In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Genetic loci which direct transcription of ribosomal RNA in bacterial operons. They are designated rrnB, rrnC, rrnD, etc. according to the structural position of the transcription unit in the DNA sequence.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tryptophan and water to indole, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein, requiring K+. It also catalyzes 2,3-elimination and beta-replacement reactions of some indole-substituted tryptophan analogs of L-cysteine, L-serine, and other 3-substituted amino acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.99.1.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A LEUCINE and DNA-binding protein that is found primarily in BACTERIA and ARCHAEA. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION involved in METABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS in response to the increased concentration of LEUCINE.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (1/7987)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

In vivo and in vitro processing of the Bacillus subtilis transcript coding for glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyltransferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (2/7987)

In Bacillus subtilis, the adjacent genes gltX, cysE, and cysS encoding respectively glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyl-transferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, are transcribed as an operon but a gltX probe reveals only the presence of a monocistronic gltX mRNA (Gagnon et al., 1994, J Biol Chem 269:7473-7482). The transcript of the gltX-cysE intergenic region contains putative alternative secondary structures forming a p-independent terminator or an antiterminator, and a conserved sequence (T-box) found in the leader of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and many amino acid biosynthesis genes in B. subtilis and in other Gram-positive eubacteria. The transcription of these genes is initiated 45 nt upstream from the first codon of gltX and is under the control of a sigmaA-type promoter. Analysis of the in vivo transcript of this operon revealed a cleavage site immediately downstream from the p-independent terminator structure. In vitro transcription analysis, using RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, B. subtilis, and that encoded by the T7 phage, in the presence of various RNase inhibitors, shows the same cleavage. This processing generates mRNAs whose 5'-end half-lives differ by a factor of 2 in rich medium, and leaves putative secondary structures at the 3' end of the gltX transcript and at the 5' end of the cysE/S mRNA, which may be involved in the stabilization of these mRNAs. By its mechanism and its position, this cleavage differs from that of the other known transcripts encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in B. subtilis.  (+info)

A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (3/7987)

A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction.  (+info)

The virulence plasmid-encoded impCAB operon enhances survival and induced mutagenesis in Shigella flexneri after exposure to UV radiation. (4/7987)

Upon exposure to UV radiation, Shigella flexneri SA100 displayed survival and mutation frequencies comparable to those of Escherichia coli AB1157, which contains a functional UmuDC error-prone DNA repair system. Survival of SA100 after UV irradiation was associated with the presence of the 220-kb virulence plasmid, pVP. This plasmid encodes homologues of ImpA and ImpB, which comprise an error-prone DNA repair system encoded on plasmid TP110 that was initially identified in Salmonella typhimurium, and ImpC, encoded upstream of ImpA and ImpB. Although the impB gene was present in representatives of all four species of Shigella, not all isolates tested contained the gene. Shigella isolates that lacked impB were more sensitive to UV radiation than isolates that contained impB. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.4-kb DNA fragment containing the imp operon from S. flexneri SA100 pVP was 96% identical to the imp operon from the plasmid TP110. An SA100 derivative with a mutation in the impB gene had reduced survival following UV irradiation and less UV-induced mutagenesis relative to the parental strain. We also found that S. flexneri contained a chromosomally encoded umuDC operon; however, the umuDC promoter was not induced by exposure to UV radiation. This suggests that the imp operon but not the umuDC operon contributes to survival and induced mutagenesis in S. flexneri following exposure to UV radiation.  (+info)

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (5/7987)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

An Lrp-like protein of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus which binds to its own promoter. (6/7987)

Regulation of gene expression in the domain Archaea, and specifically hyperthermophiles, has been poorly investigated so far. Biochemical experiments and genome sequencing have shown that, despite the prokaryotic cell and genome organization, basal transcriptional elements of members of the domain Archaea (i.e., TATA box-like sequences, RNA polymerase, and transcription factors TBP, TFIIB, and TFIIS) are of the eukaryotic type. However, open reading frames potentially coding for bacterium-type transcription regulation factors have been recognized in different archaeal strains. This finding raises the question of how bacterial and eukaryotic elements interact in regulating gene expression in Archaea. We have identified a gene coding for a bacterium-type transcription factor in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. The protein, named Lrs14, contains a potential helix-turn-helix motif and is related to the Lrp-AsnC family of regulators of gene expression in the class Bacteria. We show that Lrs14, expressed in Escherichia coli, is a highly thermostable DNA-binding protein. Bandshift and DNase I footprint analyses show that Lrs14 specifically binds to multiple sequences in its own promoter and that the region of binding overlaps the TATA box, suggesting that, like the E. coli Lrp, Lrs14 is autoregulated. We also show that the lrs14 transcript is accumulated in the late growth stages of S. solfataricus.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the nitrite-reducing system of Staphylococcus carnosus. (7/7987)

Characterization of a nitrite reductase-negative Staphylococcus carnosus Tn917 mutant led to the identification of the nir operon, which encodes NirBD, the dissimilatory NADH-dependent nitrite reductase; SirA, the putative oxidase and chelatase, and SirB, the uroporphyrinogen III methylase, both of which are necessary for biosynthesis of the siroheme prosthetic group; and NirR, which revealed no convincing similarity to proteins with known functions. We suggest that NirR is essential for nir promoter activity. In the absence of NirR, a weak promoter upstream of sirA seems to drive transcription of sirA, nirB, nirD, and sirB in the stationary-growth phase. In primer extension experiments one predominant and several weaker transcription start sites were identified in the nir promoter region. Northern blot analyses indicated that anaerobiosis and nitrite are induction factors of the nir operon: cells grown aerobically with nitrite revealed small amounts of full-length transcript whereas cells grown anaerobically with or without nitrite showed large amounts of full-length transcript. Although a transcript is detectable, no nitrite reduction occurs in cells grown aerobically with nitrite, indicating an additional oxygen-controlled step at the level of translation, enzyme folding, assembly, or insertion of prosthetic groups. The nitrite-reducing activity expressed during anaerobiosis is switched off reversibly when the oxygen tension increases, most likely due to competition for electrons with the aerobic respiratory chain. Another gene, nirC, is located upstream of the nir operon. nirC encodes a putative integral membrane-spanning protein of unknown function. A nirC mutant showed no distinct phenotype.  (+info)

Role of ribosome release in regulation of tna operon expression in Escherichia coli. (8/7987)

Expression of the degradative tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination. In cultures growing in the absence of added tryptophan, transcription of the structural genes of the tna operon is limited by Rho-dependent transcription termination in the leader region of the operon. Tryptophan induction prevents this Rho-dependent termination, and requires in-frame translation of a 24-residue leader peptide coding region, tnaC, that contains a single, crucial, Trp codon. Studies with a lacZ reporter construct lacking the spacer region between tnaC and the first major structural gene, tnaA, suggested that tryptophan induction might involve cis action by the TnaC leader peptide on the ribosome translating the tnaC coding region. The leader peptide was hypothesized to inhibit ribosome release at the tnaC stop codon, thereby blocking Rho's access to the transcript. Regulatory studies with deletion constructs of the tna operon of Proteus vulgaris supported this interpretation. In the present study the putative role of the tnaC stop codon in tna operon regulation in E. coli was examined further by replacing the natural tnaC stop codon, UGA, with UAG or UAA in a tnaC-stop codon-tnaA'-'lacZ reporter construct. Basal level expression was reduced to 20 and 50% when the UGA stop codon was replaced by UAG or UAA, respectively, consistent with the finding that in E. coli translation terminates more efficiently at UAG and UAA than at UGA. Tryptophan induction was observed in strains with any of the stop codons. However, when UAG or UAA replaced UGA, the induced level of expression was also reduced to 15 and 50% of that obtained with UGA as the tnaC stop codon, respectively. Introduction of a mutant allele encoding a temperature-sensitive release factor 1, prfA1, increased basal level expression 60-fold when the tnaC stop codon was UAG and 3-fold when this stop codon was UAA; basal level expression was reduced by 50% in the construct with the natural stop codon, UGA. In strains with any of the three stop codons and the prfA1 mutation, the induced levels of tna operon expression were virtually identical. The effects of tnaC stop codon identity on expression were also examined in the absence of Rho action, using tnaC-stop codon-'lacZ constructs that lack the tnaC-tnaA spacer region. Expression was low in the absence of tnaC stop codon suppression. In most cases, tryptophan addition resulted in about 50% inhibition of expression when UGA was replaced by UAG or UAA and the appropriate suppressor was present. Introduction of the prfA1 mutant allele increased expression of the suppressed construct with the UAG stop codon; tryptophan addition also resulted in ca. 50% inhibition. These findings provide additional evidence implicating the behavior of the ribosome translating tnaC in the regulation of tna operon expression.  (+info)

The B. subtilis trp operon is regulated by transcription attenuation in response to changes in the intracellular level of tryptophan by the mtrB gene product, TRAP. TRAP interaction with the 11 (G/U)AG repeats present within the nascenttrp leader transcript promotes formation of the intrinsic terminator by blocking formation of the overlapping antiterminator structure (Fig. 1). An essentially identical transcription attenuation mechanism was shown to regulate expression of the B. pumilus trp operon (20). In addition, the trp operon leaders of B. caldotenax and B. stearothermophilus contain multiple triplet repeats, as well as overlapping antiterminator and terminator structures. Thus, it appears that all four of these bacilli regulate trp operon expression by a conserved attenuation mechanism.. In this study, the function of an RNA secondary structure predicted to form at the 5′ end of the B. subtilis trp leader transcript was examined. The conservation of similar structures in thetrp operon ...
The trp operon is an operon-a group of genes that is used, or transcribed, together-that codes for the components for production of tryptophan. The trp operon is present in many bacteria, but was first characterized in Escherichia coli. The operon is regulated so that when tryptophan is present in the environment, the genes for tryptophan synthesis are not expressed. It was an important experimental system for learning about gene regulation, and is commonly used to teach gene regulation. Discovered in 1953 by Jacques Monod and colleagues, the trp operon in E. coli was the first repressible operon to be discovered. While the lac operon can be activated by a chemical (allolactose), the tryptophan (Trp) operon is inhibited by a chemical (tryptophan). This operon contains five structural genes: trp E, trp D, trp C, trp B, and trp A, which encode tryptophan synthetase. It also contains a repressive regulator gene called trp R. trp R has a promoter where RNA polymerase binds and synthesizes mRNA for a ...
The expression of the Kdp system for K+ uptake in Escherichia coli requires the products of two genes, kdpD and kdpE. These genes constitute an operon adjacent to the kdpABC operon that encodes the three membrane protein subunits of Kdp. Both operons are transcribed in the same direction and overlap; the kdpDE promoter is in kdpC, the last gene of the kdpABC operon. Transcription of the kdpDE operon is at a low level when Kdp is not expressed; transcription increases about 10-fold when kdpABC is turned on, indicating significant read-through of the kdpDE operon by transcripts beginning at the promoter of kdpABC operon. The proximal region of the kdpD gene is the site of most mutations that lead to constitutive expression of the kdpABC operon. ...
Citation. Ermolaeva, M. D., White, O., Salzberg, S. L.. Prediction of Operons In Microbial Genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001 Mar 01; 29(5): 1216-21.. PubMed Citation. Abstract. Operon structure is an important organization feature of bacterial genomes. Many sets of genes occur in the same order on multiple genomes; these conserved gene groupings represent candidate operons. This study describes a computational method to estimate the likelihood that such conserved gene sets form operons. The method was used to analyze 34 bacterial and archaeal genomes, and yielded more than 7600 pairs of genes that are highly likely (P: ,/= 0.98) to belong to the same operon. The sensitivity of our method is 30-50% for the Escherichia coli genome. The predicted gene pairs are available from our World Wide Web site www.tigr.org/tigr-scripts/operons/operons.cgi.. ...
The tryptophan operon is a repressible operon that is a permanently turned on. Evidence for transcription antitermination control of. Rather, multicopy tnac plasmids inhibited induction by preventing tryptophaninduced transcription. We hypothesize that a tryptophan activated antiterminator protein mediates induction by suppressing the rhodependent termination sites in the leader region, thus allowing transcription to proceed into the tna operon structural gene region. C turned off only when glucose is present in the growth medium. Tryptophan is one of the 20 amino acids out of which all proteins are made. Expression of the tryptophanase tna operon in escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and tryptophaninduced transcription antitermination. Transcription of the trp operon in lactococcus lactis is. Using available experimental data as a training set, we developed a program for prediction of attenuators named lllm 7, 38 and applied it to the analysis of upstream regions of ...
5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION ...
