Cytosine NucleotidesGuanineCytosine Deaminase: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Guanine NucleotidesGuanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Adenine NucleotidesPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.UracilAdenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Guanine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.ThymineKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.ras Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Uracil-DNA Glycosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Nucleotides, CyclicPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Nucleobase Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Thymine DNA Glycosylase: An enzyme that removes THYMINE and URACIL bases mispaired with GUANINE through hydrolysis of their N-glycosidic bond. These mispaired nucleotides generally occur through the hydrolytic DEAMINATION of 5-METHYLCYTOSINE to thymine.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Deoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cytidine Monophosphate: Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Pentoxyl: 5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Thioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.UridineDNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Arabinofuranosylcytosine Triphosphate: A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Osmium Tetroxide: (T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.IMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.205.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.DNA-Formamidopyrimidine Glycosylase: A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
There are four bases in a DNA molecule: adenine (A), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and guanine (G). Nucleotide is a structural ... The double helix structure of DNA is composed of two antiparallel strands which are oriented in opposite directions. DNA is ... composed of base pairs in which adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. While DNA serves as template for ...
... which can only be ligated if the next nucleotide on the opposite strand is a thymine. Then fragments starting with cytosine, ... guanine and thymine are attempted in turn, and the cycle is repeated. The magnetic field is released after each ligation, and ... Therefore, an incorporation of a complementary nucleotide is indicated by an increase in 7 nucleotides (+5 nm) followed by a ... First, a DNA fragment can be converted into a new sequence in which each original nucleotide is encoded by a specific 8-nt ...
During DNA replication, DNA polymerases that catalyze the process frequently place thymine, instead of cytosine, opposite O6- ... It produces random mutations in genetic material by nucleotide substitution; particularly by guanine alkylation. This typically ... The ethyl group of EMS reacts with guanine in DNA, forming the abnormal base O6-ethylguanine. ...
Chromosomes all contain DNA made up of four nucleotides, abbreviated C (cytosine), G (guanine), A (adenine), or T (thymine), ... an A nucleotide must go opposite a T nucleotide, and a G opposite a C. This exact pairing is called base pairing. When DNA is ... C on one string is always opposite from G on the other string; A is always opposite T. There are about 3.2 billion nucleotide ... These units are four types of nucleotides (A,T,G and C) and the sequence of nucleotides stores information in an alphabet ...
Cytosine (C) with Guanine (G)), a (single-stranded) nucleotide sequence is said to be a palindrome if it is equal to its ... Since a double helix is formed by two paired strands of nucleotides that run in opposite directions in the 5'-to-3' sense, and ... For example, the DNA sequence ACCTAGGT is palindromic because its nucleotide-by-nucleotide complement is TGGATCCA, and ... Nucleotide insertions at V-D and D-J junctions are random, but some small subsets of these insertions are exceptional, in that ...
In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are ... and guanine (G) forms one with cytosine (C) in DNA. In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil (U). Alternate hydrogen bonding ... A single turn of the helix constitutes about ten nucleotides, and contains a major groove and minor groove, the major groove ... A common method do determine the most probable structures given a sequence of nucleotides makes use of a dynamic programming ...
Main article: Nucleotide. The canonical structure of DNA has four bases: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G ... linked together by hydrogen bonds and running in opposite directions. Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides ... It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases-adenine, guanine, cytosine, and ... If the introduced nucleotide is complementary to the leading template nucleotide it is incorporated into the growing ...
... a guanine will be inserted as the opposite base analog, and in the next DNA replication, that guanine will pair with a cytosine ... they did not create mRNA or proteins able to use the artificial nucleotides. The artificial nucleotides featured 2 fused ... and cytosine and guanine are mixed amine and carbonyl (inverted in respect to each other). The precise reason why there are ... which have their amine and ketone inverted compared to standard guanine and cytosine, (not used probably as tautomers are ...
This target site overlap would dictate that either a cytosine or adenine residue be present as the 3' nucleotide in the finger ... in the opposite strand) base-paired to the guanine in the finger 2 subsite. It can also form the same hydrogen bond with an ... this case the target site overlap is a result of the aspartic acid residue forming a hydrogen bond with the N4 of the cytosine ... amino acid sequence of finger 2 is changed in order to determine the appropriate sequence to target a given three-nucleotide ...
