A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.
Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Major administrative divisions of the hospital.
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Retinal diseases refer to a diverse group of vision-threatening disorders that affect the retina's structure and function, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular edema, among others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
"Awards and prizes in a medical context refer to formal recognitions, typically bestowed upon healthcare professionals or researchers, for significant contributions to medical advancements, patient care, or professional organizations, often involving monetary rewards, certificates, or trophies."
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye, resulting in symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and increased sensitivity to light.
Artificial implanted lenses.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.
The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.

Computers in ophthalmology practice. (1/577)

Computers are already in widespread use in medical practice throughout the world and their utility and popularity is increasing day by day. While future generations of medical professionals will be computer literate with a corresponding increase in use of computers in medical practice, the current generation finds itself in a dilemma of how best to adapt to the fast-evolving world of information technology. In addition to practice management, information technology has already had a substantial impact on diagnostic medicine, especially in imaging techniques and maintenance of medical records. This information technology is now poised to make a big impact on the way we deliver medical care in India. Ophthalmology is no exception to this, but at present very few practices are either fully or partially computerized. This article provides a practical account of the uses and advantages of computers in ophthalmic practice, as well as a step-by-step approach to the optimal utilization of available computer technology.  (+info)

The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study. (2/577)

To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field.  (+info)

Failure of many ophthalmologists to use lasers safely. (3/577)

In 1990, after the detection of impairment of colour discrimination in laser operators, the College of Ophthalmologists recommended safety guidelines for the use of lasers. We measured the effectiveness of these guidelines and their impact on ophthalmological practice in the United Kingdom. Previously, in ophthalmologists not following the guidelines, there was a deterioration in colour discrimination after a laser session. No such deterioration was found in 10 ophthalmologists tested who adhered to the guidelines, but their colour discrimination was significantly worse than that of controls. Replies to a questionnaire disclosed that one third of senior ophthalmologists were unaware of the practices recommended.  (+info)

Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature. (4/577)

AIMS: To devise a method to measure tear meniscus curvature by a non-invasive specular technique. METHODS: A photographic system was devised. The system consisted of a camera and an illuminated target with a series of black and white stripes oriented parallel to the axis of the lower tear meniscus. The target was mounted on a flash gun close to the objective of a Brown macrocamera and calibrated using a graduated series of glass capillaries of known diameter, ground down to expose the inner wall. It was then applied to normal human eyes (n = 45) to measure the tear meniscus curvature. A video system was also assessed which provided qualitative online information about the tear meniscus. RESULTS: Using the photographic system, measured values for capillary radii were in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations (r2 = 0.996, p < 0.0001). The radii of curvature of lower tear menisci in normal human subjects (mean 0.365 (SD 0.153) mm, range 0.128-0.736; n = 45) were similar to those reported in the literature. Both systems demonstrated variations in meniscus shape. The video system provided stable images of human menisci over prolonged periods of time and promises to be useful for the analysis of dynamic changes in meniscus volume. CONCLUSIONS: Reflective meniscometry is a non-invasive technique providing quantitative information about tear meniscus shape and volume and of potential value in the study of ocular surface disease.  (+info)

Practical suggestions in the writing of a research paper. (5/577)

Writing a scientific article requires proper planning and a methodical approach. This article provides practical tips to organize the materials before writing, and discusses how to approach the writing of different parts of an article; that is, introduction, materials and methods, results, and discussion. It also provides guidelines on authorship, citing references, selecting photographs, tables and legends, and finally on style, grammar and syntax.  (+info)

Late diagnosis of retinoblastoma in a developing country. (6/577)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic process of retinoblastoma in a developing country. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective survey of 95 consecutive parents of patients with retinoblastoma. RESULTS: Fifty six parents consulted initially with a paediatrician. Their children tended to be younger, with a significantly higher frequency of advanced disease. Only half of the patients who consulted with a paediatrician were appropriately referred to an ophthalmologist; the paediatrician underestimated the complaints in the remainder. Children taken to an ophthalmologist were older and had less advanced disease. In about three quarters of these children, a diagnosis of retinoblastoma was suspected by the ophthalmologist on the first visit. Parents of patients with more advanced disease consulted significantly later. Poor parental education correlated significantly with late consultation. Lack of health insurance and living outside Buenos Aires City correlated significantly with an increased risk of extraocular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatricians are the first health professional seen by most children with retinoblastoma. However, the diagnosis is not readily established. There is also a delay in consultation by parents, which is significantly longer in cases with advanced extraocular disease. Socioeconomic factors and access to health care might play a role in delayed diagnosis.  (+info)

The Bristol Shared Care Glaucoma Study: reliability of community optometric and hospital eye service test measures. (7/577)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary open angle glaucoma patients and glaucoma suspects make up a considerable proportion of outpatient ophthalmological attendances and require lifelong review. Community optometrists can be suitably trained for assessment of glaucoma. This randomised controlled trial aims to assess the ability of community optometrists in the monitoring of this group of patients. METHODS: Measures of cup to disc ratio, visual field score, and intraocular pressure were taken by community optometrists, the hospital eye service and a research clinic reference "gold" standard in 405 stable glaucoma patients and ocular hypertensives. Agreement between and within the three centres was assessed using mean differences and intraclass correlation coefficients. Tolerance limits for a change in status at the level of individual pairs of measurements were also calculated. RESULTS: Compared with a research clinic reference standard, measurements made by community optometrists and those made in the routine hospital eye service were similar. Mean measurement differences and variability were similar across all three groups compared for each of the test variables (IOP, cup to disc ratio, and visual field). Overall, the visual field was found to be the most reliable measurement and the cup to disc ratio the least. CONCLUSIONS: Trained community optometrists are able to make reliable measurements of the factors important in the assessment of glaucoma patients and glaucoma suspects. This clinical ability should allow those optometrists with appropriate training to play a role in the monitoring of suitable patients.  (+info)

Determinants of attendance and patient satisfaction at eye clinics in south-western Uganda. (8/577)

PURPOSE: To identify the reasons for subjects deciding to attend or not attend local and referral ophthalmology clinics in south-west Uganda, and to establish the levels of satisfaction of clinic attenders with the services they received. METHODS: A population survey identified subjects with ocular conditions who were referred to the local clinic or the district hospital. All non-attenders and a group of attenders were interviewed at home. RESULTS: 31% of those referred did not attend the local clinic. The most common reasons were 'too busy' (29%) or 'unwilling to buy spectacles' (17%). Less than half of attenders were satisfied, mainly because of no perceived clinical improvement or having to buy spectacles. Only 13% of those referred to the district hospital clinic attended. The main reasons for non-attendance were high transport cost and fear of the clinic. CONCLUSION: Attendance and satisfaction with the community ophthalmology service could be improved by more intensive motivation and explanation for patients, and assistance with spectacle and transport costs. The use of aphakic motivators should be tested in this context.  (+info)

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders of the eye and visual system. It is a surgical specialty, and ophthalmologists are medical doctors who complete additional years of training to become experts in eye care. They are qualified to perform eye exams, diagnose and treat eye diseases, prescribe glasses and contact lenses, and perform eye surgery. Some subspecialties within ophthalmology include cornea and external disease, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology, retina and vitreous, and oculoplastics.

Eye diseases are a range of conditions that affect the eye or visual system, causing damage to vision and, in some cases, leading to blindness. These diseases can be categorized into various types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia, which affect the way light is focused on the retina and can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.
2. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens inside the eye that leads to blurry vision, glare, and decreased contrast sensitivity. Cataract surgery is the most common treatment for this condition.
3. Glaucoma: A group of diseases characterized by increased pressure in the eye, leading to damage to the optic nerve and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes medications, laser therapy, or surgery.
4. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive condition that affects the central part of the retina called the macula, causing blurry vision and, in advanced stages, loss of central vision. Treatment may include anti-VEGF injections, laser therapy, or nutritional supplements.
5. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels in the retina, leading to bleeding, leakage, and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes laser therapy, anti-VEGF injections, or surgery.
6. Retinal detachment: A separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly with surgery.
7. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye does not develop normal vision, often due to a misalignment or refractive error in childhood. Treatment includes correcting the underlying problem and encouraging the use of the weaker eye through patching or other methods.
8. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A misalignment of the eyes that can lead to amblyopia if not treated promptly with surgery, glasses, or other methods.
9. Corneal diseases: Conditions that affect the transparent outer layer of the eye, such as keratoconus, Fuchs' dystrophy, and infectious keratitis, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
10. Uveitis: Inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly with anti-inflammatory medications or surgery.

Ophthalmologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed on the eye and its surrounding structures by trained medical professionals called ophthalmologists. These procedures aim to correct or improve vision, diagnose and treat eye diseases or injuries, and enhance the overall health and functionality of the eye. Some common examples of ophthalmologic surgical procedures include:

1. Cataract Surgery: This procedure involves removing a cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).
2. LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis): A type of refractive surgery that uses a laser to reshape the cornea, correcting nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
3. Glaucoma Surgery: Several surgical options are available for treating glaucoma, including laser trabeculoplasty, traditional trabeculectomy, and various drainage device implantations. These procedures aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevent further optic nerve damage.
4. Corneal Transplant: This procedure involves replacing a damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy donor cornea to restore vision and improve the eye's appearance.
5. Vitreoretinal Surgery: These procedures focus on treating issues within the vitreous humor (gel-like substance filling the eye) and the retina, such as retinal detachment, macular holes, or diabetic retinopathy.
6. Strabismus Surgery: This procedure aims to correct misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) by adjusting the muscles responsible for eye movement.
7. Oculoplastic Surgery: These procedures involve reconstructive, cosmetic, and functional surgeries around the eye, such as eyelid repair, removal of tumors, or orbital fracture repairs.
8. Pediatric Ophthalmologic Procedures: Various surgical interventions are performed on children to treat conditions like congenital cataracts, amblyopia (lazy eye), or blocked tear ducts.

These are just a few examples of ophthalmic surgical procedures. The specific treatment plan will depend on the individual's condition and overall health.

Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the eye or its surrounding structures. These injuries can vary in severity and may include:

1. Corneal abrasions: A scratch or scrape on the clear surface of the eye (cornea).
2. Chemical burns: Occurs when chemicals come into contact with the eye, causing damage to the cornea and other structures.
3. Eyelid lacerations: Cuts or tears to the eyelid.
4. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
5. Hyphema: Accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye, which is the space between the cornea and iris.
6. Orbital fractures: Breaks in the bones surrounding the eye.
7. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
8. Traumatic uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, caused by trauma.
9. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.

Eye injuries can result from a variety of causes, including accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and chemical exposure. It is important to seek medical attention promptly for any suspected eye injury to prevent further damage and potential vision loss.

Diagnostic techniques in ophthalmology refer to the various methods and tests used by eye specialists (ophthalmologists) to examine, evaluate, and diagnose conditions related to the eyes and visual system. Here are some commonly used diagnostic techniques:

1. Visual Acuity Testing: This is a basic test to measure the sharpness of a person's vision. It typically involves reading letters or numbers from an eye chart at a specific distance.
2. Refraction Test: This test helps determine the correct lens prescription for glasses or contact lenses by measuring how light is bent as it passes through the cornea and lens.
3. Slit Lamp Examination: A slit lamp is a microscope that allows an ophthalmologist to examine the structures of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, and retina, in great detail.
4. Tonometry: This test measures the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure) to detect conditions like glaucoma. Common methods include applanation tonometry and non-contact tonometry.
5. Retinal Imaging: Several techniques are used to capture images of the retina, including fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These tests help diagnose conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal detachments.
6. Color Vision Testing: This test evaluates a person's ability to distinguish between different colors, which can help detect color vision deficiencies or neurological disorders affecting the visual pathway.
7. Visual Field Testing: This test measures a person's peripheral (or side) vision and can help diagnose conditions like glaucoma, optic nerve damage, or brain injuries.
8. Pupillary Reactions Tests: These tests evaluate how the pupils respond to light and near objects, which can provide information about the condition of the eye's internal structures and the nervous system.
9. Ocular Motility Testing: This test assesses eye movements and alignment, helping diagnose conditions like strabismus (crossed eyes) or nystagmus (involuntary eye movement).
10. Corneal Topography: This non-invasive imaging technique maps the curvature of the cornea, which can help detect irregularities, assess the fit of contact lenses, and plan refractive surgery procedures.

"Modern History (1601-)" is a term used in medicine to refer to the historical context of medical developments and practices that have occurred from the early 17th century until the present day. This period is characterized by significant advancements in medical knowledge, technology, and treatment methods.

Some notable events and developments in modern medical history include:

* The establishment of the Royal Society in London in 1660, which promoted scientific inquiry and discovery.
* The invention of the microscope in the 17th century, which allowed for the discovery of cells and microorganisms.
* The development of vaccines in the late 18th century by Edward Jenner, which revolutionized public health and prevented many infectious diseases.
* The discovery of anesthesia in the mid-19th century, which made surgical procedures less painful and more effective.
* The development of antibiotics in the early 20th century, which transformed the treatment of bacterial infections.
* The advent of modern medical imaging technologies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs, which have improved diagnostic accuracy and surgical precision.
* The mapping of the human genome in the late 20th century, which has opened up new avenues for genetic research and personalized medicine.

Understanding the historical context of modern medical developments is essential for healthcare professionals to appreciate the evolution of medical practices, identify ongoing challenges and areas for improvement, and provide high-quality care to their patients.

Special hospitals are medical facilities that provide specialized services and care for specific patient populations or medical conditions. These hospitals are designed to handle complex medical cases that require advanced technology, specialized equipment, and trained healthcare professionals with expertise in certain areas of medicine. Examples of special hospitals include:

1. Psychiatric Hospitals: Also known as mental health hospitals, these facilities focus on providing care for patients with mental illnesses, emotional disorders, or substance abuse issues. They offer various treatments, such as therapy, counseling, and medication management, to help patients manage their conditions.

2. Rehabilitation Hospitals: These hospitals specialize in helping patients recover from injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have left them with temporary or permanent disabilities. They provide physical, occupational, and speech therapy, along with other supportive services, to assist patients in regaining their independence and improving their quality of life.

3. Children's Hospitals: These hospitals are dedicated to providing healthcare services specifically for children and adolescents. They have specialized pediatric departments, equipment, and trained staff to address the unique medical needs of this patient population.

4. Long-Term Acute Care Hospitals (LTACHs): LTACHs provide extended care for patients with chronic illnesses or severe injuries who require ongoing medical treatment and monitoring. They often have specialized units for specific conditions, such as ventilator weaning or wound care.

5. Cancer Hospitals: Also known as comprehensive cancer centers, these hospitals focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and research of various types of cancer. They typically have multidisciplinary teams of healthcare professionals, including oncologists, surgeons, radiologists, and researchers, working together to provide comprehensive care for cancer patients.

6. Teaching Hospitals: Although not a specific type of medical condition, teaching hospitals are affiliated with medical schools and serve as training grounds for future doctors, nurses, and allied healthcare professionals. They often have access to the latest research, technology, and treatments and may participate in clinical trials or innovative treatment approaches.

Cataract extraction is a surgical procedure that involves removing the cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye. This procedure is typically performed to restore vision impairment caused by cataracts and improve overall quality of life. There are two primary methods for cataract extraction:

1. Phacoemulsification: This is the most common method used today. It involves making a small incision in the front part of the eye (cornea), inserting an ultrasonic probe to break up the cloudy lens into tiny pieces, and then removing those pieces with suction. After removing the cataract, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is inserted to replace the natural lens and help focus light onto the retina.

2. Extracapsular Cataract Extraction: In this method, a larger incision is made on the side of the cornea, allowing the surgeon to remove the cloudy lens in one piece without breaking it up. The back part of the lens capsule is left intact to support the IOL. This technique is less common and typically reserved for more advanced cataracts or when phacoemulsification cannot be performed.

Recovery from cataract extraction usually involves using eye drops to prevent infection and inflammation, as well as protecting the eye with a shield or glasses during sleep for a few weeks after surgery. Most people experience improved vision within a few days to a week following the procedure.