Section L:Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes. Molecular Biology. L1 The lac operon L2 The trp operon L3 Transcriptional regulation by alternative σ factors. Molecular Biology. L1:The LAC Operon. Operon - what is it? Slideshow 6150074 by otto-barker
Bibliographic details on RegulonDB (version 5.0): Escherichia coli K-12 transcriptional regulatory network, operon organization, and growth conditions.
Shop Lactose operon repressor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Lactose operon repressor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
A null mutation in the mexS gene of P. aeruginosa yielded increased expression of a 3-gene operon containing a gene, xenB, whose product is highly homologous to a xenobiotic reductase in Pseudomonas fluorescens shown to remove nitro groups from trinitrotouleune and nitroglycerin (Blehert, D.S. et al. 1999. J. Bacteriol. 181:6254). This expression, which paralleled an increase in mexEF-oprN expression in the same mutant, was, like mexEF-oprN, dependent on the MexT LysR-family positive regulator previously implicated in mexEF-oprN expression. As nitrosation is a well-known product of nitrosative stress, a role of xenB (and the co-regulated mexEF-oprN) in a nitrosative stress response was hypothesized and tested. Using s-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) as a source of nitrosative stress, expression of xenB and mexEF-oprN was shown to be GSNO-inducible, though in the case of xenB this was only seen in a mutant lacking MexEF-OprN. In both instances this GSNO-inducible expression was dependent upon MexT. The ...
We combine comparative genomic measures and the distance separating adjacent genes to predict operons in 124 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Our method automatically tailors itself to each genome using sequence information alone, and thus can be applied to any prokaryote. For Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis, our method is 85 and 83% accurate, respectively, which is similar to the accuracy of methods that use the same features but are trained on experimentally characterized transcripts. In Halobacterium NRC-1 and in Helicobacterpylori, our method correctly infers that genes in operons are separated by shorter distances than they are in E.coli, and its predictions using distance alone are more accurate than distance-only predictions trained on a database of E.coli transcripts. We use microarray data from sixphylogenetically diverse prokaryotes to show that combining intergenic distance with comparative genomic measures further improves accuracy and that our method is broadly effective
The purpose of this subproject is to make the nah operon biobrick compatible for the use of future iGEM teams. The nah operon codes for a pathway that converts naphthalene into salicylate. In our system, this will allow naphthalene to be detected by the salicylate reporter. There are three standard cut sites internal to the operon which we are removing - PstI, and two NotI sites. This biobrick compatible piece could be useful to future teams in projects that involve bioremediation or detection of naphthalene. Back to nah operon week view ...
The purpose of this subproject is to make the nah operon biobrick compatible for the use of future iGEM teams. The nah operon is an operon that converts napthalene into salicylate. In our system, this will allow napthalene to be detected by the salicylate reporter. There are three standard cutsites internal to the operon which we are removing - the biobrick compatible piece could be used by future teams in bioremediation projects. ...
Dr. Poul Valentin-Hansen and colleagues at the University of Southern Denmark report that a small RNA, called Spot 42, functions by an antisense mechanism to differentially regulate gene expression in the galactose operon. The E. coli galactose operon is a cluster of four contiguous genes that are expressed as a group and encode enzymes that regulate galactose sugar metabolism. Like all bacterial operons, the four gal genes (galE, T, K, and M) are transcribed into one polycistronic mRNA message. Interestingly though, although all four gal genes are translated from this one polycistronic message, the relative synthesis of the encoded enzymes differs depending upon metabolic conditions. Although this discoordinate expression of the galactose operon was characterized more than 20 years ago, this report by Dr. Valentin-Hansen and colleagues provides the first mechanistic insight into the process. Dr. Valentin-Hansen and colleagues have discovered that Spot 42, a small, 109-nucleotide RNA whose ...
Two divergently transcribed operons in Escherichia coli required for the expression of fibronectin- and Congo red-binding curli polymers were identified and characterized by transposon mutagenesis, sequencing and transcriptional analyses, as well as for their ability to produce the curli subunit protein. The csgBA operon encodes CsgA, the major subunit protein of the fibre, and CsgB, a protein with sequence homology to CsgA. A non-polar csgB mutant is unaffected in its production of CsgA, but the subunit protein is not assembled into insoluble fibre polymers. A third open reading frame, orfC, positioned downstream of csgA may affect some functional property of curli since an insertion in this putative gene abolishes the autoagglutinating ability typical of curliated cells without affecting the production of the fibre. The promoter for the oppositely transcribed csgDEFG operon was identified by primer extension and shown, like the csgBA promoter, to be dependent upon the alternate stationary ...
Mediates the positive regulation of the beta-glucoside (bgl) operon by functioning as a transcriptional antiterminator. This is an RNA-binding protein that recognizes a specific sequence located just upstream of two termination sites within the operon.
The products of the Escherichia coli umuDC operon and its plasmid-borne analog, mucAB, are required for mutagenesis caused by UV light and by many chemicals. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of umuDC and mucAB and present comparisons of these sequences. The two operons are 52% homologous at the nucleotide level. Open reading frames corresponding in position and size to the umu and muc genes have been identified. The reading frames of umuD and umuC overlap by 1 base pair, and the reading frames of mucA and mucB overlap by 13 base pairs. The predicted amino acid sequences of the UmuD and MucA proteins are 41% homologous; those of the UmuC and MucB proteins are 55% homologous. Considerable homology has also been detected between UmuD, MucA, and the COOH-terminal domains of the LexA repressor and the repressors of phage lambda, 434, and P22. Complementation analyses reveal that MucA protein cannot substitute for UmuD in a umuD- umuC+ host and that MucB protein cannot substitute for UmuC ...
Not sure why I cant edit the above part, but I stumbled across something that seemed to be of use; that secondary sugars might be sugars the require cAMP and CRP to be the effector of the operon(along with the operon inducer of course). Since gallactose is what the cell wants the most then the other metabolic operons(like lactose) should be off so any sugar that isnt gallactose is secondary ...
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: REGULATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE REPRESSOR-OPERATOR HYPOTHESIS* M. GRUBER and R. N. CAMPAGNE\ The synthesis ofproteins is often regulated by specific effectors, i.e., inducers and co-repressors. These substances-usually compounds of low molecular weight-can elicit or inhibit the co-ordinated synthesis of a group of metabolically related proteins, e.g., the enzymes of a metabolic pathway. This, and genetic evidence, ledJacob and Monod [i, 2] to propose the Operon, a stretch of DNA comprising several structural genes, thus coding for a number of polypeptide chains. At one end of this Operon, eitherjust outside or just within the first structural gene, an operator was assumed switching the operon on and off. The effectors of protein synthesis, or possibly their immediate derivatives, were assumed to interact with a repressor, preventing the transcription ofthe operon into RNA. The stereospecific interaction ...
casSAR Dugability of C4ZPS8 | thrL | thr operon leader peptide - Also known as LPT_ECOBW, thrL. This protein is involved in control of the biosynthesis of threonine.
We describe several new vectors for the construction of operon and protein fusions to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. In vitro constructions utilize multicopy plasmids containing suitable cloning sites located between upstream transcription terminators and downstream lac operon segments whose lacZ g …
We have previously reported autogenous regulation of the S10 operon encoding eleven ribosomal proteins. By measuring the synthesis of individual r proteins after specific oversynthesis of nine different ribosomal proteins from the S10 operon, we now find that one, L4, affects the expression of the o …
Displaying operon conservation. Part A shows that the order of genes belonging to the histidine operon is well conserved in this set of proteobacterial genomes.
For the purposes of the AP Biology exam, the material on operons shown above is probably sufficient. But theres another level to understanding prokaryotic gene regulation: If youre interested, go for it!. Weve seen above how the Lac operon allows E. coli to turn on production of enzymes to digest lactose when lactose is in its environment, and to turn production of these same enzymes off when lactose is not in the environment. But theres an even more subtle regulatory scheme. If an E. coli cell is simultaneously fed with both lactose and glucose, it will preferentially use glucose, and only turn to lactose when glucose is short supply. From an energetic perspective, this makes sense. Glucose is the simplest carbohydrate: the genes for metabolizing it are always turned on. Lactose, on the other hand, requires special enzymes to process. Given the choice, its energetically favorable for the cell to break down glucose first. But what system allows E. coli to express this preference?. The ...
Impact of mutations in individual protease genes/operons on biofilm formation in vitro. The relative capacity to form a biofilm was assessed using a microtiter
Ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated signaling is one of the hallmarks of all eukaryotes. Prokaryotic homologs of Ub (ThiS and MoaD) and E1 ligases have been studied in relation to sulfur incorporation reactions in thiamine and molybdenum/tungsten cofactor biosynthesis. However, there is no evidence for entire protein modification systems with Ub-like proteins and deconjugation by deubiquitinating enzymes in prokaryotes. Hence, the evolutionary assembly of the eukaryotic Ub-signaling apparatus remains unclear. We systematically analyzed prokaryotic Ub-related β-grasp fold proteins using sensitive sequence profile searches and structural analysis. Consequently, we identified novel Ub-related proteins beyond the characterized ThiS, MoaD, TGS, and YukD domains. To understand their functional associations, we sought and recovered several conserved gene neighborhoods and domain architectures. These included novel associations involving diverse sulfur metabolism proteins, siderophore biosynthesis and the gene encoding
Conway T, Creecy JP, Maddox SM, Grissom JE, Conkle TL, Shadid TM, Teramoto J, San Miguel P, Shimada T, Ishihama A, Mori H, Wanner BL. Unprecedented high-resolution view of bacterial operon architecture revealed by RNA sequencing. MBio. 2014 Jul 08; 5(4):e01442-14 ...
Shop Pca operon regulatory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Pca operon regulatory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Regulates the transcription of several operons and genes involved in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters and Fe-S-containing proteins. Transcriptional repressor of the iscRSUA operon, which is involved in the assembly of Fe-S clusters into Fe-S proteins. In its apoform, under conditions of oxidative stress or iron deprivation, it activates the suf operon, which is a second operon involved in the assembly of Fe-S clusters. Represses its own transcription as well as that of toxin rnlA.
New research from Rice and MD Anderson gives insight into the half-century-old mystery of the existence of operons, clusters of genes that are controlled together. The study suggests operons evolved in simple organisms like bacteria as a means of reducing
Group of adjacent and coordinately controlled genes concerned with the metabolism of lactose in E. coli. The lac operon was the first example of a group of genes under the control of an operator region to which a lactose repressor binds. When the
AlwaysLearning wrote: Question: An operon contains a repressor, a promoter sequence, an operator and a structural gene. The structural gene is responsible for t
Jerme J. Kukor. (2002-06). Genetic and Functional Analysis of the tbc Operons for Catabolism of Alkyl- and Chloraromatic Compounds in Bukholderia sp. Strain JS150. 基礎科學硏究, 제15권 제1호 [2002-06-01], 195-206 ...
Coexpression of the subunits of T7 DNA polymerase from an artificial operon allows one-step purification of active gp5/Trx complex.
Operons (clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) are common features of bacterial genomes. More recently, functional gene clustering has been reported in eukaryotes, from yeasts to fila
AMD per oficialų keturių branduolių Operon procesorių pristatymą minėjo, kad po maždaug dviejų mėnesių rinkoje pasirodys 25% didesnio dažnio - 2.5GHz procesorių versijos. Tai ne tik leis kompanijai pagerinti serverių našumą, bet ir pristatyti dėmesio vertus sprendimus namų kompiuteriams.. Pasak AMD serverių ir darbo stočių poskyrio vice prezidento Randy Alleno, jau gruodžio mėnesį turėtume sulaukti 2.5GHz dažnio Barcelona branduolio procesorių. Nors jų dažnis bus 25 procentais didesnis už dabartinio greičiausio 2GHz keturių branduolių procesoriaus, tačiau toks dažnio prieaugis turėtų atnešt ~15 procentų spartos prieaugį.. Be padidinto dažnio serverinių procesorių AMD šį gruodį pristatys ir Phenom serijos procesorius, kurie pakeis dabartinius Athlon. Deja, apie jų dažnius bei kitas detales AMD informacijos neskelbė.. Anksčiau buvo pranešta, kad AMD šias metais ketina pristatyti tik Phenom FX-80 procesorių. Phenom FX-90 ir FX-91 turėtų būti ...
The Operon D760 is an economical way to bring our quality to your surgical suite. Delivered with the same quality and service which is exemplified by Strykers history, the D760 provides a robust solution for your facility.
The kil-kor regulon of the self-transmissible, broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is a unique network with eight coregulated operons. Among the genes encoded by the kil-kor regulon are trfA, which encodes the replication initiator, and several kil loci (kilA, kilB, kilC, and kilE), each of which is lethal to the host cell in the absence of appropriate negative regulatory elements encoded by the korA, korB, korC, and korE determinants. We have proposed that the functions of the kil loci are related to RK2 maintenance or host range. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of a 2.44-kb region that includes the lethal kilB determinant. We identified the first three genes of the kilB operon (designated klbA, klbB, and klbC), and we determined by deletion analysis that the host-lethal phenotype requires klbB. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 34,995-Da klbA product reveals a potential ATP-binding fold. The klbB product is predicted to be a membrane protein with a molecular mass of 15,012 Da with ...
