human pathogens known. Although much has been learned about the immune response of mice using an attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) derived from F. tularensis subspecies holarctica (Type B), little is known about the responses of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (DC). Here, we show that optimal phagocytosis of LVS by DC is dependent on serum opsonization. We demonstrate that complement factor C3-derived opsonins and the major complement receptors expressed by ...
Eculizumab, a humanized anti-complement C5 monoclonal antibody for treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, blocks the terminal complement pathway required for serum bactericidal activity (SBA). Because treated patients are at ,1000-fold increased risk of meningococcal disease, vaccination is recommended, but whether vaccination can protect by opsonophagocytic activity in the absence of SBA is not known. Meningococci were added to anticoagulated blood from 12 healthy adults vaccinated with meningococcal serogroup B and serogroup A,C,W,Y vaccines. Bacterial survival was measured after 3 hours incubation in the presence of eculizumab or, a control complement factor D inhibitor, ACH-4471, that blocks the alternative complement pathway (AP) and is in phase 2 development for treatment of PNH. In the absence of inhibitors, CFU/ml in blood from all 12 immunized subjects decreased from ~4000 at time 0 to sterile cultures at 3 hours. In the presence ...
Isolated equine alveolar macrophages were shown to generate a luminol-dependent light response when challenged with a phagocytic stimulus. The chemiluminescent response was not detected with luminol prepared at 1.0 x 10(-5) or 1.0 x 10(-4) molar concentrations, but was readily quantitated when used at a 1.0 x 10(-3) molar concentration. Challenge of the alveolar macrophages with latex particles or with equine IgG-coated sheep red blood cells elicited the luminol-dependent light response, whereas unchallenged equine alveolar macrophages or those challenged with unopsonized erythrocytes failed to emit light above background levels. Latex-bead-challenged macrophages released 8.06 times the total amount of light as those equine alveolar macrophages challenged with equine IgG-opsonized erythrocytes. This study represents the first investigation on chemiluminescence and equine alveolar macrophages. ...
View more ,Background: Efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was inferred before licensure from an aggregate correlate of protection established for the seven-valent vaccine (PCV7). We did a postlicensure assessment of serotype-specific vaccine effectiveness and immunogenicity in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland to derive the correlates of protection for individual serotypes. Methods: We assessed vaccine effectiveness against invasive pneumococcal disease using the indirect cohort method. We measured serotype-specific IgG concentration in infants after they were given two priming doses of PCV7 (n=126) or PCV13 (n=237) and opsonophagocytic antibody titre from a subset of these infants (n=100). We derived correlates of protection by relating percentage protection to a threshold antibody concentration achieved by an equivalent percentage of infants. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate vaccine effectiveness and reverse cumulative distribution curves ...
Neutrophils, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes, comprise a crucial component of innate immunity, controlling bacterial and fungal infection through a combination of both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms. Indeed, neutrophils are believed to play an important role in controlling infection caused by the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the method by which neutrophils kill the pneumococcus as well as other Gram-positive bacteria, is not fully understood. We investigated human neutrophil killing of the pneumococcus in a complement-dependent opsonophagocytic assay. In contrast to other Gram-positive organisms, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase did not affect killing of S. pneumoniae. Supernatant from degranulated neutrophils killed the pneumococcus, suggesting a role for granular products. When neutrophil granule proteases were inhibited with either a protease mixture, or specific serine protease inhibitors 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, ...
Peri- and post-operative (up to day 7 after surgery) neutrophil chemiluminescence and the plasma concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were evaluated in the blood of patients undergoing liver transplantation. IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels increased during early reperfusion and then returned to normal mostly within the first post-operative day. TNF-alpha was increased during the whole period observed. Spontaneous as well as activated neutrophil chemiluminescence was depressed in early reperfusion and remained low during the whole period followed. Samples collected during early reperfusion provided positive correlation for IL-6 vs IL-8 as well as for IL-6 and IL-8 vs chemiluminescence. The data were also evaluated with respect to the outcome of transplantation. Since IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels increased significantly during the first post-operative week, mainly in a group of patients who developed serious complications within the first ...
PLUS THERAPEUTICS proprietary nanotechnology platform is currently centered around the use of PEGylated (Polyethylene Glycol) liposomes to deliver hydrophobic (docetaxel) and hydrophilic (doxorubicin) drugs, or DocePLUS™ and DoxoPLUS™, respectively. DocePLUS™ is further coated and stabilized with a water-soluble protein, albumin. We plan to leverage this platform to develop additional complex and innovative drugs to serve new patient populations and drive future company growth.. + More About PEG (Polyethylene Glycol). The body has many systems that identify and clear foreign particles from the blood. One of these systems, called opsonization, recognizes conventional liposomes as foreign and causes them to be cleared rapidly from the blood. The addition of PEG to the lipids (PEGylation) that make up the liposome membrane creates a stealth liposome that resists opsonization thereby allowing the liposome to circulate far longer in the blood stream than is possible with a conventional ...
nine minutesPhagocytosis occurs after the foreign body, a bacterial cell, for example, has bound to molecules called receptors that are on the surface of the phagocyte. The phagocyte then stretches itself around the bacterium and engulfs it. Phagocytosis of bacteria by human neutrophils takes on average nine minutes ...
Fig. 4. MAb B6.1 given i.p. protects mice against vaginal infection due to C. albicans (A) or C. tropicalis(B). Pseudoestrus mice were given MAb B6.1 or B6 i.p. before an i.vg. challenge with yeast. Negative controls were treated with DPBS alone or with hybridoma culture medium (HB101) that was concentrated and prepared as for antibody production. In panel A, additional controls received either MAb S9, which is specific for type III group B streptococcus polysaccharide, or MAb 54.1, which is specific for human neutrophil cytochrome b. MAb B6.1-treated and MAb B6-treated mice developed approximately 91 and 51% fewer CFU, respectively, than the DPBS negative controls (P , 0.001 and P , 0.01, respectively). The medium alone and the irrelevant MAbs were not protective (A). A similar result was observed with vaginal infection due to C. tropicalis (B). The differences between MAb B6.1-treated mice and control mice were statistically significant (P , 0.01), but the differences between MAb B6-treated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An apoptosis-differentiation program in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitates resolution of inflammation. AU - Kobayashi, Scott D.. AU - Voyich, Jovanka M.. AU - Somerville, Greg A.. AU - Braughton, Kevin R.. AU - Malech, Harry L.. AU - Musser, James M.. AU - DeLeo, Frank R.. PY - 2003/2/1. Y1 - 2003/2/1. N2 - Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are an essential part of innate immunity and contribute significantly to inflammation. Although much is understood about the inflammatory response, the molecular basis for termination of inflammation in humans is largely undefined. We used human oligonucleotide microarrays to identify genes differentially regulated during the onset of apoptosis occurring after PMN phagocytosis. Genes encoding proteins that regulate cell metabolism and vesicle trafficking comprised 198 (98 genes induced, 100 genes repressed) of 867 differentially expressed genes. We discovered that complex cellular pathways involving glutathione and ...
Faulty clearance of apoptotic cells has emerged as an essential surrounding factor to the pathogenesis of many diseases. holding apoptotic contaminants reach the lysosomes with a hold off likened to those including IgG-opsonized contaminants. Enrichment of the apoptotic contaminants in phosphatidylserine (PS) neither transformed the kinetics of their engulfment nor the growth procedure of the phagosome. Intro Phagocytosis can be a complicated mobile event by which huge contaminants are positively identified, degraded and engulfed. Although, the main concentrate offers been on the part in sponsor protection, this procedure also takes on a essential part in removal of apoptotic cells that is usually important for cells redesigning and homeostasis [1]C[4]. This is usually especially essential in illnesses such as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative illnesses. In both full cases, professional phagocytes are not really the just players included. The removal of apoptotic cell particles in ...
Cells have been incubated for thirty min utes at 37 C, with gentle pipetting each 10 minutes to resuspend the cells and beads. Soon after incubation, the assay was stopped by chilling cells on ice and analyzing fluores cence by movement cytometry. For mouse research, primary AMs had been isolated from C57BL/6J mice. Immediately prior to bronchialveolar lavage, mice had been euthanized by a replacement an overdose of Phenobarbital. The lungs have been lavaged 6 times with 0. 8 ml of ice cold PBS. Cell purity and yield was determined using a hemocytom eter. Murine AMs were cultured in black walled 96 very well Micro Clear plates in RPMI/10% FBS for forty?44 hrs just before phagocytosis assays have been carried out as described for GM M. Preparation of biotinylated latex beads Biotin BSA was generated by incubating 50 mg of tissue culture grade BSA with 30 mg biotin X NHS in ten ml PBS for 1 hour at room temperature. Unconjugated biotin was eliminated by in depth dialysis. Green fluores cent ...