The four types of nucleotide correspond to the four nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, commonly abbreviated ... The strands of the double helix are anti-parallel with one being 5' to 3', and the opposite strand 3' to 5'. These terms refer ... as A, C, G and T. Adenine and guanine are purine bases, while cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines. These nucleotides form ... Adenine pairs with thymine (two hydrogen bonds), and guanine pairs with cytosine (stronger: three hydrogen bonds). DNA strands ...
... cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are ... In a nucleic acid double helix, the direction of the nucleotides in one strand is opposite to their direction in the other ... cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). These four bases are attached to the sugar-phosphate to form the complete nucleotide ... and cytosine bonding only to guanine in three hydrogen bonds. This arrangement of two nucleotides binding together across the ...
... guanine and cytosine. Adenine and guanine are purines, while thymine, cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines. Purines are larger ... each nucleotide is across from its opposite) to no complementarity (each nucleotide is not across from its opposite) and ... guanine = b, cytosine = q, adenine = n, and thymine = u), which makes it is possible to complement entire DNA sequences by ... which only works efficiently between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine. The base complement A=T shares two ...
... cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U)-are called primary or canonical. They function as the fundamental units ... Nucleoside Nucleotide Nucleic acid notation Nucleic acid sequence Callahan; Smith, K.E.; Cleaves, H.J.; Ruzica, J.; Stern, J.C ... In the double helix of DNA, the two strands are oriented chemically in opposite directions, which permits base pairing by ... xanthine from guanine., and uracil results from deamination of cytosine. These are examples of modified adenosine or guanosine ...
... while guanine pairs with cytosine with three hydrogen bonds. Nucleotides can be synthesized by a variety of means both in vitro ... In a double helix, the two strands are oriented in opposite directions, which permits base pairing and complementarity between ... The purine bases adenine and guanine and pyrimidine base cytosine occur in both DNA and RNA, while the pyrimidine bases thymine ... In vivo, nucleotides can be synthesized de novo or recycled through salvage pathways. The components used in de novo nucleotide ...
... cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Genetic information exists in the sequence of these nucleotides, and genes exist as ... Each nucleotide in DNA preferentially pairs with its partner nucleotide on the opposite strand: A pairs with T, and C pairs ... Their double-helix model had two strands of DNA with the nucleotides pointing inward, each matching a complementary nucleotide ... The nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA is used to create an amino acid sequence in protein; this translation between ...
... cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Two chains of DNA twist around each other to form a DNA double helix with the phosphate-sugar ... The nucleotide sequence of a gene's DNA specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein through the genetic code. Sets of three ... The two strands of a double-helix run in opposite directions. Nucleic acid synthesis, including DNA replication and ... whereas cytosine and guanine form three hydrogen bonds. The two strands in a double helix must therefore be complementary, with ...
TDG can remove thymine glycol when present opposite guanine, as well as derivatives of U with modifications at carbon 5. ... which can arise either by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or by the misincorporation of dU opposite dA during DNA ... 1996). A nucleotide-flipping mechanism from the structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase bound to DNA. 384: 87-92. Kavli B, ... The most common mutation is the deamination of cytosine to uracil. UDG repairs these mutations. UDG is crucial in DNA repair, ...
Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen-containing nucleobase-either cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T)- ... The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one ... The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of ... Small red dwarfs have the opposite problem, with a smaller habitable zone that is subject to higher levels of magnetic activity ...
This pairing always occurs in specific combinations, with cytosine along with guanine, and thymine along with adenine, forming ... Once it is bound, a nonprocessive DNA polymerase adds nucleotides at a rate of one nucleotide per second. Processive DNA ... It is important to note that the directionality of the newly forming strand (the daughter strand) is opposite to the direction ... Pol I adds ~15-20 nucleotides per second, thus showing poor processivity. Instead, Pol I starts adding nucleotides at the RNA ...
Pairings between guanine and cytosine have three hydrogen bonds and are more stable compared to adenine-uracil pairings, which ... It occurs when two regions of the same strand, usually complementary in nucleotide sequence when read in opposite directions, ... and is particularly stable due to the base-stacking interactions of its component nucleotides. Stem-loops occur in pre-microRNA ...
... adenine and guanine, and pyrimidine nucleobases, thymine and cytosine. Activated free deoxyribonucleotides exist in the cell as ... Additionally, incorrectly inserted nucleotides can be removed and replaced by the correct nucleotides in an energetically ... Since replication occurs in opposite directions at opposite ends of parent chromosomes, each strand is a lagging strand at one ... DNA Pol α elongates the newly formed primer with DNA nucleotides. After around 20 nucleotides, elongation is taken over by Pol ...