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, often caused by an abnormally high pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure). This damage can lead to permanent vision loss or even blindness if left untreated. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma, which has no warning signs and progresses slowly. Angle-closure glaucoma, on the other hand, can cause sudden eye pain, redness, nausea, and vomiting, as well as rapid vision loss. Other less common types of glaucoma also exist. While there is no cure for glaucoma, early detection and treatment can help slow or prevent further vision loss.

Blindness is a condition of complete or near-complete vision loss. It can be caused by various factors such as eye diseases, injuries, or birth defects. Total blindness means that a person cannot see anything at all, while near-complete blindness refers to having only light perception or the ability to perceive the direction of light, but not able to discern shapes or forms. Legal blindness is a term used to define a certain level of visual impairment that qualifies an individual for government assistance and benefits; it usually means best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse in the better eye, or a visual field no greater than 20 degrees in diameter.

There seems to be a misunderstanding in your question. "Hospital Departments" is not a medical term or diagnosis, but rather an organizational structure used by hospitals to divide their services and facilities into different units based on medical specialties or patient populations. Examples of hospital departments include internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, emergency medicine, radiology, and pathology. Each department typically has its own staff, equipment, and facilities to provide specialized care for specific types of patients or medical conditions.

Vision screening is a quick and cost-effective method used to identify individuals who are at risk of vision problems or eye diseases. It is not a comprehensive eye examination, but rather an initial evaluation that helps to determine if a further, more in-depth examination by an eye care professional is needed. Vision screenings typically involve tests for visual acuity, distance and near vision, color perception, depth perception, and alignment of the eyes. The goal of vision screening is to detect potential vision issues early on, so that they can be treated promptly and effectively, thereby preventing or minimizing any negative impact on a person's overall vision and quality of life.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens in the eye that affects vision. This clouding can cause vision to become blurry, faded, or dim, making it difficult to see clearly. Cataracts are a common age-related condition, but they can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication use. In most cases, cataracts develop gradually over time and can be treated with surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial one.

Medical education, graduate refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study leading to a doctoral degree in medicine (MD) or osteopathic medicine (DO). These programs typically include rigorous coursework in the basic medical sciences, clinical training, and research experiences. The goal of medical education at this level is to prepare students to become competent, caring physicians who are able to provide high-quality medical care to patients, conduct research to advance medical knowledge, and contribute to the improvement of health care systems.

Graduate medical education (GME) typically includes residency programs, which are postgraduate training programs that provide specialized clinical training in a particular field of medicine. Residency programs typically last three to seven years, depending on the specialty, and provide hands-on experience in diagnosing and treating patients under the supervision of experienced physicians.

Medical education at the graduate level is designed to build upon the foundational knowledge and skills acquired during undergraduate medical education (UME) and to prepare students for licensure and certification as practicing physicians. Graduates of GME programs are eligible to take licensing exams and apply for certification in their chosen specialty through professional organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "photography" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Photography refers to the art, application, or process of creating images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

If you're looking for a medical term related to imaging, there are several terms that might be relevant, such as:

1. Radiography: This is a technique using X-rays to visualize the internal structures of the body.
2. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a diagnostic imaging technique using high-frequency sound waves to create images of the inside of the body.
3. Computed Tomography (CT): A type of imaging that uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body.
4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A type of imaging that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within the body.
5. Nuclear Medicine: This is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and treat diseases.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or topics, feel free to ask!

Strabismus is a condition of the ocular muscles where the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions. One eye may turn inward, outward, upward, or downward while the other one remains fixed and aligns normally. This misalignment can occur occasionally or constantly. Strabismus is also commonly referred to as crossed eyes or walleye. The condition can lead to visual impairments such as amblyopia (lazy eye) and depth perception problems if not treated promptly and effectively, usually through surgery, glasses, or vision therapy.

Retinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. The retina is responsible for converting light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain and interpreted as visual images. Retinal diseases can cause vision loss or even blindness, depending on their severity and location in the retina.

Some common retinal diseases include:

1. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive disease that affects the central part of the retina called the macula, causing blurred or distorted vision.
2. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision loss.
3. Retinal detachment: A serious condition where the retina becomes separated from its underlying tissue, requiring immediate medical attention.
4. Macular edema: Swelling or thickening of the macula due to fluid accumulation, which can cause blurred vision.
5. Retinitis pigmentosa: A group of inherited eye disorders that affect the retina's ability to respond to light, causing progressive vision loss.
6. Macular hole: A small break in the macula that can cause distorted or blurry vision.
7. Retinal vein occlusion: Blockage of the retinal veins that can lead to bleeding, swelling, and potential vision loss.

Treatment for retinal diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some treatments include medication, laser therapy, surgery, or a combination of these options. Regular eye exams are essential for early detection and treatment of retinal diseases.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

Optometry is a healthcare profession that involves examining, diagnosing, and treating disorders related to vision. Optometrists are the primary healthcare practitioners who specialize in prescribing and fitting eyeglasses and contact lenses to correct refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia. They also diagnose and manage various eye diseases, including glaucoma, cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration. Optometrists may provide low vision care services to individuals with visual impairments and can offer pre- and post-operative care for patients undergoing eye surgery.

Optometry is a regulated profession that requires extensive education and training, including the completion of a Doctor of Optometry (O.D.) degree program and passing national and state licensing exams. In some jurisdictions, optometrists may also prescribe certain medications to treat eye conditions and diseases.

Parasitic eye infections are conditions characterized by the invasion and infestation of the eye or its surrounding structures by parasites. These can be protozoans, helminths, or ectoparasites. Examples of such infections include Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is caused by a free-living amoeba found in water and soil; Toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii; Loiasis, which is caused by the parasitic filarial worm Loa loa; and Demodicosis, which is caused by the mite Demodex folliculorum. Symptoms can vary depending on the type of parasite but often include redness, pain, discharge, and vision changes. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications and sometimes surgery to remove the parasites or damaged tissue. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil.

Vision disorders refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the visual system and result in various symptoms, such as blurry vision, double vision, distorted vision, impaired depth perception, and difficulty with visual tracking or focusing. These disorders can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, resulting in blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Strabismus: Also known as crossed eyes or walleye, strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes where they point in different directions, which can lead to double vision or loss of depth perception.
3. Amblyopia: Often called lazy eye, amblyopia is a condition where one eye has reduced vision due to lack of proper visual development during childhood. It may be caused by strabismus, refractive errors, or other factors that interfere with normal visual development.
4. Accommodative disorders: These involve problems with the focusing ability of the eyes, such as convergence insufficiency (difficulty focusing on close objects) and accommodative dysfunction (inability to maintain clear vision at different distances).
5. Binocular vision disorders: These affect how the eyes work together as a team, leading to issues like poor depth perception, eye strain, and headaches. Examples include convergence insufficiency, divergence excess, and suppression.
6. Ocular motility disorders: These involve problems with eye movement, such as nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), strabismus, or restricted extraocular muscle function.
7. Visual processing disorders: These affect the brain's ability to interpret and make sense of visual information, even when the eyes themselves are healthy. Symptoms may include difficulty with reading, recognizing shapes and objects, and understanding spatial relationships.
8. Low vision: This term refers to significant visual impairment that cannot be fully corrected with glasses, contact lenses, medication, or surgery. It includes conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataracts.
9. Blindness: Complete loss of sight in both eyes, which can be caused by various factors such as injury, disease, or genetic conditions.

Pseudophakia is a medical term that refers to the condition where a person's natural lens in the eye has been replaced with an artificial one. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy, natural lens is removed and replaced with a clear, artificial lens to improve vision. The prefix "pseudo" means false or fake, and "phakia" refers to the natural lens of the eye, hence the term "Pseudophakia" implies a false or artificial lens.

Phacoemulsification is a surgical procedure used in cataract removal. It involves using an ultrasonic device to emulsify (break up) the cloudy lens (cataract) into small pieces, which are then aspirated or sucked out through a small incision. This procedure allows for smaller incisions and faster recovery times compared to traditional cataract surgery methods. After the cataract is removed, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is typically implanted to replace the natural lens and restore vision.

Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes complication that affects the eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).

At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause blindness. The condition usually affects both eyes.

