Neuregulin-1: A peptide factor originally identified by its ability to stimulate the phosphorylation the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). It is a ligand for the erbB-3 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-3) and the erbB-4 receptor. Variant forms of NEUREGULIN-1 occur through alternative splicing of its mRNA.Neuregulins: A family of peptides originally found as factors that stimulate the phosphorylation of the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTORS, ERBB-2). Multiple variant forms of NEUREGULINS occur due to alternative splicing of their mRNAs. The NEUREGULINS include products from the three known genes (NGR1; NGR2 and NGR3).Receptor, erbB-3: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUREGULINS. It has extensive homology to and can heterodimerize with the EGF RECEPTOR and the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR. Overexpression of the erbB-3 receptor is associated with TUMORIGENESIS.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Genes, erbB: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbB) originally isolated from, or related to, the avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These genes code for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors which is important in the control of normal cell proliferation and in the pathogenesis of human cancer. The genes include erbB-1 (GENES, ERBB-1), erbB-2 (GENES, ERBB-2), and erbB-3, all of which show abnormalities of expression in various human neoplasms.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Oncogene Proteins v-erbB: Transforming proteins encoded by erbB oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The protein is a truncated form of the EGF receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR) whose kinase domain is constitutively activated by deletion of the ligand-binding domain.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Oncogene Protein p21(ras): Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Oncogene Protein p55(v-myc): Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Oncogene Protein gp140(v-fms): Transforming glycoprotein coded by the fms oncogene from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SM-FeSV). The oncogene protein v-fms lacks sequences, which, in the highly homologous proto-oncogene protein c-fms (CSF-1 receptor), normally serve to regulate its tyrosine kinase activity. The missing sequences in v-fms mimic the effect of ligand and lead to constitutive cell growth. The protein gp120(v-fms) is post-translationally modified to generate gp140(v-fms).Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Oncogene Proteins v-myb: Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oncogene Protein v-maf: An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Oncogene Proteins v-raf: A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Oncogene Proteins v-abl: Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.Oncogene Proteins v-sis: Transforming proteins coded by sis oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-sis is related to its interaction with the PDGF receptor and also its ability to alter other transcription factors.Oncogene Protein v-crk: A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Oncogene Proteins v-erbA: Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.QuinazolinesTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oncogene Proteins v-rel: Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Oncogene Protein p65(gag-jun): Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Oncogene Proteins v-mos: Transforming proteins coded by mos oncogenes. The v-mos proteins were originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV).Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Mucin-4: A transmembrane mucin that is found in a broad variety of epithelial tissue. Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. Mucin-4 is a heterodimer of alpha and beta chains. The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Oncogene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Swiercz JM, Kuner R, Offermanns S (2004). "Plexin-B1/RhoGEF-mediated RhoA activation involves the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB ... Oncogene. 23 (30): 5131-7. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207650. PMID 15184888. ... Vikis HG, Li W, He Z, Guan KL (Nov 2000). "The semaphorin receptor plexin-B1 specifically interacts with active Rac in a ligand ... Oinuma I, Ishikawa Y, Katoh H, Negishi M (2004). "The Semaphorin 4D receptor Plexin-B1 is a GTPase activating protein for R-Ras ...
The ErbB family consists of four plasma membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases. One of which is erbB-2, and the other members ... "Tyrosine kinase receptor with extensive homology to EGF receptor shares chromosomal location with neu oncogene". Science. 230 ( ... 4:4483 Receptor, erbB-2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 ( ...
... receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.468 -- receptor, igf type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.484 -- receptor, insulin MeSH ... receptor, fibroblast growth factor, type 4 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.124 -- proto-oncogene proteins c-kit MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor, epidermal growth factor MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.350 -- receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.360 -- ... receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.370 -- receptors, fibroblast growth factor MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.370.500 ...
1994). "Characterization of mouse non-receptor tyrosine kinase gene, HYL". Oncogene. 9 (11): 3371-4. PMID 7936664. Maruyama K, ... 2002). "Csk homologous kinase (CHK) and ErbB-2 interactions are directly coupled with CHK negative growth regulatory function ... Yamashita, H; Avraham S; Jiang S; Dikic I; Avraham H (May 1999). "The Csk homologous kinase associates with TrkA receptors and ... 1999). "The Csk homologous kinase associates with TrkA receptors and is involved in neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells". J. Biol. ...