In many organisms, one strand of DNA in the plasmid comprises heavier nucleotides (relatively more purines: adenine and guanine ... The L (light) strand comprises lighter nucleotides (pyrimidines: thymine and cytosine). Replication begins with replication of ... a new light strand will be synthesized in the opposite direction as the heavy strand. There is more than one proposed process ...
... cytosine, Y=pyrimidine, or the inverse RGYW G=guanine). The resultant U:G (U= uracil) mismatch is then subject to one of a ... resulting in random incorporation of any of the four nucleotides, i.e. A, G, C, or T. Also, this abasic site may be cleaved by ... publication suggests that high AID activity at a few non-immunoglobulin targets is achieved when transcription on opposite DNA ... AID deaminates cytosine in the target DNA. Cytosines located within hotspot motifs are preferentially deaminated (WRCY motifs W ...
1948 - Erwin Chargaff showed that in DNA the number of guanine units equals the number of cytosine units and the number of ... 1974 - Manfred Eigen and Manfred Sumper showed that mixtures of nucleotide monomers and RNA replicase will give rise to RNA ... with one sugar-phosphate backbone running in the opposite direction to the other. They further suggested a mechanism by which ... 1961 - Joan Oró found that concentrated solutions of ammonium cyanide in water can produce the nucleotide adenine, a discovery ...
... there is a severe distortion to the DNA helix due to a shortened distance between guanines on opposite strands and a cytosine ... In genetics, crosslinking of DNA occurs when various exogenous or endogenous agents react with two nucleotides of DNA, forming ... guanine-thymine and thymine-guanine intrastrand cross-links in mammalian cells and translesion synthesis past the guanine- ... These agents differ from other crosslinkers as they alkylate O6 of guanine to form an O6-ethanoguanine. This intermediate ...
CTP sintaza (EC 6.3.4.2, UTP-amonijak ligaza, citidin trifosfatna sintetaza, uridin trifosfatna aminaza, citidin 5'-trifosfatna sintetaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom UTP:amonijak ligaza (formira ADP).[1][2] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju ...
Aside from the obvious necessity of wobble, that our bodies have a limited amount of tRNAs and wobble allows for broad specificity, wobble base pairs have been shown to facilitate many biological functions, most clearly proven in the bacterium Escherichia coli. In fact, in a study of E. coli's tRNA for alanine there is a wobble base pair that determines whether the tRNA will be aminoacylated. When a tRNA reaches an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, the job of the synthetase is to join the t-shaped RNA with its amino acid. These aminoacylated tRNA's go on to the translation of an mRNA transcript, and are the fundamental elements that connect to the codon of the amino acid.[1] The necessity of the wobble base pair is illustrated through experimentation where the Guanine- Uracil pairing is changed to its natural Guanine- Cytosine pairing. Oligoribonucleotides were synthesized on a Gene Assembler Plus, and then spread across a DNA ...
8-Oxoguanine glycosylase also known as OGG1 is a DNA glycosylase enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the OGG1 gene. It is involved in base excision repair. It is found in bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species. OGG1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the excision of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a mutagenic base byproduct that occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). OGG1 is a bifunctional glycosylase, as it is able to both cleave the glycosidic bond of the mutagenic lesion and cause a strand break in the DNA backbone. Alternative splicing of the C-terminal region of this gene classifies splice variants into two major groups, type 1 and type 2, depending on the last exon of the sequence. Type 1 alternative splice variants end with exon 7 and type 2 end with exon 8. One set of spliced forms are designated 1a, 1b, 2a to 2e. All variants have the N-terminal region in common. Many alternative splice variants for this gene have been described, but the ...
The genotoxic substances induce damage to the genetic material in the cells through interactions with the DNA sequence and structure. For example, the transition metal chromium interacts with DNA in its high-valent oxidation state so to incur DNA lesions leading to carcinogenesis. The metastable oxidation state Cr(V) is achieved through reductive activation. The researchers performed an experiment to study the interaction between DNA with the carcinogenic chromium by using a Cr(V)-Salen complex at the specific oxidation state.[3] The interaction was specific to the guanine nucleotide in the genetic sequence. In order to narrow the interaction between the Cr(V)-Salen complex with the guanine base, the researchers modified the bases to 8-oxo-G so to have site specific oxidation. The reaction between the two molecules caused DNA lesions; the two lesions observed at the modified base site were guanidinohydantoin and spiroiminodihydantoin. To further analyze the site of lesion, ...
Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified as purines. In purine synthesis, PRPP is turned into inosine monophosphate, or IMP. Production of IMP from PRPP requires glutamine, glycine, aspartate, and 6 ATP, among other things.[1] IMP is then converted to AMP (adenosine monophosphate) using GTP and aspartate, which is converted into fumarate. While IMP can be directly converted to AMP, synthesis of GMP (guanosine monophosphate) requires an intermediate step, in which NAD+ is used to form the intermediate xanthosine monophosphate, or XMP. XMP is then converted into GMP by using the hydrolysis of 1 ATP and the conversion of glutamine to glutamate.[1] AMP and GMP can then be converted into ATP and GTP, respectively, by kinases that add additional phosphates.. ATP stimulates production of GTP, while GTP stimulates production of ATP. This cross regulation keeps the relative amounts of ATP and GTP the same. Excess of either nucleotide could increase the likelihood of DNA ...
አር ኤን ኤ ( RNA ) እንደ ዲ ኤን ኤ ( DNA ) ከኒክሉኢክ አሲድ ( Nucleic acid ) የተሠራ ነው። እንደ ዲ ኤን ኤ አራት ቤዝ (base) አለው። እነሱም አዴናዪን ( A, adenine) ፤ ዩራሲል ( U, uracil ) ( ዲ ኤን ኤ ግን በዩራሲል ፋንታ ታያሚን ( T, thymine ) ነው ያለው) ጓኒን ( G, guanine ) እና ሳይቶሲን ( C, Cytosine )። ኑክሌይክ አሲዶች ደግሞ ሶስት መሰረታዊ አካላቶች አላቸው። ቤዝ፡ ሱካሩ ( sugar group ) እና ፎስፌት ግሩፑ ( the phosphate group ) ናቸው። አር ኤን ኤን ከዲ ኤን ኤ የሚለየዉ ሌላው ነገር የአር ኤን ኤ ስኳር ሁለተኛ ካርቦን ሀይድሮክሲል ( hydroxyl group (-OH )) ሲኖረው ዲ ኤን ኤ ግን ያለው ኤች ( H ) ብቻ ነው። ይህም አር ኤን ኤን በጣም ተለካካፊ ( reactive ) አድርጎታል። ...
गुवानिन के रूपों के अतिसूक्ष्म मात्रा, अम्मोनियम सायनाइड (NH4CN) के पॉलीमराइज़ेशन से बनते हैं। लेवी एत. एल. द्वारा किए गए दो प्रयोगों से ज्ञात हुआ कि 10 mol•L−1 NH4CN को 80 °C पर चौबीस घंटे तक गर्म करने पर 0.0007% मिलता है, जबकि 0.1 mol•L−1 NH4CN को -20 °C पर पच्चीस वर्षों तक प्रशितन में रखने पर 0.0035% उपज मिलती है। इन परिणामों से ज्ञात होता है, कि गुवानिन प्राचीन काल में पृथ्वी पर उत्पादित हो पाई होगी। In 1984, Yuasa reported a 0.00017% yield of guanine after ...
CCC(C)C(C(=O)NC(C(C)CC)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CC(=O)N)C(=O)NC(C)C(=O)NC(CC1=CC=C(C=C1)O)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NCC(=O)NC(CCC(=O)O)C(=O)O)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(CC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CC2=CC=CC=C2)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C3CCCN3C(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(CCSC)NC(=O)C(CC4=CC=CC=C4)NC(=O)CNC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CC5=CC=C(C=C5)O) ...
இது ஒரு புறவெப்பத்தாக்கமாகும். வெப்பநிலை அதிகமாக இருந்தால் கலவையில் NO2 வீதம் அதிகமாக இருக்கும். குறைவான வெப்பநிலையில் N2O4 இன் வீதம் அதிகமாகும். NO2 வாயு செங்கபில நிறமானது, ஆனால் N2O4 வாயு நிறமற்றதாகும். எனவே அதிக வெப்பநிலையில் கடுங்கபில நிறமாவதுடன் குறைவான வெப்பநிலையில் வெளிறிய கபில நிறத்தை வாயுக்கலவை அடைகின்றது.. At 150 °C, வெப்பநிலையில் NO ...
