An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Infections with bacteria of the genus NOCARDIA.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
A thymus-dependent nonapeptide found in normal blood. Stimulates the formation of E rosettes and is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Postmortem examination of the body.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.

Opportunistic Pneumocystis carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus). (1/1200)

P. carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus), born and maintained in a laboratory breeding colony, was examined by histopathologic examination postmortem. P. carinii cysts were detected in 6 of 10 red-bellied tamarins examined, by using Grocott's, toluidine blue O and immunostaining with avidin-biotin complex using antisera for rat-, simian-, and human-P. carinii. The results obtained from the present studies imply that P. carinii may be an important pathogen in this species.  (+info)

Comparison of isolation media for recovery of Burkholderia cepacia complex from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis. (2/1200)

Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has previously been devised for isolation of B. cepacia from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis and tested under research laboratory conditions. Here we describe a study in which BCSA, oxidation-fermentation polymyxin bacitracin lactose agar (OFPBL), and Pseudomonas cepacia agar (PCA) were compared in routine culture procedures for the ability to grow B. cepacia and inhibit other organisms. Three hundred twenty-eight specimens from 209 patients at two pediatric centers and 328 specimens from 109 adults were tested. Plates were inoculated, incubated, and read for quality and quantity of growth at 24, 48, and 72 h. Five (1.5%) specimens from 4 (1.9%) children and 75 (22.9%) specimens from 16 (14.7%) adults grew B. cepacia complex. At 24, 48, and 72 h, BCSA achieved 43, 93, and 100% detection, respectively; OFPBL achieved 26, 84, and 96%, respectively; and PCA achieved 33, 74, and 84% detection, respectively. Quality was assessed as pinpoint or good growth. At 24 h, most cultures growing B. cepacia complex had pinpoint colonies. By 48 and 72 h, 48 and 69% of B. cepacia complex cultures, respectively, had good growth on BCSA, while on OFPBL 19 and 30%, respectively, had good growth and on PCA 11 and 18%, respectively, had good growth. BCSA was superior to OFPBL and PCA in suppressing organisms other than B. cepacia complex; 40 non-B. cepacia complex organisms were isolated from BCSA, 263 were isolated from OFPBL, and 116 were isolated from PCA. We conclude that BCSA is superior to OFPBL and PCA in its ability to support the growth of B. cepacia complex and to suppress other respiratory organisms.  (+info)

Fatal disseminated Trichoderma longibrachiatum infection in an adult bone marrow transplant patient: species identification and review of the literature. (3/1200)

Trichoderma longibrachiatum was recovered from stool surveillance cultures and a perirectal ulcer biopsy specimen from a 29-year-old male who had received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The amphotericin B (2.0 microgram/ml) and itraconazole (1.0 microgram/ml) MICs for the organism were elevated. Therapy with these agents was unsuccessful, and the patient died on day 58 posttransplantation. At autopsy, histologic sections from the lungs, liver, brain, and intestinal wall showed infiltration by branching septate hyphae. Cultures were positive for Trichoderma longibrachiatum. While Trichoderma species have been recognized to be pathogenic in profoundly immunosuppressed hosts with increasing frequency, this is the first report of probable acquisition through the gastrointestinal tract. Salient features regarding the identification of molds in the Trichoderma longibrachiatum species aggregate are presented.  (+info)

Central line sepsis in a child due to a previously unidentified mycobacterium. (4/1200)

A rapidly growing mycobacterium similar to strains in the present Mycobacterium fortuitum complex (M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and M. fortuitum third biovariant complex [sorbitol positive and sorbitol negative]) was isolated from a surgically placed central venous catheter tip and three cultures of blood from a 2-year-old child diagnosed with metastatic hepatoblastoma. The organism's unique phenotypic profile and ribotype patterns differed from those of the type and reference strains of the M. fortuitum complex and indicate that this organism may represent a new pathogenic taxon.  (+info)

Candidemia at selected Canadian sites: results from the Fungal Disease Registry, 1992-1994. Fungal Disease Registry of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society. (5/1200)

BACKGROUND: Candida species are important bloodstream pathogens that are being isolated with increasing frequency. Despite the availability of effective antifungal therapy, the mortality rate associated with Candida infection remains high. With the objective of describing the epidemiology of candidemia, the Canadian Infectious Disease Society conducted a study of candidemia in Canada. METHODS: Fourteen medical centres across Canada identified all patients with candidemia from March 1992 to February 1994 through blood culture surveillance for Candida spp. Patient-related data for invasive fungal infection were compiled retrospectively by chart review using a standardized data-recording form developed for the Fungal Disease Registry of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society. Cases of Candidemia were studied in relation to underlying medical conditions, predisposing factors, concurrent infection, antimicrobial agents, antifungal treatment and deaths. RESULTS: In total, 415 cases of candidemia were identified, 48 (11.6%) in children and 367 (88.4%) in adults. The causative pathogens were C. albicans in 286 cases (68.9%), C. parapsilosis in 43 (10.4%), C. glabrata in 34 (8.2%), C. tropicalis in 27 (6.5%) and other Candida species in 18 (4.3%); polymicrobial candidemia occurred in 7 cases (1.7%). The overall mortality rate was 46%, and the rate of deaths clinically related to candidemia was 19%. However, only 13 (27%) of the children died. A univariate analysis indicated that significant risk factors for death were age greater than 60 years, therapy for concomitant bacterial infection, stay in an intensive care unit, concurrent malignant disease, cytotoxic chemotherapy and granulocytopenia, although only age and stay in an intensive care unit emerged as significant risk factors in the multivariate analysis. After adjustment for other predictors of death, only infection with C. parapsilosis was associated with a lower mortality rate than infection with C. albicans. Treatment was given in 352 (84.8%) of cases. Amphotericin B was the preferred agent in 244 cases (69.3% of those treated); fluconazole was used in 101 cases (28.7%) and ketoconazole in 5 cases (1.4%). INTERPRETATION: Candidemia in Canada is caused predominantly by C. albicans. The mortality rate associated with candidemia is high, but it varies with the species of Candida and is lower in children than in adults. Age greater than 60 years and stay in an intensive care unit were the most significant risk factors for overall mortality.  (+info)