... a feedback inhibitor of ErbB receptors, is subjected to an integrated transcriptional and post-translational control". Oncogene ... ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERRFI1 gene. MIG6 is a Cytoplasmic protein ... "Entrez Gene: ERRFI1 ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor 1". Benzinger, Anne; Muster Nemone; Koch Heike B; Yates John R; Hermeking ... 2003). "Feedback inhibition by RALT controls signal output by the ErbB network". Oncogene. 22 (27): 4221-4234. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
1994). "Characterization of mouse non-receptor tyrosine kinase gene, HYL.". Oncogene 9 (11): 3371-4. PMID 7936664. CS1 ... 2002). "Csk homologous kinase (CHK) and ErbB-2 interactions are directly coupled with CHK negative growth regulatory function ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... 1999). "The Csk homologous kinase associates with TrkA receptors and is involved in neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells.". J. Biol ...
... a novel growth factor that acts through the ErbB-4 receptor tyrosine kinase". Oncogene. 18 (17): 2681-9. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor ... ErbB-3 and ErbB-4". Oncogene. 15 (23): 2841-8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201458. PMID 9419975. Check date values in: ,year= / ,date= ... Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ERBB4 gene. Alternatively spliced ...
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3, also known as HER3 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 3), is a membrane bound ... "Tyrosine kinase receptor with extensive homology to EGF receptor shares chromosomal location with neu oncogene". Science. 230 ( ... ErbB3 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The kinase-impaired ... Epidermal growth factor receptor family Epidermal growth factor receptor Receptor tyrosine-kinases GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... is derived from the name of a viral oncogene to which these receptors are homologous: erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene. ... The ErbB protein family consists of 4 members ErbB-1, also named epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ErbB-2, also named ... Excessive ErbB signaling is associated with the development of a wide variety of types of solid tumor. ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 are ... The figure below shows the tridimensional structure of the ErbB family proteins, using the pdb files 1NQL (ErbB-1), 1S78 (ErbB- ...
... supports existence of molecular apocrine breast cancer with a role for androgen receptor and implies interactions with ErbB ... Oncogene. 28 (29): 2634-42. doi:10.1038/onc.2009.126. PMID 19483726. Sanga S, Broom BM, Cristini V, Edgerton ME (2009). "Gene ... It has been suggested that GATA-3 is regulated in CD4+ T cells at a transcriptional level through the IL-4 receptor, as well as ... Marine J, Winoto A (Aug 1991). "The human enhancer-binding protein Gata3 binds to several T-cell receptor regulatory elements ...
"Repression of androgen receptor mediated transcription by the ErbB-3 binding protein, Ebp1". Oncogene. 21 (36): 5609-18. doi: ... "Repression of androgen receptor mediated transcription by the ErbB-3 binding protein, Ebp1". Oncogene. 21 (36): 5609-18. doi: ... Xia X, Cheng A, Lessor T, Zhang Y, Hamburger AW (May 2001). "Ebp1, an ErbB-3 binding protein, interacts with Rb and affects Rb ... Xia X, Cheng A, Lessor T, Zhang Y, Hamburger AW (May 2001). "Ebp1, an ErbB-3 binding protein, interacts with Rb and affects Rb ...
Recent insights into the activation of EGF/ErbB receptors". Mol. Cell. 12 (3): 541-52. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00350-2. PMID ... Oncogene. 18 (39): 5363-72. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202909. PMID 10498890. Guo J, Kleeff J, Zhao Y, Li J, Giese T, Esposito I, ... It is a TGFβ type 1 receptor antagonist. It blocks TGFβ1 and activin associating with the receptor, blocking access to SMAD2. ... "Smurf1 interacts with transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor through Smad7 and induces receptor degradation". J. Biol ...
Zhang H, Berezov A, Wang Q, Zhang G, Drebin J, Murali R, Greene MI (August 2007). "ErbB receptors: from oncogenes to targeted ... The epidermal growth factor receptor is a member of the ErbB family of receptors, a subfamily of four closely related receptor ... The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members ... Olayioye MA, Beuvink I, Horsch K, Daly JM, Hynes NE (June 1999). "ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription ...
androgen receptor binding. • identical protein binding. • enzyme binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • importin-alpha ... Xia X, Cheng A, Lessor T, Zhang Y, Hamburger AW (May 2001). "Ebp1, an ErbB-3 binding protein, interacts with Rb and affects Rb ... Cells respond to stress in the form of DNA damage, activated oncogenes, or sub-par growing conditions, and can enter a ... androgen receptor signaling pathway. • chromatin remodeling. • negative regulation of smoothened signaling pathway. • negative ...
Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M (2005). "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Molecular Systems Biology ... Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 22, 2007, pp. 3227-3239., doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210414. 4. Yao, Guang, et al. "A Bistable Rb-E2F Switch ... Receptor-linked tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are activated by extracellular ligands. ... The signal starts when a signaling molecule binds to the receptor on the cell surface and ends when the DNA in the nucleus ...
Abl gene Androgen receptor Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor ARID4A Aryl hydrocarbon receptor BRCA1 BRF1 C-jun C-Raf ... Xia X, Cheng A, Lessor T, Zhang Y, Hamburger AW (May 2001). "Ebp1, an ErbB-3 binding protein, interacts with Rb and affects Rb ... Cells in response to stress in the form of DNA damage, activated oncogenes, or sub-par growing conditions can enter a ... Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (June 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9/cyclinT2 complex". Oncogene. ...
... odorant receptor - olfaction - olfactory receptor neuron - Oligopeptide - oncogene - oncogene protein - oncogene proteins V-abl ... epidermal growth factor receptor - Epidiorite - epigenetics - Epinephrine - equine gonadotropin - erbA gene - erbB gene - erbB- ... proto-oncogene - proto-oncogene proteins - proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene ... fusion oncogene protein - G protein - G protein-coupled receptor - G3P - GABA - GABA receptor - GABA-A receptor - gag-onc ...
Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M. "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Molecular Systems Biology. 1: ... Oncogene. 9 (6): 1661-8. PMID 8183561. Pandey A, Duan H, Di Fiore PP, Dixit VM (Sep 1995). "The Ret receptor protein tyrosine ... EPH receptor A2, ETV6, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Erythropoietin receptor, FRS2, Fas ligand, GAB1, GAB2, Glycoprotein ... Olayioye MA, Graus-Porta D, Beerli RR, Rohrer J, Gay B, Hynes NE (Sep 1998). "ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 acquire distinct signaling ...
... oncogene proteins v-erbb MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750.887 - oncogene proteins v-fos MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750.900 - oncogene ... receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.800 - receptor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.830 - ... oncogene proteins v-erba MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.883 - oncogene proteins v-erbb MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.887 - oncogene ... oncogene proteins v-erba MeSH D12.776.964.775.750.883 - oncogene proteins v-erbb MeSH D12.776.964.775.750.887 - oncogene ...
... has been shown to interact with: ErbB-2 receptor tyrosine kinase MK5 HSPA9 HSPA8, JAK2, and RASA1 ENSG00000103423 GRCh38 ... In neuromuscular junctions, only the short isoform clusters acetylcholine receptors for efficient synaptic transmission. The ... 2002). "Isolation and characterization of a novel gene, hRFI, preferentially expressed in esophageal cancer". Oncogene. 21 (32 ... Oncogene. 29 (8): 1155-66. doi:10.1038/onc.2009.413. PMID 19935715. Elwi, AN; Lee, B; Meijndert, HC; Braun, JE; Kim, SW (August ...
Rozanov DV, Hahn-Dantona E, Strickland DK, Strongin AY (2004). "The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein LRP is ... Oncogene. 22 (30): 4617-26. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206542. PMID 12879005. ... 55 (2): 89-98. doi:10.1002/pros.10194. PMID 12661033. Takino T, Koshikawa N, Miyamori H (2003). "Cleavage of metastasis ... 1354 (2): 159-70. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(97)00120-6. PMID 9396633. Terp GE, Christensen IT, Jørgensen FS (2000). "Structural ...
... has been shown to interact with: EPH receptor B1, Insulin receptor, PTK2, RET proto-oncogene, and Rnd1 Model organisms ... "Analysis of Grb7 recruitment by heregulin-activated erbB receptors reveals a novel target selectivity for erbB3". The Journal ... This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ... Growth factor receptor-bound protein 7, also known as GRB7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRB7 gene. The ...
Jin Cho S, La M, Ahn JK, Meadows GG, Joe CO (May 2001). "Tob-mediated cross-talk between MARCKS phosphorylation and ErbB-2 ... Interactions of this protein with the v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 gene product p185 interferes ... "Tob proteins enhance inhibitory Smad-receptor interactions to repress BMP signaling". Mechanisms of Development. 120 (5): 629- ... Jin Cho S, La M, Ahn JK, Meadows GG, Joe CO (May 2001). "Tob-mediated cross-talk between MARCKS phosphorylation and ErbB-2 ...
