Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The act of BREATHING in.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.
Inherited myotonic disorders with early childhood onset MYOTONIA. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. It is classified as Thomsen (autosomal dominant) or Becker (autosomal recessive) generalized myotonia mainly based on the inheritance pattern. Becker type is also clinically more severe. An autosomal dominant variant with milder symptoms and later onset is known as myotonia levior. Mutations in the voltage-dependent skeletal muscle chloride channel are associated with the disorders.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Catalyzes the reduction of tetrazolium compounds in the presence of NADH.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.
Also called xiphoid process, it is the smallest and most inferior triangular protrusion of the STERNUM or breastbone that extends into the center of the ribcage.
Benign hypertrophy that projects outward from the surface of bone, often containing a cartilaginous component.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Condition where a primary dysfunction of either heart or kidney results in failure of the other organ (e.g., HEART FAILURE with worsening RENAL INSUFFICIENCY).
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
The intercostal muscles run between the ribs.. *Super- or Supra- (from Latin super, supra, meaning 'above, on top of, beyond ... By definition, each pair of opposite points defines an axis. In a bilaterally symmetrical organism, there are 6 polar opposite ... The opposite end then becomes the posterior end.[18] Properly, this terminology would apply only to an organism that is always ... Infra- (from Latin infra, meaning 'preposition beneath, below etc') Similar to "sub"; a direct opposite to super- and supra-, ...
... and the external intercostal muscles. Exhalation is passive and relies on the elastic recoil of the lungs. When the metabolic ... Shortness of breath is termed dyspnea - the opposite of eupnea. Depression of the respiratory centre can be caused by: brain ...
... this position expands the thoracic cavity increasing lung capacity as well as stretching the intercostal muscles. Hands On ... Play media From a standing position (as in Samasthitiḥ) with the arms crossed palms on opposite thighs, swing the arms slowly ... Both movements open the chest, notably the pectoral muscles, and above the clavicles, and top area of the lungs. Hands Locked ... One with the hands on their respective shoulderblades, and the other with the hands on their opposite shoulder blades. Both ...
It is in the same layer as the subcostal muscles and the innermost intercostal muscles. ... This muscle varies in its attachments, not only in different subjects, but on opposite sides of the same subject. ... The muscle is supplied by the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves (intercostal nerves). ... The transversus thoracis muscle (/trænzˈvɜːrsəs θəˈreɪsɪs/) lies internal to the thoracic cage, anteriorly. It is a thin plane ...
... opposite the last intercostal space. It gives off intercostal branches to the seventh, eighth, and ninth intercostal spaces; ... They supply the intercostal muscles and, by branches which perforate the intercostales externi, the pectoral muscles and the ... Supreme intercostal vein Superior intercostal vein Posterior intercostal veins Intercostal nerves This article incorporates ... called the intercostal space. The highest intercostal artery (supreme intercostal artery or superior intercostal artery) is an ...
... but pass in a direction opposite to those of the external intercostal muscles.The internal intercostal muscles originate from ... The external intercostal muscles, and the intercartilaginous part of the internal intercostal muscles, (the part of the muscle ... The internal intercostal muscles (intercostales interni) are a group of skeletal muscles located between the ribs. They are ... In exhalation the interosseous portions of the internal intercostal muscles, (the part of the muscle that is between the bone ...
... and are drained by the intercostal veins. Their fibers run in opposite directions. The scalene muscles, which also move the ... Intercostal muscles are many different muscle groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest ... Innermost intercostal muscle, the deep layers of the internal intercostal muscles which are separated from them by a ... The intercostal muscles are mainly involved in the mechanical aspect of breathing. These muscles help expand and shrink the ...
The cranial portion of the muscle is supplied by the lower intercostal arteries, whereas the caudal portion is supplied by a ... It also performs ipsilateral (same side) side-bending and contralateral (opposite side) rotation. So the right external oblique ... The muscle also contributes to the inguinal canal. The internal oblique muscle is just deep to the external oblique muscle. The ... The abdominal external oblique muscle (also external oblique muscle, or exterior oblique) is the largest and outermost of the ...
It acts with the external oblique muscle of the opposite side to achieve this torsional movement of the trunk. For example, the ... The internal oblique is supplied by the lower intercostal nerves, as well as the iliohypogastric nerve and the ilioinguinal ... The abdominal internal oblique muscle, also internal oblique muscle or interior oblique, is an abdominal muscle in the ... The muscle fibers run from these points superiomedially (up and towards midline) to the muscle's insertions on the inferior ...
Terminal branches of an intercostal nerve are removed at the level of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominal muscle (' ... Pinching the skin between thumb and index finger is extremely painful compared to the opposite non-involved side. Confirmation ... It occurs when nerve endings of the lower thoracic intercostal nerves (7-12) are 'entrapped' in abdominal muscles, causing a ... Carnett J. (1926). "Intercostal neuralgia as a cause of abdominal pain and tenderness". Surg Gynecol Obstet. 42: 8. Van Assen, ...
... intercostals and accessory muscles from prolonged spasm causing stenosis of the major airways leading to an abnormal ... Because relaxation is the opposite of stress, the theory is that voluntarily creating the relaxation response through regular ... respiratory muscle length, and respiratory muscle strength. Specifically, diaphragmatic breathing exercise is essential to ... Shaw, I.; Shaw, B.S. (2014). "The effect of breathing and aerobic training on manual volitional respiratory muscle strength and ...
... exaggerate the actions of the intercostal muscles (Fig. 8). These accessory muscles of inhalation are muscles that extend from ... Instead abdominal contents are evacuated in the opposite direction, through orifices in the pelvic floor. The abdominal muscles ... the intercostal muscles are aided by the accessory muscles of inhalation to exaggerate the movement of the ribs upwards, ... Thus, breathing occurs via a change in the volume of the body cavity which is controlled by contraction of intercostal muscles ...
The muscles are innervated by thoraco-abdominal nerves, these are continuations of the T7-T11 intercostal nerves and pierce the ... and is separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the linea alba. Tendinous intersections (intersectiones tendineae) ... The rectus abdominis muscle, also known as the "abdominal muscle", is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the ... An abdominal muscle strain, also called a pulled abdominal muscle, is an injury to one of the muscles of the abdominal wall. A ...
For example, the intercostal muscles run between the ribs. Super- or Supra- (from Latin super, supra 'above, on top of') is ... Aboral (opposite to oral) is used to denote a location along the gastrointestinal canal that is relatively closer to the anus. ... The opposite end then becomes the posterior end. Properly, this terminology would apply only to an organism that is always ... The palmar fascia is palmar to the tendons of muscles which flex the fingers, and the dorsal venous arch is so named because it ...
During normal expiration, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax increasing internal pressure, allowing the abdominal ... The flail segment moves in the opposite direction to the rest of the chest wall: because of the ambient pressure in comparison ... the diaphragm contracts and intercostal muscles pull the rib cage out. Pressure in the thorax decreases below atmospheric ... Mobilization of the chest and pectoral muscle stretch. During inspiration, the person will clasp hands behind the head and will ...
... exaggerate the actions of the intercostal muscles (Fig. 8). These accessory muscles of inhalation are muscles that extend from ... Instead abdominal contents are evacuated in the opposite direction, through orifices in the pelvic floor. The abdominal muscles ... Thus, breathing occurs via a change in the volume of the body cavity which is controlled by contraction of intercostal muscles ... As the diaphragm contracts, the rib cage is simultaneously enlarged by the ribs being pulled upwards by the intercostal muscles ...
It is the longest and strongest muscle in the body, and is the muscle the rider sits on. The Intercostal muscles begin at the ... There are two primary flaws in back conformation, a "too-straight" or "roach" back and its opposite, a too low or "swayback" ( ... This muscle contracts the spine and also raises and supports the head and neck, and is the main muscle used for rearing, ... Swayback is caused in part from a loss of muscle tone in both the back and abdominal muscles, plus a weakening and stretching ...
Thus, breathing occurs via a change in the volume of the body cavity which is controlled by contraction of intercostal muscles ... In some fish, capillary blood flows in the opposite direction to the water, causing countercurrent exchange. The muscles on the ... In turtles, contraction of specific pairs of flank muscles governs inspiration or expiration. See also reptiles for more ... or that the major part of the respiratory changes result from the detection of muscle contraction, and that respiration is ...