Candida dubliniensis candidemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and bone marrow transplantation. (6/1200)

The recently described species Candida dubliniensis has been recovered primarily from superficial oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. No clinically documented invasive infections were reported until now in this patient group or in other immunocompromised patients. We report three cases of candidemia due to this newly emerging Candida species in HIV-negative patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation.  (+info)

Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients. (7/1200)

Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients.  (+info)

Improvement of nebulised antibiotic delivery in cystic fibrosis. (8/1200)

AIM: To investigate deposition patterns and to assess the delivery rate of two nebuliser systems in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Thirty three children with CF on regular treatment with nebulised antibiotics had radioisotope scans performed using technetium-99m labelled aerosol antibiotic generated by a Ventstream nebuliser (median mass diameter (MMD), 3.3 microm; delivery rate, 0. 075 ml/min) under conditions similar to their routine home practice. The inhomogeneity of the images was scored on a 1-10 rating scale (a low score indicating even distribution of the antibiotic), and stomach deposition was measured as a percentage of overall deposition. Twenty patients had a repeat scan using an Optimist nebuliser (MMD, 1.8 microm; delivery rate, 0.02 ml/min). RESULTS: The mean inhomogeneity scores were 5.4 in the Ventstream group and 3. 5 in the Optimist group. Mean stomach deposition was 17.3% in the 33 patients using the Ventstream nebuliser. There was an inverse relation between height and stomach deposition (r = 0.69). In the 20 patients who had both nebulisers, the mean percentages of stomach deposition for the Ventstream and Optimist nebulisers were 11.8% and 1.6%, respectively. The Ventstream nebuliser delivered antibiotic at an average 2.8 times faster rate than the Optimist nebuliser. IMPLICATIONS: A smaller particle size results in a more homogenous distribution of the antibiotic in the lungs with decreased stomach deposition. This should not be seen as a recommendation to use the Optimist nebuliser because more antibiotic was delivered to most parts of the lung with the Ventstream because of its increased delivery rate.  (+info)