... erbb MeSH G14.340.024.340.383.500.791.295.300 --- genes, erbb-1 MeSH G14.340.024.340.383.500.791.295.305 --- genes, erbb-2 MeSH ... t-cell receptor MeSH G14.340.024.340.585.050 --- genes, t-cell receptor alpha MeSH G14.340.024.340.585.080 --- genes, t-cell ... oncogenes MeSH G14.340.024.340.383.500.791 --- proto-oncogenes MeSH G14.340.024.340.383.500.791.100 --- genes, abl MeSH G14.340 ... t-cell receptor delta MeSH G14.340.024.340.585.400 --- genes, t-cell receptor gamma MeSH G14.340.024.340.605 --- genes, viral ...
RTK class I (EGF receptor family) (ErbB family) RTK class II (Insulin receptor family) RTK class III (PDGF receptor family) RTK ... Robinson DR, Wu YM, Lin SF (November 2000). "The protein tyrosine kinase family of the human genome". Oncogene. 19 (49): 5548- ... NGF receptor family) RTK class VIII (HGF receptor family) RTK class IX (Eph receptor family) RTK class X (AXL receptor family) ... RYK receptor family) RTK class XIII (DDR receptor family) RTK class XIV (RET receptor family) RTK class XV (ROS receptor family ...
Receptor tyrosine kinase. *ErbB: HER1/EGFR (Cetuximab. *Panitumumab). *HER2/neu (Trastuzumab. *Trastuzumab emtansine) ... "Oncogene. 27 (34): 4702-11. doi:10.1038/onc.2008.109. PMC 2748240. PMID 18408761.. ... It is mainly used to treat cases of NSCLC that harbour mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.[5] ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ...
Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor type 2 (HER2) is over expressed in 20.0-30.0% of breast cancers and is currently ... Oncogene 19: 6102-6114. * Van der Geer P, Hunter T, Lindberg RA (1994) Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases and their signal ... Yamauchi H, Stearns V, Hayes DF (2001) When is a tumor marker ready for prime time? A case study of c-erbB-2 as a predictive ... Fehm T, Gebauer G, Jäger W (2002) Clinical utility of serial serum c-erbB-2 determinations in the follow-up of breast cancer ...
The HER2 protooncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, p185HER2. The overexpression of p185HER2 has been associated with a ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis * Proto-Oncogene Proteins / immunology* * Receptor, ErbB-2 * Tumor Cells, Cultured ... The HER2 protooncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, p185HER2. The overexpression of p185HER2 has been associated with a ... but had no effect on the growth of colon or gastric adenocarcinomas expressing increased levels of this receptor. The most ...
2011 Apr 14;13(2):R43. doi: 10.1186/bcr2865. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; HER2, proto-oncogene c-ErbB-2; HER3, receptor tyrosine kinase erbB-3. (B) T47-DPBI ... The active form of an upstream regulator of Akt, proto-oncogene c-ErbB-2/receptor tyrosine kinase erbB-3 (HER2/HER3) receptor ... Estrogen receptor β expression decreases Akt signaling in breast cancer cells. (A) T47-DERβ cells were treated for 1 day up to ...
T1 - C-erbB-2 oncogene product expression depends on tumour type and is related to oestrogen receptor and lymph node status in ... C-erbB-2 oncogene product expression depends on tumour type and is related to oestrogen receptor and lymph node status in human ... C-erbB-2 oncogene product expression depends on tumour type and is related to oestrogen receptor and lymph node status in human ... C-erbB-2 oncogene product expression depends on tumour type and is related to oestrogen receptor and lymph node status in human ...
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / physiology * Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics * Receptor, ErbB-2 / immunology* ...
Precleared lysates were transferred to new tubes, and 4 (for BT474) or 10 μl (for HN5) of anti-c-neu Ab-3 (Oncogene Research ... With the exception of ErbB-3, which acts as a noncatalytic partner to other erbB family members, the type I receptors have ... Inhibition of Receptor Autophosphorylation in Cells. The ability of GW2016 to inhibit the activity of EGFR and ErbB-2 in intact ... Receptors were immunoprecipitated using either EGFR or ErbB-2 antibodies and blotted for phosphotyrosine content. Treatment ...
Buy our Recombinant human ErbB 2 (mutated R896 C) protein. Ab207994 is an active protein fragment produced in Baculovirus ... Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2. *V erb b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 ... Recombinant human ErbB 2 (mutated R896 C) protein. See all ErbB 2 proteins and peptides. ... Protein tyrosine kinase that is part of several cell surface receptor complexes, but that apparently needs a coreceptor for ...
Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2 antibody. *V erb b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 ( ... neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog) antibody. *V erb b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 ... Humtsoe JO et al. ErbB3 upregulation by the HNSCC 3D microenvironment modulates cell survival and growth. Oncogene 35:1554-64 ( ... Protein tyrosine kinase that is part of several cell surface receptor complexes, but that apparently needs a coreceptor for ...
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Receptor, erbB-2 / metabolism*. Tumor Cells, Cultured. ... Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB, or HER) family members are essential regulators of cell growth, development and ... EC 2.7.10.1/Receptor, erbB-2; EC 2.7.11.1/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; ... Upon receptor dimerization allosteric interactions regulate the kinase activity in HER-family members that in turn lead to the ...
Proto-oncogene Neu; receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2; TKR1; Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2; v-erb-b2 ... neuroblastoma/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog; NGL; NGLTKR1; p185erbB2; Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-2; ... ErbB2, also called Neu and Her2, is a transmembrane glycoprotein in the ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors for EGF ... neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog); v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/ ...
... termed proto-oncogenes, of transforming genes transduced or activated by transforming retroviruses have been implicated in the ... Close similarity of epidermal growth factor receptor and v-erb-B oncogene protein sequences. Nature 1984; 307: 521-7.PubMed ... The c-fms proto-oncogene product is related to the receptor for the mononuclear phagocytic growth factor, CSF-1. Cell 1985; 41 ... growth factor and hormone receptors (e.g., erbB [13], fms [14], and erbA [15]); (3) intracellular tyrosine (e.g.,src[161) and ...
ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family. [none]. ERBB2. receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2. CD340, HER-2, HER-2/neu, HER2, MLN ... MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. ACTFS, HDMX, hdm2. MET. MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase; ... epidermal growth factor receptor. ERBB, ERBB1, HER1, PIG61, mENA. EIF4EBP1. eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding ... Cbl proto-oncogene B, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. Cbl-b, RNF56. CBLC. Cbl proto-oncogene C, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. CBL-3 ...
Gab1 is required for EGF receptor signaling and the transformation by activated ErbB2. Oncogene. 2003;22:1546-56.CrossRefPubMed ... Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of Gab1 is involved in ErbB-2-mediated mammary tumor progression. ... Nagasawa T. CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4. J Mol Med (Berl). 2014;92(5):433-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The role of Gab family scaffolding adapter proteins in the signal transduction of cytokine and growth factor receptors. Cancer ...
Proto-oncogene Neu; Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2; Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2; v-erb-b2 avian ... cell surface receptor signaling pathway enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway transmembrane receptor protein ... neuroblastoma/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog; NGL; p185erbB2; Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-2; ... ErbB-3 class receptor binding. phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity. protein heterodimerization activity. ...
Oncogenes and proto-oncogenes are DNA sequences that encode factors that drive the cell cycle and include growth factors, their ... On the other hand, studies of the erb-B-2 oncoprotein have indicated that the expression of erb-B-2 is common in human head and ... Receptors for epidermal growth factor and steroid hormones in primary laryngeal tumors. Cancer 1991;67:1347-51. ... Conversely, anti-oncogene or tumor suppressor gene protein products retard or inhibit the cell cycle or activate pathways that ...
Amplification of the neu/erbB-2 oncogene in a mouse model of mammary tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97: 3444-9. ... Induction of mammary tumors by expression of polyomavirus middle T oncogene: a transgenic mouse model for metastatic disease. ... Loss of expression of transforming growth factor β type II receptor correlates with high tumour grade in human breast in-situ ... Effect of Conditional Knockout of the Type II TGF-β Receptor Gene in Mammary Epithelia on Mammary Gland Development and ...
Swiercz JM, Kuner R, Offermanns S (2004). "Plexin-B1/RhoGEF-mediated RhoA activation involves the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB ... Oncogene. 23 (30): 5131-7. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207650. PMID 15184888. ... Vikis HG, Li W, He Z, Guan KL (Nov 2000). "The semaphorin receptor plexin-B1 specifically interacts with active Rac in a ligand ... Oinuma I, Ishikawa Y, Katoh H, Negishi M (2004). "The Semaphorin 4D receptor Plexin-B1 is a GTPase activating protein for R-Ras ...
V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 1 (AKT1) * Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ErbB2/Her2) ...
