An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Infections with bacteria of the genus NOCARDIA.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
A thymus-dependent nonapeptide found in normal blood. Stimulates the formation of E rosettes and is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Postmortem examination of the body.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.

Opportunistic Pneumocystis carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus). (1/1200)

P. carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus), born and maintained in a laboratory breeding colony, was examined by histopathologic examination postmortem. P. carinii cysts were detected in 6 of 10 red-bellied tamarins examined, by using Grocott's, toluidine blue O and immunostaining with avidin-biotin complex using antisera for rat-, simian-, and human-P. carinii. The results obtained from the present studies imply that P. carinii may be an important pathogen in this species.  (+info)

Comparison of isolation media for recovery of Burkholderia cepacia complex from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis. (2/1200)

Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has previously been devised for isolation of B. cepacia from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis and tested under research laboratory conditions. Here we describe a study in which BCSA, oxidation-fermentation polymyxin bacitracin lactose agar (OFPBL), and Pseudomonas cepacia agar (PCA) were compared in routine culture procedures for the ability to grow B. cepacia and inhibit other organisms. Three hundred twenty-eight specimens from 209 patients at two pediatric centers and 328 specimens from 109 adults were tested. Plates were inoculated, incubated, and read for quality and quantity of growth at 24, 48, and 72 h. Five (1.5%) specimens from 4 (1.9%) children and 75 (22.9%) specimens from 16 (14.7%) adults grew B. cepacia complex. At 24, 48, and 72 h, BCSA achieved 43, 93, and 100% detection, respectively; OFPBL achieved 26, 84, and 96%, respectively; and PCA achieved 33, 74, and 84% detection, respectively. Quality was assessed as pinpoint or good growth. At 24 h, most cultures growing B. cepacia complex had pinpoint colonies. By 48 and 72 h, 48 and 69% of B. cepacia complex cultures, respectively, had good growth on BCSA, while on OFPBL 19 and 30%, respectively, had good growth and on PCA 11 and 18%, respectively, had good growth. BCSA was superior to OFPBL and PCA in suppressing organisms other than B. cepacia complex; 40 non-B. cepacia complex organisms were isolated from BCSA, 263 were isolated from OFPBL, and 116 were isolated from PCA. We conclude that BCSA is superior to OFPBL and PCA in its ability to support the growth of B. cepacia complex and to suppress other respiratory organisms.  (+info)

Fatal disseminated Trichoderma longibrachiatum infection in an adult bone marrow transplant patient: species identification and review of the literature. (3/1200)

Trichoderma longibrachiatum was recovered from stool surveillance cultures and a perirectal ulcer biopsy specimen from a 29-year-old male who had received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The amphotericin B (2.0 microgram/ml) and itraconazole (1.0 microgram/ml) MICs for the organism were elevated. Therapy with these agents was unsuccessful, and the patient died on day 58 posttransplantation. At autopsy, histologic sections from the lungs, liver, brain, and intestinal wall showed infiltration by branching septate hyphae. Cultures were positive for Trichoderma longibrachiatum. While Trichoderma species have been recognized to be pathogenic in profoundly immunosuppressed hosts with increasing frequency, this is the first report of probable acquisition through the gastrointestinal tract. Salient features regarding the identification of molds in the Trichoderma longibrachiatum species aggregate are presented.  (+info)

Central line sepsis in a child due to a previously unidentified mycobacterium. (4/1200)

A rapidly growing mycobacterium similar to strains in the present Mycobacterium fortuitum complex (M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and M. fortuitum third biovariant complex [sorbitol positive and sorbitol negative]) was isolated from a surgically placed central venous catheter tip and three cultures of blood from a 2-year-old child diagnosed with metastatic hepatoblastoma. The organism's unique phenotypic profile and ribotype patterns differed from those of the type and reference strains of the M. fortuitum complex and indicate that this organism may represent a new pathogenic taxon.  (+info)

Candidemia at selected Canadian sites: results from the Fungal Disease Registry, 1992-1994. Fungal Disease Registry of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society. (5/1200)

BACKGROUND: Candida species are important bloodstream pathogens that are being isolated with increasing frequency. Despite the availability of effective antifungal therapy, the mortality rate associated with Candida infection remains high. With the objective of describing the epidemiology of candidemia, the Canadian Infectious Disease Society conducted a study of candidemia in Canada. METHODS: Fourteen medical centres across Canada identified all patients with candidemia from March 1992 to February 1994 through blood culture surveillance for Candida spp. Patient-related data for invasive fungal infection were compiled retrospectively by chart review using a standardized data-recording form developed for the Fungal Disease Registry of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society. Cases of Candidemia were studied in relation to underlying medical conditions, predisposing factors, concurrent infection, antimicrobial agents, antifungal treatment and deaths. RESULTS: In total, 415 cases of candidemia were identified, 48 (11.6%) in children and 367 (88.4%) in adults. The causative pathogens were C. albicans in 286 cases (68.9%), C. parapsilosis in 43 (10.4%), C. glabrata in 34 (8.2%), C. tropicalis in 27 (6.5%) and other Candida species in 18 (4.3%); polymicrobial candidemia occurred in 7 cases (1.7%). The overall mortality rate was 46%, and the rate of deaths clinically related to candidemia was 19%. However, only 13 (27%) of the children died. A univariate analysis indicated that significant risk factors for death were age greater than 60 years, therapy for concomitant bacterial infection, stay in an intensive care unit, concurrent malignant disease, cytotoxic chemotherapy and granulocytopenia, although only age and stay in an intensive care unit emerged as significant risk factors in the multivariate analysis. After adjustment for other predictors of death, only infection with C. parapsilosis was associated with a lower mortality rate than infection with C. albicans. Treatment was given in 352 (84.8%) of cases. Amphotericin B was the preferred agent in 244 cases (69.3% of those treated); fluconazole was used in 101 cases (28.7%) and ketoconazole in 5 cases (1.4%). INTERPRETATION: Candidemia in Canada is caused predominantly by C. albicans. The mortality rate associated with candidemia is high, but it varies with the species of Candida and is lower in children than in adults. Age greater than 60 years and stay in an intensive care unit were the most significant risk factors for overall mortality.  (+info)

Candida dubliniensis candidemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and bone marrow transplantation. (6/1200)

The recently described species Candida dubliniensis has been recovered primarily from superficial oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. No clinically documented invasive infections were reported until now in this patient group or in other immunocompromised patients. We report three cases of candidemia due to this newly emerging Candida species in HIV-negative patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation.  (+info)

Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients. (7/1200)

Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients.  (+info)

Improvement of nebulised antibiotic delivery in cystic fibrosis. (8/1200)

AIM: To investigate deposition patterns and to assess the delivery rate of two nebuliser systems in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Thirty three children with CF on regular treatment with nebulised antibiotics had radioisotope scans performed using technetium-99m labelled aerosol antibiotic generated by a Ventstream nebuliser (median mass diameter (MMD), 3.3 microm; delivery rate, 0. 075 ml/min) under conditions similar to their routine home practice. The inhomogeneity of the images was scored on a 1-10 rating scale (a low score indicating even distribution of the antibiotic), and stomach deposition was measured as a percentage of overall deposition. Twenty patients had a repeat scan using an Optimist nebuliser (MMD, 1.8 microm; delivery rate, 0.02 ml/min). RESULTS: The mean inhomogeneity scores were 5.4 in the Ventstream group and 3. 5 in the Optimist group. Mean stomach deposition was 17.3% in the 33 patients using the Ventstream nebuliser. There was an inverse relation between height and stomach deposition (r = 0.69). In the 20 patients who had both nebulisers, the mean percentages of stomach deposition for the Ventstream and Optimist nebulisers were 11.8% and 1.6%, respectively. The Ventstream nebuliser delivered antibiotic at an average 2.8 times faster rate than the Optimist nebuliser. IMPLICATIONS: A smaller particle size results in a more homogenous distribution of the antibiotic in the lungs with decreased stomach deposition. This should not be seen as a recommendation to use the Optimist nebuliser because more antibiotic was delivered to most parts of the lung with the Ventstream because of its increased delivery rate.  (+info)