There are two main stages of diabetic retinopathy:

1. Early diabetic retinopathy. This is when the blood vessels in the eye start to leak fluid or bleed. You might not notice any changes in your vision at this stage, but it's still important to get treatment because it can prevent the condition from getting worse.
2. Advanced diabetic retinopathy. This is when new, abnormal blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. These vessels can leak fluid and cause severe vision problems, including blindness.

Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with laser surgery, injections of medication into the eye, or a vitrectomy (a surgical procedure to remove the gel-like substance that fills the center of the eye). It's important to get regular eye exams to detect diabetic retinopathy early and get treatment before it causes serious vision problems.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

Internship: In medical terms, an internship is a supervised program of hospital-based training for physicians and surgeons who have recently graduated from medical school. The duration of an internship typically ranges from one to three years, during which the intern engages in a variety of clinical rotations in different departments such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and neurology. The primary aim of an internship is to provide newly graduated doctors with hands-on experience in patient care, diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication skills under the close supervision of experienced physicians.

Residency: A residency is a structured and intensive postgraduate medical training program that typically lasts between three and seven years, depending on the specialty. Residents are licensed physicians who have completed their internship and are now receiving advanced training in a specific area of medicine or surgery. During this period, residents work closely with experienced attending physicians to gain comprehensive knowledge and skills in their chosen field. They are responsible for managing patient care, performing surgical procedures, interpreting diagnostic tests, conducting research, teaching medical students, and participating in continuing education activities. Residency programs aim to prepare physicians for independent practice and board certification in their specialty.

Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a surgical procedure that involves placing a small artificial lens inside the eye to replace the natural lens that has been removed. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with an IOL to restore clear vision.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the eye, and the cloudy lens is broken up and removed using ultrasound waves or laser energy. Then, the folded IOL is inserted through the same incision and positioned in the correct place inside the eye. Once in place, the IOL unfolds and is secured into position.

There are several types of IOLs available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodating lenses. Monofocal lenses provide clear vision at one distance, while multifocal lenses offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric lenses correct astigmatism, and accommodating lenses can change shape to focus on objects at different distances.

Overall, intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective procedure that can help restore clear vision in patients with cataracts or other eye conditions that require the removal of the natural lens.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Croatia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe. If you have any questions about Croatian healthcare or medical practices, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

"Awards and prizes" in a medical context generally refer to recognitions given to individuals or organizations for significant achievements, contributions, or advancements in the field of medicine. These can include:

1. Research Awards: Given to researchers who have made significant breakthroughs or discoveries in medical research.
2. Lifetime Achievement Awards: Recognizing individuals who have dedicated their lives to advancing medicine and healthcare.
3. Humanitarian Awards: Presented to those who have provided exceptional service to improving the health and well-being of underserved populations.
4. Innovation Awards: Given to recognize groundbreaking new treatments, technologies, or approaches in medicine.
5. Educator Awards: Honoring medical educators for their contributions to teaching and mentoring future healthcare professionals.
6. Patient Care Awards: Recognizing excellence in patient care and advocacy.
7. Public Health Awards: Given for outstanding work in preventing disease and promoting health at the population level.
8. Global Health Awards: Honoring those who have made significant contributions to improving health outcomes in low-resource settings around the world.

These awards can be given by various organizations, including medical societies, hospitals, universities, pharmaceutical companies, and government agencies.

Penetrating eye injuries are a type of ocular trauma where a foreign object or substance pierces the outer layers of the eye and damages the internal structures. This can result in serious harm to various parts of the eye, such as the cornea, iris, lens, or retina, and may potentially cause vision loss or blindness if not promptly treated.

The severity of a penetrating eye injury depends on several factors, including the type and size of the object that caused the injury, the location of the wound, and the extent of damage to the internal structures. Common causes of penetrating eye injuries include sharp objects, such as metal shards or glass fragments, projectiles, such as pellets or bullets, and explosive materials.

Symptoms of a penetrating eye injury may include pain, redness, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, floaters, or the presence of a foreign body in the eye. If you suspect that you have sustained a penetrating eye injury, it is essential to seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist or other healthcare professional with experience in treating eye trauma.

Treatment for penetrating eye injuries may include removing any foreign objects or substances from the eye, repairing damaged tissues, and administering medications to prevent infection and reduce inflammation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the injury and restore vision. Preventing eye injuries is crucial, and appropriate protective eyewear should be worn when engaging in activities that pose a risk of eye trauma.

Amblyopia is a medical condition that affects the visual system, specifically the way the brain and eyes work together. It is often referred to as "lazy eye" and is characterized by reduced vision in one or both eyes that is not correctable with glasses or contact lenses alone. This occurs because the brain favors one eye over the other, causing the weaker eye to become neglected and underdeveloped.

Amblyopia can result from various conditions such as strabismus (eye misalignment), anisometropia (significant difference in prescription between the two eyes), or deprivation (such as a cataract that blocks light from entering the eye). Treatment for amblyopia typically involves correcting any underlying refractive errors, patching or blurring the stronger eye to force the weaker eye to work, and/or vision therapy. Early intervention is crucial to achieve optimal visual outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

Fungal eye infections, also known as fungal keratitis or ocular fungal infections, are caused by the invasion of fungi into the eye. The most common types of fungi that cause these infections include Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida. These infections can affect any part of the eye, including the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, and vitreous humor.

Fungal eye infections often present with symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, tearing, blurred vision, and discharge. In severe cases, they can lead to corneal ulcers, perforation of the eye, and even blindness if left untreated. Risk factors for fungal eye infections include trauma to the eye, contact lens wear, immunosuppression, and pre-existing eye conditions such as dry eye or previous eye surgery.

Diagnosis of fungal eye infections typically involves a thorough eye examination, including visual acuity testing, slit lamp examination, and sometimes corneal scrapings for microbiological culture and sensitivity testing. Treatment usually involves topical antifungal medications, such as natamycin or amphotericin B, and in some cases may require oral or intravenous antifungal therapy. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair any damage caused by the infection.

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a potentially sight-threatening proliferative retinal vascular disorder that primarily affects prematurely born infants, particularly those with low birth weight and/or young gestational age. It is characterized by the abnormal growth and development of retinal blood vessels due to disturbances in the oxygen supply and metabolic demands during critical phases of fetal development.

The condition can be classified into various stages (1-5) based on its severity, with stages 4 and 5 being more severe forms that may lead to retinal detachment and blindness if left untreated. The pathogenesis of ROP involves an initial phase of vessel loss and regression in the central retina, followed by a secondary phase of abnormal neovascularization, which can cause fibrosis, traction, and ultimately, retinal detachment.

ROP is typically managed with a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Treatment options include laser photocoagulation, cryotherapy, intravitreal anti-VEGF injections, or even surgical interventions to prevent retinal detachment and preserve vision. Regular screening examinations are crucial for early detection and timely management of ROP in at-risk infants.

The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year. It is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years. For example, if a journal has an Impact Factor of 3 in 2020, that means articles published in 2018 and 2019 were cited 3 times on average in 2020. It is used to gauge the importance or rank of a journal by comparing the times it's articles are cited relative to other journals in the field. However, it has been criticized for various limitations such as being manipulated by editors and not reflecting the quality of individual articles.

Ophthalmic solutions are sterile, single-use or multi-dose preparations in a liquid form that are intended for topical administration to the eye. These solutions can contain various types of medications, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines, or lubricants, which are used to treat or prevent ocular diseases and conditions.

The pH and osmolarity of ophthalmic solutions are carefully controlled to match the physiological environment of the eye and minimize any potential discomfort or irritation. The solutions may be packaged in various forms, including drops, sprays, or irrigations, depending on the intended use and administration route.

It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by a healthcare professional when administering ophthalmic solutions, as improper use can lead to eye injury or reduced effectiveness of the medication.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "publishing" is not a term that has a medical definition. Publishing typically refers to the process of preparing and disseminating information, such as books, journals, or articles, to the public or a specific audience. It could involve both print and digital media. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure within the eye, specifically within the anterior chamber, which is the space between the cornea and the iris. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The aqueous humor, a clear fluid that fills the anterior chamber, is constantly produced and drained, maintaining a balance that determines the IOP. Normal IOP ranges from 10-21 mmHg, with average values around 15-16 mmHg. Elevated IOP is a key risk factor for glaucoma, a group of eye conditions that can lead to optic nerve damage and vision loss if not treated promptly and effectively. Regular monitoring of IOP is essential in diagnosing and managing glaucoma and other ocular health issues.