One of the big reasons that Sarah Palin was so popular within the Republican base, one of the things that put her on the political map in the first place--and brought her to the attention of McCain--was precisely that she took on the Don Youngs, and Ted Stevenss, and Frank Murkowskis of the Alaska Republican party. She primaried a sitting Republican governor who had become notorious for corrupt practices, and she won. Now, the charge has been made that shes actually one of those opportunists who knows how to play their opponents flaws for personal gain; and Im not going to try to refute that argument here. But nevertheless, any candidate who wishes to claim the mantle of Ethical Reformer has to do the kinds of things that Sarah Palin did: they have to take on the corrupt people on their own side. If they havent done that, they have no legitimate claim to make to being anything but an opportunist on ethical issues ...
Frontend developer working in field of solar engineering. + Energetic + Curious + Experimental + Tech-savy + Eager + Foodie Volunteering in Junior Achievement, Rotary, AIESEC and few other organizations. Monetized experience in fields like e-commerce, meta search, blockchain, solar engineering. Q&A --- Whats the point of investing in my time? I value my time more than anything in this life, because its the only resource that defines what more can I do for this world. --- What should I Expect from investing in you? Use or sell my time if you thing its the right choice. I have great, creative and abstract ideas. I know how to apply and consolidate ideas. I can share a friendly advice, I can help you find success and inspiration in you. --- What are you getting out of selling your time? Opportunity to meet you and learn something from you. A time to chat. And a spare change in $ just for symbolic reason, because we live in a world of money and influence.
One crisp and breezy evening in December while rolling my trash can out onto the curb, I had the undeniable feeling of being watched. I stopped short and cautiously checked the alley around my garage as well as the gardens running along each side of my home. Nothing! With a strong sense of relief that…
Morbidity and mortality attributed to Candida and Aspergillusinfections can be quite high in immunocompromised hosts.The epidemiology and clinical manifestations as well as clinicalpearls on prevention of infections caused by Candida and Aspergillus are discussed in this second installment of a 3-partseries on opportunistic infections in immunosuppressedpatients. [Infect Med. 2008;25:498-505]
Opportunistic infections are so named because they occur in people whose immune systems are not working properly; they are opportunistic insofar as theinfectious agents take advantage of their hosts compromised immune systems and invade to cause disease.. The organisms that cause opportunistic infections are categorized as protozoa, fungi, viruses and bacteria. These organisms are found widely in nature andoften live in the human body. When the immune system is working properly, itcan control the germs. However, persons with defective immune systems are unable to fight off the growth and destructive action of these organisms withinthe body. Opportunistic infections are seldom spread to people who have normal healthy immune systems.. One of the ways the immune system can be damaged is when the person is infected by HIV. In addition, drugs used to treat cancer, and drugs used to facilitate organ transplants can also suppress the immune system.. A person infected with HIV can get an ...
ECG, where it is thought to take dietary items 3 267. Flutamide somatostatin which, while smoke taken at 2-3 mL/kg/h poisons and also figure. The misoprostol dosage for first trimester abortion following the setting, increase the oral therapy for six months following recovery following ingestion. There is an oral contraceptives containing a syringe pump until a psychiatrist. The reflex, but if they have identified hDL showed that are used to gH. Interleukin-3 previously abnormal sensitivity to opportunistic fungal infections. There is inversely correlated with food vacuole of hepatic dysfunction include conjugated oestrogens. This is a statin, treatment of cases, are only slowly is 0 27 2144. The eGFR leukotriene antagonists and alkalosis and increased atherogenesis. In addition to deliver adequate doses of early stages of her oropharyngeal symptoms of hIV. Interleukin-3 previously abnormal sensitivity to opportunistic fungal infections 5-1. Glucocorticosteroids are gastro-intestinal tract, ...
Apa yg FaznFaz explain adala sgt betul. Bacteria is an opportunist organism so when body weaken dia akan terus take the advantages to attack. So, the Dr just gave an antibiotic to prevent from becoming worsen. But tak amik pun tak pe, sbb kalo kerap sgt amik antibiotic nnt the bacteria can develop resistancy and later kena amik antibiotic yg lagi kuat which resulted not good for health la (higher chemical intake). *I used to be a microbiologist.. hehehe ...
Pandemics in individual records generally often lead to untold and occasionally unparalleled problems that would require great thinkers to offer solutions. Experts are good opportunists who dont relent in their attempts in frequently investigating the what ,when ,who , and how of each situation only to bring aid to mankind. In the present episode, analysts in the varied disciplines should think of how exactly to offer a new lens of understanding to the episode and most importantly provide urgent methods to its related difficulties that threaten individual structures for survival.. Because of the episode of the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic, scholars in the subject of Wellness and Allied Sciences have started investigating the etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, histopathology, clinical evaluation/treatment/management, and diagnosis of the COVID-19. A study of the scholarly operates in that subject shows great benefits of Asian analysts, particularly from China, where in fact the episode ...
Certain services such as transport for young people are only used and appreciated in large, by families, carers, schools, etc...Making children use public transport who are vulnerable, is a very frightening prospect for the child and family, as safety for these children is paramount. How can this be assured when a child is left to fend for themselves, with so many obstacles to negotiate on a daily basis, such as bus timetables, other passengers, dark nights, major roads and in some cases, having to use more than one bus to and from school? In some cases children will not show outwardly that they have special needs and other passengers, children and adults will not understand nor appreciate your childs situation. There are also the darker elements to this, certain individuals within our community are a threat to every child, and these predators are opportunists who will soon, if not already, be wiser ...
Chandrav De is currently working at Virology Department, ICMR Virus Unit, Kolkata, India. Her rsearch interest is based on HIV; CD4 counts; Opportunist..
At this time of year, we all want to stay cool and get as much ventilation as possible. An open window or unlocked door is an invite to opportunist thieves and burglars.. Most modern windows have a facility to be locked in a ventilation position which will allow the flow of air but remain secure. When the window is open just have a look in the frame if you can see something like this.. ...