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Kuhlman, M; K Joiner; R A Ezekowitz (1989-05-01). "The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin". The Journal of ... Wang, J Y; C C Shieh; P F You; H Y Lei; K B Reid (August 1998). "Inhibitory effect of pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D on ... O'Riordan, D M; J E Standing; K Y Kwon; D Chang; E C Crouch; A H Limper (June 1995). "Surfactant protein D interacts with ... Brinker, K G; E Martin; P Borron; E Mostaghel; C Doyle; C V Harding; J R Wright (2001-12). "Surfactant protein D enhances ...
... a putative opsonin receptor for lung surfactant protein D". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (19): 10794-9. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DMBT1 gene. Loss of sequences from ... "Human salivary agglutinin binds to lung surfactant protein-D and is identical with scavenger receptor protein gp-340". Biochem ... The DMBT1 protein is a glycoprotein containing multiple scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains separated by SRCR- ...
Some proteins hinder opsonin-related ingestion; Staphylococcus aureus produces Protein A to block antibody receptors, which ... and group A streptococci produce proteins such as M protein and fimbrial proteins to block engulfment. ... They include opsonin receptors, scavenger receptors, and Toll-like receptors. Opsonin receptors increase the phagocytosis of ... "Complement" is the name given to a complex series of protein molecules found in the blood that destroy cells or mark them for ...
Opsonins are normally soluble proteins, which when bound to the surface of a cell induce phagocytes to phagocytose that cell. ... Opsonins include Mfge8, Gas6, Protein S, antibodies and complement factors C1q and C3b. Phagoptosis has multiple functions ... binding of opsonins. It is clear that otherwise-viable cells can expose/bind such phagocytosis-promoting signals as a result of ... binding soluble proteins that tag the cell for phagocytosis. For example, phosphatidylserine is an "eat-me" signal that, when ...
Hartshorn KL, Sastry K, White MR, (1993). "Human Mannose-binding Protein Functions as an Opsonin for Influenza A Viruses". J. ... Watford WT, Wright JR, Hester CG, Jiang H, Frank MM (2001). "Surfactant Protein A Regulates Complement Activation". J Immunol ... Hartshorn KL, Crouch E, White MR (1998). "Pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D enhance neutrophil uptake of bacteria". Am J ... Vandivier RW, Ogden CA, Fadok VA (2002). "Role of Surfactant Proteins A, D, and C1q in the Clearance of Apoptotic Cells In Vivo ...
... opsonin proteins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.820 - plantibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.837 - precipitins MeSH D12.776. ... groel protein MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.100 - fusion proteins, bcr-abl MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.320 - fusion proteins, gag-onc ... oncogene protein v-maf MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.875 - oncogene proteins v-abl MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.882 - oncogene proteins ... fusion proteins, gag-pol MeSH D12.776.964.775.350.400 - hiv core protein p24 MeSH D12.776.964.775.375.325 - fusion proteins, ...
... opsonin proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.820 -- plantibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.837 -- precipitins MeSH D12.776. ... opsonin proteins MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.820 -- plantibodies MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.837 -- precipitins MeSH D12.776. ... complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 -- complement c1 inhibitor protein MeSH D12.776.124.486 ... bence jones protein MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.900.225 -- cryoglobulins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.900.500 -- myeloma proteins MeSH ...
Pentraxins, collectins, and ficolins are all circulating proteins that are capable of serving as opsonins. They are secreted ... When opsonins bind to their targets they boost the kinetics of phagocytosis by favoring interaction between the opsonin and ... Different opsonins perform different functions. Opsonin molecules include: Antibodies are part of the adaptive immune response ... Opsonins aid the immune system in a number of ways. In a healthy individual, they mark dead and dying self cells for clearance ...
... a putative opsonin receptor for lung surfactant protein D". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (19): 10794-9. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Surfactant protein D, also known as SFTPD or SP-D, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SFTPD gene. SFTPD is an ... "Microfibril-associated protein 4 is present in lung washings and binds to the collagen region of lung surfactant protein D". J ... Surfactant protein D has been shown to interact with DMBT1, and hemagglutinin of influenza A virus. pulmonary surfactant GRCh38 ...
Clustered Band 3 proteins with attached antibodies activate complement, and complement C3 fragments are opsonins recognized by ... The fusion proteins were a way to spread the infection to other cells by simply merging them with the infected one (HIV does ... Last one is piRNA where small RNA binds to the Piwi protein family and controls transposones and other mobile elements.[21] ... One of the pathways is siRNA in which long double stranded RNA is cut into pieces that serve as templates for protein complex ...
Similar to the complement protein C3 in function, TEP1 acts as a opsonin which facilitates extensive parasite killing. TEP1 ... TEP1 interacts with a heterodimeric protein complex made up of two leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain containing proteins: ... The cleaved protein is known as TEP1-cut and represents the activated form. This mechanism is equivalent to the maturation of ... The TEP1 protein is glycosylated and secreted into the body cavity by mosquito immune cells as a 165 kDa zymogen - this ...
... forming a blood clot that stops bleeding C-reactive protein, opsonin on microbes, acute phase protein Various other globulins ... The liver plays the major role in producing proteins that are secreted into the blood, including major plasma proteins, factors ... Vitamin D-binding protein, carries vitamin D Insulin-like growth factor 1, a polypeptide protein hormone which plays an ... carries free heme released from hemoglobin IGF binding protein, carries insulin-like growth factor 1 Major urinary proteins, ...
In addition, merely around 50 amino acids (the fibronogen-like domain) align with any known protein, specifically the ficolin ... Tunicate intelectin is an opsonin for phagocytosis by hemocyte. Amphioxus intelectin has been shown to agglutinate bacteria. In ... Intelectins are lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) expressed in humans and other chordates. Humans express two types of ... intelectin-like protein that binds bacteria and chitin". Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 25 (1-2): 91-105. doi:10.1016/j.fsi. ...
Clustered Band 3 proteins with attached antibodies activate complement, and complement C3 fragments are opsonins recognized by ... The fusion proteins were a way to spread the infection to other cells by simply merging them with the infected one (HIV does ... Also, viral fusion proteins cause the formation of the placental syncytium to limit exchange of migratory cells between the ... Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulin, Ig), are large Y-shaped proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralize ...
It is thought to assist in complement binding to foreign and damaged cells and enhances phagocytosis by macrophages (opsonin- ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response ... It is not related to C-peptide (insulin) or protein C (blood coagulation). C-reactive protein was the first pattern recognition ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia C-reactive protein Inflammation, Heart Disease and Stroke: The Role of C-Reactive Protein (American ...
... protein A renders them inaccessible to the opsonins, thus impairing phagocytosis of the bacteria via immune cell attack. ... In addition to protein A, other immunoglobulin-binding bacterial proteins such as Protein G, Protein A/G and Protein L are all ... Immunoprecipitation studies with protein A conjugated to beads are also commonly used to purify proteins or protein complexes ... Protein A is a 42 kDa surface protein originally found in the cell wall of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. It is encoded by ...
... and other proteins. They also express receptors to detect and adhere to endothelium and Fc receptors for opsonin. In leukocytes ... For targets to be recognized, they must be coated in opsonins-a process known as antibody opsonization. They can internalize ... Neutrophils also release an assortment of proteins in three types of granules by a process called degranulation. The contents ... 2012). "Blood cell counts and their correlation with creatine kinase and C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a thermolabile beta-2-macroglycoprotein found in all human serum and is a member of the ... ficolin/opsonin p35 lectin family. The protein, which was initially identified based on its reactivity with sera from patients ... The protein can activate the complement pathway in association with MASPs and sMAP, thereby aiding in host defense through the ... Ficolin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCN3 gene. Ficolin-3 was initially identified as H-ficolin, in which H ...
... creating a more hostile environment for pathogens and facilitating protein degradation. The bacterial proteins are denatured in ... Opsonins are molecular tags such as antibodies and complements that attach to pathogens and up-regulate phagocytosis. ... Other proteins such as Toll-like receptors are involved in pathogen pattern recognition and are often recruited to phagosomes ... The two proteins, along with Rho GTPases, are important components of the innate immune response, inducing cytokine production ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the class A scavenger receptor family and is part of the innate antimicrobial ... in an opsonin-independent fashion, via MARCO. This results in monocyte sequestration in the spleen through apoptotic cell ... The protein may form a trimeric molecule by the association of the collagenous domains of three identical polypeptide chains. ... The protein may bind both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria via an extracellular, C-terminal, scavenger receptor ...