An operating room, also known as an operating theatre or surgery suite, is a specially equipped and staffed hospital department where surgical procedures are performed. It is a sterile environment with controlled temperature, humidity, and air quality to minimize the risk of infection during surgeries. The room is typically equipped with medical equipment such as an operating table, surgical lights, anesthesia machines, monitoring equipment, and various surgical instruments. Access to the operating room is usually restricted to trained medical personnel to maintain a sterile environment and ensure patient safety.

Refractive errors are a group of vision conditions that include nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), astigmatism, and presbyopia. These conditions occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, causing blurred or distorted vision.

Myopia is a condition where distant objects appear blurry while close-up objects are clear. This occurs when the eye is too long or the cornea is too curved, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it.

Hyperopia, on the other hand, is a condition where close-up objects appear blurry while distant objects are clear. This happens when the eye is too short or the cornea is not curved enough, causing light to focus behind the retina.

Astigmatism is a condition that causes blurred vision at all distances due to an irregularly shaped cornea or lens.

Presbyopia is a natural aging process that affects everyone as they get older, usually around the age of 40. It causes difficulty focusing on close-up objects and can be corrected with reading glasses, bifocals, or progressive lenses.

Refractive errors can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam and are typically corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

Eye neoplasms, also known as ocular tumors or eye cancer, refer to abnormal growths of tissue in the eye. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Eye neoplasms can develop in various parts of the eye, including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, and optic nerve.

Benign eye neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, or a noticeable mass in the eye. Treatment options for benign eye neoplasms include monitoring, surgical removal, or radiation therapy.

Malignant eye neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, floaters, or flashes of light. Treatment options for malignant eye neoplasms depend on the type and stage of cancer but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms can improve outcomes and prevent complications. Regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist are recommended for early detection and prevention of eye diseases, including eye neoplasms.

Angle-closure glaucoma is a type of glaucoma that is characterized by the sudden or gradually increasing pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure) due to the closure or narrowing of the angle between the iris and cornea. This angle is where the drainage system of the eye, called the trabecular meshwork, is located. When the angle becomes too narrow or closes completely, fluid cannot properly drain from the eye, leading to a buildup of pressure that can damage the optic nerve and cause permanent vision loss.

Angle-closure glaucoma can be either acute or chronic. Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent permanent vision loss. It is characterized by sudden symptoms such as severe eye pain, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, halos around lights, and redness of the eye.

Chronic angle-closure glaucoma, on the other hand, develops more slowly over time and may not have any noticeable symptoms until significant damage has already occurred. It is important to diagnose and treat angle-closure glaucoma as early as possible to prevent vision loss. Treatment options include medications to lower eye pressure, laser treatment to create a new opening for fluid drainage, or surgery to improve the flow of fluid out of the eye.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of both the cornea (the clear, outer layer at the front of the eye) and the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye).

The condition can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, watery eyes, and a gritty or burning sensation in the eyes. Keratoconjunctivitis can be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or environmental irritants like dust, smoke, or chemical fumes.

Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications such as antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, artificial tears or lubricants may also be recommended to help keep the eyes moist and comfortable.

An outpatient clinic in a hospital setting is a department or facility where patients receive medical care without being admitted to the hospital. These clinics are typically designed to provide specialized services for specific medical conditions or populations. They may be staffed by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who work on a part-time or full-time basis.

Outpatient clinics offer a range of services, including diagnostic tests, consultations, treatments, and follow-up care. Patients can visit the clinic for routine checkups, management of chronic conditions, rehabilitation, and other medical needs. The specific services offered at an outpatient clinic will depend on the hospital and the clinic's specialty.

Outpatient clinics are often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care because they allow patients to receive medical treatment while continuing to live at home. They also help reduce the burden on hospitals by freeing up beds for patients who require more intensive or emergency care. Overall, outpatient clinics play an essential role in providing accessible and high-quality healthcare services to patients in their communities.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, a thin, clear membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. The condition can cause redness, itching, burning, tearing, discomfort, and a gritty feeling in the eyes. It can also result in a discharge that can be clear, yellow, or greenish.

Conjunctivitis can have various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, irritants (such as smoke, chlorine, or contact lens solutions), and underlying medical conditions (like dry eye or autoimmune disorders). Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include antibiotics, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory medications, or warm compresses.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices, like washing hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes, to prevent spreading conjunctivitis to others. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's recommended that you consult an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are artificial lens implants that are placed inside the eye during ophthalmic surgery, such as cataract removal. These lenses are designed to replace the natural lens of the eye that has become clouded or damaged, thereby restoring vision impairment caused by cataracts or other conditions.

There are several types of intraocular lenses available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodative lenses. Monofocal IOLs provide clear vision at a single fixed distance, while multifocal IOLs offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric IOLs are designed to correct astigmatism, and accommodative IOLs can change shape and position within the eye to allow for a range of vision.

The selection of the appropriate type of intraocular lens depends on various factors, including the patient's individual visual needs, lifestyle, and ocular health. The implantation procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and involves minimal discomfort or recovery time. Overall, intraocular lenses have become a safe and effective treatment option for patients with vision impairment due to cataracts or other eye conditions.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Specialty boards, also known as medical specialty boards or certifying boards, are organizations that grant certification to physicians who have completed specialized training and passed an examination in a particular area of medical practice. In the United States, these boards are responsible for establishing the standards and requirements for specialty training and for evaluating the knowledge, skills, and experience of physicians seeking board certification. The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) recognizes 24 member boards that cover various medical specialties, including internal medicine, surgery, psychiatry, pediatrics, and radiology, among others. Board certification is a voluntary process that demonstrates a physician's expertise and commitment to maintaining high standards of care in their area of practice.

Career mobility, in a medical context, refers to the ability of healthcare professionals to advance or move between different roles, positions, or departments within a healthcare organization or field. It can include lateral moves (changing to a similar position in another department) or vertical moves (promotion to a higher-level position). Career mobility is often facilitated by continuing education, professional development opportunities, and the acquisition of new skills and experiences. High career mobility can lead to better job satisfaction, increased compensation, and improved patient care.

Ophthalmoscopy is a medical examination technique used by healthcare professionals to observe the interior structures of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, and vitreous humor. This procedure typically involves using an ophthalmoscope, a handheld device that consists of a light and magnifying lenses. The healthcare provider looks through the ophthalmoscope and directly observes the internal structures of the eye by illuminating them.

There are several types of ophthalmoscopy, including direct ophthalmoscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, and they may be used in different situations depending on the specific clinical situation and the information needed.

Ophthalmoscopy is an important diagnostic tool for detecting and monitoring a wide range of eye conditions, including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and other retinal disorders. It can also provide valuable information about the overall health of the individual, as changes in the appearance of the retina or optic nerve may indicate the presence of systemic diseases such as hypertension or diabetes.

In medical terms, the orbit refers to the bony cavity or socket in the skull that contains and protects the eye (eyeball) and its associated structures, including muscles, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and the lacrimal gland. The orbit is made up of several bones: the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla bone, and palatine bone. These bones form a pyramid-like shape that provides protection for the eye while also allowing for a range of movements.

Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyze books, articles, and other publications. In the field of information science, bibliometrics is often used to measure the impact of scholarly works or authors by counting the number of times that a work has been cited in other publications. This can help researchers identify trends and patterns in research output and collaboration, as well as assess the influence of individual researchers or institutions.

Bibliometric analyses may involve a variety of statistical measures, such as citation counts, author productivity, journal impact factors, and collaborative networks. These measures can be used to evaluate the performance of individual researchers, departments, or institutions, as well as to identify areas of research strength or weakness.

It is important to note that while bibliometrics can provide useful insights into research trends and impact, they should not be the sole basis for evaluating the quality or significance of scholarly work. Other factors, such as the rigor of the research design, the clarity of the writing, and the relevance of the findings to the field, are also important considerations.