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Hi, I recently installed Ubuntu 10 on my machine and also installed Kile with this command sudo apt-get install kile Kile is working fine with english, however I am Indian and would like to work with hindi and Devanagari Fonts I installed these fonts with SCIM installation. Now when I try to type in the above language, it types and the letters blink and as soon as i hit space previously typed word delete automatically. I was wondering if you can help me with it. regards Anant ...
The genetic systems involved in the utilisation of aromatic β-glucosides in E. coli consist of the bgl, asc, and chb operons and the locus bglA encoding phospho-β-glucosidase A. The bgl and asc operons are known as cryptic ...
Cell structureCell envelopeBiosynthesis and degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharidescellulose synthase operon protein YhjU (TIGR03368; HMM-score: 12.2) ...
The bgl operon of E. coli encodes for the proteins involved in the uptake and catabolism of plant-derived aromatic beta-glucosides, normally associated with the soil environment. The silent state of the operon seen ...
TAT secretion system. The ynfEFGHI operon is a paralogue of the Escherichia coli dmsABC operon. ynfE and ynfF are paralogues of dmsA. ynfG and ynfH are paralogues of dmsB and dmsC, respectively. PMID: 14522592 ...
The official website for HHMI and the University of Pittsburghs Science Education Alliance program: Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histidine operon control region of Klebsiella pneumoniae. T2 - Analysis with an Escherichia coli promoter-probe plasmid vector. AU - Rodriguez, R. L.. AU - West, R. W.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - The control region for the histidine operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae was cloned and analyzed with the Escherichia coli promoter-probe plasmid pPV33. A restriction fragment which contained the his control region was identified by its ability to activate the tetracycline resistance (Tc(r)) gene on this vector. Expression of Tc(r) by bacteria containing the his promoter-active plasmid was found to be under the attenuation control of the his promoter. DNA sequence analysis of the his control region revealed a base sequence homology of approximately 86% of the analogous DNA sequences of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Most of the base alterations in the K. pneumoniae DNA sequence were found to reside in regions flanking the transcriptional and translational regulatory sites.. AB - The ...
The gab operon is responsible for the conversion of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) to succinate. The gab operon comprises three structural genes - gabD, gabT and gabP - that encode for a succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, GABA transaminase and a GABA permease respectively. There is a regulatory gene csiR, downstream of the operon, that codes for a putative transcriptional repressor and is activated when nitrogen is limiting. The gab operon has been characterized in Escherichia coli and significant homologies for the enzymes have been found in organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rats and humans. Limited nitrogen conditions activate the gab genes. The enzymes produced by these genes convert GABA to succinate, which then enters the TCA cycle, to be used as a source of energy. The gab operon is also known to contribute to polyamine homeostasis during nitrogen-limited growth and to maintain high internal glutamate concentrations under stress conditions. The gab operon consists of three structural ...
Translational coupling in the threonine operon of Escherichia coli K-12.: In an attempt to express the two distal genes of the Escherichia coli threonine operon
TY - JOUR. T1 - The groESL operon of the halophilic lactic acid bacterium tetragenococcus halophila. AU - Fukuda, Daisuke. AU - Watanabe, Maki. AU - Aso, Yuji. AU - Sonomoto, Kenji. AU - Ishizaki, Ayaaki. N1 - Funding Information: This work was partly supported by the Sasakawa Scientiˆc Research Grant from The Japan Science Society.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The groESL operon of the halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila was cloned by a PCR-based method. The molecular masses of GroES and GroEL proteins were calculated to be 10,153 and 56,893 Da, respectively. The amount of groESL mRNA was increased 3.8-fold by heat shock (45°C), and 4-fold by high NaCl (3-4 M). The Bacillus subtilis σA-like constitutive promoter existed in front of groES, and was used under both normal and stress (heat shock and high salinity) conditions.. AB - The groESL operon of the halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila was cloned by a PCR-based method. The molecular masses of ...
In bacteria, translation re-initiation is crucial for synthesizing proteins encoded by genes that are organized into operons. The mechanisms regulating translation re-initiation remain, however, poorly understood. We now describe the ribosome termination structure (RTS), a conserved and stable mRNA secondary structure localized immediately downstream of stop codons, and provide experimental evidence for its role in governing re-initiation efficiency in a synthetic Escherichia coli operon. We further report that RTSs are abundant, being associated with 18%-65% of genes in 128 analyzed bacterial genomes representing all phyla, and are selectively depleted when translation re-initiation is advantageous yet selectively enriched so as to insulate translation when re-initiation is deleterious. Our results support a potentially universal role for the RTS in controlling translation termination-insulation and re-initiation across bacteria. The mechanisms for regulating translation re-initiation in ...
TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 11 Foldchange Functional No. Gene_ID Product Function_Class (Mutant/WT) GG_PDE category Positive Regulation 1 Rv0006 gyrA DNA gyrase subunit A -2.5 0.92 2 2 Rv0007 conserved hypothetical -2.0 0.49 3 protein 3 Rv0058 dnaB DNA helicase (contains -2.4 0.88 2 intein) 4 Rv0108c hypothetical protein -2.4 0.87 16.6 5 Rv0145 conserved hypothetical -2.7 0.97 10.5 protein 6 Rv0166 fadD5 acyl-CoA synthase -4.2 1.00 1 7 Rv0167 yrbE1A part of mce1 operon -8.9 1.00 0 8 Rv0168 yrbE1B part of mce1 operon -2.0 0.50 0 9 Rv0169 mce1 part of mce1 operon, cell -5.1 1.00 0 invasion protein 10 Rv0170 mce1B part of mce1 operon -7.2 1.00 0 11 Rv0171 mce1C part of mce1 operon -13.3 1.00 0 12 Rv0172 mce1D part of mce1 operon -5.0 1.00 0 13 Rv0173 lprK part of mce1 operon -3.0 0.99 0 14 Rv0174 mce1F part of mce1 operon -5.0 1.00 0 15 Rv0175 conserved hypothetical -2.0 0.55 3 protein (mce1) 16 Rv0176 conserved hypothetical -2.2 0.69 3 protein (mce1) 17 Rv0177 conserved hypothetical -4.0 1.00 10.5 ...
The growth and activity of some Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains are stimulated by the presence of nondigestible fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are selectively fermented by specific intestinal bacteria. Consumption of FOS, therefore, enriches for those bacteria that possess metabolic pathways necessary for FOS metabolism. In this study, a DNA microarray consisting of 7,680 random genomic library fragments of Lactobacillus paracasei 1195 was used to examine genes involved in the utilization of FOS in this organism. Differential expression profiles between cells grown on FOS and those grown on glucose provided a basis for identifying genes specifically induced by FOS. Several of the FOS-induced genes shared sequence identity with genes encoding β-fructosidases and components of phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). These genes were organized in a putative operon, designated the fos operon, that may play an essential role in FOS utilization. The complete 7,631-bp
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of σ(B) levels and activity in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Benson, A. K.. AU - Haldenwang, W. G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The sigB operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes σ(B) plus three additional proteins (RsbV, RsbW, and RsbX) that regulate σ(B) activity. Using an anti- σ(B) monoclonal antibody to monitor the levels of σ(B) protein, P(SPAC) to control the expression of the sigB operon, and a ctc-lacZ reporter system to monitor σ(B) activity, we observed that the rsbV and rsbW products control σ(B) activity at the ctc promoter independently of their effects on σ(B) levels. In contrast, RsbX was found to have no effect on expression of ctc when the sigB operon was controlled by P(SPAC). The data are consistent with RsbV and RsbW being regulators of σ(B) activity and RsbX acting primarily as a negative regulator of sigB operon expression. Evidence that stationary- phase induction of the σ(B)-dependent ctc promoter is accomplished by a reduction in ...
Profiling the microbiome on low biomass samples is challenging as these samples tend to have DNA from other sources. The usual approach is to sequence regions of the 16S rRNA gene, although this can fail to identify the microbial species present. We sequenced the full-length 16S rRNA and the whole rrn operon of a clinical isolate, mock communities and skin samples, on the Oxford Nanopore MinION and found that sequencing the rrn operon gave better resolution at the species level than sequencing 16S rRNA alone.
Indira Nath, ; Laal, Suman (1990) Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of Mycobacterium leprae gene showing homology to bacterial atp operon Nucleic Acids Research, 18 (16). p. 4935. ISSN 0305-1048 Full text not available from this repository.. Official URL: http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/16/4935.e.... Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/18.16.4935 ...
A putative operon encoding a probable zinc-responsive regulatory element (zur) and components of an ABC-type transporter (mreA mreB) have been characterized in Staphylococcus aureus. The zur gene was inactivated but apparently this did not alter Zn2+ uptake. Expression of mreAB zur is at a low level under a range of ion conditions. To allow inducible expression of the operon, a construct was made placing it under the control of the IPTG-inducible Pspac promoter. Using this approach, it was shown that zur is able to repress expression of the entire operon in a Zn2+-dependent manner, and that mreA and mreB are likely to be involved in high-affinity ion uptake. zur has no apparent role in pathogenicity in a lesion model of S. aureus infection.
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
TY - JOUR. T1 - AAS and ICP-AES Analysis of the Iron-sulfur Cluster in YojG (NapF) Protein of aeg-46.5 Operon in Escherichia coli. AU - Kim, Hyo Ryung. AU - Lee, Yong Chan. AU - Won, Jae Seon. AU - Choe, MuHyeon. PY - 2003/12/20. Y1 - 2003/12/20. KW - aeg-46.5. KW - Electron transfer. KW - Iron-sulfur cluster. KW - NapF. KW - YojG. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0347635463&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0347635463&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0347635463. VL - 24. SP - 1849. EP - 1852. JO - Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society. JF - Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society. SN - 0253-2964. IS - 12. ER - ...
Read Activation of the expression of the microcin C51 operon upon glucose starvation of cells at the exponential growth phase, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Get all questions and answers of Molecular Basis Of Inheritance lac-operon of neet1 Genetics And Evolution on TopperLearning. TopperLearnings Experts and Students has answered all of Molecular Basis Of Inheritance Lac Operon of Neet1 Genetics And Evolution questions in detail.
Looking for autogenous control? Find out information about autogenous control. Regulation of gene expression by a product of the gene itself that either inhibits or enhances the genes activity Explanation of autogenous control
The widespread natural ability of RNA to sense small molecules and regulate genes has become an important tool for synthetic biology in applications as diverse as environmental sensing and metabolic engineering. Previous work in RNA synthetic biology has engineered RNA mechanisms that independently regulate multiple targets and integrate regulatory signals. However, intracellular regulatory networks built with these systems have required proteins to propagate regulatory signals. In this work, we remove this requirement and expand the RNA synthetic biology toolkit by engineering three unique features of the plasmid pT181 antisense-RNA-mediated transcription attenuation mechanism. First, because the antisense RNA mechanism relies on RNA-RNA interactions, we show how the specificity of the natural system can be engineered to create variants that independently regulate multiple targets in the same cell. Second, because the pT181 mechanism controls transcription, we show how independently acting ...
LeuO is a dual transcriptional regulator that regulates genes involved in leucine biosynthesis [1, 15], genes involved in the utilization of certain β-glucosides [5, 7] and genes encoding LuxR-type transcription factors [14] It is also involved in the bacterial stringent response [16]. LeuO is one of the transcription factors that counteracts H-NS-mediated repression of specific loci [1, 5, 7, 17, 18] Overproduction of LeuO causes the phenotype Bgl+, since LeuO can unsilence the bglGFB operon, which is silenced (phenotypically Bgl ) under laboratory conditions [7] LeuO is part of the RpoS/H-NS/Hfq/LeuO/DsrA RNA regulatory cascade that controls the bglGFH operon [5]and translation of rpoS, particularly at low temperatures [19, 20]. LeuO belongs to the LysR transcriptional regulator family and contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain [4, 7] No LeuO consensus binding sequence is known [14]. LeuO activates transcription of the divergent leuLABCD operon [2]. An in vivo genetic selection ...
Surgeons will have an easier time using extra-long bariatric surgery instruments with the OPERON D860 surgical table from Stryker. This powerful table fe
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Try larger volumes of cells - maybe 6 mL in round bottom tubes.. Try in LB again - maybe fluorescence isnt as bad as we thought originally.. ...