... and other proteins. They also express receptors to detect and adhere to endothelium and Fc receptors for opsonin.[22] ... Protein Azurophilic granules (or "primary granules"). Myeloperoxidase, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), ... For targets to be recognized, they must be coated in opsonins-a process known as antibody opsonization.[15] They can ... Neutrophils also release an assortment of proteins in three types of granules by a process called degranulation. The contents ...
Ficolin-2, which was initially identified as L-ficolin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCN2 gene. The product of ... 1996). "A novel human serum lectin with collagen- and fibrinogen-like domains that functions as an opsonin". J. Biol. Chem. 271 ... 1997). "Purification and binding properties of a human ficolin-like protein". J. Immunol. Methods. 204 (1): 43-9. doi:10.1016/ ... Edgar PF (1996). "Hucolin, a new corticosteroid-binding protein from human plasma with structural similarities to ficolins, ...
Ficolin-1, and also commonly termed M-ficolin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCN1 gene. Proteins of the ficolin ... 1996). "A novel human serum lectin with collagen- and fibrinogen-like domains that functions as an opsonin". J. Biol. Chem. 271 ... The collagen-like and the fibrinogen-like domains are also found in other proteins such as tenascins, while the former is also ... 2004). "The X-ray structure of human mannan-binding lectin-associated protein 19 (MAp19) and its interaction site with mannan- ...
Over 30 proteins and protein fragments make up the complement system, including serum proteins, and cell membrane receptors. ... The lectin pathway is homologous to the classical pathway, but with the opsonin, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and ficolins, ... pro-proteins). When stimulated by one of several triggers, proteases in the system cleave specific proteins to release ... Complement protein fragment nomenclatureEdit. Immunology textbooks have used different naming assignments for the smaller and ...
... (SAA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAA1 gene. SAA1 is a major acute-phase protein mainly ... Shah C, Hari-Dass R, Raynes JG (Sep 2006). "Serum amyloid A is an innate immune opsonin for Gram-negative bacteria". Blood. 108 ... Hari-Dass R, Shah C, Meyer DJ, Raynes JG (May 2005). "Serum amyloid A protein binds to outer membrane protein A of gram- ... In addition to its association with HDL, SAA1 interacts with a number of mammalian proteins, mostly cell surface proteins such ...
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) Surfactant protein D (SP-D) CL-L1 CL-P1 CL-K1 Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRs) PGLYRP1 ... signal sequences Junctional diversity Immunoglobulin class switching Allelic exclusion Polyclonal response Phagocytosis Opsonin ... Royet J, Gupta D, Dziarski R (December 2011). "Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: modulators of the microbiome and ... IL1R accessory protein (IL1RAP) IL1RL1 (IL33R, ST2) IL18R - Heterodimer: IL18R1 / IL18RAP IL17 family IL17RA IL17RB IL17RC ...
... creating a more hostile environment for pathogens and facilitating protein degradation. The bacterial proteins are denatured in ... Opsonins are molecular tags such as antibodies and complements that attach to pathogens and up-regulate phagocytosis. ... Protein kinase C, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and phospholipase C (PLC) are all needed for signalling and controlling particle ... PI-3 kinase and PLC are involved in both the internalisation mechanism and triggering inflammation.[8] The two proteins, along ...
The proteins account for 5% of the serum globulin fraction. Most of these proteins circulate as zymogens, which are inactive ... Opsonins. Serum substances that coat the outer membrane. of foreign substances and enhance the rate of. phagocytosis by ... complement proteins to induce bacterial lysis. Richard Pfeiffer (1895)[5] Bacterial agglutinins and precipitins. Serum ... These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ...
... s bind proteins of the complement system, and can thus detect pathogens without mediation by antibodies. ... Complement receptor (CR) 1, 3, and 4 work as opsonins (stimulate phagocytosis), whereas CR2 is expressed only on B cells as a ...
Pentraxin-related protein PTX3 also known as TNF-inducible gene 14 protein (TSG-14) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... "PTX3 function as an opsonin for the dectin-1-dependent internalization of zymosan by macrophages". J. Leukoc. Biol. 75 (4): 649 ... the amino-terminal domain and the pentraxin domain of the protein. The transcribed PTX3 protein is 381 amino acids long, has a ... "Relationship of TSG-14 protein to the pentraxin family of major acute phase proteins". J. Immunol. 153 (8): 3700-7. PMID ...
It also makes blood vessels more permeable so neutrophils and clotting proteins can get into connective tissue more easily. ...
For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells. However ... The non-protein microbial antigens cannot stimulate classical T cell response by themselves, but they are able to elicit the ... bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without involvement ...
Immunoglobulin-binding protein - Proteins such as protein A, protein G, and protein L that are capable of binding to antibodies ... An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized by the immune ... Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides.[citation needed] Non-microbial non ... In order to induce an immune response, it needs to be attached to a large carrier molecule such as a protein (a complex of ...
IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ...
... toxic basic protein and cationic protein (e.g., cathepsin[13]);[17] receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task. ... The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ... proteins, lysozyme to break down bacterial cell walls, and myeloperoxidase (used to generate toxic bacteria-killing substances ... including granule proteins), and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).[9] Neutrophils are professional ...
Induction of autoantibodies against tyrosinase-related proteins following DNA vaccination: Unexpected reactivity to a protein ... All that is required is that a B cell recognising antigen X endocytoses and processes a protein Y (normally =X) and presents it ... This may relate to abnormal citrullination of proteins, since the effects of smoking correlate with the presence of antibodies ... In Celiac disease there are autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase but the T cell response is to the foreign protein gliadin ...
In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or ...
Stevens FJ, Solomon A, Schiffer M (1991). "Bence Jones proteins: a powerful tool for the fundamental study of protein chemistry ... and their realization that this protein is the same as the Bence-Jones protein described in 1845 by Henry Bence Jones.[101] ... An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig),[1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is ... and produce different intracellular and secretable proteins.[71] They are also used in immunoprecipitation to separate proteins ...
Autoimmune disease, immune response to self-proteins. *Allergy, immune response to harmless non-self proteins *Histamine ...
NK cells are cytotoxic; small granules in their cytoplasm contain proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes. ... This affinity is determined by the amino acid in position 158 of the protein, which can be phenylalanine (F allele) or valine ( ... NCR (natural cytotoxicity receptors), a type of type 1 transmembrane proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily, upon ...
The proteins account for 5% of the serum globulin fraction. Most of these proteins circulate as zymogens, which are inactive ... Opsonins. Serum substances that coat the outer membrane. of foreign substances and enhance the rate of. phagocytosis by ... complement proteins to induce bacterial lysis. Richard Pfeiffer (1895)[5]. Bacterial agglutinins and precipitins. Serum ... These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ...
Mature Th cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4+ T cells. Such CD4+ T cells are generally treated as ... CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent ... The second signal involves an interaction between CD28 on the CD4+ T cell and the proteins CD80 (B7.1) or CD86 (B7.2) on the ... The antigens that bind to MHC proteins are always short peptides, 8-10 amino acids long for MHC Class I, and up to 25 or so for ...
C3b is able to bind to bacterial cell walls and act as an opsonin, which marks the invader as a target for phagocytosis. ... The combination and activation of this range of complement proteins forms themembrane attack complex, which is able to insert ... A protein that circulates inactively, until activated by collagen, platelets, or exposed basement membranes via conformational ... Cleaves the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen to produce insoluble fibrin, which aggregates to form a blood clot. Thrombin can ...
நிரப்புப்புரதங்கள் (complement proteins) உடலில் புகும் நோய் கிருமிகளை அழிக்கும் எதிர்ப்பான்கள் மற்றும் துப்புரவுச்செல்களுக்கு ... சைடோகைன்கள் (உயிரணு தொடர்பிகள்/செயலூக்கிகள்) · விழுங்கற்பதமி (Opsonin) · கலம் அழிப்பான் (Cytolysin) · நிரப்புப்புரதங்கள். ...
The genus Flavivirus has a prototypical envelope protein (E-protein) on its surface which serves as the target for virus ... E protein plays a role in binding to receptor and could play a role in evading the host immune system. It has three major ... The Neisseria species vary their pili (protein polymers made up of subunits called pilin which play a critical role in ... In the case of Plasmodium, this is accomplished via the dual purpose Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 ( ...