The choroid is a part of the eye located between the retina and the sclera, which contains a large number of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina. Choroid diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the health and function of the choroid. Here are some examples:

1. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV): This is a condition where new blood vessels grow from the choroid into the retina, leading to fluid accumulation, bleeding, and scarring. CNV can cause vision loss and is often associated with age-related macular degeneration, myopia, and inflammatory eye diseases.
2. Chorioretinitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the choroid and retina, which can be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Symptoms may include blurred vision, floaters, light sensitivity, and eye pain.
3. Choroidal hemorrhage: This is a rare but serious condition where there is bleeding into the choroid, often caused by trauma, high blood pressure, or blood clotting disorders. It can lead to sudden vision loss and requires urgent medical attention.
4. Choroideremia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the choroid, retina, and optic nerve, leading to progressive vision loss. It is caused by mutations in the CHM gene and primarily affects males.
5. Central serous retinopathy (CSR): This is a condition where fluid accumulates under the retina, often in the macula, causing distortion or blurring of vision. While the exact cause is unknown, CSR is thought to be related to stress, steroid use, and other factors that affect the choroid's ability to regulate fluid.
6. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV): This is a condition where abnormal blood vessels form in the choroid, leading to serous or hemorrhagic detachment of the retina. PCV is often associated with age-related macular degeneration and can cause vision loss if left untreated.

These are just a few examples of choroidal disorders that can affect vision. If you experience any sudden changes in your vision, it's important to seek medical attention promptly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Medical education is a systematic process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and values necessary for becoming a healthcare professional, such as a doctor, nurse, or allied health professional. It involves a combination of theoretical instruction, practical training, and experiential learning in clinical settings. The goal of medical education is to produce competent, compassionate, and ethical practitioners who can provide high-quality care to patients and contribute to the advancement of medicine. Medical education typically includes undergraduate (pre-medical) studies, graduate (medical) school, residency training, and continuing medical education throughout a healthcare professional's career.

Low vision is a term used to describe significant visual impairment that cannot be corrected with standard glasses, contact lenses, medication or surgery. It is typically defined as visual acuity of less than 20/70 in the better-seeing eye after best correction, or a visual field of less than 20 degrees in the better-seeing eye.

People with low vision may have difficulty performing everyday tasks such as reading, recognizing faces, watching television, driving, or simply navigating their environment. They may also experience symptoms such as sensitivity to light, glare, or contrast, and may benefit from the use of visual aids, assistive devices, and rehabilitation services to help them maximize their remaining vision and maintain their independence.

Low vision can result from a variety of causes, including eye diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or cataracts, as well as congenital or inherited conditions, brain injuries, or aging. It is important for individuals with low vision to receive regular eye examinations and consult with a low vision specialist to determine the best course of treatment and management.

Educational measurement is a field of study concerned with the development, administration, and interpretation of tests, questionnaires, and other assessments for the purpose of measuring learning outcomes, abilities, knowledge, skills, and attitudes in an educational context. The goal of educational measurement is to provide valid, reliable, and fair measures of student achievement and growth that can inform instructional decisions, guide curriculum development, and support accountability efforts.

Educational measurement involves a variety of statistical and psychometric methods for analyzing assessment data, including classical test theory, item response theory, and generalizability theory. These methods are used to establish the reliability and validity of assessments, as well as to score and interpret student performance. Additionally, educational measurement is concerned with issues related to test fairness, accessibility, and bias, and seeks to ensure that assessments are equitable and inclusive for all students.

Overall, educational measurement plays a critical role in ensuring the quality and effectiveness of educational programs and policies, and helps to promote student learning and achievement.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Clinical competence is the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe and effective patient care, demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for the job. It involves the integration of theoretical knowledge with practical skills, judgment, and decision-making abilities in real-world clinical situations. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through various methods such as direct observation, case studies, simulations, and feedback from peers and supervisors.

A clinically competent healthcare professional should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a solid understanding of the relevant medical knowledge and its application in clinical practice.
2. Perform essential clinical skills proficiently and safely.
3. Communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals.
4. Make informed decisions based on critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
5. Exhibit professionalism, ethical behavior, and cultural sensitivity in patient care.
6. Continuously evaluate and improve their performance through self-reflection and ongoing learning.

Maintaining clinical competence is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients and stay current with advances in medical science and technology.

In the context of medicine, specialization refers to the process or state of a physician, surgeon, or other healthcare professional acquiring and demonstrating expertise in a particular field or area of practice beyond their initial general training. This is usually achieved through additional years of education, training, and clinical experience in a specific medical discipline or subspecialty.

For instance, a doctor who has completed medical school and a general residency program may choose to specialize in cardiology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedics, psychiatry, or any other branch of medicine. After completing a specialized fellowship program and passing the relevant certification exams, they become certified as a specialist in that field, recognized by professional medical organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC).

Specialization allows healthcare professionals to provide more focused, expert care for patients with specific conditions or needs. It also contributes to the development and advancement of medical knowledge and practice, as specialists often conduct research and contribute to the evidence base in their respective fields.

Laser therapy, also known as phototherapy or laser photobiomodulation, is a medical treatment that uses low-intensity lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to stimulate healing, reduce pain, and decrease inflammation. It works by promoting the increase of cellular metabolism, blood flow, and tissue regeneration through the process of photobiomodulation.

The therapy can be used on patients suffering from a variety of acute and chronic conditions, including musculoskeletal injuries, arthritis, neuropathic pain, and wound healing complications. The wavelength and intensity of the laser light are precisely controlled to ensure a safe and effective treatment.

During the procedure, the laser or LED device is placed directly on the skin over the area of injury or discomfort. The non-ionizing light penetrates the tissue without causing heat or damage, interacting with chromophores in the cells to initiate a series of photochemical reactions. This results in increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of transcription factors that lead to improved cellular function and reduced pain.

In summary, laser therapy is a non-invasive, drug-free treatment option for various medical conditions, providing patients with an alternative or complementary approach to traditional therapies.