The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptophan biosynthesis are frequently organized as whole-pathway operons, an attribute that is expected to facilitate multi-gene transfer in a single step. We have asked whether events of lateral gene transfer are sufficient to have obscured our ability to track the vertical genealogy that underpins tryptophan biosynthesis. In 47 complete-genome Bacteria, the genes encoding the seven catalytic domains that participate in primary tryptophan biosynthesis were distinguished from any paralogs or xenologs engaged in other specialized functions. A reliable list of orthologs with carefully ascertained functional roles has thus been assembled and should be valuable as an annotation resource. The protein domains associated with primary tryptophan biosynthesis were then concatenated, yielding single amino-acid
Dr. Christina Kile, MD is a Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Specialist in Albany, GA and has over 18 years of experience in the medical field. Dr. Kile has more experience with Osteoporosis & Screening, Thyroid Disorders, and Diabetes & Glucose Monitoring than other specialists in her area. She graduated from Mercer University School Of Medicine medical school in 2003. She is affiliated with medical facilities such as Crisp Regional Hospital and Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital. She is accepting new patients and has indicated that she accepts telehealth appointments. Be sure to call ahead with Dr. Kile to book an appointment.
When both glucose and lactose are present in the medium, the transcription of the genes z, y and a are inhibited. This phenomenon is called catabolite repression or glucose effect. The effect of
University of Idaho VIVO is a discovery tool that enables anyone to find experts, research, and associated activities at the University of Idaho.
View Notes - Control of Gene Expression from BSC BSC1005 at Broward College. mRNA and translational mechanisms control the synthesis of protein after mRNA has been produced. Operons Operons are
protein,BC0DF593AE969F1DBC5E9E2BACF1C00BE4FEE449,GlcT]: antitermination, via the [protein,BC0DF593AE969F1DBC5E9E2BACF1C00BE4FEE449,GlcT]-dependent [SW,RNA switch] [PubMed,9765562], in [regulon,BC0DF593AE969F1DBC5E9E2BACF1C00BE4FEE449,GlcT regulon ...
Chapter 19) (a) Minimal defective prophage created by removal of the N through kil genes in the P L operon and replacement of rexA and rexB with a drug resistance cassette, either ampicillin (bla) or chloramphenicol (cat). With this system, raising the temperature induces the operon directly without N-mediated antitermination. (b) Minimal prophage moved onto a high-copy-number vector. The pBR322 origin of DNA replication between nucleotide coordinates 2348 and 3296 was amplified.This linear PCR product was used to clone the minimal prophage in a gap repair reaction. This linear pBR322 fragment contains ori but lacks an antibiotic resistance gene, so only those plasmid clones that have undergone successful recombineering will contain an antibiotic resistance marker inherited from the prophage.The high-copy-number plasmids thus generated, pSIM2 and pSIM4 (Cmr and Ampr, respectively),were used as targets in subsequent recombineering reactions.The pBR322 segment was replaced precisely with a linear ...
Friedli M, Barde I, Arcangeli M, Verp S, Quazzola A, Zakany J, Lin-Marq N, Robyr D, Attanasio C, Spitz F, Duboule D, Trono D, Antonarakis SE. A systematic enhancer screen using lentivector transgenesis identifies conserved and non-conserved functional elements at the Olig1 and Olig2 locus. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 29; 5(12):e15741 ...
Sorry again for the millions of qns but Im doing quite badly in this subject so I need loads of help! Could you just check my answer for this qn? A lacI mutatio
Prokaryotic genes associated with a specific function are often grouped together in contiguous regions of the genome known as gene clusters [1]. Many of the functions encoded in these clusters are of interest to biotechnology [2]. Unfortunately, gene clusters are frequently subject to complex and highly redundant host regulation. However, through a process known as refactoring, gene clusters can be recoded to systematically eliminate native regulation [2]. This process of refactoring aims to reduce the overall complexity of genetic systems and allows them to be tailored for a particular purpose. The term refactoring is borrowed from computer science and refers to the alteration of a programs underlying code without changing its functionality [2]. This term was first applied in biology to describe the top-down approach of simplifying the phage T7 genome [3], but it is used here to refer to the bottom-up approach of eliminating native regulation of gene clusters and replacing it with ...
Much research has been done on the ebg operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli over the last 30 years. specific mutations within this operon enable the bacterium to metabolize lactose.. PDF Download ...
Much research has been done on the ebg operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli over the last 30 years. specific mutations within this operon enable the bacterium to metabolize lactose.. PDF Download ...
OPER0N,S.A. was established in 1973 as a private R&D laboratory in the field of Immunochemistry. In 1982 OPERON started its international sales operations. OPERON currently develops and manufactures several product lines: Raw materials: antibodies/recombinant antigens, Rapid tests, Molecular Diagnostic kits ready to use and customized services. All products have been developed and produced at its own facilities. The products are sold in many countries around the world.. ...
Portal de Revistas Académicas Chilenas proporciona acceso abierto a las publicaciones editadas por universidades, sociedades científicas, organismos gubernamentales y ONGs editadas e Chile
RM 7638212 RT Identification of the Bacillus subtilis pur operon repressor. RA Weng M, Nagy PL, Zalkin H. RL Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995 Aug 1;92(16):7455- ...
Jeroen Wijnhout wrote: , Pretty cool! I could add support for the lstlisting environment, it would , display anything inside this enviroment as verbatim text (Are there any other , environments like this? Those could be added too). There may be others, but I dont know them. As for the listings package: Its homepage is http://www.atscire.de/products/listings/ and as you said: as far as the editor (Kile) is concerned, the lstlisting environment is just like verbatim text, i.e. any code can appear here. Note that there are some things that have to be prepared in order to make it work: % Enabling: \usepackage{listings} % Get rid of warnings package hyperref Warning: bookmark % level for unknown lstlisting defaults to 0. \makeatletter \providecommand{\[email protected]}{0} \makeatother % Define languages, like PHP \lstdefinelanguage {PHP} {...} % Set default language for \begin{lstlisting} % (the most used in your doc, others have to be % set explicitly using \begin{lstlisting}[...] \lstset{language=PHP ...
This section aims to give an overview of different features that are known about the query genes, such as their transcriptional regulation, their gene product, the operon to which they belong and the description of gene ontologies they are associated to. In the case one or more of the input genes are not found in our database, they will appear under the section gene (s) not found. The table can be sorted by any of the features by clicking icon attached to the name of the feature´s associated column. ...
Mirel DB, Lustre VM, Chamberlin MJ (1992) An operon of Bacillus subtilis motility genes transcribed by the sigma D form of RNA polymerase. J Bacteriol 174:4197-204.[PMID:1624413 ...
Biology Assignment Help, Positive and negative regulation, Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The lac operon is an brilliant example of negative control or negative regulation of gene
It is quite frequent to find a predicted gene in close proximity upstream from a query gene. If you want to discard these sequences from your analysis, you should make sure this option is active. When the option is checked, upstream sequences are automatically clipped when a predicted gene is located within the range defined by the option from. The actual size retainedfor the upstream sequence is indicated in the sequence comments. Note that in some cases a known regulatory element is located upstream or within a predicted gene. This means either that the predited gene is an artifact, or that the same sequence is bifunctional (coding and regulatory). It is particularly important to activate this option when working with bacteria, since many genes are located in operons, and have a very close upstream neighbour. ...
Sendecka Zyta, Szedzianis Elzbieta "The Books seria Vademecum of High school examination". (Operon, 2010). ISBN 9788376801926 ...
The Lactose Operon. 1970. ISBN 978-0-317-11809-4. Collins, J. F. (1962). "Estimation of penicillinase in single bacterial cells ...
Lac operon "Expression vectors". sci.sdsu.edu. ORegAnno - Open Regulatory Annotation Database Identifying a Protein Binding ... Activator (genetics) Enhancer (genetics) Glossary of gene expression terms Operon Regulation of gene expression Repressor ...
"Operon Racing - Gutek's bio". www.operonracing.com. "News - Gutek 3rd of the Caribbean 600 - Vendée Globe - En". www. ...
Operon analyses have been reported. MerP is a periplasmic Hg2+-binding receptor of about 70-80 amino acyl residues, synthesized ... The MerC protein encoded on the IncJ plasmid pMERPH of the Shewanella putrefaciens mercuric resistance operon is 137 amino ... Velasco, A.; Acebo, P.; Flores, N.; Perera, J. (1999-01-01). "The mer operon of the acidophilic bacterium Thiobacillus T3.2 ... "Sequence and analysis of a plasmid-encoded mercury resistance operon from Mycobacterium marinum identifies MerH, a new mercuric ...
Jacob, F.; Ullman, A.; Monod, J. (1964). "The Promotor, A Genetic Element Necessary to the Expression of an Operon". Comptes ... Jacob, F. O. (2011). "The Birth of the Operon". Science. 332 (6031): 767. Bibcode:2011Sci...332..767J. doi:10.1126/science. ... "The operon: A group of genes with expression coordinated by an operator. C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris 250 (1960) 1727-1729". Comptes ... Operon: a group of genes with the expression coordinated by an operator] (PDF). Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de ...
It is coded for by the lacA gene of the lac operon in E. coli. It catalyzes the following reaction: acetyl-CoA + beta-D- ... The enzyme's role in the classical E.coli lac operon remains unclear. However, the enzyme's cellular role may be to detoxify ... Transacetylase Wang XG, Olsen LR, Roderick SL (April 2002). "Structure of the lac operon galactoside acetyltransferase". ... "Thiogalactoside transacetylase of the lactose operon as an enzyme for detoxification". 1976. Cite journal requires ,journal= ( ...
Sung YC, Fuchs JA (October 1988). "Characterization of the cyn operon in Escherichia coli K12". The Journal of Biological ... Anderson PM, Sung YC, Fuchs JA (December 1990). "The cyanase operon and cyanate metabolism". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 7 (3-4 ...
That said, they constitute an operon. The SOS genes share a common regulatory mechanism and constitutes a general defense ...
Regulation is different for each operon. The ilvGMEDA operon encodes the ilvGM (ALS II) pair as well as a branched-chain-amino- ... The ilvBNC operon encodes the ilvBN (ALS I) pair and a ketol-acid reductoisomerase (ilvC). It is similarly regulated, but is ... Both of these operons as well as the third, ilvIH, are regulated by leucine-responsive protein (Lrp). Inhibitors of ALS are ... Each subunit pair, or ALS I, II, and III respectively, is located on its own operon, ilvBN, ilvGM and ilvIH (where ilvN ...
In another example, specific binding of HU at the gal operon facilitates the formation of a DNA loop that keeps the gal operon ... MukE and MukF are encoded together with MukB in the same operon in E. coli. Deletion of either subunit results in the same ... DNA bending by IHF differentially controls transcription from the two tandem promoters of the ilvGMEDA operon in E. coli. ... Surprisingly, 3C-seq studies did not reveal the physical clustering of rrn operons, contradicting the results of the ...
... activates rhlAB operon and lasB gene) Acinetobacter baumannii abaR (activates operon for production of surfactant-like ... E. coli malT (activates maltose operon; MalT binds ATP and maltotriose) Ducros VM, Lewis RJ, Verma CS, Dodson EJ, Leonard G, ... activate nitrate reductase operon) Enterobacteria rcsB (regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric and plant ... activates bioluminescence operon) Agrobacterium tumefaciens traR (regulation of Ti plasmid transfer) Erwinia carotovora carR ( ...
... when the repressor is inactive transcription of the operon can occur (see e.g. Lac operon). The products of operon genes ... The genes in an operon are transcribed as a continuous messenger RNA, referred to as a polycistronic mRNA. The term cistron in ... The regulation of lactose metabolism genes in E. coli (lac operon) was the first such mechanism to be described in 1961. A ... The transcription of an operon's mRNA is often controlled by a repressor that can occur in an active or inactive state ...
Blumenthal, T (2004). "Operons in eukaryotes". Briefings in Functional Genomics and Proteomics. 3 (3): 199-211. doi:10.1093/ ... Of note, this is the first chordate among the eukaryotes found to have operons. Herring, Peter J. (1987). "Systematic ...
Many genes are arranged in clusters and how many of these are operons is unclear. C. elegans and other nematodes are among the ... Many more organisms are likely to be shown to have these operons. The genome contains an estimated 20,470 protein-coding genes ... Blumenthal T (November 2004). "Operons in eukaryotes". Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics. 3 (3): 199-211. doi: ... "A global analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans operons". Nature. 417 (6891): 851-4. Bibcode:2002Natur.417..851B. doi:10.1038/ ...
... lac operon Klar AJ, Halvorson HO (1974). "Studies on the positive regulatory gene, GAL4, in regulation of galactose catabolic ...
Italian Biographical Archive (ABI) on line Operon. Bühnenwerke mit Musik (in German). ...