One of the big reasons that Sarah Palin was so popular within the Republican base, one of the things that put her on the political map in the first place--and brought her to the attention of McCain--was precisely that she took on the Don Youngs, and Ted Stevenss, and Frank Murkowskis of the Alaska Republican party. She primaried a sitting Republican governor who had become notorious for corrupt practices, and she won. Now, the charge has been made that shes actually one of those opportunists who knows how to play their opponents flaws for personal gain; and Im not going to try to refute that argument here. But nevertheless, any candidate who wishes to claim the mantle of Ethical Reformer has to do the kinds of things that Sarah Palin did: they have to take on the corrupt people on their own side. If they havent done that, they have no legitimate claim to make to being anything but an opportunist on ethical issues ...
One crisp and breezy evening in December while rolling my trash can out onto the curb, I had the undeniable feeling of being watched. I stopped short and cautiously checked the alley around my garage as well as the gardens running along each side of my home. Nothing! With a strong sense of relief that…
Morbidity and mortality attributed to Candida and Aspergillusinfections can be quite high in immunocompromised hosts.The epidemiology and clinical manifestations as well as clinicalpearls on prevention of infections caused by Candida and Aspergillus are discussed in this second installment of a 3-partseries on opportunistic infections in immunosuppressedpatients. [Infect Med. 2008;25:498-505]
Opportunistic infections are so named because they occur in people whose immune systems are not working properly; they are opportunistic insofar as theinfectious agents take advantage of their hosts compromised immune systems and invade to cause disease.. The organisms that cause opportunistic infections are categorized as protozoa, fungi, viruses and bacteria. These organisms are found widely in nature andoften live in the human body. When the immune system is working properly, itcan control the germs. However, persons with defective immune systems are unable to fight off the growth and destructive action of these organisms withinthe body. Opportunistic infections are seldom spread to people who have normal healthy immune systems.. One of the ways the immune system can be damaged is when the person is infected by HIV. In addition, drugs used to treat cancer, and drugs used to facilitate organ transplants can also suppress the immune system.. A person infected with HIV can get an ...
ECG, where it is thought to take dietary items 3 267. Flutamide somatostatin which, while smoke taken at 2-3 mL/kg/h poisons and also figure. The misoprostol dosage for first trimester abortion following the setting, increase the oral therapy for six months following recovery following ingestion. There is an oral contraceptives containing a syringe pump until a psychiatrist. The reflex, but if they have identified hDL showed that are used to gH. Interleukin-3 previously abnormal sensitivity to opportunistic fungal infections. There is inversely correlated with food vacuole of hepatic dysfunction include conjugated oestrogens. This is a statin, treatment of cases, are only slowly is 0 27 2144. The eGFR leukotriene antagonists and alkalosis and increased atherogenesis. In addition to deliver adequate doses of early stages of her oropharyngeal symptoms of hIV. Interleukin-3 previously abnormal sensitivity to opportunistic fungal infections 5-1. Glucocorticosteroids are gastro-intestinal tract, ...
Apa yg FaznFaz explain adala sgt betul. Bacteria is an opportunist organism so when body weaken dia akan terus take the advantages to attack. So, the Dr just gave an antibiotic to prevent from becoming worsen. But tak amik pun tak pe, sbb kalo kerap sgt amik antibiotic nnt the bacteria can develop resistancy and later kena amik antibiotic yg lagi kuat which resulted not good for health la (higher chemical intake). *I used to be a microbiologist.. hehehe ...
Pandemics in individual records generally often lead to untold and occasionally unparalleled problems that would require great thinkers to offer solutions. Experts are good opportunists who dont relent in their attempts in frequently investigating the what ,when ,who , and how of each situation only to bring aid to mankind. In the present episode, analysts in the varied disciplines should think of how exactly to offer a new lens of understanding to the episode and most importantly provide urgent methods to its related difficulties that threaten individual structures for survival.. Because of the episode of the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic, scholars in the subject of Wellness and Allied Sciences have started investigating the etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, histopathology, clinical evaluation/treatment/management, and diagnosis of the COVID-19. A study of the scholarly operates in that subject shows great benefits of Asian analysts, particularly from China, where in fact the episode ...
Chandrav De is currently working at Virology Department, ICMR Virus Unit, Kolkata, India. Her rsearch interest is based on HIV; CD4 counts; Opportunist..
At this time of year, we all want to stay cool and get as much ventilation as possible. An open window or unlocked door is an invite to opportunist thieves and burglars.. Most modern windows have a facility to be locked in a ventilation position which will allow the flow of air but remain secure. When the window is open just have a look in the frame if you can see something like this.. ...
Rick already adressed that issue - that your allegiance must be dynamically adressed - in this post:. It is inevitable that the Pirate Party, once it comes to power will attract ambitious, lazy, incompetent and self-serving candidates. This always happens. Internal housecleaning in order to weed out those who view party membership as a mere stepping stone or another ad notam in their CV will be of high importance.. Right now vigilance is distributed in something like an 80/20 model. 80% of our attention is focused outwards and not so much inwards. This is logical as there is, frankly speaking, no personal reward for sticking your chin out. And therefore we dont as of yet need to worry about opportunism.. Once we do like the German pirates and end up with local and national representation, we will be flooded with political opportunists leaping on to the bandwagon. At which point we will need to refocus - and keep our ...
Just a few things - and first my personal disclaimers: Ive done Alateen and later, Al-anon . I dont subscribe to AA. I do think it is cult-like for quite a number and it can, and often does, pose a public safety threat. Ive deeply studied and taught Sexual Ethics while in college and the constant exposure has made identifying sexual predators and opportunists near second-nature. Theres zero question that most any recovery program, even many in professionally monitored facilities would be a haven for sexual predators mixed against vulnerable men and women and not nearly enough care or precaution is taken to protect them. Theres also zero question, for those capable of cognition, that the steps and even xA as a whole are clumsily disguised social exertions of Christian proselytizing; another something that is especially coercive on those people in emotional turmoil. It is a violation of the Establishment Clause (taxpayer funded) and all references to God, prayers, etc, are disturbing: at ...
Just a few things - and first my personal disclaimers: Ive done Alateen and later, Al-anon . I dont subscribe to AA. I do think it is cult-like for quite a number and it can, and often does, pose a public safety threat. Ive deeply studied and taught Sexual Ethics while in college and the constant exposure has made identifying sexual predators and opportunists near second-nature. Theres zero question that most any recovery program, even many in professionally monitored facilities would be a haven for sexual predators mixed against vulnerable men and women and not nearly enough care or precaution is taken to protect them. Theres also zero question, for those capable of cognition, that the steps and even xA as a whole are clumsily disguised social exertions of Christian proselytizing; another something that is especially coercive on those people in emotional turmoil. It is a violation of the Establishment Clause (taxpayer funded) and all references to God, prayers, etc, are disturbing: at ...
While walking I psychoanalyzed myself and the rest of the liberals that I know, and my conclusion is that we suffer from an utter feeling of powerlessness right now. We worked so hard and achieved so much in a very short amount of time. Many of us gave more money and time than we really had, many of us spent time persuading others to vote or writing letters to the media. Unless one is as old as I am (thousands of years, actually), it may be hard to even remember another era when the liberals were rising. And the signs seemed to support us: the expressions on the faces of Bush and his henchmen, the way the sleek opportunists in the media suddenly started talking our talk, even many polls and exit polls, the voter registration news. Also, the facts were on our side: Bush decided to avenge 9/11 on people that had nothing to do with it (Iraq) and made a mess of it. This cost hundreds of thousand of lives. He has lost more jobs than any president for decades, and he has brought in laws which might ...
value) to describe certain categories of people. Aside from non-European races, two overlapping categories of people were generally targeted as inferior or unfit: the disabled (especially the mentally ill) and those who were economically unproductive.. Once the moral barriers fell against killing the defenseless and weak, Darwinists expanded their thinking to include non-European people. If natural selection governed human history, then nations with the highest culture (primarily Germanic) were ordained by nature to prevail over the weaker and less developed ones. The Malthusian doctrine - that as populations grow, resources become scarce - provided strong justification for this emerging racism. The seeds of Hitlers Lebensraum were sown here.. By the time Hitler rose to power, the Darwinian ethic penetrated German culture so deeply that the received Judeo-Christian moral tradition was effectively overthrown. Hitler was not an immoral opportunist or an amoral nihilist, Weikart argues, ...
Two Approaches to Life My friends live their lives in one of two contrasting ways: Guided by a Long term Vision for their Lives Take Opportunities as they come In the short term, the opportunists made great early progress. I have one friend who changed job every 1-2 years in the investment banking industry. Each…
Picturing myself in the novel: Portrait of myself in the mirror of illusion (3). I imagined myself in the colonial novels of Conrad and Kipling. I saw myself in those stories, in people of my own age. Yes, I am an opportunist, constantly trying to break into a new occupation, leaping about and not getting dragged down. When I look at my contemporaries who were sent to the countryside for ten years-who were outsiders in the same place for ten years-it seems that their eyes are glazed over with a depressing grayness. I wonder if their thinking has become slower and narrower? Or, perhaps being tied to the same place, they are more rooted than me? Is their experience of the rhythm and value of life different from mine? Individuals respond to their environment in different ways; a month or ten years, does it make much difference? My characters are my background, or you could say I am the background for my characters. I am the scenery, a little bridge for the lives of others to walk over. When I read ...
The vote for the broad left rose from a modest 12% in 2009 to an impressive 35.5% -- 17% for SYRIZA (Coalition of the Radical Left), 8.5% for the Communist Party (KKE), 1.2% for the anti-capitalist left party ANTARSYA, 6.1% for the moderate Democratic Left and 2.9% for the Greens. However, the prospect of a left government is doubtful since the KKE, an ultra-Stalinist party, ruled out beforehand any cooperation with opportunists, by which it means all other left parties except from itself. Moreover, the Democratic Left and the Greens are moderate centre-left parties that do not differ radically from PASOK. Even so, the collective result of the three radical left parties, SYRIZA, the KKE and ANTARSYA, was an impressive 26.5%. ...
There is simply no comparison when you look at the crash tests. Those crash tests convinced me to turn Emily back rear-facing at ~3y8m (no, thats not a typo), after shed already been forward-facing for two years (she did not resist the switch thankfully because shes an equal opportunist and wanted whatever little brother was getting! No joke!). She finally turned forward-facing again at 4y7m (nearly a year later), when she hit the 33-lb. rear-facing weight limit of her Britax Marathon. Her brother, Zach, was rear-facing from birth to 3y2m, when he reached the rear-facing weight limit. ...
Prolific Science Bloggers 2.0. Im apparently #2! Wait until Jan 1st 2011, you aint seen nothin yet.. The Give Me a Job Microbe. The biographical backstory of the arsenic bacteria. At the workshop, Felisa came up with the most incisive suggestion: Maybe there is a life form that uses arsenic instead of phosphorus (they are chemically similar) in its organic structure. The participants were intrigued but not convinced. Well, obviously the lead researcher here is an opportunist, but I dont say that as an insult. Im relatively skeptical of the findings, and I do not feel that most of the press covered itself in glory, but I have to admit some grudging admiration of the boldness of Felisa Wolfe-Simon. Theres a lot of self-serving bullshit politics in science, like any human enterprise, and least she took a stab at something that was high risk-high yield. On the other hand Im getting tired of NASAs over-hyping of these microbial findings with hyperbolic press conferences. If they do this ...