"Human factor H-related protein 5 has cofactor activity, inhibits C3 convertase activity, binds heparin and C-reactive protein, ... This change in shape allows the binding of plasma protein Factor B, which allows Factor D to cleave Factor B into Ba and Bb. ... The pathway is triggered when the C3b protein directly binds a microbe. It can also be triggered by foreign materials and ... The complex is believed to be unstable until it binds properdin, a serum protein. The addition of properdin forms the complex ...
It may also have evolved to prevent hypersensitivity reactions to food proteins.[27] It is of immense immunological importance ... Immune tolerance is an important means by which growing tumors, which have mutated proteins and altered antigen expression, ... proteins.[2] However, the fetus usually is not rejected by the mother, making it essentially a physiologically tolerated ... expression of proteins of other non-thymic tissues by the action of the transcription factor AIRE. ...
Typhidot is a medical test consisting of a dot ELISA kit that detects IgM and IgG antibodies against the outer membrane protein ... opsonin) in human blood. ...
noseći proteini: alfa-1 (Transkortin) • alfa-2 (Ceruloplasmin) • Retinol vezujući protein drugi: alfa-1 (Orosomukoid) • alfa-2 ...
... s have protein receptors on their cell surface that bind IgE, an immunoglobulin involved in macroparasite defense and ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
They are both heavily glycosylated proteins.[8] While IgA1 predominates in serum (~80%), IgA2 percentages are higher in ... Since sIgA is a poor opsonin and activator of complement, simply binding a pathogen isn't necessarily enough to contain it- ... St Geme JW, de la Morena ML, Falkow S (October 1994). "A Haemophilus influenzae IgA protease-like protein promotes intimate ... Polysaccharide antigens tend to induce more IgA2 than protein antigens.[10] ...
The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins: CD3εγ and CD3εδ heterodimers and, most important, a CD3ζ homodimer, ... T cell membrane protein-3 (TIM3), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3).[59][60] Soluble molecules such as cytokines ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ... The T cell receptor exists as a complex of several proteins. The actual T cell receptor is composed of two separate peptide ...
Pathogens synthesize proteins that can serve as "recognizable" antigens; they may express the molecules on their surface or ... Thus the antibody acts as an opsonin. The process of engulfing is known as phagocytosis (literally, cell eating) ... The paratope on the B cell receptor comes in contact only with those amino acids that lie on the surface of the protein. The ... Here, intact implies that the undigested protein is recognized, and not that the paratope on B cell receptor comes in contact ...
பல நொதியங்கள், குறைநிரப்பு புரதங்கள் (complementary proteins), ஒழுங்குபடுத்தும் காரணிகள் (regulatory factors) போன்றவற்றை ... சைடோகைன்கள் (உயிரணு தொடர்பிகள்/செயலூக்கிகள்) · விழுங்கற்பதமி (Opsonin) · கலம் அழிப்பான் (Cytolysin) · நிரப்புப்புரதங்கள். ...
"Probing a protein-protein interaction by in vitro evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... Novi protein se pojavljuje u površinskom premazu faga u kojem se može manipulirati i testirati njegova biološka aktivnost. ... 1. 2002). "A combined experimental and computational strategy to define protein interaction networks for peptide recognition ... identificirajući ciljane lijekove i zaključujući interakcijsku mrežu protein.[3][4] Nadalje, mimotop je također pokazao svoj ...
Opsonization is a process in which harmful substances like viruses are coated in opsonin, which stimulates the immune system to ... Several proteins that act in the complement system are also opsonins. The complement system is a cascade of reactions between a ... The evolution of opsonins solves this problem because they have receptors that recognize and bind to protein molecules on ... There are several different substances that may act as opsonins, and all of these are proteins that are active in the immune ...
Cloning of gp-340, a putative opsonin receptor for lung surfactant protein D. Uffe Holmskov, Jan Mollenhauer, Jens Madsen, Lars ... Cloning of gp-340, a putative opsonin receptor for lung surfactant protein D ... Cloning of gp-340, a putative opsonin receptor for lung surfactant protein D ... Cloning of gp-340, a putative opsonin receptor for lung surfactant protein D ...
Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ... protein (hr); протеин, белки, протеины (ru); протеин (tt-cyrl); protein, Bílkoviny ve výživě člověka (cs); Protein (nutrien) ( ...
Opsonin Proteins * Pseudomonas aeruginosa / immunology* * Respiratory Burst / immunology* * Superoxides / metabolism Substances ...
Opsonin Proteins / immunology * Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism * Phosphorylation * Protein Processing, Post- ... Furthermore, we demonstrate that the increased protein production of cytokines was regulated at the level of gene transcription ...
Opsonin Proteins / immunology. Phagocytes / immunology, microbiology, physiology. Phagocytosis / immunology*, physiology. ... In fact, phagosomes are comprised of hundreds of proteins that play a key role in deciphering the contents of the phagosome and ... Next Document: Complexity and complementarity of outer membrane protein A recognition by cellular and humoral innat.... ...
Opsonin Proteins / therapeutic use*. Platelet Count. Prospective Studies. Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic / drug therapy ... 0/Immunosuppressive Agents; 0/Isoantibodies; 0/Opsonin Proteins; 0/RHO(D) antibody; 0/Receptors, IgG; 0/Rh-Hr Blood-Group ...
Kuhlman, M; K Joiner; R A Ezekowitz (1989-05-01). "The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin". The Journal of ... Wang, J Y; C C Shieh; P F You; H Y Lei; K B Reid (August 1998). "Inhibitory effect of pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D on ... ORiordan, D M; J E Standing; K Y Kwon; D Chang; E C Crouch; A H Limper (June 1995). "Surfactant protein D interacts with ... Brinker, K G; E Martin; P Borron; E Mostaghel; C Doyle; C V Harding; J R Wright (2001-12). "Surfactant protein D enhances ...
Some proteins hinder opsonin-related ingestion; Staphylococcus aureus produces Protein A to block antibody receptors, which ... and group A streptococci produce proteins such as M protein and fimbrial proteins to block engulfment. ... They include opsonin receptors, scavenger receptors, and Toll-like receptors. Opsonin receptors increase the phagocytosis of ... "Complement" is the name given to a complex series of protein molecules found in the blood that destroy cells or mark them for ...
Human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin for influenza A viruses.. ... Human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin for influenza A viruses.. ... In addition mannose-binding protein acts as an opsonin, enhancing neutrophil reactivity against IAV. Opsonization of IAV by ... The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl- ...
Hartshorn KL, Sastry K, White MR, (1993). "Human Mannose-binding Protein Functions as an Opsonin for Influenza A Viruses". J. ... Watford WT, Wright JR, Hester CG, Jiang H, Frank MM (2001). "Surfactant Protein A Regulates Complement Activation". J Immunol ... Hartshorn KL, Crouch E, White MR (1998). "Pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D enhance neutrophil uptake of bacteria". Am J ... Vandivier RW, Ogden CA, Fadok VA (2002). "Role of Surfactant Proteins A, D, and C1q in the Clearance of Apoptotic Cells In Vivo ...
In the case of many viruses, resistance is related to the presence on the cell surface of protein receptors that bind to the ... An opsonin generally is a protein substance, such as one of the circulating immunoglobulins or complement components. ... In the case of many viruses, resistance is related to the presence on the cell surface of protein receptors that bind to the ... Ingestion of bacteria may require the help of still other components of the blood, called opsonins, which act to coat the ...
Complement Proteins offered by Sigma-alderich online.The complement system is a complex cascade involving proteolytic cleavage ... Instead an opsonin, mannan binding protein (MBP), is involved in the initiation process. ... Complement C3b may be an opsonin for antigen-antibody complexes which helps prevent damage from the formation of large, ... Complements C3a and C4b are opsonins that bridge phagocytes to microorganisms. Complements C3a and C4a promote phagocyte ...
It corresponds to a putative opsonin, the ThioEster-containing Protein from B. glabrata. ... calcium binding proteins; chaperone/stress proteins; antioxidant enzymes and proteins involved in immune regulation (Table 1). ... Thirty proteins were identified - among them 20 are S. mansoni proteins (Table 1) and 10 are from B. glabrata (Table 2). During ... IRMa avoids redundant proteins in the analysis and reduced false positive to less than 1%. A protein was considered to be ...
All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or ... Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. The ... membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. In addition to ... Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (DMBT1SAG), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1GP340) are ...