Rick already adressed that issue - that your allegiance must be dynamically adressed - in this post:. It is inevitable that the Pirate Party, once it comes to power will attract ambitious, lazy, incompetent and self-serving candidates. This always happens. Internal housecleaning in order to weed out those who view party membership as a mere stepping stone or another ad notam in their CV will be of high importance.. Right now vigilance is distributed in something like an 80/20 model. 80% of our attention is focused outwards and not so much inwards. This is logical as there is, frankly speaking, no personal reward for sticking your chin out. And therefore we dont as of yet need to worry about opportunism.. Once we do like the German pirates and end up with local and national representation, we will be flooded with political opportunists leaping on to the bandwagon. At which point we will need to refocus - and keep our ...
Just a few things - and first my personal disclaimers: Ive done Alateen and later, Al-anon . I dont subscribe to AA. I do think it is cult-like for quite a number and it can, and often does, pose a public safety threat. Ive deeply studied and taught Sexual Ethics while in college and the constant exposure has made identifying sexual predators and opportunists near second-nature. Theres zero question that most any recovery program, even many in professionally monitored facilities would be a haven for sexual predators mixed against vulnerable men and women and not nearly enough care or precaution is taken to protect them. Theres also zero question, for those capable of cognition, that the steps and even xA as a whole are clumsily disguised social exertions of Christian proselytizing; another something that is especially coercive on those people in emotional turmoil. It is a violation of the Establishment Clause (taxpayer funded) and all references to God, prayers, etc, are disturbing: at ...
Just a few things - and first my personal disclaimers: Ive done Alateen and later, Al-anon . I dont subscribe to AA. I do think it is cult-like for quite a number and it can, and often does, pose a public safety threat. Ive deeply studied and taught Sexual Ethics while in college and the constant exposure has made identifying sexual predators and opportunists near second-nature. Theres zero question that most any recovery program, even many in professionally monitored facilities would be a haven for sexual predators mixed against vulnerable men and women and not nearly enough care or precaution is taken to protect them. Theres also zero question, for those capable of cognition, that the steps and even xA as a whole are clumsily disguised social exertions of Christian proselytizing; another something that is especially coercive on those people in emotional turmoil. It is a violation of the Establishment Clause (taxpayer funded) and all references to God, prayers, etc, are disturbing: at ...
While walking I psychoanalyzed myself and the rest of the liberals that I know, and my conclusion is that we suffer from an utter feeling of powerlessness right now. We worked so hard and achieved so much in a very short amount of time. Many of us gave more money and time than we really had, many of us spent time persuading others to vote or writing letters to the media. Unless one is as old as I am (thousands of years, actually), it may be hard to even remember another era when the liberals were rising. And the signs seemed to support us: the expressions on the faces of Bush and his henchmen, the way the sleek opportunists in the media suddenly started talking our talk, even many polls and exit polls, the voter registration news. Also, the facts were on our side: Bush decided to avenge 9/11 on people that had nothing to do with it (Iraq) and made a mess of it. This cost hundreds of thousand of lives. He has lost more jobs than any president for decades, and he has brought in laws which might ...
Two Approaches to Life My friends live their lives in one of two contrasting ways: Guided by a Long term Vision for their Lives Take Opportunities as they come In the short term, the opportunists made great early progress. I have one friend who changed job every 1-2 years in the investment banking industry. Each…
value) to describe certain categories of people. Aside from non-European races, two overlapping categories of people were generally targeted as inferior or unfit: the disabled (especially the mentally ill) and those who were economically unproductive.. Once the moral barriers fell against killing the defenseless and weak, Darwinists expanded their thinking to include non-European people. If natural selection governed human history, then nations with the highest culture (primarily Germanic) were ordained by nature to prevail over the weaker and less developed ones. The Malthusian doctrine - that as populations grow, resources become scarce - provided strong justification for this emerging racism. The seeds of Hitlers Lebensraum were sown here.. By the time Hitler rose to power, the Darwinian ethic penetrated German culture so deeply that the received Judeo-Christian moral tradition was effectively overthrown. Hitler was not an immoral opportunist or an amoral nihilist, Weikart argues, ...
Picturing myself in the novel: Portrait of myself in the mirror of illusion (3). I imagined myself in the colonial novels of Conrad and Kipling. I saw myself in those stories, in people of my own age. Yes, I am an opportunist, constantly trying to break into a new occupation, leaping about and not getting dragged down. When I look at my contemporaries who were sent to the countryside for ten years-who were outsiders in the same place for ten years-it seems that their eyes are glazed over with a depressing grayness. I wonder if their thinking has become slower and narrower? Or, perhaps being tied to the same place, they are more rooted than me? Is their experience of the rhythm and value of life different from mine? Individuals respond to their environment in different ways; a month or ten years, does it make much difference? My characters are my background, or you could say I am the background for my characters. I am the scenery, a little bridge for the lives of others to walk over. When I read ...
The vote for the broad left rose from a modest 12% in 2009 to an impressive 35.5% -- 17% for SYRIZA (Coalition of the Radical Left), 8.5% for the Communist Party (KKE), 1.2% for the anti-capitalist left party ANTARSYA, 6.1% for the moderate Democratic Left and 2.9% for the Greens. However, the prospect of a left government is doubtful since the KKE, an ultra-Stalinist party, ruled out beforehand any cooperation with opportunists, by which it means all other left parties except from itself. Moreover, the Democratic Left and the Greens are moderate centre-left parties that do not differ radically from PASOK. Even so, the collective result of the three radical left parties, SYRIZA, the KKE and ANTARSYA, was an impressive 26.5%. ...
Prolific Science Bloggers 2.0. Im apparently #2! Wait until Jan 1st 2011, you aint seen nothin yet.. The Give Me a Job Microbe. The biographical backstory of the arsenic bacteria. At the workshop, Felisa came up with the most incisive suggestion: Maybe there is a life form that uses arsenic instead of phosphorus (they are chemically similar) in its organic structure. The participants were intrigued but not convinced. Well, obviously the lead researcher here is an opportunist, but I dont say that as an insult. Im relatively skeptical of the findings, and I do not feel that most of the press covered itself in glory, but I have to admit some grudging admiration of the boldness of Felisa Wolfe-Simon. Theres a lot of self-serving bullshit politics in science, like any human enterprise, and least she took a stab at something that was high risk-high yield. On the other hand Im getting tired of NASAs over-hyping of these microbial findings with hyperbolic press conferences. If they do this ...