The nerve supply to sternalis muscles comes from the right third intercostal nerve through its anterior cutaneous branch. ... Lymph vessels originating at the base of the nipples can ventrally extend as far as the intermammary cleft and to the opposite ... The Sternalis muscle is an anatomical variation that lies in front of the sternal end of the pectoralis major runs along the ... The first intercostal nerve, a tiny branch (ramus) of the anterior division of the first thoracic nerve, runs along the first ...
... the external intercostal muscles expand the ribs, allowing the animal to take in more air, while the ischiopubis muscle causes ... In seawater, the opposite is true. The osmolality in the plasma is lower than the surrounding water, which is dehydrating for ... When exhaling, the internal intercostal muscles push the ribs inward, while the rectus abdominis pulls the hips and liver ... Unlike many marine mammals, crocodilians have little myoglobin to store oxygen in their muscles. During diving, muscles are ...
They are usually four in number on either side, and arise from the back of the aorta, opposite the bodies of the upper four ... They now cross the quadratus lumborum, the upper three arteries running behind, the last usually in front of the muscle. At the ... They anastomose with the lower intercostal, the subcostal, the iliolumbar, the deep iliac circumflex, and the inferior ... The lumbar arteries are in parallel with the intercostals. ... and are then continued behind this muscle and the lumbar plexus ...
The transversus thoracis muscle is innervated by one of the intercostal nerves and superiorly attaches at the posterior surface ... It is flat on the front, directed upward and forward, and marked by three transverse ridges which cross the bone opposite the ... In birds it is a relatively large bone and typically bears an enormous projecting keel to which the flight muscles are attached ... Its top is also connected to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The sternum consists of three main parts, listed from the top: ...
Intercostals[edit]. The intercostals are a set of muscles sandwiched among the ribs. They interconnect ribs, and are therefore ... the diagonally opposite hind and forelegs will move simultaneously. Cat height can vary depending on breed and/or gender, but ... The intercostals pull the ribs backwards or forwards.. Caudofemoralis[edit]. The caudofemoralis is a muscle found in the pelvic ... The deltoid muscles lie just lateral to the trapezius muscles, originating from several fibers spanning the clavicle and ...
The intercostals between the fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs were cut through and the contents of the thorax visible through the ... Opposite Miller's Court, Lewis observed a "stout-looking and not very tall" man standing at the entrance to the courtyard, ... The left thigh was stripped of skin fascia, and muscles as far as the knee. The left calf showed a long gash through skin and ... This door was illuminated at night by a gas lamp located almost directly opposite the door to the property. Kelly had lost her ...
Inter- (from Latin inter 'between') is used to indicate something that is between.[15] For example, the intercostal muscles run ... Aboral (opposite to oral) is used to denote a location along the gastrointestinal canal that is relatively closer to the anus.[ ... The opposite end then becomes the posterior end.[44] Properly, this terminology would apply only to an organism that is always ... Contralateral (from Latin contra 'against'): on the side opposite to another structure.[25] For example, the right arm and leg ...
... paralysis of muscles that habitually produce bilateral movements than of those that commonly act independently of the opposite ... Broadbent sign: Recession of the intercostal spaces (near the eleventh and twelfth ribs on the left side of the back) as a sign ...
... the intercostal muscles run between the ribs. ... The opposite end then becomes the posterior end.[40] Properly, ... The long or longitudinal axis is defined by points at the opposite ends of the organism. Similarly, a perpendicular transverse ... The palmar fascia is palmar to the tendons of muscles which flex the fingers, and the dorsal venous arch is so named because it ... Contralateral (from Latin contra, meaning 'against'): on the side opposite to another structure.[22] For example, the right arm ...
It may be accompanied by paradoxical respiration - the intercostal muscles are paralysed and the chest is drawn passively in ... Come 1913, Sherrington was able to say that "the process of excitation and inhibition may be viewed as polar opposites [...] ... Sherrington showed that muscle excitation was inversely proportional to the inhibition of an opposing group of muscles. ... the Liddell-Sherrington reflex is the tonic contraction of muscle in response to its being stretched. When a muscle lengthens ...
It arises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and longus colli muscle. It then ... anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side, and with the superior laryngeal branch of the superior thyroid artery. ... The ascending cervical artery gives twigs to the neck muscles and these anastomose with branches of the vertebral arteries. One ... It is accompanied by the recurrent nerve, and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, ...
... supplying oxygenated blood to the muscles attached to it and joining (anastomosing) with its fellow of the opposite side. ... and passing beneath the digastric muscle and stylohyoid muscle it runs horizontally forward, beneath the hyoglossus, and ... It lies on the lateral side of the genioglossus, the main large extrinsic tongue muscle, accompanied by the lingual nerve. ... It supplies the gland and gives branches to the mylohyoideus and neighboring muscles, and to the mucous membrane of the mouth ...
... and supplies the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and neighboring muscles and skin; it frequently arises as a separate branch from ... This artery connects with the infrahyoid branch of the opposite side. The infrahyoid branch is a derivative of the second ... Besides the arteries distributed to the muscles and to the thyroid gland, the branches of the superior thyroid are:. *The ... To its medial side are the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. ...
They provide a frame to keep the body supported, and an attachment point for skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, ... the fibers run in opposite directions in alternating layers, much like in plywood, assisting in the bone's ability to resist ... the angle of the tendon is increased and thus the leverage of the muscle is increased. Examples of sesamoid bones are the ... the interaction between bone and muscle is studied in biomechanics). ...
When the needle tip is close to or contacts a motor nerve, characteristic contraction of the innervated muscle may be elicited ... The intercostobrachial nerves (which are branches of the second and third intercostal nerves) are also frequently missed with ... and paresis of the phrenic nerve on the opposite side as the block. Providing a rapid onset of dense anesthesia of the arm with ... This nerve supplies motor function to the biceps, brachialis, and coracobrachialis muscles and one of its branches supplies ...
... with that of the opposite muscle, a tendinous ellipse. The rest of the muscle arises by numerous short tendinous fibers. ... The trapezius muscle is one of the commonly affected muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The lower and ... The trapezius muscle (plural: trapezei) is a surface muscle of back, shown in red above and below ... The trapezius[4] is a large paired surface muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic ...
As it crosses the zygomatic process, it is covered by the auricularis anterior muscle, and by a dense fascia; it is crossed by ... and joins with its fellow of the opposite side, and with the posterior auricular and occipital arteries. ... supplying the muscles, integument, and pericranium in this region, and anastomosing with the supraorbital and frontal arteries ...
... and the intercostal muscles which pull the rib cage upwards as shown in the diagram.[49] During breathing out the muscles relax ... Amphisbaenians, however, have the opposite arrangement, with a major left lung, and a reduced or absent right lung.[78] ... The throat muscles then presses the throat against the underside of the skull, forcing the air into the lungs.[83] ... The bronchioles have no cartilage and are surrounded instead by smooth muscle.[17] Air is warmed to 37 °C (99 °F), humidified ...
Furosemide, a diuretic used in the treatment of pulmonary contusion, also relaxes the smooth muscle in the veins of the lungs, ... Children's chests are more flexible because their ribs are more elastic and there is less ossification of their intercostal ... a contrecoup contusion may occur at the site opposite the impact as well. A blow to the front of the chest may cause contusion ... the flail segment moves in the opposite direction as the chest wall during respiration), so treatment was aimed at managing the ...
Middle temporal: This artery extends from the Sylvian fissure opposite to the inferior frontal gyrus and supplies superior and ... to muscles of mastication (deep temporal, pterygoid, masseteric). *buccal. 3rd part / pterygopalatine. *posterior superior ... Temporooccipital: The longest cortical artery, it runs posteriorly opposite to the center of the operculum. Upon its exit from ...
... intercostal retractions (when the muscles between the ribs pull inward), grunting, and nasal flaring.[7] If the child has not ... Opposite of the RSV G protein, the RSV F protein also binds to and activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), initiating the innate ... These medications (such as albuterol or salbutamol) are beta-agonists that relax the muscles of the airways to allow for ...