Bacterial Proteins*. *Opsonin Proteins/immunology*. *Porins/genetics/immunology*. *Treponema pallidum/genetics/immunology* ... Bottom Line: One of the members of this gene family, tpr K, codes for a protein that is predicted to have a cleavable signal ... Bottom Line: One of the members of this gene family, tpr K, codes for a protein that is predicted to have a cleavable signal ... One of the members of this gene family, tpr K, codes for a protein that is predicted to have a cleavable signal peptide and be ...
... opsonin protein that binds to a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, and toxins. It is then flowed through ... who engineered the human opsonin protein; and Mark Puder, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Pediatric Surgery at Boston ... The team will work to develop manufacturing and integration strategies for its core pathogen-binding opsonin and Spleen-on-a- ... proteins, fluids, or electrolytes -- much like a human spleen does. The cleansed blood then flows back to the patient. ...
The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin. J. Exp. Med. 169: 1733. ... B, Acid/urea-PAGE analysis of EDTA eluate (I) (2 μg protein), glucose eluate (II) (2 μg protein), and mannose eluate (III) (2 ... Molecular characterization of the mouse mannose-binding proteins. The mannose-binding protein A but not C is an acute phase ... the 28-kDa protein bands were blotted onto Problot membranes and subjected to N-terminal sequencing. Analysis of the protein in ...
Opsonisation - Opsonins (various protein/chemical mediators) attach to bacteria. Enhances neutrophil recognition and attachment ... Comprises what comes out of leaky capillaries - Fluid, cells, proteins (importantly fibrin), antibodies. Fluid dilutes pathogen ... Killing - Destruction in vacuoles by free radicals, lysozyme, lactoferrin, major basic protein. ...
The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin. J. Exp. Med. 169 : 1733-1745. ... the sporozoite proteins, thrombospondin-related adhesive protein and CS, may interact with MBL protein in the serum, modifying ... Both proteins contain potential C mannosylation (13) and N and O glycosylation sites (11, 27). Furthermore, CS protein contains ... two sporozoite proteins, circumsporozoite (CS) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein, have been shown to play important ...
Proteins such as IgG and C3b, which can promote opsonization, are designated as opsonins. ... As well, proteins involved in the complement-mediated clearance of foreign material, specifically a protein designated C3b, can ... The carbohydrate is not recognized as readily by the immune machinery of the body as is protein. As well, the penetration of ... opsonization The process in which certain antibodies in the blood (known as opsonins) bind to the surface of an invading ...
To establish the effect of liver transplantation on serum expression of acute phase protein opsonins. [ Time Frame: 7 days ]. ...
The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin. J. Exp. Med. 169 1989 1733 1745 ... Human mannose-binding protein (MBP) is a calcium-dependent lectin secreted by the liver as an acute-phase protein which plays ... Protein concentrations were determined with the Bio-Rad protein assay reagent with bovine serum albumin as the standard. ... Mannose binding protein gene mutations associated with unusual and severe infections in adults. Lancet 345 1995 886 889 ...
Opsonins (serum proteins) position themselves on bacteria, serving as appetizers for neutrophils and macrophages to consume. ... The word opsonin is from the Greek word opsonin, meaning to prepare for eating. Opsonins can be any molecule that enhances ... 2004), reported that Toll-like receptors (TLRs are proteins on the surface of sentinel cells that help the body recognize ... Lymph helps with the distribution of fluids and nutrients in the body, because it drains excess fluids and protein so that ...
AA: Arachidonic acid; APP1: Antiphagocytic protein 1; Co: Complement opsonins; CR: Complement receptor; GalXM: ... Calcineurin A dephosphorylates a group of proteins, allowing for growth at 37°C. Deletion of CNA1 also demonstrates a decreased ... Secreted cryptococcal protein App1 inhibits phagocytosis through a complement-mediated mechanism, and deletion of App1 improves ... Transcytosis is accompanied by activation of protein kinase C-a and is co-localization with actin filaments. This is followed ...
1993) Human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin for influenza A viruses. J. Clin. Investig. 91:1414-1420. ... 1989) The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin. J. Exp. Med. 169:1733-1745. ... 1989) A human serum mannose-binding protein inhibits in vitro infection by the human immunodeficiency virus. J. Exp. Med. 169: ... 1992) Human mannose-binding protein is identical to a component of Ra-reactive factor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 183:645- ...
Opsonins can be complement proteins, or antibodies *e.g. encapsulated bacteria *Deficiency in complement system may lead to ... The Lectin Pathway Originates with Host Proteins Binding Microbial Surfaces - The Lectin Pathway Originates with Host Proteins ... Anti-viral proteins produced by virus-infected cells (eventually died) *Alert system to prevent virus from infecting other ... with plasma proteins. *3. Ingestion Pseudopods of phagocytes engulf the microorganism and enclose it in a phagosome to complete ...
Opsonins are immunoglobulins of the G... Explanation of Opsonin ... Find out information about Opsonin. A substance in blood serum ... the hemolymph of insects does contain specific opsonin proteins.. Opsonins are responsible for selectivity, an important ... Related to Opsonin: opsonization, Cytokines. opsonin. [′äp·sə·nən] (immunology) A substance in blood serum that renders ... Opsonin. a type of antibody. Opsonins are immunoglobulins of the G class (IgG) and are largely responsible for the bodys ...
... opsonin translation, English dictionary definition of opsonin. n. A substance, such as an antibody or complement protein, that ... Related to opsonin: opsonization, Cytokines. op·so·nin. (ŏp′sə-nĭn). n.. A substance, such as an antibody or complement protein ... Steric PEG block chains on the surface of micelles can decrease the opsonin protein binding in vivo and therefore block the ... opsonin protein that binds to a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, and toxins.. Artificial Spleen to Treat ...
... such as opsonin [5]. Opsonin is a protein that binds to foreign microorganisms for enhanced phagocytosis and removal of foreign ... PEG is commonly used to functionalize GNP surfaces as it can decrease the NP surface exposure to proteins, such as opsonin, and ... Eosin is a florescent dye used for staining proteins in the cytoplasm of the cells and collagen in the ECM. Figure 4E is a dark ... Protecting NP surfaces from binding of opsonin can improve blood circulation of the NPs [5,6]. Prolonged circulation of PEG ...
Opsonin Proteins, metabolism ... Galectin-3 functions as an opsonin and enhances the macrophage ... acting as an opsonin. The process of clearance, whereby apoptotic neutrophils are removed by macrophages, is crucial for the ...