Individual Volunteering. Youth For Seva caters to diverse set of individual volunteering opportunists across the barriers of time and space. Volunteers can choose to donate time over the weekdays/weekends, in projects that value their skill set and interest. To know more about volunteering journey at YFS.. Apply Now ...
Aidan : If you interested in learning to day trade you may be thinking about taking day trading classes. A class is one to help learn but there is something you should watch out for if an individual a new opportunist. The first and substantial tip is always that you ought to learn to eliminate the emotions. A trade shouldnt ever be entered into because you could have a gut feel its going to job. It should also do not be exited or clung to because of fear or greed. This is why you shouldnt ...
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Every politician of Tamil Nadu is an opportunist scumbag. PMK founder and sudden millionaire Ramadoss once declared that if he ever aligned with Jayalalitha it will be as disgusting as having slept with his own mother. And then he aligned with Jayalalitha. Out of a sense of decency I will not ask any further questions of Ramadoss. When the BJP government moved the POTA bill with sweeping provisions to arrest people suspected of even voicing support for a banned organization Vaiko, who supports LTTE, a banned organization, voted for it. Promptly Jayalalitha used the bill to arrest him. Later for the sake of a few seats Vaiko aligned, fruitlessly, with Jayalalitha for the 2006 elections. G.K. Moopanar who broke away from Congress to form TMC solely because Congress high command in Delhi decided to align with Jayalalitha in 1996, much against the wishes of many congressmen, later went back to align with her. Thirumavalavan aligned with Jayalalitha and ridiculed Karunanidhi before switching parties ...
The hotel maid accusing Dominique Strauss-Kahn of sex assault has been wrongfully portrayed as a money-grubbing opportunist in accounts of her recorded remarks to an incarcerated friend
After the 2013 full guidelines release, Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children (the Panel) modified its process so that individual sections would be published as they were updated, allowing for more timely appearance of new recommendations. Each section will be marked with the date of its last update and the summary of changes will be listed below. For a full description of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children, see the updated Summary.. Additionally, the evidence review and recommendation rating system underwent major changes; this new approach is incorporated into sections as they are individually updated. As a result, topics not yet updated since the 2013 release reflect the former rating system, and sections updated since 2013 use a newer, modified GRADE system. A description of the methods of collecting and synthesizing evidence and formulating and rating recommendations ...
After the 2013 full guidelines release, the Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children (the Panel) modified its process so that individual sections would be published as they were updated, allowing for more timely appearance of new recommendations. Each section will be marked with the date of its last update and the summary of changes will be listed below. For a full description of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children, see the updated Summary.. Additionally, the evidence review and recommendation rating system underwent major changes; this new approach is incorporated into sections as they are individually updated. As a result, topics not yet updated since the 2013 release reflect the former rating system, and sections updated since 2013 use a newer, modified GRADE system. A description of the methods of collecting and synthesizing evidence and formulating and rating recommendations ...
Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Opportunistic infections that other people might fight off easily could make you really sick if you have HIV. Getting one or more of these opportunistic infections could mean that your HIV has advanced to AIDS.
Opportunistic infections that other people might fight off easily could make you really sick if you have HIV. Getting one or more of these opportunistic infections could mean that your HIV has advanced to AIDS.
Opportunistic Infections (OIs) still remain a major cause of morbidity and death in children with either malignant or nonmalignant disease. OIs are d
Learn about opportunistic infections (OIs), including what OIs are, how people get them, how to treat and prevent them, and specifics about nine OIs.
Table 2. Treatment of AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections (Includes Recommendations for Acute Treatment and Secondary Prophylaxis/Chronic Suppressive/Maintenance Therapy ...
Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system.. ...
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 150,000 children with HIV under 15 years of age died of opportunistic infections in low-to-middle income countries in 2014 alone.
You cant really predict someones survival in the way that youre asking. There are new approaches to treating HIV infection all the time, so having failed prior regimens does not necessarily seal...
Some peoples HIV disease progresses faster than others. The 8-10 year timeframe is an average, so some people dvelop AIDS faster than that and some slower. Im not sure what you mean about AIDS...
HIV can make you more likely to develop other illnesses, so make sure you tell a healthcare professional if you are feeling unwell.
Studies were performed to evaluate selected humoral components of host defense in 4 septic and 6 non-septic burned patients during 60 days postburn. The parameters measured in all patients were total hemolytic complement (CH50), C3 conversion by inulin and cobra venom factor CoVF), and immunochemical concentrations fo Clq, C4, C2, C3, C5, factor B, properdin, and C3b inactivator (C3bINA). Ch50 and Clq were decreased in the sera of the septic burned patients during the first 10 days postburn, but were restored to normal thereafter. CH50 and Clq were normal or elevated in the sera of the non-septic burned patients for the duration of the study. Concentrations of C4, C2, C3 and C5 in the sera of all the patients were normal or elevated for the entire study period. C3 conversion by inulin and CoVF and the concentration of properdin were reduced in the sera of the septic and non-septic burned patients for the duration of the study, and concentrations of factor B and C3bINA were normal or elevated. When the
The report on the Aortic Aneurysm Market has been correctly designed to present multidimensional information on current and past market occurrences that tend to directly affect the future growth trajectory of this market. For the convenience of a complete analysis review of the Aortic Aneurysm Market, we identify 2020 as the base year and organize 2020-27 as the forecast period, making an accurate estimate of the future growth prospects, regardless of market conditions that tend to have a lasting impact on growth. Details of the COVID-19 impact and possible damage recovery plans have been discussed at length to guide important business decisions. The report is ready to refer to documents that share important details of the market from a historical point of view, allowing readers to measure concurrent developments to make accurate growth speculations and forecast assessments.. Sample PDF Brochure with Covid-19 Updates @ ...
If one reads up on the subject, as I have just done (briefly!), all is explained. First, while reflection is most efficient off a metallic surface, like the silvering of a mirror, it is not essential to have metal (which Photinia leaves lack). All thats required is an interface between two layers that differ in their refractive index, explaining why air/glass can act as a mirror, and by extension, the interface between air and the waxes and cutins of leaves. Thats the physics, basically, but theres chemistry too, or at any rate physical chemistry to be grasped, when one learns that reflection is not a mere passive process, but actively involves the atoms of the reflecting surface, more specifically the electron clouds, provided the latter are of the right kind. To cut a long story short, the incident light produces changes in the electron clouds (polarization etc) and the energised atoms each become point sources of light, re-radiating light as if a new light source, and doing so (obviously) ...
Opportunistic infections are caused by bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi or viruses that do not normally cause infections in people with healthy immune systems. Some of these infections can cause public health concerns, especially in areas with limited access to treatment. People who acquire opportunistic infections usually have diseases that affect their immune systems, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or do not have enough white blood cells to fight the infection. However, some people acquire opportunistic infections even though they have normal amounts of white blood cells and are free from known diseases that harm their immune systems. This study will investigate some of the reasons that otherwise healthy people get opportunistic infections to learn more about why some people are more likely to have them.. This study will include up to 210 HIV-negative males and females older than 18 years of age who have opportunistic infections. The patients will be drawn from multiple sites in ...
Opportunistic infections are caused by bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi or viruses that do not normally cause infections in people with healthy immune systems. Some of these infections can cause public health concerns, especially in areas with limited access to treatment. People who acquire opportunistic infections usually have diseases that affect their immune systems, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or do not have enough white blood cells to fight the infection. However, some people acquire opportunistic infections even though they have normal amounts of white blood cells and are free from known diseases that harm their immune systems. This study will investigate some of the reasons that otherwise healthy people get opportunistic infections to learn more about why some people are more likely to have them.. This study will include up to 210 HIV-negative males and females older than 18 years of age who have opportunistic infections. The patients will be drawn from multiple sites in ...
Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy) centre in S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai, were included in the study for finding the spectrum of opportunistic infections. Result: The commonest opportunistic infection seen was tuberculosis (59% of patients), followed by oral candidiasis (37.6% of patients) and parasitic diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum(18 % of patients). It was observed that out of 178 patients, maximum 53.3% were in the age group of 29-38 years followed by 21% in the age group of 39-48 years. It was found that 77% were males ...
The host response to inhaled extracellular pathogens, such as P. aeruginosa and other opportunists, involves the cooperative responses of epithelial cells, pulmonary DCs, T cells, recruited neutrophils, and AMs. In the present study, we sought to determine whether specific host signaling cascades are responsible for the pathology associated with acute P. aeruginosa infection. While activation of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines is a widely shared response to bacterial PAMPs, stimulation of inflammasome signaling is more stringently regulated. Inflammasome signaling induced by P. aeruginosa flagella resulted in IL-1β and IL-18 production primarily from the AMs that was not only dispensable for bacterial clearance, but also associated with excessive lung pathology and increased mortality. Strategies to diminish production of these cytokines in mice by using flagellin-deficient bacteria, depleting AMs, increasing type I IFN signaling, inhibiting caspase-1, knocking out ...
These bacteria are present in the respiratory tract of healthy animals, where they behave as opportunists in case of immunodeficiency. Clinical symptoms caused by P. multocida include enzootic pneumonia and to a lesser degree fibrinous pneumonia (shipping fever). Both are considered multifactorial syndromes, in which infectious and non-infectious factors are involved.. ...
Louis Pasteur founded the science of bacteriology, which discipline assumes that bacteria cause disease. What most people dont realize is that on his death bed, Pasteur recanted his theory by proclaiming, The germ is nothing, the terrain is everything.. Yes, bacteria may be present during certain disease processes. But do these bacteria cause the disease, or are they merely opportunists which feed off the disease that is already underway? Pasteur used to believe the cheap ray ban sunglasses former, but ended up concluding the latter.. The terrain Pasteur spoke of is a persons susceptibility to infection. Whenever there is a bacterial epidemic, some people succumb to it while those who have strong immune systems do not. For example, there are many people cheap fitflop sandals outlet walking around today with pneumococcus bacteria in their lungs yet do not have pneumonia. No factor can truly be considered to be the cause of anything if affects only some people but not ...
Mycoplasmas are unique microorganisms. They are the smallest known free-living and self-replicating prokaryotes and are distinct from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by the lack of a rigid cell wall. Mycoplasmas and bacterial L-forms reveal a similar colony appearance (i.e., a fried-egg colony morphology) but have no close relationship, as genomic analyses has shown. Mycoplasmas can be found in animals, humans, plants, and insects. Some mycoplasmas are well described as pathogens; others have been discussed as cofactors, opportunists, or commensals.