This then splits to give the myotomes which will form the muscles and dermatomes which will form the skin of the back. ... Opisthocoelous vertebrae are the opposite, possessing anterior convexity and posterior concavity. They are found in salamanders ... The vertebral processes can either give the structure rigidity, help them articulate with ribs, or serve as muscle attachment ... as well as muscle, ligaments and skin. Somitogenesis and the subsequent distribution of somites is controlled by a clock and ...
It may be accompanied by paradoxical respiration - the intercostal muscles are paralysed and the chest is drawn passively in ... Come 1913, Sherrington was able to say that "the process of excitation and inhibition may be viewed as polar opposites [...] ... Sherrington showed that muscle excitation was inversely proportional to the inhibition of an opposing group of muscles. ... the Liddell-Sherrington reflex is the tonic contraction of muscle in response to its being stretched. When a muscle lengthens ...
In reptiles, the ventricular septum of the heart is incomplete and the pulmonary artery is equipped with a sphincter muscle. ... These branches form the intercostal arteries, arteries of the arms and legs, lumbar arteries and the lateral sacral arteries. ... and carbon dioxide and wastes in the opposite direction. The other component of the circulatory system, the lymphatic system, ... After nourishing the heart muscle, blood returns through the coronary veins into the coronary sinus and from this one into the ...
While we are speaking, intercostal and interior abdominal muscles are recruited to expand the thorax and draw air into the ... In the opposite philosophical camp are those who, in the tradition of Ferdinand de Saussure, argue that if no one believed in ... The muscles of the face and lips consequently became less constrained, enabling their co-option to serve purposes of facial ... Listeners do the opposite, favoring sounds that are easy to distinguish even if difficult to pronounce. Since speakers and ...
By far the most common cause of back pain is muscle strain. The back muscles can usually heal themselves within a couple of ... It is the surface of the body opposite from the chest and the abdomen. The vertebral column runs the length of the back and ... as well as the lateral abdominal cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves. The intricate anatomy of the back provides support ... The muscles of the back can be divided into three distinct groups; a superficial group, an intermediate group and a deep group ...
... the internal intercostal nerve branches that innervate the triangularis sterni muscle during the second stage of expiration. ... These responses, as well as other effects of dopamine, can be opposite in sign in different locations, showing that the sum of ... The activated muscles resist stretch through their own intrinsic biomechanical properties, providing a rapid form of length and ... Goslow GE Jr.; Reinking RM; Stuart DG (1973). "The cat step cycle: hind limb joint angles and muscle lengths during ...
When the ventricles begin to contract, so do the papillary muscles in each ventricle. The papillary muscles are attached to the ... The decreased (more negative) intrathoracic pressure has an opposite effect on the left side of the heart, making it harder for ... which is normally located in the 5th left intercostal space at the midclavicular line. A right-sided S3 is best heard at the ... It is the pressure created from ventricular contraction that closes the valve, not the papillary muscles themselves. The ...
... and are drained by the intercostal veins. Their fibers run in opposite directions. The scalene muscles, which also move the ... Intercostal muscles are many different muscle groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest ... Innermost intercostal muscle, the deep layers of the internal intercostal muscles which are separated from them by a ... The intercostal muscles are mainly involved in the mechanical aspect of breathing. These muscles help expand and shrink the ...
... and are provided by the intercostal arteries and intercostal veins. Their fibers run in opposite directions. ... Intercostal+Muscles. Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the ... the innermost intercostal muscle, the deep layers of the internal intercostal muscles which are separated from them by the ... the external intercostal muscles, which aid in quiet and forced inhalation. They originate on ribs 1-11 and have their ...
The intercostal muscles run between the ribs.. *Super- or Supra- (from Latin super, supra, meaning above, on top of, beyond ... By definition, each pair of opposite points defines an axis. In a bilaterally symmetrical organism, there are 6 polar opposite ... The opposite end then becomes the posterior end.[18] Properly, this terminology would apply only to an organism that is always ... Infra- (from Latin infra, meaning preposition beneath, below etc) Similar to "sub"; a direct opposite to super- and supra-, ...
The external intercostals (not shown), take the opposite path, that is they go downward and OUTWARD when viewed from the back. ... The Intercostal Muscles These muscles are found between the ribs, and there are two kinds: the internal and external ... The Action of The Internal Intercostal Muscles Back to Respiration *More on Anatomy *The Physics of Breathing *Application to ... The external intercostal muscles (on the outside of the ribcase) wrap around from the back of the rib almost to the end of the ...
Intercostal nerves carry: somatic motor innervation of thoracic wall muscles (intercostal, subcostal, and transversus thoracis ... Innermost is the same as internal in direction (opposite of external). Subcostal muscles: span a rib or two and go from rib to ... Intercostal muscles: in between ribs with internal, external, and innermost layers. External are oriented in one plane and the ... Intercostal nerves coming out to back = ventral/anterior rami of spinal nerves T1-11 and lie in intercostal spaces between ...
This makes it necessary to recruit other muscles like the intercostal and the clavicular muscles. Unfortunately, these other ... muscles are not as efficient (as the diaphragm) and tend to use more energy--exactly the opposite of our goal. ... When the person exercises, its the muscle cells that are the target area for the oxygenated blood. This allows the muscle ... First, the main muscle for respiration is the diaphragm. Its shaped like a dome so that when it contracts, it expands the ...
It is in the same layer as the subcostal muscles and the innermost intercostal muscles. ... This muscle varies in its attachments, not only in different subjects, but on opposite sides of the same subject. ... The muscle is supplied by the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves (intercostal nerves). ... The transversus thoracis muscle (/trænzˈvɜːrsəs θəˈreɪsɪs/) lies internal to the thoracic cage, anteriorly. It is a thin plane ...
A fibrous band or inscription frequently interrupts the internal oblique and the intercostal muscles. In rare instances a ... similar inscription has been seen opposite the twelfth or even the eight rib. They apparently represent tendinous intersections ... Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: O ... Absence of the inguinal portion or of the anterior superior part of the muscle has been recorded. Fusion of the lower part of ...
At later embryonic stages, the gradient of MLC-CAT transcripts persists in intercostal and intervertebral muscles, but is not ... opposite to the direction of somite development, and is retained in dissociated somite cultures. We propose that coexpression ... In transgenic mice, muscle-specific regulatory elements from the myosin light chain (MLC) 1/3 locus drive graded expression of ... a linked CAT reporter gene in selected fast muscles along the anteroposterior axis of the adult animal. The gradient of MLC-CAT ...
... and the external intercostal muscles. Exhalation is passive and relies on the elastic recoil of the lungs. When the metabolic ... Shortness of breath is termed dyspnea - the opposite of eupnea. Depression of the respiratory centre can be caused by: brain ...
The interaction between the diaphragm, intercostal/accessory muscles of inspiration and the rib ... ... During Mueller maneuvers (MM), the volume change of rib cage, delta Vrc, and abdomen, delta Vab, are equal and opposite. Thus ... All showed increased inspiratory muscle endurance with no change in inspiratory muscle strength. Seven of the twelve patients ... Three indexes of inspiratory muscle function were evaluated in 20 healthy young adults before and after a six-week program of ...
Transverse thoracic and EXternal intercostal muscles = opposite of EXpire = inspiration = therefore raise the ribs so you can ... opposite. bc uvula muscle shortens the uvula when it contracts and the muscle on the intact side pulls the uvula toward that ... parotid duct travels over the _ muscle and penetrates the _ muscle to enter the oral cavity. it opens into the mouth opposite ... Subcostal + INternal intecostal muscles = opposite of INspire = expiration = therefore ribs have to depress.. Think SUB IN. ...
Muscles with a cranioventral orientation (internal oblique and internal intercostal muscles) exhibited the opposite pattern: ... intercostal muscles) or sew-through (oblique and appendicular muscles) electrodes were secured to the muscles of interest. Lead ... The fourth internal intercostal muscle showed the greatest variation in activity of the four muscles that we monitored (Fig.5 ... Specifically, muscles with a craniodorsal orientation (external oblique and external intercostal muscles) showed an increase in ...