ဒိုင်ယက်သိုင် အီသာ သည် ဓာတုဗေဒသဘောအရ အီသာမှာ ဒိုင်အက်သဲအောက်ဆိုက် ဖြစ်သည်။ ယင်း၏ ဓာတုဗေဒအမည်မှာ အက်သဲအီသာ ဖြစ်၍ ဓာတုပုံသေနည်းမှာ (C2H5)2O ဖြစ်သည်။ အီသာသည် အရောင် မရှိသော အရည်ဖြစ်သည်။ အငွေ့ပျံ၍ နှစ်သက်ဘွယ်ကောင်း သော အနံ့ရှိသည်။ ထိုအငွေ့ကိုသာ ဆက်၍ ရှူလျှင် ရှူသူ သည် မေ့သွားသဖြင့် ခွဲစိတ်မှုကိစ္စများတွင် အသုံးပြုနိုင်လေ သည်။ ကိုယ်ခန္ဓာ၏ အစိတ်အပိုင်းတစ်ခုခုတွင် ...
... (XMRV) is a retrovirus which was first described in 2006 as an apparently novel human pathogen found in tissue samples from men with prostate cancer.[1][2] Initial reports erroneously linked the virus to prostate cancer and later to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), leading to considerable interest in the scientific and patient communities, investigation of XMRV as a potential cause of multiple medical conditions, and public-health concerns about the safety of the donated blood supply.[3][4][5] Xenotropic viruses replicate or reproduce in cells other than those of the host species.[6] Murine refers to the rodent family Muridae, which includes common household rats and mice.[7] Subsequent research established that XMRV was in fact a laboratory contaminant, rather than a novel pathogen.[4][5] XMRV was generated unintentionally in the laboratory, through genetic recombination between two mouse retroviruses during propagation of a prostate-cancer cell ...
... is a combination drug involving a gene therapy agent and a prodrug. It is a candidate drug to treat brain cancers. Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec) is a gene therapy agent, wherein the payload is a gene encoding cytosine deaminase (CD) in a replicating, non-lytic retroviral vector. Toca FC is an extended-release formulation of the antifungal drug, 5-fluorocytosine, which is a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil, a known cancer drug. 5-fluorouracil does not cross the blood-brain barrier well, but 5-fluorocytosine does. The combination drug was designed to be used after a brain tumor is removed surgically; Toca 511 is intended to be injected into the tissues lining the hole where the tumor was (this region is called the margin), where the virus replicates only in cells that are dividing - in other words, cancer cells left over in the margin and immune cells that are present. ...
... is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means one only needs a single abnormal gene from his/her parents to have PASLI disease. Of the two copies of PIK3CD each person carries, the abnormal PIK3CD gene dominates despite the fact that the matching PIK3CD gene from the other parent is normal. Additionally, dominant inheritance means most families with PASLI disease have affected relatives in each generation on the side of the family with the mutation. An alternative type of PIK3CD mutation is called de novo, which means that the mutation was not inherited from the parents but rather spontaneously arose in the patient. Children of a parent who carries a PIK3CD mutation have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation. In a family, each child's risk of inheriting the mutated PIK3CD gene is independent of whether or not other siblings have the mutation. For example, if the first three children in a family have the mutation, the next child has the same 50% risk of inheriting the ...
Make research projects and school reports about nucleotide easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... guanine nucleotides are base-paired opposite cytosine nucleotides. Adenine nucleotides are base-paired opposite thymine ... The most important nucleotides are those derived from the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... nucleotide (nōō´klēətīd´, nyōō´-), organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids. Nucleotides consist of ...
The sequence of the 4 base groups (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine; coloured rods) along the DNA helix is unique for ... Complementary pairing between the base groups of nucleotides on opposite strands holds the helix together. ... are composed of complex chemical groups called nucleotides, which consist of a sugar phosphate and a base group. ... The sequence of the 4 base groups (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine; coloured rods) along the DNA helix is unique for ...
G: Guanine. A: Adenine. T: Thymine. C: Cytosine. U: Uracil (which is not present in DNA, but takes the place of thymine in RNA) ... The chains run in opposite directions, and are held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases from each chain. Adenine ... 2 Nucleotides are the components of DNA and RNA. *3 Nucleotides function in cell metabolism *3.1 ATP is the universal energy ... Nucleotides are the components of DNA and RNA. The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotide units; that is, they ...
and adenine is always opposite thymine, and guanine is always opposite cytosine. ... And RNA, then, we have uracil as the fourth nucleotide.. And so, sets of three of these nucleotides are what are called codons. ... G or a C or a U, adenine, guanine, cytosine, urasil.. And so, when you have three positions, and each one of them can be one of ...