  • The evolution of opsonins solves this problem because they have receptors that recognize and bind to protein molecules on immune cells. (infobloom.com)
  • Therefore, when a pathogen has been coated in opsonins, the receptors can bind immune cells, bringing the cells close enough to the pathogens to enable ingestion or direct killing. (infobloom.com)
  • Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an oligomeric C type lectin that promotes phagocytosis by binding to microbial surface carbohydrates. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, we identified a third partner associated with the FREPs/ Sm PoMucs in the immune complex: a Thioester containing Protein (TEP) belonging to a molecular category that plays a role in phagocytosis or encapsulation following recognition. (plos.org)
  • Antibodies directed to purified recombinant variable domain of Tpr K can opsonize T. pallidum, Nichols strain, for phagocytosis, supporting the hypothesis that this portion of the protein is exposed at the surface of the treponeme. (nih.gov)
  • Once bound to microbes, MBL is believed to act as an opsonin for phagocytosis ( 17 ) and to activate the complement cascade via mannose-binding lectin-associated protein 2 (MASP-2) for microbial lysis ( 28 , 34 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • The British scientists A. Wright and S. Douglas introduced the term "opsonin" in 1903 to denote humoral factors in the blood that facilitate and stimulate the phagocytosis of bacteria by leukocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An opsonin promotes the adhesion reaction and the absorption and destruction of a particle by reducing the energy of the surface interaction between the leukocyte and the object of phagocytosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Virulent strains of staphylococci and Escherichia coli release a specific protein that can block the cytophil portion of an opsonin, thereby inhibiting phagocytosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The role of opsonin in phagocytosis by coelomocytes of earthworm Dendrobaena Veneta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In some cases these proteins function as opsonins and stimulate chemotaxis and phagocytosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Opsonins, a category of some serum proteins that enhance phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system, have been suggested to label the injected plasmid DNA as foreign so that it may be recognized, removed from the bloodstream, and degraded by nonparenchymal cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A second type of attachment is the nonspecific adherence of phagocytes to surface adsorbed serum proteins, which stimulates phagocytosis [ 30 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Immunoglobulin molecules consist of two ends, Fab, which binds to antigens, and Fc, which sticks to opsonins (the proteins that facilitate phagocytosis). (asmblog.org)
  • When Protein A on the staph surface binds to the Fc end, it makes it inaccessible to the opsonins, thus impairing phagocytosis of the bacteria. (asmblog.org)
  • these receptors are critical for phagocytosis of many different microbes that are coated with the opsonins. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • We demonstrate that complement factor C3-derived opsonins and the major complement receptors expressed by DC, the integrins CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18), play a critical role in this adhesion-mediated phagocytosis. (utmb.edu)
  • Binds directly to bacteria and their components and functions as an opsonin for macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria. (uniprot.org)
  • The observations that mice with disruption of genes encoding Dnase 1 ( 3 ), C1q ( 4 ), or acute phase proteins ( 5 ) also develop lupus and that C1q and CRP opsonize dying cells for phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro ( 6 , 7 ), support the argument that defective clearance of dying cells predisposes to lupus-like diseases. (rupress.org)
  • As a result, the release C3b opsonin from the spore surface, and mediating of C3 protein fragments of B. anthracis spores phagocytosis by human macrophages, was observed. (aaem.pl)
  • Complement protein C3 binding to Bacillus anthracis spores enhances phagocytosis by human macrophages. (aaem.pl)
  • In the case of many viruses, resistance is related to the presence on the cell surface of protein receptors that bind to the virus , allowing it to gain entry into the cell and thus cause infection. (britannica.com)
  • Fibrinogen Related Proteins (FREPs) from the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata are an example of these putative immune receptors. (plos.org)
  • Although insects do not have immunoglobulins or phagocytes with IgG receptors, the hemolymph of insects does contain specific opsonin proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Humoral factors are able to recognize foreign antigens, acting as surface phagocyte receptors and regulating the migration and concentration of hemocyte opsonins (Anderson & Beaven 2001, Yang et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unlike other C3 fragments, C3c does not bind to other structures like pathogens, cell surface (receptors) and other plasma proteins. (quidel.com)
  • Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play an integral role in the innate immune response through recognition of pathogen specific proteins (PAMPs) and damage associated proteins (DAMPs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Phagocytic cell surfaces contain specialized receptors that interact with the modified conformation of these various opsonins, thus alerting them to the presence of a nanoparticle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The complement system (CS) is composed of receptors and regulators bound to the cell membrane and different plasma proteins that interact with cells and mediators of the immune system ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
  • Macrophages express membrane proteins that function as receptors for PtdSer (e.g. (elifesciences.org)
  • This protein exists both in a soluble form and in association with the membranes of alveolar macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • The distribution of gp-340 in macrophages is compatible with a role as an opsonin receptor for SP-D. (pnas.org)
  • Three main methods of destruction include baths of caustic digestive enzymes that cause rapid perforation with submicroscopic holes, overwhelming organisms with sticky proteins, and lastly by ingestion by macrophages (amoeba-like cells). (answersingenesis.org)
  • Chemiluminescence of bovine alveolar macrophages was used to study the development of opsonins in calves vaccinated parenterally with live aromatic-dependent strains of either S. dublin or S. typhimurium. (elsevier.com)
  • Opsonization is the process by which a foreign organism or particle becomes covered with nonspecific proteins, thereby making it more visible to phagocytic cells (e.g., monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have identified several of these MERTK-associated proteins and shown that several of these proteins are required for macrophages to efferocytose dying cells. (uwo.ca)
  • Contamination of the abdomen and injury to the mesothelial cells initiate an inflammatory response and a cascade of events that results in the release of histamine and other vasoactive substances from peritoneal mast cells, vasodilatation and hyperaemia, an increase in peritoneal and vascular permeability, and an influx of protein-rich fluid, macrophages, polymorphonuclear cells, humoral opsonins, natural antibodies and serum complement into the peritoneal cavity (Semrad, 1992). (scielo.br)
  • Complement C3b may be an opsonin for antigen-antibody complexes which helps prevent damage from the formation of large, insoluble immune aggregates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Treponema pallidum major sheath protein homologue Tpr K is a target of opsonic antibody and the protective immune response. (nih.gov)
  • A substance, such as an antibody or complement protein, that binds to a bacterium or other pathogen and causes it to become more susceptible to the action of phagocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, in sea urchins, which lack an antibody-based adaptive immune system, the functions of SRCR proteins have expanded to comprise the primitive immune system (7), indicating an early expansion to a role in the recognition of non-self. (degruyter.com)
  • An antibody , or immunoglobulin , is a Y- shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign pathogens, like bacteria , parasites , and viruses . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Additionally, Protein A was recently shown to cripple humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity. (asmblog.org)
  • Cells bearing the Protein A-V H 3 IgM complex are now stimulated to proliferate and undergo apoptosis, which leads to a significant reduction of the repertoire of potential antibody-secreting B cells in the spleen and bone marrow. (asmblog.org)
  • 5 More than 30 proteins act synergically to provide host defense against cells, microorganisms, and tissues identified as abnormal by a specific antibody. (scielo.br)
  • To rapidly cleanse the blood of pathogens, the patient's blood is mixed with magnetic nanobeads coated with a genetically engineered version of a human blood 'opsonin' protein that binds to a wide variety of bacteria , fungi , viruses, parasites, and toxins . (chemistry2011.org)
  • It is then flowed through microchannels in the device where magnetic forces pull out the bead-bound pathogens without removing human blood cells , proteins , fluids, or electrolytes -- much like a human spleen does. (chemistry2011.org)
  • The second is adaptive (acquired) immunity that works by manufacturing a class of proteins called antibodies (humoral immune system), and by producing T-cells specifically designed to target particular pathogens (cell-mediated immune system). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The technology makes use of specialized blood proteins and magnetic forces to pull pathogens from the blood. (harvard.edu)
  • Neuroinflammation, which is an innate immune response in the CNS against harmful and irritable stimuli such as pathogens and metabolic toxic waste, as well as to chronic mild stress, is mediated by protein complexes known as inflammasomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • At first, researchers tried using a combination of a special protein stuck to magnetic particles in an artificial spleen device to remove pathogens from blood. (medgadget.com)
  • In order to bypass any potential problems, the scientists instead decided to design a filter using the same bacteria/toxin capturing protein to remove the pathogens. (medgadget.com)
  • Opsonix's pathogen-extracting therapy provides a novel therapeutic solution leveraging the broad binding activities of a natural human protein that may rapidly remove sepsis-causing pathogens - and the toxins they release - from a patient's blood,' said Eric Devroe, Ph.D., Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Opsonix. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Opsonix's pathogen-capture proteins are engineered versions of human blood opsonins - molecular components of the innate immune system that help to clear pathogens and the toxins they release. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The fusion protein had the capability of binding to many different pathogens that MBL has, but it also has the high level of expression, the ease of purification of the fc protein," Super points out. (huffpost.com)
  • The blood is then extracted and passed through a machine that used a magnet to draw the beads along with the FcMBL proteins and any toxins or pathogens on them. (medgadget.com)
  • Opsonins bind to pathogens and mark them for destruction by immune cells, which helps the body clear out foreign invaders. (xconomy.com)
  • Galectin-3 functions as an opsonin and enhances the macrophage clearance of apoptotic neutrophils. (gu.se)
  • This pus contains blood elements, white blood cells (particularly a group of cells called neutrophils) and plasma proteins (particularly a group of proteins called opsonins). (bu.edu)