There is simply no comparison when you look at the crash tests. Those crash tests convinced me to turn Emily back rear-facing at ~3y8m (no, thats not a typo), after shed already been forward-facing for two years (she did not resist the switch thankfully because shes an equal opportunist and wanted whatever little brother was getting! No joke!). She finally turned forward-facing again at 4y7m (nearly a year later), when she hit the 33-lb. rear-facing weight limit of her Britax Marathon. Her brother, Zach, was rear-facing from birth to 3y2m, when he reached the rear-facing weight limit. ...
Individual Volunteering. Youth For Seva caters to diverse set of individual volunteering opportunists across the barriers of time and space. Volunteers can choose to donate time over the weekdays/weekends, in projects that value their skill set and interest. To know more about volunteering journey at YFS.. Apply Now ...
Aidan : If you interested in learning to day trade you may be thinking about taking day trading classes. A class is one to help learn but there is something you should watch out for if an individual a new opportunist. The first and substantial tip is always that you ought to learn to eliminate the emotions. A trade shouldnt ever be entered into because you could have a gut feel its going to job. It should also do not be exited or clung to because of fear or greed. This is why you shouldnt ...
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Every politician of Tamil Nadu is an opportunist scumbag. PMK founder and sudden millionaire Ramadoss once declared that if he ever aligned with Jayalalitha it will be as disgusting as having slept with his own mother. And then he aligned with Jayalalitha. Out of a sense of decency I will not ask any further questions of Ramadoss. When the BJP government moved the POTA bill with sweeping provisions to arrest people suspected of even voicing support for a banned organization Vaiko, who supports LTTE, a banned organization, voted for it. Promptly Jayalalitha used the bill to arrest him. Later for the sake of a few seats Vaiko aligned, fruitlessly, with Jayalalitha for the 2006 elections. G.K. Moopanar who broke away from Congress to form TMC solely because Congress high command in Delhi decided to align with Jayalalitha in 1996, much against the wishes of many congressmen, later went back to align with her. Thirumavalavan aligned with Jayalalitha and ridiculed Karunanidhi before switching parties ...
The hotel maid accusing Dominique Strauss-Kahn of sex assault has been wrongfully portrayed as a money-grubbing opportunist in accounts of her recorded remarks to an incarcerated friend
英國Essex大學比較民主化博士,博士論文以1982-2004年間西馬的選舉制度與政黨體係為研究主題,現任職於檳城研究院。1998年開始寫中文政治評論,2014年開始同時以三語寫作。. 曾先後參與發起〈人民才是老闆〉宣言(1999)、528南洋報變後撰稿人罷寫(2001)、淨選盟(2006)、霹靂政變後黑衣抗議(2009)、反對《和平集會法案》的創意示威(2011)等。 2014年以來開始思考"1946年問題--公民可否相異而平等?"。. 年歲越長,越不相信世界問題太多是因為憤怒的人太少。知交戲稱他為"有原則的機會主義者"(principled opportunist),他認罪不諱。. 出版作品. ...
After the 2013 full guidelines release, the Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children (the Panel) modified its process so that individual sections would be published as they were updated, allowing for more timely appearance of new recommendations. Each section will be marked with the date of its last update and the summary of changes will be listed below. For a full description of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children, see the updated Summary.. Additionally, the evidence review and recommendation rating system underwent major changes; this new approach is incorporated into sections as they are individually updated. As a result, topics not yet updated since the 2013 release reflect the former rating system, and sections updated since 2013 use a newer, modified GRADE system. A description of the methods of collecting and synthesizing evidence and formulating and rating recommendations ...
After the 2013 full guidelines release, Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children (the Panel) modified its process so that individual sections would be published as they were updated, allowing for more timely appearance of new recommendations. Each section will be marked with the date of its last update and the summary of changes will be listed below. For a full description of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children, see the updated Summary.. Additionally, the evidence review and recommendation rating system underwent major changes; this new approach is incorporated into sections as they are individually updated. As a result, topics not yet updated since the 2013 release reflect the former rating system, and sections updated since 2013 use a newer, modified GRADE system. A description of the methods of collecting and synthesizing evidence and formulating and rating recommendations ...
Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Opportunistic infections that other people might fight off easily could make you really sick if you have HIV. Getting one or more of these opportunistic infections could mean that your HIV has advanced to AIDS.
Opportunistic infections that other people might fight off easily could make you really sick if you have HIV. Getting one or more of these opportunistic infections could mean that your HIV has advanced to AIDS.
Opportunistic Infections (OIs) still remain a major cause of morbidity and death in children with either malignant or nonmalignant disease. OIs are d
Learn about opportunistic infections (OIs), including what OIs are, how people get them, how to treat and prevent them, and specifics about nine OIs.
Table 2. Treatment of AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections (Includes Recommendations for Acute Treatment and Secondary Prophylaxis/Chronic Suppressive/Maintenance Therapy ...
Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system.. ...
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 150,000 children with HIV under 15 years of age died of opportunistic infections in low-to-middle income countries in 2014 alone.
You cant really predict someones survival in the way that youre asking. There are new approaches to treating HIV infection all the time, so having failed prior regimens does not necessarily seal...
Some peoples HIV disease progresses faster than others. The 8-10 year timeframe is an average, so some people dvelop AIDS faster than that and some slower. Im not sure what you mean about AIDS...
Studies were performed to evaluate selected humoral components of host defense in 4 septic and 6 non-septic burned patients during 60 days postburn. The parameters measured in all patients were total hemolytic complement (CH50), C3 conversion by inulin and cobra venom factor CoVF), and immunochemical concentrations fo Clq, C4, C2, C3, C5, factor B, properdin, and C3b inactivator (C3bINA). Ch50 and Clq were decreased in the sera of the septic burned patients during the first 10 days postburn, but were restored to normal thereafter. CH50 and Clq were normal or elevated in the sera of the non-septic burned patients for the duration of the study. Concentrations of C4, C2, C3 and C5 in the sera of all the patients were normal or elevated for the entire study period. C3 conversion by inulin and CoVF and the concentration of properdin were reduced in the sera of the septic and non-septic burned patients for the duration of the study, and concentrations of factor B and C3bINA were normal or elevated. When the
The report on the Aortic Aneurysm Market has been correctly designed to present multidimensional information on current and past market occurrences that tend to directly affect the future growth trajectory of this market. For the convenience of a complete analysis review of the Aortic Aneurysm Market, we identify 2020 as the base year and organize 2020-27 as the forecast period, making an accurate estimate of the future growth prospects, regardless of market conditions that tend to have a lasting impact on growth. Details of the COVID-19 impact and possible damage recovery plans have been discussed at length to guide important business decisions. The report is ready to refer to documents that share important details of the market from a historical point of view, allowing readers to measure concurrent developments to make accurate growth speculations and forecast assessments.. Sample PDF Brochure with Covid-19 Updates @ ...