When the DNA is replicated, one of the two daughters will contain a guanine-cytosine base pair in the location of the mutation ... Each of the four nucleotides found in DNA has one complementary partner. Adenine ( ) always pairs with thymine ( ) and guanine ... The two complementary DNA strands always run in opposite directions: One runs from 5 to 3, and the other runs from 3 to 5, ... Purines are the nucleotides that have the double-ring structures. Pyrimidines are the nucleotides that have the single-ring ...
Cytosine has the unique property in that it binds in the double helix opposite a guanine, one of the other nucleotides. ... Cytosine. Cytosine (C) is one of four chemical bases in DNA, the other three being adenine (A), guanine (G), and thymine (T). ... Cytosine. SAHY tuh seen. Cytosine (C) is one of four chemical bases in DNA, the other three being adenine (A), guanine (G), and ... Cytosine has one other interesting property that none of the other nucleotides have, is that very often in the cell, cytosine ...
... of nucleotides on opposite strands holds the helix together. The sequence of the four base groups (adenine, cytosine, guanine, ... are composed of complex chemical groups called nucleotides. Complementary pairing between the base groups (red, blue, green, ... of nucleotides on opposite strands holds the helix together. The sequence of the four base groups (adenine, cytosine, guanine, ... nucleotides, pairing, strand, strands Licence fees: A licence fee will be charged for any media (low or high resolution) used ...
Main article: Nucleotide. The canonical structure of DNA has four bases: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G ... linked together by hydrogen bonds and running in opposite directions. Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides ... It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases-adenine, guanine, cytosine, and ... If the introduced nucleotide is complementary to the leading template nucleotide it is incorporated into the growing ...
The four bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. These are represented by the letters A, G, C, & T and carry all ... Nucleotides. As was said above, DNA is composed of a double helix structure with nucleotides in between. Each nucleotide ... The nitrogenous base, on the inside of the double helix, makes hydrogen bonds with the nitrogenous base on the opposite strand. ... Guanine pairs with Cytosine by three hydrogen bonds while Adenine bonds with Thymine by two hydrogen bonds (see base pair). ...
The four nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Each nucleotide always associates itself with ... and the nucleotide on the other end has an unconnected hydroxyl, the 3′ end. The two strands of DNA are oriented in opposite ... The four basic nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). An A on one strand always binds to a T ... and the four nucleotides found in DNA, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. These molecules are all combined in an ...
... guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The other strand reads that template and lays down a complementary set of bases. Each base on a ... It was caused by a jumping gene, or transposon, a sequence of nucleotides that replicates and moves to a spot in the genome ... strand is always positioned opposite its specific partner: A always pairs with T, and C with G. To ensure accuracy, the RNA ... There is a lot of repetition, beginning with the two strands of nucleotides that zip together to form DNAs double helix. One ...
... cytosine, guanine, and thymine - in the DNA molecule. She combines certain colors with others to represent the way nucleotides ... bond or pair with each other on opposite strands of the DNA double helix: A with T, and C with G. Genes, which determine all ... For her fascinating pieces, Ochoa typically selects four colors, evoking the four nucleotides, A, C, G, and T - adenine, ... Each of the corresponding colors symbolizes one of the nucleotides in the sequence of the palms DNA structure. ...
... which can only be ligated if the next nucleotide on the opposite strand is a thymine. Then fragments starting with cytosine, ... guanine and thymine are attempted in turn, and the cycle is repeated. The magnetic field is released after each ligation, and ... Therefore, an incorporation of a complementary nucleotide is indicated by an increase in 7 nucleotides (+5 nm) followed by a ... First, a DNA fragment can be converted into a new sequence in which each original nucleotide is encoded by a specific 8-nt ...
... guanine is the complementary base of cytosine, and adenine is the complementary base of thymine in DNA and of uracil in RNA. ... either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA: ... either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA: guanine is the ... complementary base of cytosine, and adenine is the complementary base of thymine in DNA and of uracil in RNA. ...