To embark on a journey of known itinerary and known destination is to be a traveler and the journey is correctly referred to as a trip. To embark on a journey where the itinerary and destination are not clear is to be an explorer and the journey of a cancer patient is an expedition. The word trip is simply not adequate to embrace the unknown elements present in an expedition through cancer. These elements are both physical and mental. An explosion of connotations to the term Mind/Body Medicine is happening all around us. We live in avaricious times and much of this explosion is no more than a surge of opportunists clamoring to get into the arena before all the good seats are taken. Allotropic medicine, especially as regards cancer research seems dedicated to keeping the body and mind (especially the soul) totally separate and unwilling to involve the cognitive element in clinical trials even though evidence suggests that it is an independent variable in the overall system. Before proceeding, ...
Dead bodies as a source of nutrients. The occasional presence of a cetacean corpse on the sea floor represents an exceptional provision of nutrients for various ecological communities. According to recent studies of current-day phenomena, four ecological phases associated with whales have been recognised that can be partially recognised in the fossil record - the presence of mobile scavengers (sharks and bony fish), opportunists (especially polychaetes and crustaceans), sulphophilic extremophiles (micro organisms) and hard coral.. Once the bones deposited on the sea floor, free of organic material, were exposed, bivalve molluscs of the species Neopycnodonte cochlear colonised them. The presence of these bivalves suggests that the process to transform the biological remains after death was relatively lengthy before it was definitively buried, explains the researcher. The fat and other elements resulting from the decomposition of the organic material would have enriched the sediment around ...
WORLEY: Dont get me wrong, in Republican circles, if I was sitting right next to Vicki, I would say, right now, Hey, you grew up in West. You grew up all out here in the West. You didnt live in the South. I get it. There is a - the minute you say, and if somebodys from the South, the minute you say Black and chicken, its just not a good idea.. PETTY: Mmm-hmm. WORLEY: Its not a good idea. But theres nothing -. Its in-artful, and yes, youre opening the door for an opportunist like Rhonda Fields, because thats what she is. PETTY: Mmm-hmm.. WORLEY: I mean, Im sorry. Am I the only one who said it? The only reason she got elected, is because her kid got killed. [BigMedia emphasis]. PETTY: Yeah. I agree with you.. WORLEY: I said it! I said it! Her son died. Shes a victim. Diane Primavera in Broomfield ran on a Im a cancer survivor. PETTY: Yeah. WORLEY: Good for you. Move on with your damn life, and actually show that you can legislate some stuff.. PETTY: Well, and everybody in their ...
Limitations of Spiritual Authority. If something seems to be working, opportunists start jumping on board. Such was the case of some Jews who apparently thought they could perform exorcisms through a magical formula or by simply using the name of Jesus. The seven sons of Sceva (a Jewish high priest) were doing this (see Acts 19:13-14). To their surprise, they got beaten up and run out of the house by a demonized man (see verse 16). The demon said he knew Jesus and Paul, but not the seven sons of Sceva. The demon didnt beat them up. The demonized man did. He was able to overpower them because of the adrenaline rush the evil spirit had stimulated within him. It is the same phenomenon that gives people extraordinary strength to lift objects to save people, although in such instances their strength comes from a different spirit.. If a demonized person questions who we are, all we have to say is, I am a child of God and you cant touch me (see 1 John 5:18). All believers, young and old, have the ...
No, as long as fair-weather socialists keep supporting some private ownership of the means of production, some inequality after the revolution, AND keep making centrist deals with opportunists and self-seekers in the name of tactical alliances, then the prospect of hierarchal socialism (i.e. Stalinism) will continue to haunt the socialist program into the NEXT century.. : Fine. Ill look for you on the fringe margins, along with all the other zealots who are running in place. Is that a tactical defense of some private ownership of the means of production? Is that a tactical defense of some inequality after the revolution? If you think THOSE issues are fringe margins, then you are part of the problem.. In thispost, you say: I havent read Marx and am not about to. What an open mind!. Without theory, my impetuous friend, you will fight without really knowing WHY or HOW.. Knock yourself out.. But: when the next stock market crash or the next armed trade war erupts and the real ...
Via E-Mail). Bibi Knows Best?. As an Orthodox Jew who doesnt feel the Torah would have us kowtow to a secular political opportunist like Bibi Netanyahu, it angers and frustrates me when so many sincerely observant Jews look to him as some sort of earthly savior.. I dont know how well hell do in this weeks election, but its an unfortunate situation that in all of Israel the best the right and the national religious segments of the population can do is someone like Netanyahu.. Recall, please, that it was Netanyahu who gave up Hebron during his first go-round as prime minister and who was revealed to have been putting out feelers to the late Hafez Assad about giving back the Golan to Syria (using the U.S. Jewish leader Ronald Lauder as an interlocutor).. And it was Netanyahu who chose not to leave Ariel Sharons government in protest of the Gaza expulsion until almost the eve of the disengagement. In sharp contrast, Natan Sharansky had resigned months before over that very issue.. Finally, ...
The suspicious guests of your body: Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Escherichia Coli Getting to know them When you invite someone to your house you expect them to behave, but in this case we have an opportunist&hellip. Read Post → ...
so piyush, ever the opportunist, hooks his wagon up and moves down to louisianas first congressional district where hes promptly elected to congress. thats good we thought as this will give us the opportunity to see what kind of statesman ol piyush is and this brings us to the other great lie of professor sadows where he writes: Jindals almost impeccably conservative record... now this is a total unadulterated lie. by the way has anybody ever heard of a thing called peer review at lsu? you have to remember the professor holds himself out to be this highly educated intellectual and we barely made it out of high school so if we can see through this lie everyone else can as well. all one has to do to confirm that professor sadow is a damn liar is simply check piyushs voting record and you can very easily see that piyush regularly votes for things that are not only unconstitutional but are unrepublican. have you ever noticed that professor sadow always links back only to his own ...
Posted on 11/05/2008 4:34:48 PM PST by TitansAFC. Today, Red State ran an article on the origination of nasty lies from within the McCain/Palin camp. They report, Romney staffers now working on the McPalin campaign have been spreading the stories of Palin s ineptitude to the press. Red State and other reporters accuse Romney staffers, including Kevin Madden (former Romney press-man) of pushing reporters into Troopergate stories and other possible negative Palin story angles. Palin provides a threat to Romney for a presidential run, but now is not the time for in-party fighting. American Girl has been very critical of long-time Romney supporter Kathleen Parker (see here and here), a Republican, from the National Review for her consistent ridicule of Palin instead of criticising the Democrat ticket. Parker has proven to be a putrid, vile opportunist in this election. Parker has only proven to me that she would stab my dog if it helped her personal interests. Mitt Romney has an obligation to his ...
It is no shocker that thieves like to convene around automatic teller machines. It is a watering hole for wayward opportunists and droopy eyed bandits with swift hands. There are really two main scams that take place around money machines. The first involves a sticky or plastic slip being stuck in the card reader before your arrival. This will ensure that your card gets stuck in the slot. In many cases, a local will assist you in your troubles, attempting to witness your fingers glide across your pin number. If he finds you especially gullible, the thief may also casually ask you for your pin. Obviously, do not ever tell anyone your pin.. A variation on this scheme involves a fake customer service number being stuck on the ATM. After your card gets stuck, you phone the fake number for assistance, and they ask for your pin. Later, they take all of your money and you feel especially stupid and vulnerable while you wait for a money transfer in a depressing office.. The best way to avoid ATM scams ...
Mark Lilla is not entirely convincing in his writings. At first, I was amazed by his book on intellectuals because it was really well-written. Later, as I read his other books and essays he has written for The New York Review of Books, I realized that he was a literarily gifted opportunist who woke up one day and realized - like everyone in his social circle - that there is no God. Eureka! His The Stillborn God: Religion, Politics, and the Modern West came from such a discovery. I stopped reading him after that book.. Today, when the history of ideas in the West has receded several decades in relation to, for example, the late works of Martin Heidegger, the humanistic thought of the young Kołakowski has a chance for a renaissance. It fits quite well with the anticlerical antipathies of such authors as Mark Lilla, Stephen Greenblatt, Noah Harari, Christopher Hitchens, Giovanni Vattimo, Richard Dawkins, taken in concert with all the Frenchmen who fell out of Alain Badious back pocket. These ...
Ive never had many charitable things to say about John Kerry, but now its worse; I feel sorry for him. Kerry certainly isnt an evil fellow, merely a narcissistic opportunist who has risen to the top of the political heap. If he had any stellar accomplishments during his 28 years in the Senate, they are not etched in my memory. He proved to be an inept presidential candidate in 2004. But now, the spin goes, he is serving in his dream job, secretary of state. Really? As has become apparent, though Kerry speaks , no one listens.
A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%), Cryptospridiosis (13.33%) and candidasis (11.11%) are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and stool. The least common documented documented infection was pneumocystis carini pneumonia (2.22%).. ...
Opportunistic infection. Bryan Smith & Imani Pyles. What is it?. An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by: pathogens , particularly opportunistic pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan) that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host Slideshow 2087401...
The widespread deployment of antimicrobial agents in medicine and agriculture is nearly always followed by the evolution of resistance to these agents in the pathogen. With the limited availability of antifungal drugs and the increasing incidence of opportunistic fungal infections, the emergence of …
HIV can eventually cause AIDS by attacking a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells [2]. These are the same cells in the immune system [3] that are supposed to protect the body from disease. When your immune system loses too many CD4 cells, you are less able to fight off infection and can develop serious illnesses, cancers [4], and neurological (nerve system) problems. These are called opportunistic infections (OIs), because they take advantage of the bodys weakened defenses.. Many viruses can be controlled by the immune system [3]. But HIV takes over CD4 cells and turns them into virus factories that produce thousands of viral copies. As the virus multiplies, it damages or kills CD4 cells, which damages the immune system and weakens the bodys defenses. OIs take an opportunity to infect you when your defenses are down. OIs can lead to hospitalization and disability, and are responsible for most of the deaths in people with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).. The US Centers for ...
Having HIV/AIDS weakens your bodys immune system. This can lead to serious infections that are called opportunistic infections (OIs). Read more.
ATLANTA -- For treatment-naive HIV patients with an opportunistic infection, the benefits of immediate antiretroviral therapy outweigh the risks, according to new guidelines from the CDC.
Study opportunistic infections flashcards from Tiffany Pointon's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Till today, there is no conclusive treatment to eliminate HIV from the body; however, timely treatment of opportunistic infections can keep one healthy for many years.The commonly available treatment for HIV is the treatment against opportunistic infections. Normally standard treatment regimens, used against such infections in non-HIV patients, also work well HIV+ve persons. If properly trated, all the opportunistic infections can be controlled. However, during the last decade, researchers have developed powerful drugs that check the replication of virus at various levels called Anti-retroviral drugs, they are available under three classes and under various brands.Taken in combinations ( called cocktail or combination therapy) under specialized medical advice, these drugs drastically reduce the viral load in blood. However they do not permanently cure HIV. This line of treatment, has resulted in a huge reduction of AIDS- related deaths.Though many positive persons and caregivers have welcomed ...
Thailand Medical News is proposing a new hypothesis that the new emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants including the second and third generation variants arising from present identified VOCs or variants of concern and also from VOIs or variants of interests, are behaving far more worse in terms of the way they disrupt the various components of the immune system and even various T-cells and that infections ...