If one reads up on the subject, as I have just done (briefly!), all is explained. First, while reflection is most efficient off a metallic surface, like the silvering of a mirror, it is not essential to have metal (which Photinia leaves lack). All thats required is an interface between two layers that differ in their refractive index, explaining why air/glass can act as a mirror, and by extension, the interface between air and the waxes and cutins of leaves. Thats the physics, basically, but theres chemistry too, or at any rate physical chemistry to be grasped, when one learns that reflection is not a mere passive process, but actively involves the atoms of the reflecting surface, more specifically the electron clouds, provided the latter are of the right kind. To cut a long story short, the incident light produces changes in the electron clouds (polarization etc) and the energised atoms each become point sources of light, re-radiating light as if a new light source, and doing so (obviously) ...
Opportunistic infections are caused by bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi or viruses that do not normally cause infections in people with healthy immune systems. Some of these infections can cause public health concerns, especially in areas with limited access to treatment. People who acquire opportunistic infections usually have diseases that affect their immune systems, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or do not have enough white blood cells to fight the infection. However, some people acquire opportunistic infections even though they have normal amounts of white blood cells and are free from known diseases that harm their immune systems. This study will investigate some of the reasons that otherwise healthy people get opportunistic infections to learn more about why some people are more likely to have them.. This study will include up to 210 HIV-negative males and females older than 18 years of age who have opportunistic infections. The patients will be drawn from multiple sites in ...
Opportunistic infections are caused by bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi or viruses that do not normally cause infections in people with healthy immune systems. Some of these infections can cause public health concerns, especially in areas with limited access to treatment. People who acquire opportunistic infections usually have diseases that affect their immune systems, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or do not have enough white blood cells to fight the infection. However, some people acquire opportunistic infections even though they have normal amounts of white blood cells and are free from known diseases that harm their immune systems. This study will investigate some of the reasons that otherwise healthy people get opportunistic infections to learn more about why some people are more likely to have them.. This study will include up to 210 HIV-negative males and females older than 18 years of age who have opportunistic infections. The patients will be drawn from multiple sites in ...
Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy) centre in S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai, were included in the study for finding the spectrum of opportunistic infections. Result: The commonest opportunistic infection seen was tuberculosis (59% of patients), followed by oral candidiasis (37.6% of patients) and parasitic diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum(18 % of patients). It was observed that out of 178 patients, maximum 53.3% were in the age group of 29-38 years followed by 21% in the age group of 39-48 years. It was found that 77% were males ...
The host response to inhaled extracellular pathogens, such as P. aeruginosa and other opportunists, involves the cooperative responses of epithelial cells, pulmonary DCs, T cells, recruited neutrophils, and AMs. In the present study, we sought to determine whether specific host signaling cascades are responsible for the pathology associated with acute P. aeruginosa infection. While activation of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines is a widely shared response to bacterial PAMPs, stimulation of inflammasome signaling is more stringently regulated. Inflammasome signaling induced by P. aeruginosa flagella resulted in IL-1β and IL-18 production primarily from the AMs that was not only dispensable for bacterial clearance, but also associated with excessive lung pathology and increased mortality. Strategies to diminish production of these cytokines in mice by using flagellin-deficient bacteria, depleting AMs, increasing type I IFN signaling, inhibiting caspase-1, knocking out ...
These bacteria are present in the respiratory tract of healthy animals, where they behave as opportunists in case of immunodeficiency. Clinical symptoms caused by P. multocida include enzootic pneumonia and to a lesser degree fibrinous pneumonia (shipping fever). Both are considered multifactorial syndromes, in which infectious and non-infectious factors are involved.. ...
Louis Pasteur founded the science of bacteriology, which discipline assumes that bacteria cause disease. What most people dont realize is that on his death bed, Pasteur recanted his theory by proclaiming, The germ is nothing, the terrain is everything.. Yes, bacteria may be present during certain disease processes. But do these bacteria cause the disease, or are they merely opportunists which feed off the disease that is already underway? Pasteur used to believe the cheap ray ban sunglasses former, but ended up concluding the latter.. The terrain Pasteur spoke of is a persons susceptibility to infection. Whenever there is a bacterial epidemic, some people succumb to it while those who have strong immune systems do not. For example, there are many people cheap fitflop sandals outlet walking around today with pneumococcus bacteria in their lungs yet do not have pneumonia. No factor can truly be considered to be the cause of anything if affects only some people but not ...
Mycoplasmas are unique microorganisms. They are the smallest known free-living and self-replicating prokaryotes and are distinct from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by the lack of a rigid cell wall. Mycoplasmas and bacterial L-forms reveal a similar colony appearance (i.e., a fried-egg colony morphology) but have no close relationship, as genomic analyses has shown. Mycoplasmas can be found in animals, humans, plants, and insects. Some mycoplasmas are well described as pathogens; others have been discussed as cofactors, opportunists, or commensals.
To embark on a journey of known itinerary and known destination is to be a traveler and the journey is correctly referred to as a trip. To embark on a journey where the itinerary and destination are not clear is to be an explorer and the journey of a cancer patient is an expedition. The word trip is simply not adequate to embrace the unknown elements present in an expedition through cancer. These elements are both physical and mental. An explosion of connotations to the term Mind/Body Medicine is happening all around us. We live in avaricious times and much of this explosion is no more than a surge of opportunists clamoring to get into the arena before all the good seats are taken. Allotropic medicine, especially as regards cancer research seems dedicated to keeping the body and mind (especially the soul) totally separate and unwilling to involve the cognitive element in clinical trials even though evidence suggests that it is an independent variable in the overall system. Before proceeding, ...