What is multifidus muscles? Meaning of multifidus muscles medical term. What does multifidus muscles mean? ... Looking for online definition of multifidus muscles in the Medical Dictionary? multifidus muscles explanation free. ... intercostal muscles, innermost the layer of muscle fibers separated from the internal intercostal muscles by the intercostal ... adducens muscle See medial rectus muscle.. agonistic muscle A muscle that performs the desired movement, or does the opposite ...
This lesson provides helpful information on Trunk Muscles in the context of Axial and Appendicular Muscles to help students ... These muscles lie deep to the external intercostal muscles and also extend between the ribs, running in the opposite direction ... the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles for inspiration and the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles ... Trunk Muscles. The trunk muscles consist of the diaphragm and external and intercostal muscles, which together make respiration ...
... force of the abdominal muscles is met with an equal and opposite straightening force of your back muscles.. (2) The ... Are we flexing these muscles? Making them longer or shorter? Also what happened to the famous intercostal muscles that I ... Also what happened to the famous intercostal muscles that I thought were so important in this process? ,,. My view is that ... I hardly expand my chest at all when playing the clarinet, so intercostal (between the ribs) muscles dont come into it. The ...
Breathing out (expiration) involves the opposite actions to breathing in (inspiration). The intercostal muscles and diaphragm ... The external intercostal muscles contract and pull the rib cage up and out when we breathe in. The internal and innermost ... The mechanism which mammals use to breathe has several parts: lungs, intercostal muscles, a rib cage and a diaphragm - all of ... To breathe in, the intercostal muscles expand the rib cage and the diaphragm contracts, moving downwards. These two actions ...
Breathing out (expiration) involves the opposite actions to breathing in (inspiration). The intercostal muscles and diaphragm ... The external intercostal muscles contract and pull the rib cage up and out when we breathe in. The internal and innermost ... The mechanism which mammals use to breathe has several parts: lungs, intercostal muscles, a rib cage and a diaphragm - all of ... To breathe in, the intercostal muscles expand the rib cage and the diaphragm contracts, moving downwards. These two actions ...
... the opposite rotation being the different ribs a pair of intercostal muscles is situated; due to the action of the ... muscle upwards.. The auricle of the external ear has three small muscles Joints and The Temporo-maxillary Joints are the only ... 18.-The rectus muscle finger; at each side of the neck, also, lies a thin muscle fluence of the will. The will is the of the ... power-arm, the muscles, as regards the application of the. JOINTS AND MUSCLES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON. power, act at a ...
Intercostal neuralgia is affects the nerves running between the ribs and is seen in an estimated 3-22 percent of patients ... Intercostal neuralgia is a form of neuropathic pain that results from the damage or dysfunction one or more nerves of the ... If these muscles are tight, the lungs cant fully expand, which limits air intake. The main cause for tight intercostal muscles ... Inhale, lift the opposite arm of the extended leg, and lean over to your side with your other hand resting on your calf. Hold ...
First the intercostal muscles between the ribs contract bringing the ribs up and outwards and the diaphragm flattens. This ... It is the exact opposite for exhaling hope thats what you wanted! :) ... Explain the changes that occur to bring about ventilation of the lungs in terms of relaxation and contraction of muscles, ... Explain the changes that occur to bring about ventilation of the lungs in terms of relaxation and contraction of muscles, ...
The muscles involved in forceful inspiration are the external intercostals, diaphragm, levatores costarum, pectoralis minor, ... Inhalation; drawing air into the lungs; the opposite of expiration. The average rate is 12 to 18 respirations per minute in a ...
A. the epigastrium and thorax moving in opposite directions. B. bulging of the intercostal muscles during deep inhalation. C. ...
Additional muscles, including the intercostals and abdominals, also act to change the "shape" of the lungs, allowing for the ... Challenge the students to try breath patterns opposite of those given or ask how their movement quality is affected by their ... As we know muscles move our skeleton and create the movements of the scapulae we have just explored. There are a number of key ... A common area with an imbalance of the force couple is in the trapezius muscle (shown in the diagram below) between the upper ...
Additional muscles, including the intercostals and abdominals, also act to change the "shape" of the lungs, allowing for the ... The distance between the two feet, rotating away from each other creates an equal and opposite force which is transferred to ... Challenge the students to try breath patterns opposite of those given or ask how their movement quality is affected by their ... Connecting from "nipple to navel" and across the width of the rib cage, it is our primary breathing muscle. ...
... levels well above 5,000 ml/d to avoid damaging the intercostal muscles are then dissected further from the pelvic floor muscles ... Population indoors during the same species, between opposite sexes, and with increasing hcg ...
Insert the blunt tip curved scissors and dissect the skin away from the underlying ribs and intercostal muscles. ... Make a 0.5 cm incision between the ribs and repeat in the opposite direction. ... B) After creation of the thoracotomy in the 4th and 5th rib intercostal space, retractors are used to visualize the lung. ... Lightly retract the strap muscles with curved, serrated 10 cm forceps and expose the larynx and trachea by spreading the strap ...
... intercostal muscles, psoas (believe it or not), abdominal muscles, etc), it has nothing to do with the muscles on the physical ... Each curve is not meant to bend in the opposite direction, if they were then why dont we just have a completely straight spine ... Before we jump into the drills let me first say that if you feel any discomfort or strain in the neck, or if your neck muscles ... Ive had issues with the muscles all around my thoracic spine. They got tight and sore from sitting in front of a computer all ...
In other words, the strength of your intercostal muscles and diaphragm arent limiting factors in your ability to fill your ... They dont do the opposite. They dont live at 6,000 feet and go up to the top of mountain at 12,000 feet to do their intervals ... Its a mental training device but also i have seen that my muscles are less stressed and I can finish my routine running ... As an endurance athlete, your goal is to maximize your ability to deliver oxygen to working muscles. The more oxygen you can ...
hawaiijenno: Does anyone have any advice related to an intercostal muscle strain? I fell flat on my back on ice a few weeks ago ... Just imagine throwing your arm over your head and trying to touch the opposite leg. Its exactly as painful as it sounds.. Im ... hawaiijenno: Does anyone have any advice related to an intercostal muscle strain? I fell flat on my back on ice a few weeks ago ... Muscle strain can be very difficult to deal with, let a pro evaluate you. I suffored for 8 months with a foot injury. Within a ...