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2017). "Ophthalmology in North America: Early Stories (1491-1801)". Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases. 9: 1-51. doi:10.1177/ ... Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye Chinese ophthalmology Copiale cipher American Academy of Ophthalmology European Board of ... In Bangladesh, these are diploma in ophthalmology, diploma in community ophthalmology, fellow or member of the College of ... The postgraduate degree in ophthalmology is called medical doctor in ophthalmology. Currently, this degree is provided by ...
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She is on the editorial board of Ophthalmology and Ophthalmology Retina, and serves as co-editor for Albert and Jakobiecs ... Miller is Chair of Harvard Ophthalmology, Chair of Ophthalmology at Mass Eye and Ear and Mass General Hospital, and ... Miller is Chair of Harvard Ophthalmology, Chair of Ophthalmology at Mass Eye and Ear and Mass General Hospital, and ... Chair, Ophthalmology Department, Mass General Hospital. Chair, Ophthalmology Department, Mass Eye and Ear. Ophthalmologist ...
Bangladesh: A postgraduate or diploma in specialty ophthalmology is required.. *Canada: An ophthalmology residency for at least ... United Kingdom: A postgraduate degree in ophthalmology is required.. *United States: A four-year residency program is required. ... United States: The American Board of Ophthalmology certifies ophthalmologists to work. The Accreditation Council for Graduate ... Nepal: A three-year post-graduate degree known as an M.D. in Ophthalmology is required. ...
encoded search term (Actinomycosis in Ophthalmology) and Actinomycosis in Ophthalmology What to Read Next on Medscape ... Actinomycosis in Ophthalmology. Updated: May 17, 2021 * Author: Manolette R Roque, MD, MBA, FPAO; Chief Editor: John D Sheppard ... American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Philippine Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, ... Manolette R Roque, MD, MBA, FPAO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American ...
Territorial Acknowledgement The University of Alberta, its buildings, labs, and research stations are primarily located on the traditional territory of Cree, Blackfoot, Métis, Nakota Sioux, Iroquois, Dene, and Ojibway/Saulteaux/Anishinaabe nations; lands that are now known as part of Treaties 6, 7, and 8 and homeland of the Métis. The University of Alberta respects the sovereignty, lands, histories, languages, knowledge systems, and cultures of First Nations, Métis and Inuit nations.. ...
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1. Arranz-Solís D, Cordeiro C, Young LH, Dardé ML, Commodaro AG, Grigg ME, Saeij JPJ. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Infection Using Peptide Membrane Arrays. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019; 9:408.. 2. Zantut PRA, Veras MM, Yariwake VY, Takahashi WY, Saldiva PH, Young LH, Damico FM, Fajersztajn L. Effects of cannabis and its components on the retina: a systematic review. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2019 Nov 06; 1-9.. 3. Sangaré LO, Yang N, Konstantinou EK, Lu D, Mukhopadhyay D, Young LH, Saeij JPJ. Toxoplasma GRA15 Activates the NF-?B Pathway through Interactions with TNF Receptor-Associated Factors. mBio. 2019 07 16; 10(4). 4. Lee Kim E, Weiner AJ, Ung C, Roh M, Wang J, Lee IJ, Huang NT, Stem M, Dahrouj M, Eliott D, Vavvas DG, Young LHY, Williams GA, Garretson BR, Kim IK, Hassan TS, Mukai S, Ruby AJ, Faia LJ, Capone A, Comander J, Kim LA, Wu DM, Drenser KA, Woodward MA, Wolfe JD, Yonekawa Y. Characterization of Epiretinal Proliferation in Full-Thickness Macular Holes and Effects on Surgical ...
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The Neuro-Ophthalmology division of the Wilmer Eye Institute specializes in treating patients with blurred vision caused by ... Chief, Division of Neuro-Ophthalmology Amanda Henderson, MD, is a neuro-ophthalmologist and the chief of Wilmers Neuro- ... The experts of the neuro-ophthalmology division at the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute treat a variety of conditions ... Andrew Carey is involved in and leads multiple research projects related to neuro-ophthalmology. These projects include ...
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... MSO adds Dr. Shaun Brierly as chief medical officer Claire Wallace - Wednesday, January 18th, 2023. ... Nebraska ophthalmology practice moves into new expanded space Claire Wallace - Wednesday, January 18th, 2023. ... Ophthalmology clinical trial management services company Vial has partnered with South Korean medical device company ... Sunvera Group adds Pennsylvania ophthalmology practice, ASC to network Amelia Ickes - Thursday, January 12th, 2023. ...
STAAR Surgical opens ophthalmology training center in California Claire Wallace - Thursday, November 17th, 2022. ... New York-based ophthalmology platform SightMD has added Lina Abu-Saab, OD, to its team of vision experts. ... 17 ophthalmology updates in the last 30 days Hayley DeSilva - Friday, December 2nd, 2022. ... 3 ophthalmology partnerships in the last 60 days Claire Wallace - Thursday, November 10th, 2022. ...
This is the classic specialty text providing the perfect ophthalmology foundation for trainees through to experienced ... This is the classic specialty text providing the perfect ophthalmology foundation for trainees through to experienced ... medlib.med.miami.edu Kanskis Clinical Ophthalmology : A Systematic Approach UM/JMH only ...
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  • Our editors summarize the most exciting studies from Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology Glaucoma, Ophthalmology Retina, American Journal of Ophthalmology, JAMA Ophthalmology, and other journals. (aao.org)
  • A Brown University undergraduate led a JAMA Ophthalmology study showing that many ophthalmology residents face burnout and are often unable to participate in wellness initiatives, which has adverse consequences for both residents and patients. (brown.edu)
  • The results were published in JAMA Ophthalmology . (brown.edu)
  • Retrieved on December 08, 2023 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Ophthalmology-Around-the-World.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • The American Board of Ophthalmology certifies ophthalmologists to work. (news-medical.net)
  • UNC Department of Ophthalmology has an unwavering mission to improve the health of our patients through providing the highest-quality clinical care, pioneering new approaches to treat and prevent eye disease, and educating the next generation of ophthalmologists through our residents and fellows program. (unc.edu)
  • Some of them are: Anterior segment surgery Cornea, ocular surface, and external disease Glaucoma Neuro-ophthalmology Ocular oncology Oculoplastics and orbit surgery Ophthalmic pathology Paediatric ophthalmology/strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) Refractive surgery Medical retina, deals with treatment of retinal problems through non-surgical means Uveitis Veterinary specialty training programs in veterinary ophthalmology exist in some countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • A postgraduate or diploma in specialty ophthalmology is required. (news-medical.net)
  • This is the classic specialty text providing the perfect ophthalmology foundation for trainees through to experienced practitioners. (worldcat.org)
  • Fast-track your ophthalmology and optometry diagnosis coding with specialty-specific ICD-10 guidance, showing you how to code to the highest level of specificity and establish medical necessity for your services. (aapc.com)
  • The NorthShore Eye and Vision Center is a multi-specialty ophthalmology group in the Chicagoland area, offering patients services ranging from everyday eye exams to the latest advanced procedures to treat diseases and manage long-term eye conditions. (enh.org)
  • On Aug. 10, 2021, Patheos published an article positing that the American Medical Association (AMA) revoked Kentucky U.S. Sen. Rand Paul's medical license for ophthalmology due to "ethical concerns" and his "blatant disregard for the Hippocratic Oath. (snopes.com)
  • Data sharing implementation in top 10 ophthalmology journals in 2021. (bvsalud.org)
  • All published original articles in 2021 in 10 highest-ranking ophthalmology journals according to the 2020 journal impact factor were included. (bvsalud.org)
  • Colleagues describe Knox as a top-notch clinician and scientist who made seminal observations and discoveries in neuro-ophthalmology and ocular immunology. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The ChM is designed to support advanced ophthalmology specialist trainees in the UK and registrars/residents in ophthalmology, internationally. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The UNC Department of Ophthalmology began training residents in ophthalmology in 1956. (unc.edu)
  • Following a medical degree, a doctor specialising in ophthalmology must pursue additional postgraduate residency training specific to that field. (wikipedia.org)
  • A postgraduate degree in ophthalmology, including both training and work experience, is required. (news-medical.net)
  • A postgraduate degree in ophthalmology is required. (news-medical.net)
  • UCL Institute of Ophthalmology is a vibrant and stimulating learning environment in which to carry out postgraduate research. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Wills Eye Hospital's outstanding reputation as a pioneer in ophthalmic education began when it established the nation's first ophthalmology residency program in 1839. (jefferson.edu)
  • The West Virginia University department of ophthalmology and visual sciences in Morgantown has added two pieces of ophthalmic training equipment: the EyeSi surgical simulator and the Alcon operating microscope. (beckersasc.com)
  • Home to the only ophthalmology training program in Alabama, the UAB Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences is passionate about mentoring and training the next generation of ophthalmic specialists. (uab.edu)
  • It really opens you up to new developments taking place in the field of Clinical Ophthalmology. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Core, compulsory courses in each area of clinical ophthalmology support learning for their membership and fellowship examinations. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The Neuro-Ophthalmology division of the Wilmer Eye Institute specializes in treating patients with blurred vision caused by optic disorders, double vision caused by strokes and brain tumors, defects in the visual fields, and involuntary spasms of the face and eyelids. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • There are two professional organizations: the Philippine Academy of Ophthalmology (PAO) and the Philippine Academy of Medical Specialists, Discipline in Ophthalmology. (news-medical.net)
  • Ponte Vedra, Fla.-based Barnhorst Eye Associates has partnered with the region's largest multispecialty ophthalmology practice, Brandon-based Florida Eye Specialists, according to a Jan. 12 report from the Ponte Vedra Recorder. (beckersasc.com)
  • Twenty years later, he endowed a fund to create the UNC Kittner Eye Center in 2011, which serves patients from North Carolina and beyond via the clinical excellence of UNC Department of Ophthalmology eye specialists. (unc.edu)