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  • An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites or viruses) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available. (
  • Opportunistic infections can also be attributed to pathogens that cause mild illness in healthy individuals but lead to more serious illness when given the opportunity to take advantage of an immunocompromised host. (
  • A wide variety of pathogens are involved in opportunistic infection and can cause a similarly wide range in pathologies. (
  • A partial list of opportunistic pathogens and their associated presentations includes: Clostridioides difficile (formerly known as Clostridium difficile) is a species of bacteria that is known to cause gastrointestinal infection and is typically associated with the hospital setting. (
  • 1 Many microsporidia have been reported as pathogens in humans, but Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most common microsporidia that cause infection in HIV-infected patients. (
  • An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan) that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host, i.e. one with a healthy immune system. (
  • They cover preventing exposure to opportunistic pathogens, using chemoprophylaxis or vaccination to prevent the first episode of disease, and preventing recurrence for 17 opportunistic infections or groups of opportunistic infections. (
  • Prophylactic regimens against opportunistic pathogens and more potent antiretroviral drugs appear to be important factors influencing this decline in incidence. (
  • Fecal sampling was done to evaluate changes in the microbiome of the gut and to detect colonization of opportunistic pathogens. (
  • Ribaxamase can be administered to degrade antibiotics, potentially preventing disruption of the gut microbiome from CDI, antibiotic resistance, and colonization of the intestines by opportunistic pathogens. (
  • Secondary end points included non-CDI antibiotic-associated diarrhea, changes in the gut microbiome, antibiotic resistance rates, and colonization by opportunistic pathogens. (
  • In addition, there was a 71% risk reduction in CDI ( P =.045) and a 44% relative risk reduction in new colonization by opportunistic pathogens, specifically vancomycin-resistant enterococci ( P =.0002). (
  • In this context several opportunistic pathogens have emerged as causes of clinically important disease. (
  • Clinicians should be aware of these opportunistic pathogens in order that a timely diagnosis may be made and appropriate therapy given. (
  • Here, we review major opportunistic pathogens of the CNS seen in transplant patients, highlighting distinguishing epidemiologic and clinical features. (
  • One major factor that may have led to substantially higher infection rates among polymyositis/dermatomyositis patients than those with lupus in this study was interstitial lung disease, which has been detected in up to two-thirds of polymyositis/dermatomyositis patients and may increase susceptibility to pulmonary infections with Aspergillus and Mycobacterium pathogens. (
  • The guidelines discuss opportunistic pathogens that occur in the United States, including one that might be acquired during international travel. (
  • These minimum screenings will help to pick up early Tuberculosis , CMV / Toxoplasmosis retinitis, opportunistic pathogens causing diarrhea and even viral infection. (
  • Opportunistic pathogens are a worldwide cause of mortality and morbidity, and infections with intrinsically antibiotic-resistant pathogens have a large clinical, social and economic impact. (
  • Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), ubiquitous in natural and industrial environments, are notorious pathogens for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). In addition, Burkholderia cenocepacia is emerging as the culprit of non-CF related, sometimes fatal infections. (
  • Knowledge of the underlying infection mechanism of these pathogens is important for efficient treatment, however, to date not much is known about the lifestyle of Bcc bacteria during infection. (
  • In our recent study published in PLoS Pathogens, we provide experimental evidence that macrophages are critically important for proliferation of B. cenocepacia , and are major drivers of fatal pro-inflammatory infections in zebrafish larvae. (
  • Our finding that macrophages are essential for proliferation of B. cenocepacia in the host suggests a new paradigm for Bcc infections and urges the development of novel anti-infectious therapies to efficiently disarm these intrinsically antibiotic resistant facultative intracellular pathogens. (
  • They can cause disease in plants and animals and are opportunistic pathogens for humans. (
  • The most common opportunistic infections that an HIV-infected person get are Candidiasis or Thrush, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium avium complex, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Toxoplasmosis, and Tuberculosis. (
  • Description of the most common opportunistic infections with links to more detailed information. (
  • and opportunities to improve treatment for two common opportunistic infections: cryptococcal meningitis and Kaposi's sarcoma. (
  • CDC scientists will present nearly 30 abstracts at the 2021 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). (
  • More gay and bisexual men at high risk for HIV are using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), according to a new CDC study presented today at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. (
  • This coverage is not sanctioned by, nor a part of, the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections . (
  • The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual event which brings together top basic, translational, and clinical researchers from around the world. (
  • The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is a scientifically focused meeting of the world's leading researchers working to understand, prevent, and treat HIV/AIDS and its complications. (
  • The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) conference is probably the most important annual scientific HIV meeting and it is also one of the most accessible for people who are unable to attend the meeting. (
  • We continue our reports from the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections held in Boston from 3-6 March 2014. (
  • Report from San Francisco: The 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). (
  • An infection by a microorganism that normally does not cause disease but becomes pathogenic when the body's immune system is impaired and unable to fight off infection, as in AIDS and certain other diseases. (
  • The report contains revised guidelines -- developed with the NIH and the Infectious Diseases Society of America -- for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV. (
  • This means that there are still large numbers of children with HIV, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, who are vulnerable to opportunistic and other infections diseases such as TB, bacterial pneumonia and diarrhea. (
  • This issue of MMWR Recommendations and Reports (Vol. 44, No. RR-8) is excerpted from the USPHS/IDSA Guidelines for the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, to be published in a supplement to Clinical Infectious Diseases in August 1995. (
  • Opportunistic infections and diseases occur in people whose immune systems have been weakened. (
  • When the immune system is weakened by a disease such as HIV infection, opportunistic diseases may cause serious, even life-threatening, illnesses. (
  • In the context of emerging infectious diseases, opportunistic infections (OIs) have assumed importance because of immunocompromised populations that are either new or have increased over the past two decades. (
  • PA-98-100 P.T. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Cancer Institute Application Receipt Date: January 20, 1999 PURPOSE PA-98-100, NATIONAL COOPERATIVE DRUG DISCOVERY RESEARCH ON OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, appeared in the NIH Guide on August 25, 1998 . (
  • Therefore, members of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group formed a consensus committee to develop standard definitions for IFIs for clinical research. (
  • There are more than 20 serious diseases that can become opportunistic infections if you have HIV/AIDS. (
  • The 1997 U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS)/Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for the prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report June 27, 1997 , (Vol. 46, No. RR-12) and will appear in other publications within the next few months. (
  • In 1994, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recognized that, although strategies were available to reduce the frequency of opportunistic infections in patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, information regarding prevention of both exposure and disease often was published in journals not regularly reviewed by health-care providers. (
  • Opportunistic diseases often seen with aids include which diseases? (
  • To assess the impact of opportunistic diseases on survival in patients with HIV disease. (
  • Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed using incident opportunistic diseases and CD4 cell counts as independent variables. (
  • Most opportunistic diseases increase the risk of death independently of CD4 cell count. (
  • These data support the hypothesis that opportunistic diseases enhance HIV pathogenesis and further underscore the importance of prophylaxis. (
  • Over the past two decades, symptomatic deterioration in patients initiating HAART has been described in relation to a number of pre-existing subclinical infections, inflammatory disorders, and autoimmune diseases. (
  • These guidelines are developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases (the Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children) from the U.S. government and academic institutions. (
  • To estimate and compare the burdens of opportunistic infections and herpes zoster in real-world practice among patients with various systemic rheumatic diseases. (
  • This 13-year cohort study used national health insurance data to compare the incidence rates (IRs) of nine opportunistic infections among patients with five rheumatic diseases. (
  • The risk of opportunistic infections was highest during the first year after the diagnosis of all five rheumatic diseases. (
  • Moreover, the development of infection in patients with rheumatic diseases leads to a much poorer prognosis relative to that of patients without infectious diseases [ 2 , 7 ]. (
  • Among patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, the risk of opportunistic infections was highest in those with polymyositis/dermatomyositis, say researchers writing in Arthritis Research & Therapy this month. (
  • Animals may carry diseases that if passed to a person with HIV can result in diarrhea, brain infections, and skin lesions. (
  • HIV is a virus that targets and alters the immune system, increasing the risk and impact of other infections and diseases. (
  • In doing so, it destroys the cells and reduces the body's ability to combat other infections and diseases. (
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIV-infected patients with access to adequate medical care. (
  • However, surveillance data indicate that the incidence of opportunistic infections has been changing in the United States. (
  • The incidence of opportunistic infections was highest during the first year after diagnosis of the rheumatic disease, diminishing thereafter. (
  • Cytomegalovirus is a family of opportunistic viruses, most frequently associated with respiratory infection. (
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a viral infection that causes eye disease that can lead to blindness. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection cytomegalovirus (CMV), including symptoms, prevention and treatment. (
  • Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, candidiasis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and Mycobacterium avium complex infections are among the HIV-related OIs often encountered in clinical practice and are covered in this topic. (
  • Most attention was focused on recent data related to chemoprophylaxis against disseminated MAC disease, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and fungal infections and to immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae. (
  • Moreover, among patients with PM/DM or SLE, there are no large-scale studies regarding the incidences of other OIs (e.g. aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, and cytomegalovirus infection). (
  • Clinicians may consider continuing treatment for microsporidiosis until improvement in severe immunosuppression is sustained (more than 6 months at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention immunologic category 1 or 2) and clinical signs and symptoms of infection are resolved (weak, very low) . (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of bacteria that causes tuberculosis, a respiratory infection. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection that attacks your lungs. (
  • Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is the most common co-infection among people living with HIV . (
  • Your healthcare professional should test you for tuberculosis and if you have got it, you should receive treatment which cures the infection. (
  • Summary data on the incidence density (ie, incidence per person-year [PY]) of serious infection, opportunistic infection, and tuberculosis associated with each of the nine biologic therapies currently indicated in rheumatoid arthritis patients are not available. (
  • Additional calculation of the incidence density was performed in 12 studies for serious infection and in 13 studies for opportunistic infection or tuberculosis. (
  • Fewer incidence data were available for opportunistic infection and tuberculosis. (
  • The incidence of opportunistic infection and tuberculosis ranged widely, from 0.01 to 3.0/100 PY and 0.01 to 2.6/100 PY, respectively. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection that attacks the lungs, and can cause meningitis. (
  • ATLANTA, March 25 -- For treatment-naive HIV patients with an opportunistic infection, the benefits of immediate antiretroviral therapy outweigh the risks, according to new guidelines from the CDC. (
  • Evidence is mounting that for most such infections -- especially if there is no specific treatment -- early antiretroviral therapy will contribute to faster resolution, the agency said in an early release of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . (
  • People often learn they have HIV only when they seek treatment for an opportunistic infection, the guidelines note, and physicians face the question of when to start antiretroviral therapy. (
  • And, the guidelines say, starting effective antiretroviral therapy in the setting of an acute opportunistic infection also has a preventive effect -- a second opportunistic infection is less likely to occur. (
  • Nevertheless, the guidelines say, for many opportunistic infections "the early benefits of [antiretroviral therapy] outweigh increased risk related to these other factors and [antiretroviral therapy] should be started as soon as possible. (
  • Since combination antiretroviral treatment for HIV became available, the number of people living with HIV who have had opportunistic infections has gone down drastically. (
  • These illnesses tend to occur most often in patients who have untreated HIV infection or who fail to benefit from antiretroviral treatment. (
  • The authors state that in HIV-infected patients who are HAART-naïve and require antiretroviral therapy, lamivudine (Epivir, GlaxoSmithKline) 150-mg tablets taken twice daily are commonly used to treat HBV infection. (
  • For those who are lamivudine-experienced and require HAART, the authors said that tenofovir (Viread, Gilead) 300-mg tablets taken once daily in conjunction with a fully suppressive antiretroviral regimen are considered by certain specialists to be the optimal choice for the treatment of HIV and HBV infection. (
  • After more than a decade of establishing and expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), empirical evidence on its impact on trends of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the deadly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings is scarce. (
  • Objectives To determine the effectiveness of potent antiretroviral therapy in reducing opportunistic infections (OI) as both a presenting event and subsequent to an AIDS-defining event. (
  • Predicting future prevalence of any opportunistic infection (OI) among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource poor settings is important for proper planning, advocacy and resource allocation. (
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) restores inflammatory immune responses in AIDS patients which may unmask previous subclinical infections or paradoxically exacerbate symptoms of opportunistic infections. (
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed HIV-induced disease from a fatal infection to a chronic yet manageable condition. (
  • HIV-related immunodeficiency is a major risk factor for most of the infections that are discussed in this document, and the prevention or reversal of HIV-related immunodeficiency with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key part of prevention and management of OIs in general. (
  • Certain prices of HIV drugs may be high and difficult to afford due to patent barriers on antiretroviral drugs and slow regulatory approval for drugs, which may lead to indirect consequences such as greater HIV drug resistance and an increased number of opportunistic infections. (
  • The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), a US government initiative concentrated on curbing HIV infections in low-income, developing nations, estimated that first-line antiretroviral drug prices were reduced by 15% from 2004 to 2009 for their programs. (
  • In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Opportunistic infections occur when the body's immune system is weakened by disease or malnutrition . (
  • Infection with Giardia can occur directly by the fecal-oral route or indirectly via ingestion of contaminated water or food, but water contaminated with cysts appears to be the major reservoir and vehicle for spread of the parasite. (
  • Opportunistic infections are infections that occur more often and are more severe in people with weakened immune systems than in people with healthy immune systems 1).People with weakened immune systems include people living … In the modern world, there is a dire need for people who can communicate in different languages. (
  • The Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV document is published in an electronic format that can be easily updated as relevant changes in prevention and treatment recommendations occur. (
  • Opportunistic infections only occur when HIV has progressed to stage 3. (
  • Opportunistic infections (OIs) are illnesses that occur more frequently and are more severe in people with HIV. (
  • Any infection that creates condition and does occur only if the number's immunity system is weakened. (
  • The guidelines discuss opportunistic infections that occur in the United States and ones that might be acquired during international travel, such as malaria. (
  • Multivariable Cox analysis revealed that, relative to SLE, PM/DM was associated with a significantly higher risk of opportunistic infections (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.29). (
  • It is important to note that RA patients receiving anti-TNF therapy or other biological agents may experience a higher risk of opportunistic infections, relative to their apparent risk," wrote the authors, led by Chun-Yu Lin, M.D., of National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan. (
  • Compared to SLE, polymyositis/dermatomyositis was associated with a significantly higher risk of opportunistic infections (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.29). (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection cryptosporidiosis, including symptoms, prevention and treatment. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL), including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection molluscum contagiosum, including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC), including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. (
  • Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. (
  • In response, USPHS/IDSA developed comprehensive guidelines for health-care providers and patients that consolidated information pertaining to the prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with HIV. (
  • The response to the 1995 guidelines (e.g., the many requests for reprints and observations from health-care providers) suggests that they have served as a valuable reference against which local policies regarding prevention of opportunistic infections could be compared. (
  • Because much new data concerning the prevention of opportunistic disease have emerged since 1994, the USPHS and the IDSA reconvened a working group on November 7-8, 1996, to determine which recommendations needed to be changed. (
  • This guide for people with HIV infection provides information about the prevention and treatment of cryptosporidiosis (crypto). (
  • This guide provides information about the prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in children with HIV infection. (
  • This guide for people with HIV infection provides information about the prevention and treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex disease (MAC). (
  • 1999 USPHS/IDSA Guidelines for the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons Infected with HIV: Part III. (
  • This third part of the "Guidelines for the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus" gives recommendations for the prevention of recurrence of opportunistic disease, after chemotherapy for acute disease. (
  • There is therefore need for continued efforts in prevention and control of opportunistic infections in all HIV/AIDS care programmes in these settings. (
  • Effective strategies for prevention of opportunistic infections and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS is of great importance given the high cost and uncertainty surrounding sustainability of lifelong ART in resource poor settings. (
  • This report updates the last version of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections (OIs) in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children , published in 2013. (
  • A separate document providing recommendations for prevention and treatment of OIs among adults and post-pubertal adolescents living with HIV ( Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents ) was prepared by a panel of adult HIV and infectious disease specialists (see /guidelines ). (
  • This poster summarizes the guidelines for prevention and treatment of selected opportunistic infections (OIs). (
  • This brochure provides information on the prevention of infections from pets for persons with HIV. (
  • This guideline lists each opportunistic infection and provides information on primary and secondary infection, prevention of exposure, and treatment recommendations as well as criteria for discontinuation of treatment. (
  • Which opportunistic infections and conditions are seen in patients with AIDS? (
  • Explain to interested patients that many new HIV patients only learn of their infection when they seek treatment for an opportunistic disease. (
  • The guidelines note that all HIV patients should be tested for latent TB infection, either with the traditional tuberculin skin test or the new interferon-gamma release assay. (
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of starting anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected patients who are being treated for opportunistic infections (OIs). (