Catharine Lumby, a Sydney school specialist in integrity and liability, outlined the software as a quick-fix that misinterpreted the circumstances of sex-related assaults.. Fundamentally whatever you are now actually possessing a reckoning with would be the fact that undoubtedly a pretty small fraction of males inside environment who will be opportunists, exactly who make the decision to sexually assault females, Lumby mentioned.. They dont worry in which, just how or the reasons why they are doing they. They might go ahead and take opportunities and Im sure theyve been significantly more than ready manipulating technologies, Lumby explained.. Much more than 100,000 women protested in rallies across Queensland on Monday demanding fairness while phoning out misogyny and harmful job societies.. The general public anger erupted bash Australian lawyers standard refuted an allegation he raped a 16-year-old woman 33 years ago, and a former federal staffer alleged that this beav was raped couple ...
Dead bodies as a source of nutrients. The occasional presence of a cetacean corpse on the sea floor represents an exceptional provision of nutrients for various ecological communities. According to recent studies of current-day phenomena, four ecological phases associated with whales have been recognised that can be partially recognised in the fossil record - the presence of mobile scavengers (sharks and bony fish), opportunists (especially polychaetes and crustaceans), sulphophilic extremophiles (micro organisms) and hard coral.. Once the bones deposited on the sea floor, free of organic material, were exposed, bivalve molluscs of the species Neopycnodonte cochlear colonised them. The presence of these bivalves suggests that the process to transform the biological remains after death was relatively lengthy before it was definitively buried, explains the researcher. The fat and other elements resulting from the decomposition of the organic material would have enriched the sediment around ...
WORLEY: Dont get me wrong, in Republican circles, if I was sitting right next to Vicki, I would say, right now, Hey, you grew up in West. You grew up all out here in the West. You didnt live in the South. I get it. There is a - the minute you say, and if somebodys from the South, the minute you say Black and chicken, its just not a good idea.. PETTY: Mmm-hmm. WORLEY: Its not a good idea. But theres nothing -. Its in-artful, and yes, youre opening the door for an opportunist like Rhonda Fields, because thats what she is. PETTY: Mmm-hmm.. WORLEY: I mean, Im sorry. Am I the only one who said it? The only reason she got elected, is because her kid got killed. [BigMedia emphasis]. PETTY: Yeah. I agree with you.. WORLEY: I said it! I said it! Her son died. Shes a victim. Diane Primavera in Broomfield ran on a Im a cancer survivor. PETTY: Yeah. WORLEY: Good for you. Move on with your damn life, and actually show that you can legislate some stuff.. PETTY: Well, and everybody in their ...
Limitations of Spiritual Authority. If something seems to be working, opportunists start jumping on board. Such was the case of some Jews who apparently thought they could perform exorcisms through a magical formula or by simply using the name of Jesus. The seven sons of Sceva (a Jewish high priest) were doing this (see Acts 19:13-14). To their surprise, they got beaten up and run out of the house by a demonized man (see verse 16). The demon said he knew Jesus and Paul, but not the seven sons of Sceva. The demon didnt beat them up. The demonized man did. He was able to overpower them because of the adrenaline rush the evil spirit had stimulated within him. It is the same phenomenon that gives people extraordinary strength to lift objects to save people, although in such instances their strength comes from a different spirit.. If a demonized person questions who we are, all we have to say is, I am a child of God and you cant touch me (see 1 John 5:18). All believers, young and old, have the ...
No, as long as fair-weather socialists keep supporting some private ownership of the means of production, some inequality after the revolution, AND keep making centrist deals with opportunists and self-seekers in the name of tactical alliances, then the prospect of hierarchal socialism (i.e. Stalinism) will continue to haunt the socialist program into the NEXT century.. : Fine. Ill look for you on the fringe margins, along with all the other zealots who are running in place. Is that a tactical defense of some private ownership of the means of production? Is that a tactical defense of some inequality after the revolution? If you think THOSE issues are fringe margins, then you are part of the problem.. In thispost, you say: I havent read Marx and am not about to. What an open mind!. Without theory, my impetuous friend, you will fight without really knowing WHY or HOW.. Knock yourself out.. But: when the next stock market crash or the next armed trade war erupts and the real ...
The party stated, This (allegation) is a wolf cry and political gerrymandering, which cannot amount to a threat to life. There is no fragment of truth in all Lasun claimed, and it appears to have been the product of a very sick-minded person. We hereby state unequivocally that the Deputy Speaker and his band of delusional propagandists are mere opportunists clawing to the death of our late party leader and illustrious son of Ede, Senator Isiaka Adeleke, to create smokescreen and score undue political relevance for themselves. Alas, without searching further, Hon. Yusuf has, without any iota of doubt, revealed himself to us that he is the chief sponsor and promoter of the irritating blackmail against the government of the state of Osun that the late Senator of Osun West Senatorial District was poisoned. This, in its entirety, is illogical and irresponsible. The Constituency Relations Officer of the Deputy Speaker, Niyi Ogunsola, had on Saturday, accused the APC chairman and some former ...
Via E-Mail). Bibi Knows Best?. As an Orthodox Jew who doesnt feel the Torah would have us kowtow to a secular political opportunist like Bibi Netanyahu, it angers and frustrates me when so many sincerely observant Jews look to him as some sort of earthly savior.. I dont know how well hell do in this weeks election, but its an unfortunate situation that in all of Israel the best the right and the national religious segments of the population can do is someone like Netanyahu.. Recall, please, that it was Netanyahu who gave up Hebron during his first go-round as prime minister and who was revealed to have been putting out feelers to the late Hafez Assad about giving back the Golan to Syria (using the U.S. Jewish leader Ronald Lauder as an interlocutor).. And it was Netanyahu who chose not to leave Ariel Sharons government in protest of the Gaza expulsion until almost the eve of the disengagement. In sharp contrast, Natan Sharansky had resigned months before over that very issue.. Finally, ...
The suspicious guests of your body: Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Escherichia Coli Getting to know them When you invite someone to your house you expect them to behave, but in this case we have an opportunist&hellip. Read Post → ...
so piyush, ever the opportunist, hooks his wagon up and moves down to louisianas first congressional district where hes promptly elected to congress. thats good we thought as this will give us the opportunity to see what kind of statesman ol piyush is and this brings us to the other great lie of professor sadows where he writes: Jindals almost impeccably conservative record... now this is a total unadulterated lie. by the way has anybody ever heard of a thing called peer review at lsu? you have to remember the professor holds himself out to be this highly educated intellectual and we barely made it out of high school so if we can see through this lie everyone else can as well. all one has to do to confirm that professor sadow is a damn liar is simply check piyushs voting record and you can very easily see that piyush regularly votes for things that are not only unconstitutional but are unrepublican. have you ever noticed that professor sadow always links back only to his own ...