Bioinformatic analysis has shown that approximately half of the genes and operons in Archaea arrange themselves into signals or ... Rho factor WebGeSTer Trp operon Farnham, PJ; Platt, T (11 February 1981). "Rho-independent termination: dyad symmetry in DNA ...
The yop genes, yadA, ylpA, and the virC operon are considered the "Yop regulon" since they are coregulated by pYV-encoded VirF ... YopJ, which shares an operon with YpkA, "...interferes with the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities of c-Jun N- ...
"Characterization of the Escherichia coli gcv operon". Gene. 142 (1): 17-22. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90349-2. PMID 8181752. ...
Chuang, Li-Yeh; Tsai, Jui-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hong (July 2010). "Binary particle swarm optimization for operon prediction". ...
It has been shown using fluorescence microscopy that the rhlAB operon is induced in the centre of the mushroom cap, followed by ... They are arranged in an operon, adjacent to rhlRI, a master regulator of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proteins ... Therefore, the products of the rhlAB operon; RhlA and RhlB, catalyse the formation of HAAs and mono-rhamnolipids respectively. ... encoded on the rmlBCAD operon. AlgC produces sugar precursors directly for alginate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as ...
This system allows the use of operons - collections of protein-coding genes with a shared function that are simultaneously ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Blumenthal, T (Jun 25, 2005). "Trans-splicing and operons". WormBook: 1-9. doi:10.1895/ ...
Gor D, Mayfield JE (February 1992). "Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Brucella abortus groE operon". Biochimica et ... Hindersson P, Høiby N, Bangsborg J (January 1991). "Sequence analysis of the Legionella micdadei groELS operon". FEMS ... and transcriptional analysis of the groESL operon from Bacillus subtilis". Journal of Bacteriology. 174 (12): 3993-9. doi: ...
The lactose operon is one example of an inducible system. Repressor proteins bind to the DNA strand and prevent RNA polymerase ... In the ara operon, arabinose is the inducer. Index inducer or just inducer predictably induce metabolism via a given pathway ... The inducer in the lac operon is allolactose. If lactose is present in the medium, then a small amount of it will be converted ... However, when lactose and glucose are both available in the system, the lac operon is repressed. This is because glucose ...
"Trehalose-producing operon treYZ from Arthrobacter ramosus S34". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (6): 1419-23. ... "Trehalose-producing Operon treYZ from Arthrobacter ramosus S34". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (6): 1419-1423 ...
The nif regulon comprises 7 operons: nifRLA, nifJ, nifHDK, nifEN, nifUSVM, nifWF, nifBQ. nifRLA operon: The tight expression ... nifUSVM operon: The nifS, nifV and nifM genes encode for a protein that is required to process component II. Function of the ... nifEN and nifBQ operons: This comprises nifE, nifN, nifB and nifQ genes which are responsible for formation of a functional Mo- ... nifWF operon: The function of nifW is undetermined. The nifF gene mediates electron transfer from nifJ protein to Fe protein of ...
Bruhn DF, Li J, Silver S, Roberto F, Rosen BP (June 1996). "The arsenical resistance operon of IncN plasmid R46". FEMS ...
This results in repression of the TA operon. The key to the regulation are (i) the differential translation of the TA proteins ... Type II systems are organised in operons with the antitoxin protein typically being located upstream of the toxin, which helps ... Robson J, McKenzie JL, Cursons R, Cook GM, Arcus VL (July 2009). "The vapBC operon from Mycobacterium smegmatis is an ... Hence, the transcriptional expression of TA operon is inversely proportional to translation rate. A third protein can sometimes ...
Operons are also found in viruses such as bacteriophages. For example, T7 phages have two operons. The first operon codes for ... This allows for expression of the operon. The lac operon is a negatively controlled inducible operon, where the inducer ... The second operon includes a lysis gene meant to cause the host cell to burst. The term "operon" was first proposed in a short ... The first operon to be described was the lac operon in E. coli. The 1965 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to ...
ODB (Operon DataBase) is a database of conserved operons in sequenced genomes. Operon Okuda, Shujiro; Yoshizawa Akiyasu C (Jan ... 2011). "ODB: a database for operon organizations, 2011 update". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue): D552-5. doi: ...
The gab operon is responsible for the conversion of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) to succinate. The gab operon comprises three ... The gab operon contributes to homeostasis of polyamines such as putrescine, during nitrogen-limited growth. It is also known to ... The gab operon has been characterized in Escherichia coli and significant homologies for the enzymes have been found in ... The gab operon is also known to contribute to polyamine homeostasis during nitrogen-limited growth and to maintain high ...
This workbook models lac operon function in a partial diploid E. coli. The user chooses the bacterial genotype and the sugars ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=operons&oldid=55653178" ...
The Operon D760 is an economical way to bring our quality to your surgical suite. Delivered with the same quality and service ... Operon D760 The Operon D760 offers an 465 mm wide integrated x-ray channel designed to eliminate the need for separate x-ray ... Operon D760. Surgical Table. The Operon D760 is an economical way to bring our quality to your surgical suite. Delivered with ... Operon accessories. Like the Operon line of surgical tables, our surgical table accessories are characterized by robust ...
IPTG causes de-repression of the lac-operon by binding to the lac-operon repressor, allowing the expression of a beta ... Subject: Back to the lac-operon Category: Science , Biology Asked by: tedmccall-ga List Price: $20.00. Posted: 16 Jun 2005 01: ... Subject: Re: Back to the lac-operon Answered By: welte-ga on 09 Jul 2005 07:44 PDT ... Subject: Re: Back to the lac-operon From: mikewa-ga on 17 Jun 2005 04:13 PDT. ...
Operons (clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) are common features of bacterial genomes. More recently, ... The term "operon" was coined by Jacob and Monod [3, 4, 5], who characterized the first defined classical operon, the lac operon ... Operons could be lost by the deletion of one/more genes or alternatively by splitting the operon apart. Since operon formation ... Because few operons are conserved across all or even most bacteria, it is clear that after operons form many of them "die". ...
... expression of many gene products required during the early stages of Bacillus subtilis sporulation is regulated by sinIR operon ... expression of many gene products required during the early stages of Bacillus subtilis sporulation is regulated by sinIR operon ...
hmc operon protein 6. Locus tag. DVU0531. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. Desulfovibrio vulgaris ... hmc operon protein 6. YP_009754.1. *identified by similarity to SP:P33393; match to protein family HMM PF02754 ... DVU0531 hmc operon protein 6 [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2796180, updated on 30-Jan-2018 ... YP_009754.1 hmc operon protein 6 [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough]. See identical proteins and their annotated ...
lac-operon[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. Mudelorganismi Escherichia coli lac-operon oli esimesena avastatud operon, selle põhjal ... pheBA-operon[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. pheBA-operon sisaldab geene, mis on vajalikud fenooli lagundamiseks. Sisaldab kahte ... Esimene kirjeldatud operon oli soolekepikese E. coli lac-operon, mis sisaldab laktoosi lagundamiseks vajalike ensüümide geene. ... See operon sisaldab viit struktuurgeeni: trp-E, trp-D, trp-C, trp-B ja trp-A, mis kodeerivad trüptofaani süntetaasi. Lisaks ...
The trp operon is a well-studied operon when it comes to gene regulation. It is involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acid ... Voiceover] Two of the most studied operons are the Trp operon and the Lac operon and what I wanna do in this video is focus on ... It is an operon that is on the E. Coli that is part of the E. Coli genome, and just in this diagram, the way its drawn, it ... And just as a reminder, an operon is a combination of a set of genes, as well as the regulatory DNA sequences for that set of ...
314 Résultats de recherche correspondants gene regulation lac operon simulation. Simulations *Diffusion dun gaz avec barrière ...
The prediction of operons is critical to reconstruction of regulatory networks at the whole genome level. In this paper, a ... which have been used individually for predicting operons. The gene pairs within operons have high fitness value by using these ... The prediction of operons is critical to reconstruction of regulatory networks at the whole genome level. In this paper, a ... Sabatti, C., Rohlin, L., Oh, M.K., Liao, J.C.: Co-expression pattern from DNA microarray experiments as a tool for operon ...
Now, the operon that Ive drawn here happens to represent the lac operon, and the lac operon is an example of an inducible set ... And you can see where the name lac operon comes from because it is named for the inducer molecule for the operon. And what do I ... Now a little bit of background first: An operon is a unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes that are under control ... Now, there are two key take away points from the lac operon model. The first is to realize that it is the interaction between ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
A four-component operon (BiofilmReg) has a key role in biofilm formation. The relative location (i.e., by being separated by ... Burkholderia contaminans Biofilm Regulating Operon and Its Distribution in Bacterial Genomes. Olga L. Voronina,1 Marina S. ... During further evolution one lineage acquired a fourth gene, whereas others lost the third component of the operon. Mutations ... Different species Burkholderia and Achromobacter strains all demonstrated similar BiofilmReg operon structure. Therefore, there ...
The P. aeruginosa PAO1 operon is the most divergent 2-component operon with an altered PBP and a normal HK. In contrast to P. ... In contrast to the general similarity of RR, HK, and PBP between these operons, the extra component of the A. faecalis operon ... Only in the BiofilmReg operon was a PBP gene embedded between the RR and HK genes. Since gene organization in an operon is a ... Do such operons occur frequently in other known bacteria? We searched for orthologs of BiofilmReg operon components to answer ...
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE HISTIDINE OPERON IN ESCHERICHIA COLI K12. Eugene P. Goldschmidt, Margot S. Cater, Thomas S. Matney, ... GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE HISTIDINE OPERON IN ESCHERICHIA COLI K12 Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE HISTIDINE OPERON IN ESCHERICHIA COLI K12. Eugene P. Goldschmidt, Margot S. Cater, Thomas S. Matney, ... GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE HISTIDINE OPERON IN ESCHERICHIA COLI K12. Eugene P. Goldschmidt, Margot S. Cater, Thomas S. Matney, ...
Transcriptional analysis of the groESL operon from Porphyromonas gingivalis.. Hotokezaka H1, Ohara N, Hayashida H, Matsumoto S ... Both a heat shock promoter and inverted repeats may be relevant to the transcriptional regulation of the groESL operon in P. ... Transcriptional analysis of the groESL operon from Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the obligative anaerobic oral ... which may be relevant to the regulation of transcription of groESL operon in P. gingivalis. ...
... that is organized in five major operons, LEE1 to LEE5. LEE4 encodes a regulator of secretion (SepL), translocators (EspA, D and ...
Other articles related to operon, lac operon, lac:. Trp Operon. ... Trp operon is an operon - a group of genes that are used ... Lac Operon. Lac Operon. The lac operon is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli ... Read more about Lac Operon: operon">Structure of The lac Operon, Regulation, Development of The Classic Model, Use in Molecular ... The trp Operon. ... Discovered in 1953 by Jacques Monod and colleagues, the trp operon in E ... coli was the first repressible ...
Cloning and sequence analysis of the wild-type operon revealed a four-gene cluster with similarities to genes encoding ... A mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus was identified in which an operon encoding a binding-protein-dependent transporter was ... A glutamate/glutamine/aspartate/asparagine transport operon in Rhodobacter capsulatus Mol Microbiol. 1996 Jun;20(5):1001-11. ... Cloning and sequence analysis of the wild-type operon revealed a four-gene cluster with similarities to genes encoding ...
The predicted gene pairs are available from our World Wide Web site www.tigr.org/tigr-scripts/operons/operons.cgi. ... Operon structure is an important organization feature of bacterial genomes. Many sets of genes occur in the same order on ... This study describes a computational method to estimate the likelihood that such conserved gene sets form operons. The method ... to belong to the same operon. The sensitivity of our method is 30-50% for the Escherichia coli genome. ...
This operon, also referred to as the infC-rpmI-rplT operon (9) or the IF3-L35-L20 operon (10), contains the infC, rpmI, and ... known as operons. Coregulation of the individual genes within these operons often occurs at the level of initiation or ... located at the end of the operon. Expression of the IF3 operon is regulated by two different control loops acting at the ... In the IF3 operon, expression mainly comes from promoters upstream of infC, p0′ in particular. However, the two last cistrons ...
We describe several new vectors for the construction of operon and protein fusions to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. In vitro ... plasmids containing suitable cloning sites located between upstream transcription terminators and downstream lac operon ... Improved single and multicopy lac-based cloning vectors for protein and operon fusions Gene. 1987;53(1):85-96. doi: 10.1016/ ... We describe several new vectors for the construction of operon and protein fusions to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. In vitro ...
What is the operon, whose 50th anniversary is being celebrated this week? The word heralded the discovery of how genes are ... Monod and I baptized this structural gene-regulatory gene ensemble an "operon" (from "to operate"), and we quickly recognized ... that the operon-repressor system could be combined ad infinitum to produce circuits of increasing complexity, adapting to the ...