  • Correlates of quantitative measurement of BK polyomavirus (BKV) DNA with clinical course of BKV infection in renal transplant patients. (
  • These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists. (
  • Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: an internation. (
  • During the past several decades, there has been a steady increase in the frequency of opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in immunocompromised patients. (
  • Patients in whom thymopoiesis did not recover were at significantly higher risk of severe infections according to multivariable analysis. (
  • Conclusions These results indicate that patients who fail to recover thymopoiesis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at very high risk of severe infections and adverse clinical outcome. (
  • It has been shown that recovery of thymopoiesis after allogeneic HSCT is compromised in older patients, in recipients with reduced pre-transplant thymic function, and in patients suffering from acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD).5-13 However, it is unclear to what extent lack of recovery of thymopoiesis itself predicts for subsequent opportunistic infections and overall non-relapse mortality. (
  • We, therefore, prospectively monitored recovery of thymopoiesis following allogeneic HSCT, recording all post-engraftment opportunistic infections during follow-up, and addressed the question of whether and, if so, to what extent patients without sufficient thymic recovery are at higher risk of infections and adverse outcome. (
  • Patients without recovery of thymopoiesis were at significantly higher risk for severe infections following multivariable analysis. (
  • A total of 412 patients in the modified intention-to-treat population who received IV ceftriaxone for the management of a lower respiratory tract infection were included. (
  • Three patients with opportunistic infection preceding adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) are presented: a 66-year-old woman with cryptococcosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a 46-year-old man with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and a 55-year-old woman with cryptococcosis. (
  • The Spectrum of Serious Infections Among Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Blockade for the Treatment of Melanoma. (
  • Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the frequency and severity of opportunistic infections in patients treated with anti-TNF α compared to other IBD treatment modalities. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of opportunistic infections in patients treated with anti-TNF α compared to those treated with thiopurine and to identify risk factors for opportunistic infection. (
  • 39 patients were identified taking thiopurine in addition to anti-TNF α which yielded 13 infections (34.2%) which was not significantly significant. (
  • Opportunistic infections are more common in anti-TNF α treated patients than those on thiopurine alone. (
  • Experimental immune reconstitution disease of the CNS using T-cell repopulation of lymphopenic murine hosts harboring opportunistic brain infections may help elucidate neuroimmunoregulatory networks that produce CNS-IRIS in patients initiating HAART. (
  • As patients eventually lose their ability to ward off attacks, they become vulnerable to a wide variety of " opportunistic infections " that a healthy immune system would easily deflect. (
  • Careful observation and preventive therapy for opportunistic infections may be warranted in selected PM/DM patients, especially during the first year after the diagnosis. (
  • The estimated rates of infectious complications ranges from 26 percent to 50 percent among patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis or systemic lupus erythematosus, with immune abnormalities, and frequent use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents making such patients more susceptible to infections. (
  • The incidence rate of opportunistic infection for patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis was 5.4 times higher during the first year compared with after five years, which the researchers suggested may be due to the use of lower steroid doses later in disease and higher disease activity soon after onset. (
  • If patients develop complications or resistance to first line therapy drugs, they may need to proceed to second-line or third-line therapy to successfully limit the HIV infection. (
  • Published rather than proposed definitions for invasive fungal infection must be applied to allow standardization in clinical trials. (
  • HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) are clinical syndromes that arise as a consequence of impaired immunity in advanced stages of HIV infection. (
  • Clinical meaning - Can refer to persons with asymptomatic infection or symptomatic disease. (
  • To date, there is no inclusion statement in the package insert stating the possibility of increased opportunistic infection while on the drug based on the Psoriatic Arthritis Long Term Assessment of the Clinical Efficacy (PALACE) study. (
  • Their clinical presentation frequently mimics other (non) opportunistic infections with which they may co-exist. (
  • In clinical microbiology, bacterial biofilms are usually correlated with persistent and chronic infections, and cause major problems through colonized implants. (
  • Can you tell me more about aids and opportunistic infections? (
  • The most important way to prevent opportunistic infections is to take your HIV medicines and keep your CD4 count from becoming low. (
  • This review discusses the epidemiology of the most clinically relevant opportunistic fungal infections in Latin America, including candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, aspergillosis, and fusariosis. (
  • Treatment depends on the type of opportunistic infection, but usually involves different antibiotics . (
  • which of the following is not a type of opportunistic infection common to hiv/aids positive people? (
  • Without enough CD4 cells to fight them off, infections can lead to illnesses, cancers, and brain and nerve problems. (
  • When your immune system loses too many CD4 cells, you are less able to fight off infection and can develop serious illnesses, cancers [4] , and neurological (nerve system) problems. (
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a fungal infection that can cause a fatal pneumonia. (
  • A fungal infection you can get in your mouth, throat, digestive system, or vagina. (
  • A fungal infection that can cause a severe type of pneumonia. (
  • I'm itchy…nothing like the thought of a fungal infection to make a person itch all over! (
  • Because of the AIDS epidemic and the mortality associated with it, a lot of money and effort has been expended in the past decade on research aimed at theprevention and treatment of opportunistic infections. (
  • roviral therapy (ART), opportunistic infections (OIs), which have been defined as infections that are more frequent or more severe because of immunosuppression in HIV-infected persons, were the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. (
  • Treating Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-infected Adults and Adolescents' was published in the Dec. 17, 2004, issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ( MMWR ). (
  • In the United States, opportunistic infections continue to produce morbidity and mortality among the estimated 650,000-900,000 persons who are infected with HIV, especially among the estimated 200,000-250,000 persons who are severely immunosuppressed (i.e., persons who have a CD4+ T-lymphocyte count of less than 200 cells/uL) (6-10). (
  • However, it is still unclear to what extent insufficient recovery of thymopoiesis predicts for subsequent opportunistic infections and non-relapse mortality. (
  • Research shows that about 90% of HIV-related morbidity and mortality are caused by opportunistic infections compared to 7% due to opportunistic cancers and 3% due to other causes [ 5 ]. (
  • Interestingly, while opportunistic herpes virus brain infection of C57BL/6 MAIDS mice was not itself lethal, when T-cell immunity was reconstituted through adoptive transfer of virus-specific CD3 + T-cells, it resulted in significant mortality among recipients. (
  • CNS infections present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians involved in the care of the transplant patient, with a propensity to result in profound morbidity and often high mortality in this patient population. (
  • HIV is a virus that targets T cells of the immune system and, as a result, HIV infection can lead to progressively worsening immunodeficiency, a condition ideal for the development of opportunistic infection. (
  • Histoplasma capsulatum is a species of fungus known to cause histoplasmosis, which can present with an array of symptoms, but often involves respiratory infection. (
  • Following initial infection a person may not notice any symptoms, or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. (
  • Not only does this make it more difficult to fight the infection, it may mean that a level of infection that would normally produce symptoms is instead undetected (subclinical infection). (
  • Video chat with a U.S. board-certified doctor 24/7 in less than one minute for common issues such as: colds and coughs, stomach symptoms, bladder infections, rashes, and more. (
  • For the most part, other infections - with bacteria, other viruses, fungi, or parasites - cause the more pronounced symptoms of HIV. (
  • This increases the risk and impact of opportunistic infections and some types of cancer . (
  • In the early 1990s, the use of chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and better strategies for managing acute OIs contributed to … Opportunistic infections can attack all areas of the body including the mouth and the throat. (
  • Opportunistic infections and retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency: studies of acute and chronic infections with Toxoplasma gondii in mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses. (
  • Virus-infected mice were examined for the ability to resist acute infection and to control chronic infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a major opportunistic pathogen of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • Mice infected with the retroviruses for 2 or 4 weeks responded normally to challenge with the parasite, but mice inoculated with the protozoan 8 or 12 weeks after viral infection died with acute disease due to T. gondii. (
  • Increased sensitivity to acute infection was associated with a reduced ability to produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and with established changes in CD4+ T-cell function. (
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxo) is a protozoal infection of the brain. (
  • Many researchers are also of the opinionthat if a person's damaged immune system can be rebuilt, he will be better protected against opportunistic infections. (
  • When people use the newest drugs that fight HIV, its possible that their immune system can repair some of the damage done by HIV, and can do a better job of fighting opportunistic infections. (
  • OIs are serious infections that take advantage of your weak immune system. (
  • But untreated HIV, over the course of years, will harm your immune system and can lead to opportunistic infections. (
  • Opportunistic" means they take advantage of the weaker immune system of someone with HIV. (
  • Almost any disease can become an opportunistic infection when your immune system is weak. (
  • It will help you avoid the serious consequences of infection as well as preserve your immune system. (
  • Your doctor might also prescribe medication to prevent the infection from coming back, and if your immune system recovers, you may be able to stop taking that. (
  • An infection by a microorganism that normally does not cause disease but does so when lowered resistance to infection is caused by the impairment of the body's immune system. (