  • Aliquots of 2 x 10 6 neutrophils were incubated at 37°C for 30 min with fluorescein-labelled Escherichia coli 0111:B4J5, E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella dublin, and with pooled bovine serum as the opsonin. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectins are oligomeric proteins composed of C type lectin domains connected to collagen regions ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Three collectins are known in humans: mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a serum protein, and the lung surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), which are produced by epithelial cells mainly in the lung. (pnas.org)
  • Nine types of collectins have been defined: MBL = mannan-binding lectin (mannose-binding lectin) SP-A = surfactant protein A SP-D = surfactant protein D CL-L1 = collectin liver 1 CL-P1 = collectin placenta 1 CL-43 = conglutinin collectin of 43 kDa CL-46 = collectin of 46 kDa CL-K1 = collectin kidney 1 Conglutinin CL-43, CL-46 and conglutinin are found in bovine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein that activates the complement system after binding to glycoconjugates found on the surface of microorganisms. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a serum protein belonging to the collectin family, is considered to be a pattern recognition molecule designed to detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Human mannose-binding protein (MBP) is a calcium-dependent lectin secreted by the liver as an acute-phase protein which plays an important role in innate immunity ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein of hepatic origin belonging to a family of Ca 2+ -dependent collagenous lectins, most of which are components of the innate immune system ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • MBL works as opsonin and initiates lectin complement activation pathway [20]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Its lead molecule is a recombinant human protein derived from mannose binding lectin (MBL) fused to the Fc region of human immunoglobulin (FcMBL). (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Key to the technology is a genetically engineered protein based on a naturally occurring opsonin protein called Mannose Binding Lectin (MBL). (huffpost.com)
  • FCN3 is a thermolabile beta 2 macroglycoprotein found in all human serum and is a member of the ficolin/opsonin p35 lectin family. (abcam.com)
  • The big idea behind Opsonix was to engineer proteins that could mimic human blood opsonins, the immune system's janitors that are dispatched to spotlight threats to the system. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • There is mounting evidence that the surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, both of which are collagenous C-type lectins or collectins, are involved in the recognition of some microorganisms. (elsevier.com)
  • These proteins assist in the killing and digestion of microorganisms but are potentially harmful to the host if released inappropriately. (asmscience.org)
  • Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. (mdpi.com)
  • MBL has the capacity to function as an opsonin and has been shown to strongly bind C. albicans , which displays mannan, a candidate ligand for MBL, on its surface ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • As well, proteins involved in the complement-mediated clearance of foreign material, specifically a protein designated C3b, can bind to the surface of the foreign object. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Cb3 complement protein can bind in a nonspecific manner to an invading particle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lectins, which are nonenzymatic, nonimmune proteins that bind to carbohydrates (Sharon and Lis, 1989), have the potential to fulfill this function. (springer.com)
  • Protein A is primarily known for its ability to bind immunoglobulins. (asmblog.org)
  • Type III hypersensitivity reactions occur when IgG and IgM antibodies bind to soluble proteins rather than cell surface molecules as in type II hypersensitivity reactions forming immune complexes that can deposit in tissues, leading to complement activation, inflammation, neutrophil influx and mast cell degranulation. (musicmarkup.info)
  • Many acute-phase proteins such as CRP and SAA, bind to microbial cell walls and they may act as opsonins and fix complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MERTK is known to bind to apoptotic cells via opsonins such as Gas6 and Protein S, with binding activating MERTK's intrinsic kinase domain. (uwo.ca)
  • Tim-4, stabllin 2, and BAI1), or opsonins that bind to PtdSer (e.g. (elifesciences.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that the increased protein production of cytokines was regulated at the level of gene transcription, which was dependent on activation of kinases Syk and PI3K. (nih.gov)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) an acute-phase reactant inflammatory protein is synthesized in hepatocytes in response to cytokines that are released from leucocytes within the tumor microenvironment. (hindawi.com)
  • An opsonin generally is a protein substance, such as one of the circulating immunoglobulins or complement components. (britannica.com)
  • Opsonins are immunoglobulins of the G class (IgG) and are largely responsible for the body's resistance to bacteria, viruses, and tumors ( see IMMUNOGLOBULINS ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunoglobulins of the M class (IgM) can also act as opsonins in the presence of complement ( see COMPLEMENT ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Structurally, immunoglobulins are globulins and are found in the γ-region of protein electrophoresis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The blood plasma proteins involved in 'fouling' nanoparticles are mainly albumins, fibronectins, complement proteins, fibrinogens, immunoglobulins and apolipoproteins [ 26 - 29 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Data using hydrodynamic gene transfer in the mouse liver and in situ transfection in the mouse lung revealed that serum proteins bound to DNA do not affect the biological activity of the plasmid DNA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The relatively simple, nonviral gene delivery system of natural serum proteins coupled with DNA may aid with extending serum circulation time, reducing toxicities inherent with lipoplex delivery, and improving delivery efficiency. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Intravenously injected liposomes initially come into contact with serum proteins. (portlandpress.com)
  • The interaction of liposomes with serum proteins is thought to play a critical role in the liposome clearance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Therefore, in this review, we focus on the role of serum proteins, so-called opsonins, that enhance the clearance of liposomes, when bound to liposomes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Complement makes 10% of the serum proteins. (labpedia.net)
  • Ingestion of bacteria may require the help of still other components of the blood, called opsonins , which act to coat the bacterial cell wall and prepare it for ingestion. (britannica.com)
  • Opsonisation - Opsonins (various protein/chemical mediators) attach to bacteria. (brainscape.com)
  • It was designed to fight sepsis and the underlying technology worked thanks to a proprietary genetically engineered protein called FcMBL that sticks to all kinds of viruses, fungi, bacteria, as well as the toxins they excrete. (medgadget.com)
  • Instead an opsonin, mannan binding protein (MBP), is involved in the initiation process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The level of mannan‐binding protein regulates the binding of complement‐derived opsonins to mannan and zymosan at low serum concentrations. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The oral tissues, a part of the mucosal immune system, are constantly covered by saliva, which harbors a similar set of antimicrobial proteins as other mucosal fluids [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The carbohydrate is not recognized as readily by the immune machinery of the body as is protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • So-called scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) proteins comprise one of the families involved in non-self recognition by the innate immune system and represent one of the best examined examples of pattern recognition molecules (PRMs). (degruyter.com)
  • Thus, Protein A thwarts the phagocytic system by keeping the staph from being engulfed and subsequently killed by the immune cells. (asmblog.org)
  • Like many other bacterial virulence factors, Protein A is a splendid mechanism to combat the immune response. (asmblog.org)
  • at the same time, peptides are generated from microbial proteins and presented to T lymphocytes to initiate adaptive immune responses. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • For example, it has been recognized that hepatitus and more recently, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is transmitted through blood serum, as for example, during blood transfusions, or injections of purified protein, such as factor VIII. (google.com)
  • They're engineered version of opsonins-parts of the innate immune system, the body's first line of defense. (xconomy.com)
  • The team will work to develop manufacturing and integration strategies for its core pathogen-binding opsonin and Spleen-on-a-Chip fluidic separation technologies, as well as a novel coating technology called "SLIPS," which is a super-hydrophobic coating inspired from the slippery surface of a pitcher plant that repels nearly any material it contacts. (chemistry2011.org)
  • The effects of these proteins vary depending on the type of microorganism, the specific strain involved, the growth phase of the pathogen, and the phagocytic cell type tested. (elsevier.com)
  • Opsonix's device uses commonly used dialysis filters and a pathogen capturing protein which are engineered alterations of opsonins found in human blood called Fc-MBL. (medgadget.com)
  • Additionally, secretion of the extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) potently blocks phagocytic uptake of the pathogen. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • When a macrophage (white blood cell that ingests and destroys invaders) ingests a pathogen, it attaches parts of the pathogen's proteins to a major histocompatibility complex class II protein, or for short ' MHC II . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Opsonix's core technology is based on proprietary pathogen-capture proteins. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Opsonix's scientific founders, Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., and Michael Super, Ph.D., carried out the original protein engineering and initial design and experimental validation of the FcMBL-enabled pathogen-extracting therapy at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Opsonix has an exclusive, worldwide license to intellectual property from Harvard University covering the use of engineered opsonin proteins in pathogen-extracting devices and companion diagnostics, and it is uniquely positioned to advance this technology into therapeutic products for the benefit of millions of sepsis patients worldwide. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The Wyss team fused the pathogen-binding portion of MBL to the Fc region of human immunoglobulin to yield the engineered FcMBL protein. (huffpost.com)
  • All of these studies provide evidence for the contribution of protein A to the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen. (asmblog.org)
  • He and Wyss staff scientist and biotech veteran Michael Super have come up with what they call "pathogen-capture proteins. (xconomy.com)
  • The startup has a license from Harvard to use engineered opsonins in pathogen-extracting devices and as companion diagnostics. (xconomy.com)
  • All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. (mdpi.com)
  • Importantly, in the past years, synaptic pruning was found to be determined by the microglial chemokine receptor C[X.sub.3]CR1 and the classical complement cascade, including, most notably, signaling between the microglial complement receptor 3 (CR3) and the neuronal opsonin C3 [21, 28]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Protein A can also stimulate inflammation in the lung (and therefore tissue damage) by binding to a receptor for tumor necrosis factor 1 (TNFR-1) that is widely distributed on the airway epithelium. (asmblog.org)