Does anybody know a good source that describes how to create artificial operon? There are a lot of sources that just say - we ... Creating artificial operon - posted in Molecular Biology: Hi, ... operon vector cloning artificial operon *Please log in to reply ... How a Promoterless Operon works Started by tihong10, 13 Jul 2012 promoterless, operon, lacz, gene * 7 replies ... Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: operon, vector cloning, artificial operon. Protocols and Techniques Forums → ...
Mediates the mercuric-dependent induction of mercury resistance operon. In the absence of mercury MerR represses transcription ... sp,P0A2Q9,MERR_SHIFL Mercuric resistance operon regulatory protein OS=Shigella flexneri OX=623 GN=merR PE=4 SV=1 ... Mediates the mercuric-dependent induction of mercury resistance operon. In the absence of mercury MerR represses transcription ...
Genetic characterization of the rumAB(R391) operon revealed that in recA+ and recA1730 backgrounds, the rumAB(R391) operon was ... operon appears to possess characteristics that are reminiscent of both chromosome and plasmid-encoded umu-like operons. ... Characterization of the umu-complementing operon from R391.. O I Kulaeva, J C Wootton, A S Levine, R Woodgate ... Characterization of the umu-complementing operon from R391. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
  • There is a regulatory gene csiR, downstream of the operon, that codes for a putative transcriptional repressor and is activated when nitrogen is limiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The csiR gene encodes a protein that acts as a transcriptional repressor for csiD-ygaF-gab operon hence shutting off the GABA degradation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory suggested that in all cases, genes within an operon are negatively controlled by a repressor acting at a single operator located before the first gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • IPTG causes 'de-repression' of the lac-operon by binding to the lac-operon repressor, allowing the expression of a beta galactosidase enzyme. (google.com)
  • The operator's where the repressor binds, and this is going to be essential for understanding how the Trp operon works. (khanacademy.org)
  • But when you have a lot of tryptophan, the tryptophan can act as a co-repressor, it can bind to the Trp repressor essentially activate it so that it'll change its confirmation so that it can then attach to the operator in the operon, and once it's attached to the operator, well then the RNA polymerase can no longer move forward with transcription. (khanacademy.org)
  • And there are two other regulatory sequences that lie just upstream of the lac operon that are genes that encode for a repressor protein, and then you have the associated promoter for that repressor protein. (khanacademy.org)
  • Monod and I baptized this structural gene-regulatory gene ensemble an "operon" (from "to operate"), and we quickly recognized that the operon-repressor system could be combined ad infinitum to produce circuits of increasing complexity, adapting to the demands of the cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Once present inside the cell, some of the lactose is converted to a modified version called allolactose, which is known as the inducer of the lac operon because it binds to and inhibits to the repressor, triggering the expression of the lac genes. (jove.com)
  • When glucose is absent, but lactose is present, allolactose binds and inactivates the lac operon repressor-allowing the operon to generate enzymes responsible for lactose metabolism. (jove.com)
  • When tryptophan-an essential amino acid-is abundant, tryptophan binds and activates the trp repressor-preventing the operon from making enzymes required for its synthesis. (jove.com)
  • Results presented in this paper show that these operons are regulated by a single repressor protein. (pnas.org)
  • The hutC gene, coding for this repressor, is part of one of the operons. (pnas.org)
  • Since this same operon is sensitive to the repressor, the repressor apparently represses its own synthesis. (pnas.org)
  • The repressor protein BirA is encoded by a gene distant from the bio operon. (asmscience.org)
  • The E. Coli trp operon contains the same regulatory components as the lac operon, with the difference that the gene encoding the repressor is not located near the operon and the operator element is located within the trp promoter. (essaytown.com)
  • In contrast, the lac system is an inducible system, such that the production of allolactose binds to and inhibits the lac repressor, thereby inducing the lac operon. (essaytown.com)
  • Transcriptional regulation of molybdoenzyme synthesis in Escherichia coli in response to molybdenum: ModE-molybdate, a repressor of the modABCD (molybdate transport) operon is a secondary transcriptional activator for the hyc and nar operons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of the mexCD-oprJ multidrug efflux operon is enhanced by the presence of membrane damaging agents [e.g., the biocide chlorhexidine (Chx)] or mutations in the nfxB gene encoding a repressor of efflux gene expression, both dependent on the AlgU envelope stress response sigma factor. (queensu.ca)
  • It is defined as a set of adjacent structural genes, plus the adjacent regulatory signals that affect transcription of the structural genes.5 The regulators of a given operon, including repressors, corepressors, and activators, are not necessarily coded for by that operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene pairs within operons have high fitness value by using these four scoring criteria, whereas those across transcription unit borders have low fitness value. (springer.com)
  • Well, it is the presence of lactose that actually induces the transcription of the genes in this lac operon, which I'll explain in just a little bit. (khanacademy.org)
  • Now besides these three structural genes, lacZ, Y, and A, there are two regulatory sequences contained in the lac operon, and they are called the promoter, which promotes the transcription structural genes if you will, and then also the operator. (khanacademy.org)
  • There were inverted repeats and a Escherichia coli sigma 32-recognizing consensus sequence in the promoter region of the groESL, which may be relevant to the regulation of transcription of groESL operon in P. gingivalis. (nih.gov)
  • In phages and bacteria, genes corresponding to related functions are often grouped in large transcription units, known as operons. (pnas.org)
  • Coregulation of the individual genes within these operons often occurs at the level of initiation or termination of transcription. (pnas.org)
  • In vitro constructions utilize multicopy plasmids containing suitable cloning sites located between upstream transcription terminators and downstream lac operon segments whose lacZ genes retain or lack translational start signals. (nih.gov)
  • Operons use a single promoter sequence to initiate transcription of a gene cluster (i.e., a group of structural genes) into a single mRNA molecule. (jove.com)
  • For instance, when glucose is low, a signaling molecule (i.e., cyclic AMP) activates CAP-permitting it to bind the CAP site, recruit RNA polymerase, and initiate lac operon transcription. (jove.com)
  • Transcription of the extended hyp-operon in Nostoc sp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An operon exerts its regulatory effect during the transcription phase of protein synthesis, that is, when genetic information is being transcribed from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to the corresponding portion of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) ( see DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One-stop operon-centered resources including alternative transcrioption units, transcription factor binding motif, transcription terminator, gene exression by microarray and RNA-seq and conserve operons accross multiple bacteria genomes. (uga.edu)
  • birA encodes a bifunctional protein that ligates biotin onto the carboxyl carrier peptide of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and also represses bidirectional transcription of the operon by binding to an operator site between bioA and bioB. (asmscience.org)
  • Calculations including promoter initiation efficiency and transcription rates indicate that one copy of the rRNA operon is insufficient to supply the number of ribosomes required to achieve maximal growth rates observed in E. coli ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Given the high demand for rRNA transcription and the central role of rRNAs in the regulation of ribosome synthesis, it is conceivable that the number of rRNA operons may dictate the rapidity with which microbes can synthesize ribosomes and respond to favorable changes in growth conditions ( 8 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Transcription of the rRNA operon is regulated to correspond with resource availability and can represent as much as 70% of total cellular transcription during rapid periods of growth ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • The concentrations of resources available for growth determine intracellular concentration of ATP and GTP, which in turn regulate the efficiency of transcription initiation at rRNA operons. (asm.org)
  • Ray and Igoshin began investigating operons in late 2009 to determine whether their evolution might have been influenced by the "noisy" nature of biochemical signals that regulate bacterial gene transcription. (rice.edu)
  • Regulation of transcription of the Escherichia coli moe operon, which codes for proteins connecting molybdate metabolism, molybdopterin synthesis, and apomolybdoenzyme synthesis, was investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molybdate-dependent transcription of hyc and nar operons of Escherichia coli requires MoeA protein and ModE-molybdate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A single transcription factor controls this operon, which contains five genes necessary to produce bioluminescence. (dnatube.com)
  • Khmel, I. 2004-10-16 00:00:00 The level of transcription from the promoter of the microcin C51 operon (P mcc ) depends on the growth phase of Escherichia colicells: transcription proceeds with low efficiency at the exponential phase of growth and with higher efficiency when growth of cells is delayed during entry into the stationary phase. (deepdyve.com)
  • Originally, operons were thought to exist solely in prokaryotes (which includes organelles like plastids that are derived from bacteria), but since the discovery of the first operons in eukaryotes in the early 1990s, more evidence has arisen to suggest they are more common than previously assumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lac operon is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and some other enteric bacteria. (primidi.com)
  • One of the best studied cases is the lac operon in bacteria that contains three genes, lacZ, lacY, and lacA, that encode the enzymes necessary for the metabolism of lactose, along with the promoter, operator, and terminator sequences that regulate the expression of the lac genes. (jove.com)
  • Complete and reliable operon database covering 2072 bacteria genomes and with overall accuracy of ~90% evaluated by Brouwer (2008) on Brief Bioinformatics . (uga.edu)
  • An operon is generally common in prokaryotes (the bacteria) and less common, although existent, in eukaryotes (fern). (biology-online.org)
  • If it was another bacteria that you were comparing it to, then chances are likely that the operon exists because of HGT (Horizontal gene transfer) between bacteria. (biology-online.org)
  • Genes encoding the 5S, 16S, and 23S rRNAs are typically organized into an operon in members of the domain Bacteria . (asm.org)
  • For example, the pathogenic bacteria Rickettsia prowazekii ( 2 ) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( 4 ) have one rRNA operon, while the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli ( 12 ) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( 1 ) each possess seven copies per genome. (asm.org)
  • However, the short doubling time observed for certain bacteria with a single rRNA operon ( 37 ) and the marginal impact of rRNA operon inactivation on maximal growth rate ( 8 , 27 ) suggest that the capacity for rapid growth is not the sole determinant of rRNA operon copy number. (asm.org)
  • The results indicate an origin and early evolution of MerA among thermophilic bacteria and an overall increase in the complexity of mer operons through evolutionary time, suggesting continual gene recruitment and evolution leading to an improved efficiency and functional potential of the Mer detoxification system. (frontiersin.org)
  • So they hypothesized that operons play a role in helping bacteria deal with these "noisy" conditions. (rice.edu)
  • Analysis of closely related organisms among the Bacteria at various phylogenetic nodes reveals many examples of operon scission, gene dispersal, gene fusion, gene scrambling, and gene loss from which the direction of evolutionary events can be deduced. (asm.org)
  • Two milestone evolutionary events have been mapped to the 16S rRNA tree of Bacteria, one splitting the operon in two, and the other rejoining it by gene fusion. (asm.org)
  • In bacteria, expression from amino acid biosynthetic operons is transcriptionally controlled by two main mechanisms with principally different modes of action. (diva-portal.org)
  • whereas operons contain a set of genes regulated by the same operator, regulons contain a set of genes under regulation by a single regulatory protein, and stimulons contain a set of genes under regulation by a single cell stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are now many examples of eukaryotic gene clusters that contain functionally related but non-homologous genes and that represent functional gene organizations with operon-like features (physical clustering and co-regulation). (springer.com)
  • These gene clusters therefore represent functional gene organizations with operon-like features (physical clustering and co-regulation), although the genes are not usually transcribed as a single mRNA as is the case in prokaryotes. (springer.com)
  • Both a heat shock promoter and inverted repeats may be relevant to the transcriptional regulation of the groESL operon in P. gingivalis. (nih.gov)
  • Gene regulation of the lac operon was the first genetic regulatory mechanism to be understood clearly and is one of the foremost examples of prokaryotic gene regulation. (primidi.com)
  • The concept of an operon as part of the theory of genetic organization and regulation was advanced in 1961 by the French scientists F. Jacob and J. Monod, on the basis of experiments with the synthesis of inducible enzymes in Escherichia coli mutants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 7. In your own words, explain the mechanism by which regulation of E. coli trp operon gene expression responds to levels of tryptophan in growth medium. (essaytown.com)
  • What are the similarities and differences compared to lac operon regulation? (essaytown.com)
  • In addition to MerA, mer operons encode for proteins involved in regulation, Hg binding, and organomercury degradation. (frontiersin.org)
  • A chimeric protein consisting of the amino-terminal 44 amino acids of E. coli AccB fused to the carboxyl-terminal biotinylation domain of B. subtilis AccB complemented AccB activity and caused negative regulation of the accBC operon. (illinois.edu)
  • Transcriptional activity of the accBC operon in this strain shows an absence of growth-rate dependent regulation. (illinois.edu)
  • We subsequently use this framework to demonstrate how stochasticity generates complex behavior and phenotypic heterogeneity in the case of an artificial lac operon genetic network, characteristic of positive feedback regulation. (rice.edu)
  • Studies on regulation of the cad operon were performed using lac fusion techniques. (rice.edu)