  • If your HIV treatment isn't working, your immune system will get weaker and you may be at risk of opportunistic infections. (
  • You may have been immunized against the infection, or your immune system may have "cleared" the infection, or you may be infected. (
  • HIV weakens the immune system so that opportunistic infections can develop. (
  • This allows the immune system to do its job of controlling infections. (
  • Opportunistic infection: An infection that occurs because of a weakened immune system. (
  • Opportunistic infections are a special category of infections that affects those individuals more who have weaker or degrading immune system. (
  • But if your immune system is compromised it may be harder to fight these infections. (
  • As the immune system wanes, the person has an increasingly difficult time fighting off infections from which a person with a 'normal' immune system would typically not suffer, a.K.A. 'opportunistic' infections. (
  • I know my immune system is running over capacity in order to keep the tick-borne infections in check. (
  • I arguably have an altered, if not outright compromised immune system, between everything that I've been dealing with, including chronic infections, too many antibiotics, and for the past year fludrocortisone for my blood pressure which is a mild immune suppressant. (
  • I wonder if the food allergy hypothesis is out the window or if the food sensitivities throw my immune system more out of whack giving the infection more opportunity to torment me. (
  • When germs take advantage of your weakened immune system, they are called opportunistic infections (OI). (
  • Hence, the physician has to order blood culture and other laboratory tests to make a definitive diagnosis.Even if an immuno-compromised person gets an opportunistic infection, there are medications that will prevent active disease. (
  • The organisms that cause opportunistic infections are categorized as protozoa, fungi, viruses and bacteria. (
  • Over the last 20 years our laboratory and other research groups determined the glycan and ceramide structures of more than 20 GSLs from several pathogenic/opportunistic fungi, using a combination of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance as well as other immunochemical and biochemical techniques. (
  • This review focuses on glycan structures carried on sphingolipids of pathogenic/opportunistic fungi, and aspects of their biological significance are discussed. (
  • In general, an infectious disease can be caused by a pathogenic organism (viruses, bacteria, fungi, worms, parasites) that can invade the body and cause infection. (
  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of two bacteria, M. avium and M. intracellulare, that typically co-infect, leading to a lung infection called mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. (
  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC or MAI) is a bacterial infection that can cause recurring fevers, general sick feelings, problems with digestion, and serious weight loss. (
  • IRIS has been observed most commonly with mycobacterial infections (TB and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex ), but may also develop with other OIs. (
  • In HIV-infected men who have sex with men, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasmic encephalitis, fungal infections, and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease have decreased in incidence (9). (
  • The addition of thiopurine to anti-TNF α therapy did not increase the frequency of infection. (
  • Could be 'final stage' if no longer responding to haart (anti-viral treatments) which should help prevent most opportunistic infections once the HIV viral load is suppressed. (
  • How long do people live after they acquire HIV infection, without HAART? (
  • Salmonella is a genus of bacteria, known to cause gastrointestinal infections. (
  • They found that α toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus can worsen lung co-infection by Gram-negative bacteria by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing phagosomes, increasing proliferation, spread, and lethality. (
  • Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. (
  • From the advent of the antibiotic era, the empiric use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has resulted in the emergence and cross-species spread of antibiotic resistance in many opportunistic bacteria ( 1 ). (
  • These bacteria are associated with infections in immunocompromised hosts and are widely reported in shower systems and as causes of water-acquired infection. (
  • Opportunistic: an infection that occurs in a compromised host by an organism (bacteria, fungus, parasite or virus), which does not usually infect a "normal" host. (
  • However, these decreases have not been observed among HIV-infected injecting-drug users, suggesting that more emphasis should be placed on providing currently recommended chemoprophylactic agents to all persons who have HIV infection and who meet appropriate criteria for prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. (
  • This report updates and combines earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIV-exposed and infected children. (
  • 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. (
  • opportunistic infection synonyms, opportunistic infection pronunciation, opportunistic infection translation, English dictionary definition of opportunistic infection. (
  • The page not only provides Urdu meaning of Opportunistic but also gives extensive definition in English language. (
  • The definition of Opportunistic is followed by practically usable example sentences which allow you to construct your own sentences based on it. (
  • opportunistic definition: 1. (
  • The limited data on opportunistic infection and the lack of a consistent definition of opportunistic infection invite caution for a benchmark rate for opportunistic infection as a composite category. (
  • A definition of opportunistic infections. (
  • What is the definition or description of: Opportunistic infections in AIDS? (
  • In addition to common infections, opportunistic infection (OI) has emerged as an important complication in developed countries [ 8 ]. (
  • In addition to common infections, opportunistic infection has emerged as an important complication, but most studies examining opportunistic infections have been single center in design and focused on SLE. (
  • Although malaria is not typically considered an opportunistic infection, its incidence was found to be significantly higher among children in Tanzania that were perinatally infected with HIV than those without HIV infection. (
  • Resistance to S. pneumoniae was significantly reduced by retroviral infection, but not by short-term, binge, exposure to dietary ethanol. (
  • The incidence rate of opportunistic infections was highest for polymyositis/dermatomyositis (61.3/1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 56.6-66.2), followed by SLE (43.1/1000 person-years, 95% CI 41.7-44.5), systemic sclerosis (31.6/1000 person-years, 95% CI 28.3-35.1), rheumatoid arthritis (25.0/1000 person-years, 95% CI 24.4-25.7), and primary Sjogren's syndrome (24.1/1000 person-years, 95% CI 23.1-25.2). (
  • Previous studies that focused on bacterial or opportunistic infections in systemic lupus erythematosus implicated multiple factors, including complement deficiency, low production of interleukin 8, and inadequate chemotaxis and phagocytosis, along with the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. (
  • Because the HIV virus makes copies of itself more quickly when you have an opportunistic infection, early treatment is important. (
  • aids the treatment of infection by enhancing white blood cell action and potentiating germ-killing antibiotics. (
  • The data on serious infection may be used to evaluate the public health risk and benefit of biologic treatment. (
  • Introduction Anti-TNF agents are highly effective for treatment of IBD but are associated with an increased risk of infection. (
  • If otherwise stable most of these infections have specific treatment options. (
  • Nevertheless, we still do not have either a curative treatment or a preventive vaccine, without which most of those presently infected will die of AIDS, and new infections will continue unabated. (
  • There was significant changes due to virus infection with and without alcohol treatment in T-subsets, B-cells and macrophages. (
  • Without treatment, the infection might progress to an advanced stage called AIDS. (
  • A predominant intramacrophage stage and a host-detrimental role for macrophages have major implications for treatment strategies of both CF and non-CF infections. (
  • Dr. MacFabe presents his current research examining the ability of a panel of gut bacterial metabolic products (i.e., short chain fatty acids) associated with antibiotic induced clostridial infections, and their ability to produce brain neuroinflammatory, metabolic, epigenetic and behavioral changes closely resembling those found in ASDs. (
  • It discusses the hypothesis that ASDs are produced by pre- or post-natal antibiotic resistant clostridial infections in sensitive subpopulations. (
  • During the 1990s, Bactrim was the go-to antibiotic for many of these opportunistic infections. (
  • Utilizing our HSV brain infection model and mice with MAIDS, we investigated the effect of immune reconstitution on MAIDS mice harboring opportunistic viral brain infection. (
  • Immune reconstitution and the risk of opportunistic infections after unrelated cord blood transplantation. (
  • A description of herpes simplex virus that causes cold sores or genital herpes, and its interactions with HIV infection. (
  • Infection with the LP-BM5 retroviral mixture was found to confer susceptibility to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 brain infection to normally-resistant C57BL/6 mice. (
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that causes cryptococcosis, which can lead to pulmonary infection as well as nervous system infections, like meningitis. (
  • One can reduce the risk of infection by keeping clean, having hygienic practices,and avoiding known sources of infection. (
  • This puts you at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). (
  • As part of the initiative to end the HIV epidemic, CDC will expand efforts to increase PrEP awareness, access, and use, particularly among those at highest risk for HIV infection. (
  • You can reduce the risk of new infections by keeping clean and avoiding known sources of the germs that cause OIs. (
  • The risk of HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected people increases as the CD4+ count declines. (
  • Although no increased risk of opportunistic infections was identified, alterations in inflammatory cytokine levels were observed. (
  • The analyses were stratified according to follow-up duration using Poisson regression, and Cox models were used to compare the risk of first opportunistic infection. (
  • If you are at high risk for an OI, your healthcare provider may be able to prescribe antibiotics to prevent certain infections. (
  • Polymyositis/dermatomyositis are strongly associated with a broad range of malignancies, which could contribute to the increased risk of opportunistic infections through the use of cytotoxic anti-cancer therapies. (
  • These are called opportunistic infections (OIs), because they take advantage of the body's weakened defenses. (
  • Transferring normal spleen cells from healthy, unimmunized mice also enabled the retrovirally infected mice to survive the bacterial infection longer than unimmunized, but retrovirally infected mice. (
  • The doctor at the walk-in clinic who diagnosed my nasty bacterial infection warned me there was a 50/50 chance fluid would collect under the skin, requiring me to come back and have it lanced. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (

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