  • Intercostal muscles are many different muscle groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external intercostals are responsible for the elevation of the ribs and bending them more open, thus expanding the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • source) The internal intercostals are responsible for the depression of the ribs and bending them inward, thus decreasing the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external intercostals are responsible for the elevation of the ribs, and expanding the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The internal intercostals are responsible for the depression of the ribs decreasing the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity. (thefullwiki.org)
  • These muscles are found between the ribs, and there are two kinds: the internal and external intercostals. (yorku.ca)
  • The internal intercostal muscles (in the inside of the ribcase) extend from the front of the ribs, and go around back, past the bend in the ribs. (yorku.ca)
  • Between the ribs can be seen the internal intercostals. (yorku.ca)
  • Movement in the thorax is driven by muscles that attach to bones, such as the ribs, sternum, and the thoracic vertebrae. (coursehero.com)
  • Intercostal muscles are muscles located between the ribs. (coursehero.com)
  • When the diaphragm contracts, the external intercostals draw the other ribs up and out. (coursehero.com)
  • These muscles lie deep to the external intercostal muscles and also extend between the ribs, running in the opposite direction as the external intercostal muscles. (coursehero.com)
  • Name the special muscles found in the ribs which enable breathing. (educationquizzes.com)
  • Intercostal neuralgia affects the nerves running between the ribs and is seen in an estimated 3-22 percent of patients referred to pain clinics. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • This usually involves spreading apart the ribs to access the internal organs, possibly damaging the intercostal nerves in the process. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • First the intercostal muscles between the ribs contract bringing the ribs up and outwards and the diaphragm flattens. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • When people report feeling like they can breathe deeper, it is likely because breathing deeply or forcefully has helped the muscles loosen up and increased the mobility of your ribs. (trainright.com)
  • In mammals, the lungs became the powerhouse, existing at the centre of a process that goes like this: on inhale, the diaphragm flattens downward and the intercostal muscles lift up the ribs, expanding the volume of the lungs. (tefter.io)
  • In the process of inspiration, there would be a contraction of muscles attached to the ribs on the outer side which pulls out the ribs and results in the expansion of the chest cavity. (byjus.com)
  • During this process, muscles attached to the ribs contract, the muscles of the diaphragm and the abdomen relax which leads to a decrease in the volume of the chest cavity and increases the pressure of the lungs, causing the air in the lungs to be pushed out through the nose. (byjus.com)
  • In between each rib is an intercostal space, consisting of muscle and connective tissue that, when stimulated by the respiratory center, contracts and pulls the ribs outward. (fromnewtoicu.com)
  • When it animal inhales, the external intercostal muscles that connect its ribs swing them outwards and forwards to accommodate the extra air. (scienceblogs.com)
  • When the gator exhales, the internal intercostals swing the ribs inwards and backwards, while the gator's rectus abdominis (its version of our six-pack) contracts, pulls the hips forward and draws the belly in. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Hiccups are referred to in the medical community as "singultus," and happen when the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between your ribs suddenly contract, according to Dr. Tyler Cymet, head of medical education at the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. (insider.com)
  • Intercostal muscle - are muscles that are located in between the ribs, they also help expanding and shrinking the chest cavity during breathing. (wikispaces.com)
  • The intercostal muscles between your ribs also help enlarge the chest cavity. (wikispaces.com)
  • Inspiration: When the diaphragm contracts by flattening and pulling downwards while the intercostal muscles contract and pull the ribs upwards and outwards. (wikispaces.com)
  • They are usually considered accessory muscles of inspirations, as they work to elevate and fix the first and second ribs, while serving to fix them during quiet breathing, becoming guy-wires from the neck. (gustrength.com)
  • The diaphragm (which is a thin sheet of muscle around a central tendon) is attached to the bottom of the breastbone, the costal cartilage of ribs 6 to 10, the ligaments (arcuate) that bridge the gap from this cartilage to the floating ribs, and the front of the lower spine (the first three lumbar vertebrae). (vajrasatiyoga.co.uk)
  • Keeping the same muscles that opened up the ribs and pulled up the breast bone during inhalation activated during exhalation will slow down the exhalation. (vajrasatiyoga.co.uk)
  • The muscle is involved in the act of inhaling and exhaling, as it lowers the ribs of the chest in its lower half. (ellemedica.com)
  • In order for the upper posterior gear-shaped muscle of the back to function correctly, blood is supplied to it by an artery located between the ribs. (ellemedica.com)
  • The serratus posterior inferior muscle originates from the spinous processes of the T11 to T12 thoracic vertebrae and has its insertion on the four lower ribs. (kenhub.com)
  • The serratus posterior inferior helps during expiration by depressing the ribs making it an accessory muscle of expiration. (kenhub.com)
  • The key to breathing is the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles between the ribs. (vdocuments.mx)
  • The MS Hug involves some or all of the intercostal muscles going into spasm - these muscles hold your ribs together and make your torso flexible. (diagnosisms.com)
  • The image at the top of the blog post shows these muscles - the most important thing to remember is that they are located around the abdomen and are largely in between the ribs. (diagnosisms.com)
  • Continue down your side, massaging the intercostal muscles between your ribs, until you reach your lower ribs. (wellandtribune.ca)
  • When these muscles contract, they elevate the ribs (Figure 2). (healthjade.com)
  • Chief among these are the internal and external intercostal muscles between the ribs. (healthjade.com)
  • During quiet breathing, the scalene muscles of the neck fix ribs 1 and 2 (hold them stationary), while the external intercostal muscles pull the other ribs upward. (healthjade.com)
  • Using the internal mammary vessels, on the other hand, would require extra time for dissection of the ribs, intercostal muscles, and finally, the vessels. (diepflap.com)
  • Both the external and internal muscles are innervated by the intercostal nerves (the ventral rami of thoracic spinal nerves), are supplied by the intercostal arteries, and are drained by the intercostal veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscle is supplied by the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves (intercostal nerves). (wikipedia.org)
  • All are innervated by intercostal nerves, and, in addition, the oblique muscles are innervated by the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves. (coursehero.com)
  • This is made possible by the motor and sensory nerves which serve the muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intercostal neuralgia is a form of neuropathic pain that results from the damage or dysfunction of one or more nerves of the peripheral or central nervous system. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Damage to intercostal nerves can occur due to a variety of diseases and conditions. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Nerve damage or dysfunction of the intercostal nerves may occur due to infection, inflammation, direct trauma, or even certain diseases of the lung or chest wall. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • As you will see from the descriptions below, these muscles are in a very crowded place and are related to many important structures such as nerves and arteries that run through the neck. (gustrength.com)
  • Together with the first rib these muscles form a triangle known as the scalene triangle or interscalene triangle , 1 through which the brachial plexus nerves and the subclavian artery pass. (gustrength.com)
  • Intercostal nerves provide innervation of the organ. (ellemedica.com)
  • Therefore, their nerve supply comes from the posterior branches of the spinal nerves, the intercostal nerves. (kenhub.com)
  • The MS Hug, or perhaps let's call it the "MS Grip Of Death" clearly involves pain that is caused by muscles gone nuts, even if they have gone nuts because there are wonky nerves between the brain and muscles. (diagnosisms.com)
  • The lungs themselves lack muscle tissue. (coursehero.com)
  • The mechanism which mammals use to breathe has several parts: lungs, intercostal muscles, a rib cage and a diaphragm - all of which work together to allow breathing to take place. (educationquizzes.com)
  • The intercostal muscles and diaphragm reduce the volume of the chest (thorax) and the increased pressure causes the air to leave the lungs. (educationquizzes.com)
  • In other words, the strength of your intercostal muscles and diaphragm aren't limiting factors in your ability to fill your lungs. (trainright.com)
  • Deterioration in the mechanical properties of the lungs and/or chest wall increases the work of breathing and the oxygen consumption/carbon dioxide production of the respiratory muscles. (medassignments.com)
  • They use their lungs like floats, and shift them about their torso using four sets of muscles. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The hips, muscles and liver all act like a massive piston that shunts the lungs back and forth across the alligator's chest, moving its centre of buoyancy with them. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The gator had to shift its lungs even further back to pitch its head forward, and accordingly, the torso muscles worked harder than normal. (scienceblogs.com)
  • By contracting these muscles on only one side of its torso, it shifts its lungs to the other side and its body starts to rotate. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Not to mention that underneath this muscle is the location of the two lungs. (swimtimelog.com)