  • These critical proteins include ILK and FAK, which allow MERTK to communicate with another receptor known as α x β 2 integrin. (uwo.ca)
  • Proteins such as IgG and C3b, which can promote opsonization, are designated as opsonins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Adhesion is enhanced by opsonization, where proteins like opsonins are coated on the surface of the bacterium. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a commonly used molecule to decrease the nanoparticle NP surface exposure to proteins, such as opsonin [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These findings suggest that galectin-3 functions as a bridging molecule between phagocyte and apoptotic prey, acting as an opsonin. (gu.se)
  • Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 or TIM-1) is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell-surface protein not expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage but highly upregulated on the surface of injured kidney epithelial cells. (jci.org)
  • Complexity and complementarity of outer membrane protein A recognition by cellular and humoral innat. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Purification and characterization of a humoral opsonin from the solitary urochordate Syela clava. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patients with liver cirrhosis suffer from immunosuppression due to multiple reasons such as decreased phagocytic activity of neutrophilic granulocytes and the mononuclear phagocytic system deteriorated humoral immunity and decreased opsonin activity of ascitic fluid16. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A bacterium-containing vacuole (phagosome) may combine with another vacuole that contains bacterial-degrading proteins ( lysozymes ). (britannica.com)
  • One of the members of this gene family, tpr K, codes for a protein that is predicted to have a cleavable signal peptide and be located in the outer membrane of the bacterium. (nih.gov)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. (uniprot.org)
  • To resist phagocytic clearance, S. aureus expresses a polysaccharide capsule, which effectively masks the bacterial surface and surface-associated proteins, such as opsonins, from recognition by phagocytic cells. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Although the Spls were predicted not to cut staphylococcal proteins, we also show that an spl mutant has altered abundance of both secreted and surface-associated proteins. (asm.org)
  • When opsonins combine with bacterial or viral antigens or with foreign macromolecules, the cytophil portion becomes exposed and attached to the surface of a phagocyte. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because of opsonins, a phagocyte recognizes and attacks only foreign substances, not its own macromolecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some bacterial substances, for example, polysaccharides of pneumococci and meningococci and proteins of streptococci, are able to suppress the phagocytic activity of leukocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • have found a novel function of this protein: it promotes bacterial aggregation and the formation of biofilms. (asmblog.org)
  • A variety of bacterial and fungal products have been identified that serve as TLR ligands, but TLRs may also regulate homeostasis via interaction with endogenous protein ligands ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A method for destroying microbial contamination, such as viral and bacterial contamination and mycoplasma contamination, in protein material, and particularly tissue and serum from animals and human beings. (google.com)
  • However, particularly for in-vivo use, it is necessary to insure that the protein material, such as the tissue or serum from a human being or other animal, is relatively free from microbial contamination, such as viral and bacterial and mycoplasma contamination. (google.com)
  • This reduction of bacterial load by using autologous plasma along with leucocytes is attributed through supplementation of plasma derived opsonins and particularly components of complement systems in uterine lumen (Asbury, 1984). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present article aims to provide an introduction into the biological context, processes, proteins, and general mechanisms of molecular pattern recognition in humans and, by using selected examples, to identify potential areas in nanomedicine for the exploitation of these mechanisms. (degruyter.com)
  • In algae, sea urchins, and sponges SRCR proteins mediate different functions related to cell differentiation, reproduction, and regeneration, which have as common factor the recognition of "self structures" (2, 5, 6). (degruyter.com)
  • Due to its intense hydrophilicity, KS encounters several problems such as inadequate penetration into the cells and rapid elimination due to both efficient renal filtration and low level of association to plasma proteins [ 6 ] and belongs to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class III. (hindawi.com)
  • When injected i.v., conventional liposomes are quickly coated with plasma opsonins and lipoproteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, the accumulation of plasma proteins results in a fluid build-up in the lungs, called pulmonary edema. (bu.edu)
  • Early second-trimester plasma protein profiling using multiplexed isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling predicts gestational diabetes mellitus. (abcam.com)
  • In humans some SRCR proteins specialized to particular functions, while others may have maintained a broad role in various physiological processes, e.g., participating in defense and regenerative processes. (degruyter.com)
  • Calcineurin A dephosphorylates a group of proteins, allowing for growth at 37°C. Deletion of CNA1 also demonstrates a decreased sensitivity to elevated CO2 and alkaline pH characteristic of host tissues [4] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha subunit and a beta subunit that function in cell surface adhesion and signaling. (genecards.org)
  • Cell adhesion protein that promotes adhesion and outgrowth of hippocampal embryonic neurons. (uniprot.org)
  • However, it became evident that some of the proteins participating in these host defense processes may simultaneously function as regulators of tissue regeneration when in the extracellular matrix, thus coupling defense functions with regulation of stem cells. (degruyter.com)
  • The collectin surfactant protein-A (SP-A) is involved in the innate host defense and the regulation of inflammatory processes in the lung. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus it was concluded that the ability to produce opsonins is among the immunological responses that are associated with protection against salmonellosis in calves. (elsevier.com)
  • Like complement, fibrin and a polypeptide that is released by lymphocytes upon contact with certain antigens act as nonspecific opsonins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • OprF, the major outer membrane protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , is multifunctional in that it can act as a nonspecific porin, plays a role in the maintenance of cell shape, and is required for growth in a low-osmolarity environment. (asm.org)
  • Although it has been shown that the two proteins are distinct in binding-site architecture and multimeric complexity, with some fine differences in specificities for monosaccharides ( 3 , 20 , 21 , 32 ), it is currently unknown whether they have nonoverlapping functions or recognize different sets of microbes. (asm.org)
  • The company develops therapeutic products by applying recombinant protein engineering to harness the unique binding properties of opsonins that enable them to clear a broad range of infectious microbes and toxic components from blood, which can stimulate the inflammatory cascade that leads to sepsis. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Significant increases in peritoneal fluid fibrinogen (1g/dl) and total protein (9.1%) concentrations were also observed. (scielo.br)
  • Thereafter, gamma radiation is applied in an amount sufficient, at least 5,000 rads and preferably at least 600,000 rads, to destroy substantially all microbial contamination in the protein material without significantly reducing the protein efficacy. (google.com)
  • This invention relates in general to certain new and useful improvements in a method for destroying microbial contamination, and more particularly, to a method of destroying microbial contamination in protein material by reducing the temperature of the protein material and thereafter applying gamma radiation in an amount sufficient to destroy any microbial contamination. (google.com)
  • Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (DMBT1 SAG ), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1 GP340 ) are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. (mdpi.com)
  • Both approaches led to the identification of a polymorphic multicopy gene family with predicted amino acid homology to the major sheath protein of Treponema denticola. (nih.gov)
  • We purified and identified potential proteins with dysopsonin properties for future gene delivery investigation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ITGAV (Integrin Subunit Alpha V) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Bergmann KC, Lachmann B (1975) immunologic differentiation of proteins in the surfactant system of the lung. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, addition of soluble Protein A to the growth medium also induces aggregation and biofilm development, suggesting that this protein need not be covalently linked to the cell wall to promote multicellular behavior. (asmblog.org)
  • In particular, the soluble form may comprise a solution of pharmacologically active agent in a biocompatible dispersing agent contained within a protein walled shell. (google.es)
  • In addition, opsonins have been implicated in liver uptake of liposomes ( Moghimi and Patel, 1989 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • It was initially believed that MBL-A and MBL-C were found in serum and the liver, respectively, but recently it was shown that both proteins are found in serum in comparable amounts and that both have similar capacities to activate complement ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • To establish the effect of liver transplantation on serum expression of acute phase protein opsonins. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We proposed here that SDBPs may be involved in the liver uptake process as opsonins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Investigation of the secreted and surface proteomes of wild-type USA300 and the spl mutant revealed multiple alterations in metabolic proteins and virulence factors. (asm.org)
  • The genes coding germination spores protein in mutant strains of B. anthracis MIGD was a crucial discovery. (aaem.pl)
  • 6. A composition according to claim 4 wherein said protein is albumin. (google.com.au)
  • 5. The method according to claim 4, wherein said protein is albumin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The method according to claim 4, wherein said protein is a combination of albumin and hemoglobin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Transcytosis is accompanied by activation of protein kinase C-a and is co-localization with actin filaments. (kenyon.edu)
  • Genetically determined low levels of the protein are known to predispose to infections. (asm.org)
  • Clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa which are multiply antibiotic resistant and deficient in the major outer membrane protein OprF have been obtained ( 6 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • ITGAM: a single-pass type I membrane protein of the integrin alpha chain family. (mybiosource.com)
  • Opsonix is attaching these engineered opsonins to the membrane of a device similar to those used to filter blood in dialysis. (xconomy.com)
  • Opsonins are responsible for selectivity, an important property of the phagocytic reaction. (thefreedictionary.com)