  • Regulation of the molybdate transport operon, modABCD, of Escherichia coli in response to molybdate availability. (semanticscholar.org)
  • What is Positive Regulation of Lac Operon? (preservearticles.com)
  • The gab operon has been characterized in Escherichia coli and significant homologies for the enzymes have been found in organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rats and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This workbook models lac operon function in a partial diploid E. coli . (maa.org)
  • The first operon to be described was the lac operon in E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "operon" was coined by Jacob and Monod [ 3 , 4 , 5 ], who characterized the first defined classical operon, the lac operon, in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Esimene kirjeldatud operon oli soolekepikese E. coli lac -operon , mis sisaldab laktoosi lagundamiseks vajalike ensüümide geene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an operon that is on the E. Coli that is part of the E. Coli genome, and just in this diagram, the way it's drawn, it would be sitting, it would be sitting right over here. (khanacademy.org)
  • The proposed method is examined on 683 known operons of Escherichia coli K12 and an accuracy of 85.9987% is obtained. (springer.com)
  • We describe several new vectors for the construction of operon and protein fusions to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. (nih.gov)
  • In Halobacterium NRC-1 and in Helicobacterpylori, our method correctly infers that genes in operons are separated by shorter distances than they are in E.coli, and its predictions using distance alone are more accurate than distance-only predictions trained on a database of E.coli transcripts. (unt.edu)
  • We were talking about the Lac Operon in my AP Biology class the other day and I learned that it is in the E. coli genome, not in the human genome, so how does lactose intolerance work? (blogspot.com)
  • The Biotin Operon of Escherichia coli , p 35-41. (asmscience.org)
  • The genes are arranged in the same order as F1 genes in the Escherichia coli unc operon. (biochemj.org)
  • In E. coli , a positive relationship exists between the number of rRNA operons inactivated and the time required to increase growth in response to added resources ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • 8 ) suggested that E. coli maintains seven rRNA operons due to selective pressure on the ability to adapt quickly to environmental conditions. (asm.org)
  • Burada açıklanan yöntem, E. yeniden dizayn oluşmaktadır Güçlü ve metalden-overinducible promotörün kontrolü altında curli genlerin en az sayıda montaj göre, bakteriyel yapışmayı ve bunun sonucunda elde görüntülenmesi ve miktarlarının coli içinde yapışma özellikleri. (jove.com)
  • To further test the idea, Igoshin and Ray examined the operon organization of the E. coli genome. (rice.edu)
  • The nucleotide sequence of a 6.5 kilobasepair chromosomal DNA fragment encoding the anaerobic dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) reductase operon of Escherichia coli has been determined. (epfl.ch)
  • Repression of the Escherichia coli modABCD (molybdate transport) operon by ModE. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Studied the organization and control of the lac operon in E. coli. (slideserve.com)
  • When glucose is absent, the levels of cAMP in E. coli increase and CRP binds to cAMP.So, the CRP-cAMP complex binds to the lactose operon. (slideserve.com)
  • Schematic representation of the organization of the lpf operon in the chromosome of E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. (asm.org)
  • The EHEC O157:H7 lpf operon (top) is compared with (from top down) the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium lpf operon and the fim operons in E. coli and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. (asm.org)
  • Our phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene content of this operon is variable but that the dinB and the yafP genes are conserved in the majority of E. coli natural isolates. (nih.gov)
  • Plasmids pAB7, pJNK3 and pJNK4 containing Escherichia coli cs ( gltA ), NADH insensitive cs ( gltA1 ), and citrate operon consisting of gltA1 gene along with Salmonella typhimurium Na + dependent citrate transporter ( citC ) gene under constitutive lac promoter were constructed in broad host range plasmid pUCPM18-Km r . (springer.com)
  • Operons occur primarily in prokaryotes but also in some eukaryotes, including nematodes such as C. elegans and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreno-Hagelsieb, G., Collado-Vides, J.: A powerful non-homology method for the prediction of operons in prokaryotes. (springer.com)
  • Prokaryotes can control gene expression through operons-DNA sequences consisting of regulatory elements and clustered, functionally related protein-coding genes. (jove.com)
  • Dear, you are correct that prokaryotes and eukaryotes having different mechanism but as far reported saccharomyces cerevisiae having similarity with plant systen and this Ars operon is reported in saccharomyces cerevisiae also. (biology-online.org)
  • There's never been a definitive explanation for why nature would preferentially select for operons in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes," said Igoshin, associate professor of bioengineering at Rice. (rice.edu)
  • The seven conserved enzymatic domains required for tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis are encoded in seven genetic regions that are organized differently (whole-pathway operons, multiple partial-pathway operons, and dispersed genes) in prokaryotes. (asm.org)
  • Operons concerned with Trp biosynthesis in prokaryotes have been in a dynamic state of flux. (asm.org)
  • Such whole-pathway operons are broadly distributed among prokaryotes. (asm.org)
  • This method exploits the fact that the rRNA operon in most prokaryotes contains both the 16S and the 23S genes in a determined order, close to each other. (diva-portal.org)
  • In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • An operon is made up of several structural genes arranged under a common promoter and regulated by a common operator. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the structural genes of an operon are turned ON or OFF together, due to a single promoter and operator upstream to them, but sometimes more control over the gene expression is needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • An operon is made up of 3 basic DNA components: Promoter - a nucleotide sequence that enables a gene to be transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • And just as a reminder, an operon is a combination of a set of genes, as well as the regulatory DNA sequences for that set of genes, in particular you have the promoter, you have the operator right over here. (khanacademy.org)
  • Now a little bit of background first: An operon is a unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes that are under control of a single regulatory signal, otherwise known as a promoter. (khanacademy.org)
  • 3279415 ). In the absence of arabinose, AraC binds to the araO2 and araI1 half-sites in the promoter region of the araBAD operon, leading to the formation of a DNA loop that blocks access of RNA polymerase to the promoter. (uniprot.org)
  • Each operon is a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence that contains at least two regulatory sites, the promoter and the operator, and the structural genes that code for specific proteins (see illustration). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The promoter ( p ) site is the location at which ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase binds to the operon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The number of transcripts that can be initiated at an rRNA operon promoter and the transcriptional rate of RNA polymerase set a maximum rate on the number of ribosomes that can be produced from a single rRNA operon. (asm.org)
  • The nitrogenase activities of the refactored operons were measured as a function of the isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Ptac promoter, and all had varying optima. (openwetware.org)
  • Results suggest that RPOTp represents the principal RNA polymerase for transcribing NEP-controlled mRNA genes during early plant development, while RPOTmp transcribes specifically the rrn operon from the PC promoter during seed imbibition. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Genetic manipulations and transcriptional start point (TSP) analyses showed that the sigB operon is transcribed from at least two differentially controlled promoters: a putative sigma(A)-dependent promoter, termed sigB(p1), giving rise to a 3.6-kb transcript covering sa2059-sa2058-rsbU-rsbV-rsbW-sigB, and a sigma(B)-dependent promoter, sigB(p3), initiating a 1.6-kb transcript covering rsbV-rsbW-sigB. (uzh.ch)
  • TSP and promoter-reporter gene fusion experiments indicated that a third promoter, tentatively termed sigB(p2) and proposed to lead to a 2.5-kb transcript, including rsbU-rsbV-rsbW-sigB, might govern the expression of the sigB operon. (uzh.ch)
  • The functioning of P mcc was studied in cells grown in different media by a single-copy construct, which contained the cloned promoter region of the microcin C51 operon and the promoterless lacoperon. (deepdyve.com)
  • ODB (Operon DataBase) is a database of conserved operons in sequenced genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Operons (clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) are common features of bacterial genomes. (springer.com)
  • Operons (clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) are a well-known feature of prokaryotic genomes. (springer.com)
  • Operon structure is an important organization feature of bacterial genomes. (jcvi.org)
  • We combine comparative genomic measures and the distance separating adjacent genes to predict operons in 124 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. (unt.edu)
  • The prediction of operons is critical to reconstruction of regulatory networks at the whole genome level. (springer.com)
  • Short conserved sequences were found in six intergenic regions of the extended hyp-operon, appearing between 11 and 79 times in the genome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The copy number of rRNA operons per bacterial genome varies from 1 to as many as 15 ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • All 10 rRNA operons have been situated on the genome map of the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. (epfl.ch)
  • The expression of genes in the operon is controlled by three differentially regulated promoters, two of which are controlled by RpoS encoded sigma factor σS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, expression of prokaryotic operons leads to the generation of polycistronic mRNAs, while eukaryotic operons lead to monocistronic mRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of many gene products required during the early stages of Bacillus subtilis sporulation is regulated by sinIR operon proteins. (mendeley.com)
  • The fitness function is created by using intergenic distance of local entropy-minimization, participation of the same metabolic pathway, log-likelihood of COG gene functions and correlation coefficient of microarray expression data, which have been used individually for predicting operons. (springer.com)
  • However, control of gene expression can also occur at the level of translation and the regulatory event is, in general, targeted to the first gene of the operon and propagated to the downstream gene by translational coupling. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of the IF3 operon is regulated by two different control loops acting at the translational level. (pnas.org)
  • The beta-galactosidase activity of the WT strain on nutrient agar plates with glucose or lactose, as assayed using MUG overlays, revealed the suppression of lac operon expression in the presence of glucose and its upregulation in the presence of lactose. (essaytown.com)
  • This is consistent with glucose acting as a suppressor of lac operon expression. (essaytown.com)
  • We have expressed a foreign phycocyanin operon from Synechocystis sp, strain 6701 in the 4R strain and complemented the phycocyanin-minus phenotype, Complementation occurs because the foreign phycocyanin alpha and beta subunits assemble with endogenous phycobilisome components, The phycocyanin alpha subunit that is normally absent in the 4R strain can be rescued by heterologous assembly as well, Expression of the Synechocystis sp. (columbia.edu)
  • The expression of constitutively expressed genes can vary up to fivefold based on chromosomal location, but it is not clear what level of variation would occur in naturally regulated operons. (asm.org)
  • The distance from OriC had only a small effect on growth rate, consistent with this operon having the natural ability to upregulate expression and compensate for reduced gene dosage. (asm.org)
  • These recoded genes are then organized into artificial operons (grouped based on required expression level) with spacer sequences physically separating each gene. (openwetware.org)
  • Expression levels of each operon are controlled by synthetic ribosome binding sites (RBSs). (openwetware.org)
  • This information guided the grouping of genes into operons such that desired expression levels were achieved. (openwetware.org)
  • We have analyzed the expression of the vanA operon in the three clinical isolates. (asm.org)
  • Expression of the vanA operon is regulated by two genes, vanR and vanS , located upstream from vanH that form a two-component regulatory system ( 5 , 7 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Expression of the moe operon was independent of genes coding for molybdate transport and Mo-cofactor biosynthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This consequence leads to an inhibition of expression of the structural genes of the lac operon. (preservearticles.com)
  • Since this strategy evolved as a modification of the highly conserved eukaryotic RNA splicing machinery, studying the diversity of eukaryotic operon gene expression mechanisms can tell us about the functional evolutionary constraints that exist within the eukaryotic cell. (findaphd.com)
  • Many of the eukaryote groups that employ operons as an essential gene expression strategy contain important human, animal and plant pathogens. (findaphd.com)
  • Genetics of the nisin operon and the sucrose nisin transposon Tn5276. (wur.nl)
  • Operons that embrace a complete complement of pathway-specific structural genes (whole-pathway operons), such as the ones encoding all the enzymes of tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis or histidine biosynthesis, have a classical status in both biochemistry and molecular genetics that extends far beyond understanding these pathways per se. (asm.org)
  • DOOR: a database for prokaryotic operons. (pseudomonas.com)
  • A comparative bioinformatics evaluation of the conservation and organization of the genes of Trp biosynthesis in prokaryotic operons should serve as an excellent model for assessing the feasibility of predicting the evolutionary histories of genes and operons associated with other biochemical pathways. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, it is not possible to talk of a general regulatory mechanism, because different operons have different mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the minimal R plasmid umu-complementing (rum) region revealed an operon of two genes, rumA(R391) and rumB(R391), with an upstream regulatory signal strongly resembling LexA-binding sites. (asm.org)
  • In prokaryotic cells, an operon is a group of genetic sequences that contain regulatory elements and several protein-coding genes, the structural genes, that are transcribed together. (jove.com)
  • The lac transcriptional regulatory system therefore represents a positive feedback loop, such that increasing concentrations of lactose will tend to maximize lac operon transcriptional activity. (essaytown.com)