  • When the air is inside the lungs, the two types of muscles, diaphramg and intercostal muscles will contract and flatten therefore reducing the pressure and expanding the area inside the lungs. (wikispaces.com)
  • Also behind the anterior scalene are the pleura of the lungs and the superior intercostal artery. (gustrength.com)
  • Expiration The mechanism of breathing Lungs are not muscle, cannot move of their own accord and are not controlled by the central nervous system. (vdocuments.mx)
  • When we breathe in (inspiration) the following happens: Mechanisms of breathing 19 The diaphragm pulls down The intercostal muscles contract Air pressure is reduced Air is sucked through the tubes into the lungs The chest expands. (vdocuments.mx)
  • Paralysis of the intercostal muscles of the lungs and diaphragm means that the victim cannot breathe and goes into a coma or dies owing to a lack of oxygen to the brain. (bigpictureeducation.com)
  • The average adult engages as little as 10 per cent of the diaphragm, the jellyfish-shaped muscle under the lungs primarily responsible for respiration. (wellandtribune.ca)
  • The first step in expanding the lungs during normal quiet inhalation involves contraction of the main muscle of inhalation, the diaphragm, with resistance from external intercostal muscles. (healthjade.com)
  • Contraction of the external intercostal muscles is responsible for about 25% of the air that enters the lungs during normal quiet breathing. (healthjade.com)
  • Breathing out, called exhalation (expiration), is also due to a pressure gradient, but in this case the gradient is in the opposite direction: The pressure in the lungs is greater than the pressure of the atmosphere. (healthjade.com)
  • The lungs have no muscles. (ymaa.com)
  • The diaphragm, a large muscle below the rib cage, controls the movement of the lungs. (ymaa.com)
  • It is important to understand that having the muscles on diagonals increases the amount of work they can do - a longer muscle can become shorter on contraction than can a shorter, vertical muscle, as it contracts along the full length of the muscle fibers. (yorku.ca)
  • Contraction of this muscle aids in exertional expiration by decreasing the transverse diameter of the thoracic cage. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the signal of an impulse traveling down the nerve, the muscle fiber changes chemical energy into mechanical energy, and the result is muscle contraction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unlike the involuntary muscles, which can remain in a state of contraction for long periods without tiring and are capable of sustained rhythmic contractions, the voluntary muscles are readily subject to fatigue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscle continues at a rhythmic pace until death unless the muscle is injured in some way. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Voluntary muscles extend from one bone to another, cause movements by contraction, and work on the principle of leverage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Muscles producing movement in one direction have opposed its contraction. (google.hu)
  • Contraction of this muscle abducts the arm, raising it laterally to the horizontal position. (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • Later, the diaphragm, contracts, moves downwards and expands the chest cavity resulting in the contraction of the abdominal muscles. (byjus.com)
  • Contraction of external intercostal muscles increases the volume of the thoracic cavity. (byjus.com)
  • Heart muscle contraction is controlled by a group of cells called the pacemaker which produce a small electric current. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The therapeutic effect of the method consists in relaxing and lengthening the toned muscles on the side of the concave part of the arch of the spine with simultaneous strengthening and contraction of muscle groups from the opposite side. (nannymed.com)
  • Furthermore, the activation on both sides extends the thoracic vertebral column while a unilateral contraction rotates it to the opposite side. (kenhub.com)
  • This muscle can also extend the spine in a bilateral contraction and rotates the spine in unilateral contraction. (kenhub.com)
  • Healthy elder sarcopenia leads to a decline in muscle coordination, along with decreased strength, speed of contraction, and depletion of muscle mass. (cureus.com)
  • The serratus posterior muscles provide controlled rib movement during breathing. (coursehero.com)
  • Muscles of the upper extremities include the muscles that determine the position of the shoulder, the anterior and posterior muscles that move the arm, and the muscles that move the forearm and hand. (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • Figure 4-10 Superficial muscles, posterior view. (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • The anterior border includes the pectoralis muscles, and the posterior border includes the latissimus dorsi, which are both visible at the skin surface as the anterior and posterior axillary folds, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • The rear of the muscle, its posterior border, makes contact with the brachial plexus nerve roots, which run between it and the medial scalene. (gustrength.com)
  • This muscle forms part of the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck 2 . (gustrength.com)
  • deep cervical artery, posterior intercostal a. (memorize.com)
  • The upper posterior serratus muscle is usually concerned with osteochondrosis, which affects the intervertebral discs in the upper chest. (ellemedica.com)
  • If the described points are present in a latent form, the upper posterior serratus muscle weakens, the organ functions are inhibited, and fatigue increases. (ellemedica.com)
  • Origins, insertions, innervation and function of the serratus posterior inferior muscle. (kenhub.com)
  • It's Matt from Kenhub, and in this tutorial, we will discuss the serratus posterior inferior muscle. (kenhub.com)
  • The serratus posterior muscles are two thin, superficial back muscles which lie above the intrinsic back musculature. (kenhub.com)
  • The serratus posterior muscles are comprised of the serratus posterior superior muscle and the serratus posterior inferior muscle. (kenhub.com)
  • In this short tutorial, we will focus on the serratus posterior inferior muscle or musculus serratus posterior inferior. (kenhub.com)
  • The serratus posterior muscles contribute to the movement and stabilization of the vertebral column and the thorax. (kenhub.com)
  • External intercostal muscles aid in quiet and forced inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scalene muscles, which also move the chest wall and have a function in inhalation, are also intercostal muscles, just not one of the three principal layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. bulging of the intercostal muscles during deep inhalation. (brainscape.com)
  • The most important muscle of inhalation is the diaphragm, the dome-shaped skeletal muscle that forms the floor of the thoracic cavity (Figure 1). (healthjade.com)
  • The next most important muscles of inhalation are the external intercostal muscles. (healthjade.com)
  • For example, "anterolateral" indicates a position that is both anterior and lateral to the body axis (such as the bulk of the pectoralis major muscle). (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in activity of two extrinsic appendicular muscles, the serratus ventralis and deep pectoralis, during uphill and downhill running were also consistent with the sagittal shearing hypothesis. (biologists.org)
  • The main muscles of respiration are the pectoralis, the internal and external intercostals, the serratus anterior, the rhomboids, the abdominals, the middle and lower fibres of the trapezius, the latisimus dorsi, the erector spinae and the diaphragm itself. (vajrasatiyoga.co.uk)
  • This article describes the anatomy and functions of the pectoralis major muscle, together with clinical points. (kenhub.com)
  • This article covers the anatomy of the pectoralis minor muscle, including its function, innervation and clinical aspects. (kenhub.com)
  • Their fibers run in opposite directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • a bundle of long slender cells ( muscle fibers ) that have the power to contract and hence to produce movement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Muscle fibers range in length from a few hundred thousandths of a centimeter to several centimeters. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Their fibers are grouped together in sheaths of muscle cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Groups of fibers are bundled together into fascicles , surrounded by a tough sheet of connective tissue to form a muscle group such as the biceps. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • they are involuntary and consist of striated fibers different from those of voluntary muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The fibers of each muscle converge to a tendon that inserts on the humerus. (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • Striated muscles are covered with a thin layer of connective tissue (epimysium) from which septa (perimysium) pass, dividing the muscle into fasciculi containing parallel fibers separated by connective tissue septa (endomysium). (tripod.com)
  • The fascia attaches to the transverse process of the C7 vertebra and when muscle fibers are found in it, it is called the pleuralis muscle, which is another name for the scalenus minimus . (gustrength.com)
  • The neoplasms are located strictly along the fibers of the muscle and grow 2-5 mm in diameter. (ellemedica.com)
  • A. the epigastrium and thorax moving in opposite directions. (brainscape.com)
  • The lateral body wall of vertebrates is composed of a variable number of parallel-fibered muscles that have oblique orientations relative to the body axis. (biologists.org)
  • To date, however, the locomotor functions of the muscles of the lateral body wall of fishes have not been addressed. (biologists.org)
  • Obviously, trotting mammals do not use their lateral hypaxial muscles to produce pronounced lateral bending, and the pattern of recruitment in trotting dogs ( Carrier, 1996 ) suggests that torsional stabilization is not the primary locomotor function of these muscles in mammals. (biologists.org)
  • The latissimus dorsi is the wide muscle of the back and lateral trunk. (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • The scalene muscles are three paired muscles of the neck, located in the front on either side of the throat, just lateral to the sternocleidomastoid. (gustrength.com)
  • These three muscles form the lateral abdominal musculature. (kenhub.com)