A second part is a phosphate group, and the third part is a nitrogen base of either adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) or ... The two chains run in opposite directions with 10 nucleotides per turn of the helix. The rungs of the bases are pairs of either ... As opposite all the Ts, Cs opposite all the Gs and Gs opposite all the Cs. In fact, the usual state of DNA is the famous double ... Generally, such variation is caused by a single nucleotide-thus the name "single nucleotide" polymorphisms [poly-many, ...
There are four different chemical bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Nucleotides pair up via hydrogen bonds in the ... cystic fibrosis (opposite of dominant).. Penetrance. The likelihood that a given gene will actually result in disease.. ... A change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene. Nucleotide A sub-unit of DNA or RNA, consisting of one chemical base plus a ...
C A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.Cytosine G Guanine ... The language consists of only four letters (called Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are ... which pairs with cytosine in both DNA and RNA.guanine, A pyrimidine base found in DNA, which pairs with the complementary base ... Each A specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information ...
They differ from each other only by the last part and there are four possibilities: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, ... These unique 4-nucleotide sequences will be used not only for terms but also as a part of conditional rules or questions asked ... and, in the opposite way, if there is a molecule representing fact it will deduce . ... adenine is always connecting with thymine by double hydrogen bonding and cytosine with guanine by triple hydrogen bonding. ...
There are four bases in a DNA molecule: adenine (A), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and guanine (G). Nucleotide is a structural ... The double helix structure of DNA is composed of two antiparallel strands which are oriented in opposite directions. DNA is ... composed of base pairs in which adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. While DNA serves as template for ...
... guanine) nucleotides. Indeed, pure right-handed G was oligomerised much more efficiently than pure left-handed G. But racemic G ... monomers of opposite handedness to the template are incorporated as chain terminators … This inhibition raises an important ... A template of 100% right-handed poly-C (RNA containing only cytosine monomers) was made (by intelligent chemists!). This could ... The two forms are called enantiomers (from the Greek word for opposite) or optical isomers, because they rotate plane-polarised ...
Guanine forms three hydrogen bonds to Cytosine. This is called the Base Pairing rules; Adenine to Thymine, Guanine to Cytosine ... So lets take a look at those four different kinds of nucleotides that they create.. Theyre Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine and ... With the other strand, its oriented in exactly the opposite direction. Now scientists dont like just to say exactly opposite ... 2 plus 1 is 3. And a Guanine plus a Cytosine. Guanine remember is 2 rings, Cytosine is a ring, so thats again a total of three ...
ADENINE THYMINE CYTOSINE GUANINE. ACID. Nucleotides [Monomers of nucleic acids] : Made up of Phosphate, a. 5-carbon sugar [e.g ... 5-Carbon Phosphate in opposite directions.. Sugar Causing the two strands to. be Antiparallel.. Hydrogen Bonds between bases ...
Both nucleotide analogs are polymerized with slightly higher efficiency opposite guanine than cytosine triphosphate and are ... Highly efficient incorporation of the fluorescent nucleotide analogs tC and tC(O) by Klenow fragment. Journal article ... Here we report the incorporation of the 5-triphosphates of two exceptionally bright cytosine analogs, 1,3-diaza-2-oxo- ... Studies of the mechanisms by which DNA polymerases select the correct nucleotide frequently employ fluorescently labeled DNA to ...
Oxidized guanine (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine; 8-oxo-G) is a potent mutagen because of its ambiguous pairing with cytosine and ... which are otherwise incorporated in DNA and RNA opposite template A. In vivo, this cleaning of the nucleotide pools decreases ...
... and cytosine. Adenine and guanine are made of two fused rings and called purines. Cytosine and thymine are single rings ... That means that the strands run in opposite directions. Nucleotides are not perfectly symmetric molecules. They have a top and ... Guanine, a purine, can only pair with cytosine, a pyrimidine. Based on that logic, Watson and Crick explain that the sequence ... The authors explain that Chargaff determined that in DNA the ratio of adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine is always ...
  • Many scientists have already encoded textual information into genetic nucleotides, thereby creating 'messages' made from DNA - messages implanted, like genes, inside cells, where such data might persist, undamaged and unaltered, through myriad cycles of mitosis, all the while saved for recovery and decoding. (blogspot.com)
  • So let's take a look at the basic structure of a nucleotide. (brightstorm.com)
  • Now the basic structure of a nucleotide is that you'll have at the heart a five carbon sugar sometimes called a pentose sugar, -ose meaning carbohydrate, pent meaning five. (brightstorm.com)