  • The findings from the simulations therefore suggested that operons could reduce the detrimental effects of noisy signals in some gene regulatory networks, but not others. (rice.edu)
  • These comparisons suggest that present-day trp operons that possess finely tuned regulatory features are under strong positive selection and are able to resist the disruptive evolutionary events that may be experienced by simpler, poorly regulated operons. (asm.org)
  • The 1965 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to François Jacob, André Michel Lwoff and Jacques Monod for their discoveries concerning the operon and virus synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase moves down the operon catalyzing the synthesis of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule with a sequence that is complementary to DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Eurofins MWG Operon, based in Ebersberg, Germany, and a member of the Eurofins Group, is one of the leading global providers of DNA sequencing services, DNA synthesis products and bioinformatics services for academic and industrial research. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Another important difference is the trp operon encodes the genes necessary for tryptophan synthesis, rather than its metabolism . (essaytown.com)
  • The enzymes mediating histidine utilization, coded by the hut genes, in Salmonella typhimurium are synthesized from two closely-linked operons. (pnas.org)
  • We translocated the Salmonella tufB operon to four locations across the chromosome. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of a possible multienzyme complex encoded by mother cell metabolic gene (mmg) operon of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. (uncg.edu)
  • Genetic organization in different S. pneumoniae mutant strains used for studying the vic operon. (asm.org)
  • Gene organization in the vic operon. (asm.org)
  • The organization of four vic operon homologues-those of S. pyogenes , B. subtilis , S. aureus , and E. faecalis -is shown at bottom. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional organization of the vic operon. (asm.org)
  • These comparisons should provide a better understanding of possible explanations for differences in operon organization in different organisms at a genomics level. (asm.org)
  • Today, the operon is simply defined as a cluster of genes transcribed into a single mRNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • An operon contains one or more structural genes which are generally transcribed into one polycistronic mRNA (a single mRNA molecule that codes for more than one protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the definition of an operon does not require the mRNA to be polycistronic, though in practice, it usually is. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes within the lac operon ( lacZYA ) are transcribed as a single mRNA. (springer.com)
  • A pseudoknot formed by a long-range interaction in the mRNA of the initiation factor 3 (IF3) operon is involved in the translational repression of the gene encoding ribosomal protein L35 by another ribosomal protein, L20. (pnas.org)
  • The response regulator, PhoP, and its cognate histidine sensor kinase, PhoR, are encoded by the phoPR operon that is transcribed as a 2.7-kb bicistronic mRNA. (asm.org)
  • So, basically, genes in an operon are expressed either altogether or not at all. (khanacademy.org)
  • 2. What is the correct order of genes in an operon? (study.com)
  • And you can see where the name lac operon comes from because it is named for the inducer molecule for the operon. (khanacademy.org)
  • Well, in that case, the transport of glucose actually blocks the transport of the inducer, the lac operon, the lactose, in a process that's called inducer exclusion. (khanacademy.org)
  • Inducible operons, such as the bacterial lac operon, are normally "off" but will turn "on" in the presence of a small molecule called an inducer (e.g., allolactose). (jove.com)
  • Also does that make allolactose(lac operon inducer) a secondary sugar? (biology-online.org)
  • that secondary sugars might be sugars the require cAMP and CRP to be the effector of the operon(along with the operon inducer of course). (biology-online.org)
  • Mediates the mercuric-dependent induction of mercury resistance operon. (uniprot.org)
  • Why is it that structural genes of the lac operon can not be transcribed without the presence of lactose? (experts123.com)
  • DVU0531 hmc operon protein 6 [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. (nih.gov)
  • A mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus was identified in which an operon encoding a binding-protein-dependent transporter was interrupted by Tn5 transposition. (nih.gov)
  • To assess the function of this putative binding-protein-dependent transport system, a mutant was constructed in which most of the bztABCD operon was deleted and replaced by an antibiotic-resistance marker. (nih.gov)
  • The sixth gene of the R. blasticus atp operon, urf6, shows very little sequence homology to any protein of known structure or function. (rcsb.org)
  • strain 6701 cpcBA operon in the wild-type Synechocystis sp, strain 6803 was also examined and showed that the foreign phycocyanin can compete with the endogenous protein for assembly into phycobilisomes. (columbia.edu)
  • The rRNA operon transcript is processed enzymatically to yield mature rRNAs that not only bind ribosomal proteins during assembly of the ribosome but also regulate translation of the ribosomal protein mRNAs ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Analysis of green fluorescent protein reporters indicates that this operon is expressed specifically in proheterocysts and heterocysts. (eurekamag.com)
  • Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the wide variation observed in rRNA operon copy number. (asm.org)
  • The result is that increasing tryptophan levels suppresses trp operon transcriptional activity via increased suppressor activity. (essaytown.com)
  • In addition, five upstream ORFs located in between hupSL, encoding the small and large subunits of the uptake hydrogenase, and the hyp-operon, and two downstream ORFs from the hyp-genes were shown to be part of the same transcript unit. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The gab operon consists of three structural genes: gabT : encodes a GABA transaminase that produces succinic semialdehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, a multi-approach guided genetic algorithm is developed to prediction of operon. (springer.com)
  • Genetic characterization of the rumAB(R391) operon revealed that in recA+ and recA1730 backgrounds, the rumAB(R391) operon was phenotypically indistinguishable from mucAB. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this work is two-fold: (1) to develop a novel mathematical and computational framework that incorporates the major sources of cell population heterogeneity and (2) to use this framework to demonstrate the effect of stochasticity on cell population heterogeneity in an artificial lac operon genetic network. (rice.edu)
  • Low-level glycopeptide resistance of S. aureus PA-VRSA is thus likely due to instability of the genetic element, plasmid or transposon, carrying the vanA operon associated with a longer lag phase before growth resumes after induction by vancomycin. (asm.org)
  • Monod and Jacob's lac operon turned out to be the first of many bacterial operons. (rice.edu)
  • The lac operon uses a two-part control mechanism to ensure that the cell expends energy producing the enzymes encoded by the lac operon only when necessary. (primidi.com)
  • The products of these genes mmg A, B, C, D, E and yqiQ in mmg operon share sequence homology with enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and methyl citric acid cycle. (uncg.edu)
  • In new research published online this week in PLOS Computational Biology, Rice's Oleg Igoshin and MD Anderson's Christian Ray offer a possible explanation for the existence of jointly controlled clusters of genes called operons, which are found in bacterial chromosomes but not in those of higher order organisms like humans. (rice.edu)
  • Molecular Biology L1:The LAC Operon Operon - what is it? (slideserve.com)
  • We will use forced evolution in the laboratory to select for increases in the efficiency operon processing, exploiting synthetic biology approaches in a yeast strain expressing nematode RNA factors that we have developed to specifically study this problem. (findaphd.com)
  • Now, the operon that I've drawn here happens to represent the lac operon, and the lac operon is an example of an inducible set of genes which are responsible for importing and breaking down the sugar molecule lactose to use as a source of energy. (khanacademy.org)
  • Operons are usually either inducible or repressible. (jove.com)
  • At the top of this page is a plasmid map for one of the many lac-operon based bacterial plasmids used for determining if the plasmid has successfully incorporated the DNA we're trying to insert. (google.com)
  • Recently, we have identified three additional umu-complementing operons from IncJ plasmid R391 and IncL/M plasmids R446b and R471a. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the rumAB(R391) operon appears to possess characteristics that are reminiscent of both chromosome and plasmid-encoded umu-like operons. (asm.org)
  • However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. (psu.edu)
  • Transcriptional analysis of the groESL operon from Porphyromonas gingivalis. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptional analysis of the groESL operon from Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the obligative anaerobic oral microorganisms implicated in adult periodontitis, was performed. (nih.gov)
  • Broad-range PCR primers were used to amplify part of the groESL operon of the canine pathogen Ehrlichia ewingii , recently recognized as a human pathogen, and the murine pathogen Ehrlichia muris . (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, it is easy to predict operons and makes the prediction ability stronger by using these four scoring criteria. (springer.com)
  • An intriguing example of parallel evolution at the molecular level is the occurrence of eukaryotic operons. (findaphd.com)
  • The RNA produced by eukaryotic operons must be processed into single-gene transcripts for translation in the cytoplasm. (findaphd.com)
  • Cloning and sequence analysis of the wild-type operon revealed a four-gene cluster with similarities to genes encoding periplasmic binding proteins (BztA), integral membrane proteins (BztB and BztC), and ATP-binding proteins (BztD). (nih.gov)
  • This operon, also referred to as the infC - rpmI - rplT operon ( 9 ) or the IF3-L35-L20 operon ( 10 ), contains the infC , rpmI , and rplT genes encoding translation IF3 and the two ribosomal proteins, L35 and L20. (pnas.org)
  • The F1-ATP synthase atp operon in the proteobacterium Rhodobacter blasticus contains six open reading frames, encoding six hypothetical proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • Concomitant repression of the teichoic acid operons ( tagAB and tagDEF ) and induction of teichuronic acid operon ( tuaA to tuaH ) conserves phosphate by bringing about the controlled replacement of the phosphate-containing cell wall polymer teichoic acid with the non-phosphate-containing teichuronic acid ( 21 , 24 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences and the gene order of related fimbrial operons. (asm.org)
  • Hi, Does anybody know a good source that describes how to create artificial operon? (protocol-online.org)
  • Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 mM and 351 mM P, respectively, in alfisol. (psu.edu)
  • Thus the study demonstrates that artificial citrate operon in H. seropedicae Z67 enhances phosphate solubilization and plant growth promotion abilities. (springer.com)
  • The phoPR operon is transcribed from two σ A -dependent promoters, P 1 and P 2 . (asm.org)
  • The biotin operon is transcribed bidirectionally, from overlapping promoters controlled by the same operator. (asmscience.org)
  • In order to combine each operon, the Ptac promoters were replaced with T7 promoters with strengths on the same order of magnitude as the predetermined optima. (openwetware.org)
  • For example, bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons are always "on" because rRNAs are constantly required for translation. (jove.com)
  • The complete 7,631-bp nucleotide sequence of the putative fos operon was determined and consists of fosABCDXE genes, which encode a putative fructose/mannose PTS (FosABCDX) and a β-fructosidase precursor (FosE). (unl.edu)
  • Increase your understanding of operons by reviewing the lesson called Operon: Definition & Sequencing. (study.com)
  • October, 2011 Eurofins MWG Operon and Integrated Genomics have announced a co-operation agreement to combine their expertise in sequencing and analysis services for microbial, fungal, and algal organisms. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The aims of the present study were to identify clinical isolates of multidrug resistant (MDR) and susceptible coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), ( n =76) to the species level by rpoB amplicon sequencing and to detect and compare the presence of the atlE and aap genes and the ica operon between MDR (n=26) and susceptible ( n =27) Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. (diva-portal.org)
  • Combining this with PacBio long molecule sequencing, we can now generate amplicon containing the 16S-ITS-23S operon, allowing for a stronger phylogenetic signal. (diva-portal.org)
  • rRNA genes often exist in operons that have been found in a range of eukaryotes including chordates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The operon also contains two leaky transcriptional terminators, t 1 , located at the end of infC , and t 2 , located at the end of the operon. (pnas.org)
  • Ecoli and Sachharomyces and i would like to know if this operon is present in another system i.e. a fern or not,is this possible?bcoz i dont know the sequence of fern, its not reported till now. (biology-online.org)
  • The translated amino acid sequence of the groESL heat shock operon gene fragment is identical among E. equi , the HGE agent, and E. phagocytophila , with the exception of the northern Californian equine CASOLJ isolate. (asm.org)
  • The sequence of about 5 kb of the cadBA operon (3.7 kb) and its flanking regions has been determined. (rice.edu)
  • I'm studying for the final tomorrow and we are focusing a lot on the lac operon series and some of the metabolic processes of sugars. (biology-online.org)
  • Since gallactose is what the cell wants the most then the other metabolic operons(like lactose) should be off so any sugar that isn't gallactose is secondary? (biology-online.org)
  • When there is inadequate supply of carbon resources, B. subtilis undergoes a process of sporulation.The mother cell metabolic gene (mmg) operon is expressed at early stages of sporulation. (uncg.edu)
  • The first operon codes for various products, including a special T7 RNA polymerase which can bind to and transcribe the second operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is at this site that molecules called repressors can bind to the DNA and block RNA polymerase from transcribing the DNA, thus shutting off the operon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • yafP is part of an operon also containing the dinB gene coding for DNA Polymerase IV (PolIV). (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of strains containing BiofilmReg operons demonstrated evidence for earlier inheritance of a three-component operon. (hindawi.com)
  • The operon can also be extended to the upstream gene, thrS , encoding threonyl-tRNA synthetase. (pnas.org)
  • A third TSP was identified 45 bp upstream of asr0689, the first of five ORFs in this operon. (biomedsearch.com)