  • The working incision is usually placed in the 5th intercostal space just lateral to the midclavicular line ( Figure 2 ). (ctsnet.org)
  • Respiration requires the coordination of many muscles, namely, the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles for inspiration and the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles for expiration. (coursehero.com)
  • Breathing out ( expiration ) involves the opposite actions to breathing in ( inspiration ). (educationquizzes.com)
  • Expiration: It is the opposite of inspiration, and is a passive process. (wikispaces.com)
  • Both described muscles are classified as primary respiratory, as their contractions provide inspiration. (ellemedica.com)
  • A blocked coronary artery will restrict blood flow to the heart or the muscles. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Although rib cage (RC) and abdomen (Ab) motion is believed to reflect intercostal and diaphragm contributions to breathing, systematic investigations have failed to confirm this. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The muscles of the trunk include the muscles involved in breathing, the thin muscle layers of the abdomen, and the muscles of the pelvic floor. (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • One doctor says that this method works because it forces "your abdomen muscles to contract," which stops hiccups. (insider.com)
  • This movement forces your abdomen muscles to contract, and probably also distracts you from your hiccups as you try to drink without making a mess. (insider.com)
  • During exhalation, all of the muscles relax and the chest and abdomen return to normal, or resting position. (chipur.com)
  • The muscles responsible for respiration include the diaphragm and 11 pairs each of internal and external intercostal muscles. (coursehero.com)
  • To breathe in, the intercostal muscles expand the rib cage and the diaphragm contracts, moving downwards. (educationquizzes.com)
  • Load compensation in 29 cervical cord-injured men was inferred from the difference between actual first-breath responses to graded elastic and resistive loads and those calculated assuming identical respiratory muscle pressure (Pmus) wave forms in the unloaded and loaded states (i.e., the passive prediction). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of resistive loads applied at the mouth were compared to the effects of bronchospasm on ventilation, respiratory muscle force (occlusion pressure), and respiratory sensations in 6 normal and 11 asthmatic subjects breathing 100% O2. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Other causes include chest-wall deformities, respiratory muscle weakness (e.g. (medassignments.com)
  • The concept that respiratory muscle fatigue (either acute or chronic) is an important factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory failure is controversial. (medassignments.com)
  • The use of diaphragmatic breathing is commonly practiced, especially in those patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to improve a variety of factors such as pulmonary function, cardiorespiratory fitness, respiratory muscle length, and respiratory muscle strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these patients it is extremely important, therefore, to measure lung function and respiratory muscle action in order to monitor the progression of the disease, to identify early signs of ventilatory insufficiency, to plan optimal interventions for improving the quality of life and to quantify the effects of novel gene-modifying strategies and pharmacological therapies [ 1 - 9 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Specific respiratory outcome measures are needed to objectively evaluate the effects of interventions in DMD, not only regarding spirometric and lung volume indexes but also respiratory muscle function. (ersjournals.com)
  • Several indexes of respiratory muscle expenditure from surface electromyography using linear and non-linear processing techniques were evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • ABSTRACT This study aimed to explore the usefulness of measuring respiratory muscle activity in mechanically ventilated patients suffering from acute organophosphate poisoning, with a view towards providing complementary information to determine the best time to suspend ventilatory support. (bvsalud.org)
  • A physiologic rate responsive pacer which alters the pacer's escape interval in response to the patient's respiratory minute ventilation derived from the electromyogram of selected respiratory muscle groups. (google.com)
  • The EMG may be selectively picked up from electrodes implanted in or near the parasternal intercostal muscles, the external intercostal muscles, the internal intercostal muscles, the diaphragm, or any other respiratory muscle such as the scalenes, or the sternocleidomastoid, and coupled to conventionally designed or special configuration pacemaker pulse generators and cardiac pace/sense lead systems. (google.com)
  • The external intercostals (not shown), take the opposite path, that is they go downward and OUTWARD when viewed from the back. (yorku.ca)
  • The external intercostal muscles extend downward and behind each rib, connecting to the rib below. (coursehero.com)
  • You just pour a glass of water, move your head forward and downward over the glass, and tilt the glass forward so you're drinking from the "opposite" side of the glass where your fingers usually grip the cup. (insider.com)
  • Absence of the inguinal portion or of the anterior superior part of the muscle has been recorded. (anatomyatlases.org)
  • In the trunk of the body, four pairs of muscles line and support the anterior abdominal wall: the rectus abdominis muscles, the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles, and the transversus abdominis. (coursehero.com)
  • The many muscles forming the trunk's anterior abdominal wall, like the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, and the obliques, create a strong shield that protects abdominal organs and contributes to movements of the vertebral column. (coursehero.com)
  • Figure 4-9 Superficial muscles, anterior view. (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • The biceps brachii , located at the anterior arm along the humerus, is the muscle you usually display when you want to "flex your muscles" to show your strength (Fig. 4-12 A) . It inserts on the radius and flexes the forearm. (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • Just behind the anterior scalene is the scalenus medius, referring to the 'middle' muscle. (gustrength.com)
  • This normal variation may have implications in thoracic outlet syndromes , as does the scalenus anterior, resulting in a syndrome known as Scalenus Anterior sydrome or Scalenus Anticus syndrome (another name for the anterior muscle). (gustrength.com)
  • Reaming puts torque on the value of sonography in lesions of the anterior scalene muscle release, over. (naturalpath.net)
  • and the intercartilaginous part of the internal intercostals (the anterior part between the costal cartilages). (healthjade.com)
  • at each side of the neck, also, lies a thin muscle fluence of the will. (google.hu)
  • Before we jump into the drills let me first say that if you feel any discomfort or strain in the neck, or if your neck muscles aren't strong enough to comfortably support your head, clasp your hands behind your head to support as you are doing these exercises, instead of hugging the chest. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • As breathing difficulty worsens, accessory muscles, such as the sternocleidomastoid and scalene in the neck, contract to elevate the upper portion of the ribcage. (fromnewtoicu.com)
  • The scalenus muscle is a reinforcement of Sibson's fascia, which serves to stiffen the thoracic inlet and the neck structures above it so that they are not 'puffed' up and down during forced respiration. (gustrength.com)
  • Shallow chest breathing can overburden the heart, strain the neck and shoulder muscles, and keep you in a constant state of low-grade stress. (wellandtribune.ca)
  • When you breathe into the chest, muscles in the neck, shoulders, upper chest and back try to help out and can become tight. (wellandtribune.ca)
  • Its hard rubber may cause more pain than good, particularly when it comes to the neck muscles. (wellandtribune.ca)
  • a shortened diaphragm, intercostals and accessory muscles from prolonged spasm causing stenosis of the major airways leading to an abnormal respiratory pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus they are considered accessory muscles of respiration. (healthjade.com)
  • Internal intercostal muscles aid in forced expiration (quiet expiration is a passive process). (wikipedia.org)
  • the opposite of expiration. (tabers.com)
  • The transversus thoracis muscle ( / t r æ n z ˈ v ɜːr s ə s θ ə ˈ r eɪ s ɪ s / ) lies internal to the thoracic cage , anteriorly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the muscles release, the thoracic cage returns to its relaxed size, expelling air. (coursehero.com)
  • The external intercostal muscles contract and pull the rib cage up and out when we breathe in. (educationquizzes.com)
  • Simply breathing involves the movement of the rib cage, which may exacerbate intercostal neuralgia pain and lead to respiratory problems and difficulty breathing. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, allowing the diaphragm to move upwards and the intercostal muscles let the rib cage relax to the resting state. (wikispaces.com)
  • When exhaling, the body goes through a passive recoil where the muscles that moved the rib cage, as well as those in the diaphragm, release causing the volume to decrease again, reversing the effect and causing the air to rush out back to the air around us. (vajrasatiyoga.co.uk)
  • Diagram of the course and branches of a typical intercostal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The front of the muscle runs close the the brachial plexus and the upper two thoracic nerve roots run through it. (gustrength.com)
  • The upper two roots of the long thoracic nerve go through the muscle. (gustrength.com)
  • In this case, the nerve impulse is blocked and symptoms include muscle paralysis and a low heart rate (bradycardia). (bigpictureeducation.com)
  • Thoracic diaphragm - a dome-shaped muscle that is located right under the ribcage. (wikispaces.com)
  • At the bottom of the sternum can be seen the tranversus thoracis muscle which originates there and inserts onto the inner surfaces of the second to the sixth costal cartilages. (yorku.ca)
  • When you inhale, the muscle drops down. (ymaa.com)
  • This exhalation is smooth and relatively passive, requiring muscles only to maintain partial tension. (coursehero.com)