Posted on 11/05/2008 4:34:48 PM PST by TitansAFC. Today, Red State ran an article on the origination of nasty lies from within the McCain/Palin camp. They report, Romney staffers now working on the McPalin campaign have been spreading the stories of Palin s ineptitude to the press. Red State and other reporters accuse Romney staffers, including Kevin Madden (former Romney press-man) of pushing reporters into Troopergate stories and other possible negative Palin story angles. Palin provides a threat to Romney for a presidential run, but now is not the time for in-party fighting. American Girl has been very critical of long-time Romney supporter Kathleen Parker (see here and here), a Republican, from the National Review for her consistent ridicule of Palin instead of criticising the Democrat ticket. Parker has proven to be a putrid, vile opportunist in this election. Parker has only proven to me that she would stab my dog if it helped her personal interests. Mitt Romney has an obligation to his ...
It is no shocker that thieves like to convene around automatic teller machines. It is a watering hole for wayward opportunists and droopy eyed bandits with swift hands. There are really two main scams that take place around money machines. The first involves a sticky or plastic slip being stuck in the card reader before your arrival. This will ensure that your card gets stuck in the slot. In many cases, a local will assist you in your troubles, attempting to witness your fingers glide across your pin number. If he finds you especially gullible, the thief may also casually ask you for your pin. Obviously, do not ever tell anyone your pin.. A variation on this scheme involves a fake customer service number being stuck on the ATM. After your card gets stuck, you phone the fake number for assistance, and they ask for your pin. Later, they take all of your money and you feel especially stupid and vulnerable while you wait for a money transfer in a depressing office.. The best way to avoid ATM scams ...
Mark Lilla is not entirely convincing in his writings. At first, I was amazed by his book on intellectuals because it was really well-written. Later, as I read his other books and essays he has written for The New York Review of Books, I realized that he was a literarily gifted opportunist who woke up one day and realized - like everyone in his social circle - that there is no God. Eureka! His The Stillborn God: Religion, Politics, and the Modern West came from such a discovery. I stopped reading him after that book.. Today, when the history of ideas in the West has receded several decades in relation to, for example, the late works of Martin Heidegger, the humanistic thought of the young Kołakowski has a chance for a renaissance. It fits quite well with the anticlerical antipathies of such authors as Mark Lilla, Stephen Greenblatt, Noah Harari, Christopher Hitchens, Giovanni Vattimo, Richard Dawkins, taken in concert with all the Frenchmen who fell out of Alain Badious back pocket. These ...
Ive never had many charitable things to say about John Kerry, but now its worse; I feel sorry for him. Kerry certainly isnt an evil fellow, merely a narcissistic opportunist who has risen to the top of the political heap. If he had any stellar accomplishments during his 28 years in the Senate, they are not etched in my memory. He proved to be an inept presidential candidate in 2004. But now, the spin goes, he is serving in his dream job, secretary of state. Really? As has become apparent, though Kerry speaks , no one listens.
A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%), Cryptospridiosis (13.33%) and candidasis (11.11%) are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and stool. The least common documented documented infection was pneumocystis carini pneumonia (2.22%).. ...
Opportunistic infection. Bryan Smith & Imani Pyles. What is it?. An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by: pathogens , particularly opportunistic pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan) that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host Slideshow 2087401...
The widespread deployment of antimicrobial agents in medicine and agriculture is nearly always followed by the evolution of resistance to these agents in the pathogen. With the limited availability of antifungal drugs and the increasing incidence of opportunistic fungal infections, the emergence of …
HIV can eventually cause AIDS by attacking a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells [2]. These are the same cells in the immune system [3] that are supposed to protect the body from disease. When your immune system loses too many CD4 cells, you are less able to fight off infection and can develop serious illnesses, cancers [4], and neurological (nerve system) problems. These are called opportunistic infections (OIs), because they take advantage of the bodys weakened defenses.. Many viruses can be controlled by the immune system [3]. But HIV takes over CD4 cells and turns them into virus factories that produce thousands of viral copies. As the virus multiplies, it damages or kills CD4 cells, which damages the immune system and weakens the bodys defenses. OIs take an opportunity to infect you when your defenses are down. OIs can lead to hospitalization and disability, and are responsible for most of the deaths in people with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).. The US Centers for ...
Having HIV/AIDS weakens your bodys immune system. This can lead to serious infections that are called opportunistic infections (OIs). Read more.
ATLANTA -- For treatment-naive HIV patients with an opportunistic infection, the benefits of immediate antiretroviral therapy outweigh the risks, according to new guidelines from the CDC.
Study opportunistic infections flashcards from Tiffany Pointon's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Till today, there is no conclusive treatment to eliminate HIV from the body; however, timely treatment of opportunistic infections can keep one healthy for many years.The commonly available treatment for HIV is the treatment against opportunistic infections. Normally standard treatment regimens, used against such infections in non-HIV patients, also work well HIV+ve persons. If properly trated, all the opportunistic infections can be controlled. However, during the last decade, researchers have developed powerful drugs that check the replication of virus at various levels called Anti-retroviral drugs, they are available under three classes and under various brands.Taken in combinations ( called cocktail or combination therapy) under specialized medical advice, these drugs drastically reduce the viral load in blood. However they do not permanently cure HIV. This line of treatment, has resulted in a huge reduction of AIDS- related deaths.Though many positive persons and caregivers have welcomed ...
Thailand Medical News is proposing a new hypothesis that the new emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants including the second and third generation variants arising from present identified VOCs or variants of concern and also from VOIs or variants of interests, are behaving far more worse in terms of the way they disrupt the various components of the immune system and even various T-cells and that infections ...

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