  • Ophthalmology coding is not without its challenges, but Ophthalmology and Optometry Coding Alert makes it easy to stay informed, compliant, and profitable. (aapc.com)
  • Subscribe to Ophthalmology and Optometry Coding Alert and take advantage of expert guidance to hone your reporting skills. (aapc.com)
  • Quickly find the information you need in our ophthalmology and optometry coding archive, packed with thousands of coding and compliance articles. (aapc.com)
  • Earn 6 CEUs toward your CPC or COPC with your subscription to Ophthalmology and Optometry Coding Alert at no extra cost. (aapc.com)
  • She also serves as the Neuro-Ophthalmology Fellowship Director and the Associate Residency Program Director at Wilmer. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Ophthalmology (/ˌɒfθælˈmɒlədʒi/ OFF-thal-MOL-ə-jee) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Department trains four residents per class, offering them rigorous, hands-on medical and surgical involvement in high-volume comprehensive and complex patient cases toward achieving medical and surgical competence in ophthalmology. (unc.edu)
  • Dr. Miller is the first female physician to achieve the rank of Professor of Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School and the first woman to chair the Department of Ophthalmology. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Department of Ophthalmology's educational mission is focused on clinical service, cutting edge research and innovation, and training the next generation of clinicians and scientists in ophthalmology and visual science. (stanford.edu)
  • Wills Eye Hospital , which serves as the Department of Ophthalmology for Thomas Jefferson University Hospital and Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, is rated among the best in the nation for Ophthalmology by U.S.News & World Report. (jefferson.edu)
  • Wills Eye Hospital serves as the Department of Ophthalmology for Sidney Kimmel Medical College. (jefferson.edu)
  • Shahzad Mian, MD, has been appointed interim chair of the department of ophthalmology and visual sciences at the Michigan Medicine medical school in Ann Arbor, effective Jan. 15. (beckersasc.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health awarded the Ohio State University College of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences in Columbus a $2.85 million five-year research grant. (beckersasc.com)
  • The UCLA Department of Ophthalmology and the Doheny Eye Institute formed a historic affiliation in 2014, and patient access to eye care was immediately broadened across Los Angeles and into Orange County, with the opening of three Doheny Eye Center UCLA locations: Arcadia, Orange County, and Pasadena. (uclahealth.org)
  • The Department of Ophthalmology employs the use of standard diagnostic tests to accurately identify conditions and causes of vision loss. (enh.org)
  • The UAB Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences is committed to preserving global eye health through high-quality patient care, innovative basic science and clinical research, and comprehensive education. (uab.edu)
  • The research team at the UAB Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences is dedicated to our mission - to cure the world's blinding diseases. (uab.edu)
  • News and press coverage from across the Department of Ophthalmology including updates for patients, faculty, and our students. (unc.edu)
  • UNC Department of Ophthalmology welcomes patients and their families to clinic environments that are supportive and collegial. (unc.edu)
  • Ophthalmology includes subspecialities that deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain parts of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • in 2018, she became the first woman awarded the Charles L. Schepens, MD, Award from the American Academy of Ophthalmology. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Wilmer Eye Institute Neuro-Ophthalmology Division is currently working on the following research projects. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • He then served a two-year stint as a general medical officer in the Army and started his ophthalmology residency at Wilmer in 1958, followed by a neuro-ophthalmology fellowship at Harvard. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Case Reports in Ophthalmology provides clinicians and researchers with a platform to disseminate their findings to a broader ophthalmology community. (karger.com)
  • Neuro-Ophthalmology is the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders that affect the eye and visual function. (lifebridgehealth.org)
  • Ophthalmology has always been at the forefront of medical research with a long history of advancement and innovation in eye care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Andrew Carey is involved in and leads multiple research projects related to neuro-ophthalmology. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Becker's has reported on $25 million donated to ophthalmology research since the beginning of October. (beckersasc.com)
  • This online meeting is an excellent opportunity for members of the ophthalmology community and of all grades to hear detailed and insightful recent research presentations from junior doctors. (rsm.ac.uk)
  • Yet the resident wellness program landscape in ophthalmology has not been well documented in research literature. (brown.edu)
  • Tran and others at Brown, including Professor of Ophthalmology Paul Greenberg, first sought to study the issue in 2016, when they received an Undergraduate Teaching and Research Award (UTRA) from Brown to survey ophthalmology resident program directors about wellness initiatives. (brown.edu)
  • Dr. Miller is Chair of Harvard Ophthalmology, Chair of Ophthalmology at Mass Eye and Ear and Mass General Hospital, and Ophthalmologist-in-Chief at Brigham and Women's Hospital. (massgeneral.org)
  • She is also the first woman appointed as Chair of Ophthalmology at both Mass Eye and Ear and Massachusetts General Hospital. (massgeneral.org)
  • New: Ophthalmology Journal podcast. (aao.org)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. (lww.com)
  • The focus and setting of this review is on the current organisation of healthcare in United Kingdom and primarily-but not exclusively-within the National Health Service (NHS) provision, as relevant to ophthalmology. (nature.com)
  • The study, which involved a survey of ophthalmology residents completing their graduate medical training in health care settings across the nation, suggests there are ample opportunities for the specialty's residency programs to improve and promote wellness initiatives, from nutritional seminars to exercise classes to one-on-one counseling, and make them more accessible. (brown.edu)
  • Last summer, while Tran and colleagues were creating their resident survey, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) released a revised set of requirements mandating that ophthalmology residency programs provide activities that promote resident well-being, encourage residents to pay attention to work intensity, and permit residents to attend personal health appointments. (brown.edu)
  • UNC Ophthalmology encourages patients visiting UNC Kittner Eye Center and all other UNC Health outpatient locations to come alone to appointments as you are able, in support of our physical distancing efforts. (unc.edu)
  • A three-year post-graduate degree known as an M.D. in Ophthalmology is required. (news-medical.net)
  • Discover more about the programmes you can study at the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology . (ucl.ac.uk)
  • PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] - A new study led by Brown University researchers finds that ophthalmology residents across the U.S. face a substantial burden of burnout and depression, which may affect not only the residents themselves but also the quality of care they deliver to patients. (brown.edu)
  • The Byers Eye Institute at Stanford is dedicated to providing the highest level of innovative eye and vision care across all subspecialties in ophthalmology. (stanford.edu)
  • Any Institute of Ophthalmology studentships will be featured here, but you may also want to regularly check relevant websites. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • To apply for a PhD course at the Institute of Ophthalmology, please get in touch with a potential supervisor and discuss the details of your proposed project. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Listen to David Pyott and Professor Baljean Dhillon discussing global education in ophthalmology and The David and Molly Pyott Foundation Scholarships in Ophthalmology for ChM international applicants from low resource settings. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Tran, who is halfway through Brown's eight-year Program in Liberal Medical Education , hopes to survey ophthalmology residents and program directors again in a few years to find out whether the revised ACGME requirements helped lessen burnout and depression. (brown.edu)
  • We offer continuing education opportunities to our colleagues in ophthalmology and other medical fields to ensure quality patient care throughout North Carolina. (unc.edu)
  • Among them, she is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and a co-recipient of the 2014 António Champalimaud Vision Award, the highest distinction in ophthalmology and visual science. (massgeneral.org)
  • This study examines the number of clinical trials that endorsed IPD sharing policy among top ophthalmology journals. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1852 published articles in top 10 ophthalmology journals were identified, and 9.45% were clinical trials. (bvsalud.org)
  • This report shows that the number of clinical trials in top ophthalmology journals that endorsed the IPD sharing policy and the number of registrations is lower than half even though the policy has been implemented for several years. (bvsalud.org)
  • As recognition for her contributions to the field of ophthalmology, Dr. Miller has received numerous prestigious honors and awards. (massgeneral.org)
  • His spirit and legacy lives on through the Kittner family's generous support for UNC Ophthalmology interests and initiatives. (unc.edu)
  • Amanda Henderson, MD, is a neuro-ophthalmologist and the chief of Wilmer's Neuro-Ophthalmology Division. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Presentations At American Academy of Ophthalmology Annual Meeting Feature Visiogen, Inc. (biospace.com)
  • Ophthalmology clinical trial management services company Vial has partnered with South Korean medical device company RecensMedical for a phase 3 clinical trial. (beckersasc.com)
  • have partnered with Sunvera Group, an ophthalmology management services organization. (beckersasc.com)
  • An ophthalmology residency for at least five years is required with optional subspecialty training in a certain field. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Joshua Powell, MD is an ophthalmology specialist in Norman, OK and has over 21 years of experience in the medical field. (healthgrades.com)
  • Our goal is to produce leaders in the field of ophthalmology who are medically, surgically, and culturally competent. (unc.edu)