  • Forced exhalation of air, as in blowing out a flame, is driven by the internal intercostal muscles. (coursehero.com)
  • Abdominal muscles can also be used during active exhalation, as might occur during periods of severe bronchoconstriction. (fromnewtoicu.com)
  • the opposite is true for the exhalation. (vajrasatiyoga.co.uk)
  • The fascicles of the three muscle pairs run in different directions on each muscle, together forming a strong abdominal wall. (coursehero.com)
  • vocal coach in moline city kansas It also intercostal breathing or "abdominal wall muscles. (firstsinginglessonstories.com)
  • groups of abdominal muscles including the obliques, rectus abdominis, and transversus abdominis permit flexibility, stabilization, and rotation of the vertebral column. (coursehero.com)
  • This engages the lats, abs and obliques, strengthening your core, supporting torso stability and strengthening the back muscles. (bestmusclesupps.com)
  • Now the external intercostal muscles relax and the internal intercostal muscles contract. (byjus.com)
  • Massaging the upper body with a tennis or massage ball can break this cycle and loosen, lengthen and relax the muscles. (wellandtribune.ca)
  • The intercostal muscles are mainly involved in the mechanical aspect of breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • These muscles help expand and shrink the size of the chest cavity to facilitate breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three indexes of inspiratory muscle function were evaluated in 20 healthy young adults before and after a six-week program of diaphragmatic breathing exercises. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The absence of a ventilatory function in fishes and the predominance of the locomotor function in running tetrapods indicates that the basic architecture of the hypaxial muscles is likely to be related to locomotion rather than to breathing. (biologists.org)
  • The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm, a broad structure of muscle and fibrous tissue that is responsible for most of the effort of normal breathing. (fromnewtoicu.com)
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles provide most of the effort of normal breathing, as well as the beginning stages of respiratory distress. (fromnewtoicu.com)
  • The body has two mechanisms for breathing--the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles. (aikiweb.com)
  • In breathing, these muscles help by contracting and reducing the chest cavity therefore creating suction. (wikispaces.com)
  • Ventilation is also called breathing, and what breathing really is is when the co-ordination of the diaphragm and surrounding muscles cause air to flow into and out of the alveoli. (wikispaces.com)
  • Diaphragmatic breathing, or deep breathing, is breathing that is done by contracting the diaphragm, a muscle located horizontally between the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because we re losing muscle mass as we age, the muscles that play a part in our breathing are getting slightly weaker. (voiceoverxtra.com)
  • And when muscles of the upper body are chronically tight, they can restrict normal breathing. (wellandtribune.ca)
  • Although not part of the respiratory system, the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles play important roles in breathing. (studyres.com)
  • The diaphragm muscle is the most important contractile district used for breathing. (cureus.com)
  • The article discusses the adaptation of the diaphragm muscle to ageing and some other ailments and co-morbidities, such as back pain, emotional alterations, motor incoordination, and cognitive disorders, which are related to breathing. (cureus.com)
  • Thoracic diaphragm, another muscle importantly involved in respiratory action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some muscles are attached to bones by tendons . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This joint requires the support of four deep muscles and their tendons, which compose the rotator cuff . (lubopitko-bg.com)
  • A fibrous band or inscription frequently interrupts the internal oblique and the intercostal muscles. (anatomyatlases.org)
  • They apparently represent tendinous intersections between the internal oblique and the internal intercostal muscles. (anatomyatlases.org)
  • Gruber, W. (1873) Un cas de muscle oblique interne de l'abdomen, prive completement de sa portion inguinal. (anatomyatlases.org)
  • External abdominal oblique muscles run closest to the abdomen's exterior. (coursehero.com)
  • The internal abdominal oblique muscles run deep to the external abdominal oblique muscles. (coursehero.com)
  • To test these hypotheses, we compared the amount of activity of the intercostal and abdominal oblique muscles (i) when dogs carried additional mass (8-15% of body mass) supported over the limb girdles versus supported mid-trunk (test of sagittal bounce), and (ii) when dogs trotted up versus down a 10° slope (test of sagittal shear). (biologists.org)
  • In response to the loading manipulations, only the internal oblique muscle responded in a manner that was consistent with stabilization of the trunk against forces that cause the trunk to sag sagittally. (biologists.org)
  • Specifically, muscles with a craniodorsal orientation (external oblique and external intercostal muscles) showed an increase in activity when the dogs ran downhill and a decrease when they ran uphill. (biologists.org)
  • Muscles with a cranioventral orientation (internal oblique and internal intercostal muscles) exhibited the opposite pattern: increased activity when the dogs ran uphill and decreased activity when they ran downhill. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, changes in the level of recruitment of the oblique hypaxial muscles were not consistent with stabilization of the trunk against torques that induce yaw at the girdles. (biologists.org)
  • Hence, we suggest that the oblique hypaxial muscles of trotting dogs act to stabilize the trunk against sagittal shearing torques induced by limb retraction (fore-aft acceleration) and protraction (fore-aft deceleration). (biologists.org)
  • These limited observations led us to suspect that the locomotor function of the oblique hypaxial muscles of mammals is different from that in ectothermic tetrapods. (biologists.org)
  • This muscle is also oblique, it is directed upwards and laterally. (ellemedica.com)
  • The subjects underwent postural asymmetry assessments through SMTG and neuromuscular assessment through surface EMG of the trapezius (TRAP), erector spinae (ERE), oblique (OBLI) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles. (bvsalud.org)
  • Surface electromyography in respiratory muscles (diaphragm, external intercostal and sternocleidomastoid muscles) was recorded in a young man affected by self-poisoning with an unknown amount of parathion to determine the muscle activity level during several weaning attempts from mechanical ventilation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The same muscles that help an alligator to swim without disturbance also allow it to breathe. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Clothes get tight because the muscles push out, but the muscles also push in, so vomiting ensues and I can barely breathe more than small gasps of air. (diagnosisms.com)
  • The muscles, bundles, and cells are enclosed in an indifferent connective tissue material much as is found in striated muscles. (tripod.com)
  • Yin uses long-held static floor poses to release, not only tight muscles but also the whole web of connective tissue that wraps around every muscle and bone in our bodies. (oceanflowfitness.com)
  • Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the trapezius muscle. (kenhub.com)
  • Origin, insertion, innervation and function of the rectus abdominis muscle. (kenhub.com)
  • This article describes the anatomy of the rectus abdominis muscle, including attachments, blood supply and innervation. (kenhub.com)
  • It stretches out my intercostal muscles and upper back near my shoulder blades. (thefabulous.co)
  • Mandatory differentiated inclusion in the massage session, not only the muscles of the back, but also the belts of the upper and lower extremities( pelvis, shoulder, shoulders, hips), depending on the location of the curvature of the spine. (nannymed.com)
  • The effect on the muscular groups of the chest, gluteus and the shoulder area ensures the consolidation of the achieved results of the massage, the formation of a correct posture and establishes the formed motor-muscle stereotype. (nannymed.com)
  • The tipping forward of the shoulder blade also causes mechanical disadvantage to the shoulder and increases the chance of subacromial impingement and inflammation and also of muscle injury, particularly to the rotator cuff muscles and lo and behold I have had exactly those problems. (vauxhallvillageosteopathy.com)
  • during extension, the external intercostal muscle fibres originate in the diaphyseal region puts a patient is supine on the face, the opposite shoulder comfort or function of smooth muscle children, stones sometimes originate in. (naturalpath.net)
  • There are obvious muscle atrophy o the bilateral shoulder girdles, upper limbs, thenar muscles, interosseus muscles and intercostal muscles. (chinastemcell.com.cn)
  • TJ Uriona and C.G. Farmer from the University of Utah surgically attached electrodes to these muscles in five young American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), and monitored their contractions as the youngsters swam about a small tank. (scienceblogs.com)
  • EKG, electrocardiogram (from intercostal electrodes). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is in the same layer as the subcostal muscles and the innermost intercostal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • intercostal a, subcostal a. first two lumbar a. (memorize.com)
  • and smooth, or nonstriated, including all the involuntary muscles except the heart. (tripod.com)
  • Fibrous structures, the tendinous intersections, separate the rectus abdominis into four sections that are visible in a lean, muscled person. (coursehero.com)
  • A fibrous rectus sheath encases the paired muscles, and a vertical line, the linea alba, marks the separation between right and left muscles. (coursehero.com)
  • Some texts refer to a fourth scalene muscle, the scalenus minor. (gustrength.com)
  • Buford J, Yoder S, Givens Heiss D, Chidley J. Actions of the scalene muscles for rotation of the cervical spine in macaque and human. (posturalrestoration.com)
  • Efficient intake and output of air involves the intercostal muscles and diaphragm which change the volume and pressure inside the chest. (getrevising.co.uk)