V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 1 (AKT1) * Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ErbB2/Her2) ... anti-Solute Carrier Family 31 (Copper Transporters), Member 2 Antikörper * anti-Solute Carrier Family 31 (Copper Transporters ... anti-Solute Carrier Family 36 (Proton/amino Acid Symporter), Member 2 Antikörper ...
Oncogene 24 , 7599-7607 Rights & permissionsfor article The c-Src tyrosine kinase associates with the catalytic domain of ErbB- ... Oncogene 21 , 1800-1811 Rights & permissionsfor article Use of signal specific receptor tyrosine kinase oncoproteins reveals ... Rights & permissionsfor article The human ,i,met,/i, oncogene is related to the tyrosine kinase oncogenes . Opens in a new ... The human met oncogene is related to the tyrosine kinase oncogenes *Michael Dean ...
HER-2) (Tyr1248) Monoclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry applications ... Proto-oncogene Neu; Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2; Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2; v-erb-b2 avian ... neuroblastoma/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog; NGL; p185erbB2; p185neu; Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-2; ... RNA polymerase I core binding protein tyrosine kinase activity transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity receptor ...
Proto-oncogene Neu; Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2; TKR1; Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2; v-erb-b2 ... neuroblastoma/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog; NGL; p185erbB2; Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-2; ... downstream of receptor, with protein tyrosine kinase activity; transmembrane receptor activity; transmembrane receptor protein ... Molecular Function: ATP binding; ErbB-3 class receptor binding; growth factor binding; identical protein binding; ...
Preliminary study of oncogene expressions in endometrial cancers-aberrant estrogen receptor gene and erbB-2- Eur J Gynecol. ( ... Uterine Endometrial Cancer / Uterine Leiomyoma / Ovaian Cancer / Sex Steroid Receptors / Oncogenes / Tyrosine kinase C / ... Mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor and erbB-2 mRNAs were detected in endometrial cancer, which with mutated ER might ... progesterone could not regulate the estrogen-induced oncogene expressons.. Expression of progesterone receptor form M mRNA ...
Aberrant regulation of the erythroblastosis oncogene B (ErbB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and their ligands is ... ERBB3; v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3. Aliases: HER3, LCCS2, ErbB-3, c-erbB3, erbB3-S, MDA-BF- ... Inactive ERBB receptors cooperate with reactive oxygen species to suppress cancer progression.. Mol Ther. 2013; 21(11):1996- ... The ERBB receptors are a family of heterodimerization partners capable of driving transformation and metastasis. While the ...
Peles E, Yarden Y. Neu and its ligands: from an oncogene to neural factors. Bioassay 1993; 15:815-824.Google Scholar ... An immunological approach reveals biological differences between the two NDF/heregulin receptors, erbB-3 and erbB-4. J Biol ... Neu differentiation factor activation of erbB-3 and erbB-4 is cell specific and displays a differential requirement for erbB-2 ... EGF binding to its receptor triggers a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the erbB-2 protein in the mammary tumor cell line SK- ...
  • Increased HGF/MET signaling might compensate the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in skin as well as tumor cells, leading to less severe skin rash and decreased efficacy of the anti-tumor therapy, rendering the plasma concentration of HGF a candidate for predictive biomarkers. (bireme.br)
  • Anne Goriely ( [email protected]) suggested adding the MRAS (RRAS3) -SHOC2.PPP1CA pathways that activate RAF kinase and ERF, an ETS-family protein that inhibits ERK1 (aka MAPK3) and 2 (MAPK1). (cancer.gov)
  • Dimerisation results in the autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of the receptors and initiates a variety of signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteomic analysis showed that stromal secretion of the growth factor hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) resulted in activation of the HGF receptor MET, reactivation of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways, and immediate resistance to RAF inhibition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The concentration of HGF was also significantly inversely correlated with severity of rash (p-value = 0.00124).High levels of HGF lead to increased signaling via its receptor MET, which can activate numerous pathways which are normally also activated by epidermal growth factor receptor. (bireme.br)
  • The interaction between the programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) and its ligand is one of the pathways recently reported to be a potential target in EMPD. (mdedge.com)
  • The inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) α action with the ER antagonist tamoxifen is an established treatment in the majority of breast cancers. (nih.gov)
  • This HER-2 inhibition led to impairment of AR-mediated functions, such as androgen-stimulated growth and the induction of endogenous prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results show that HER-2 signaling is required for optimal transcriptional activity of AR in prostate cancer cells and suggest that HER-2 inhibition may provide a novel strategy to disrupt AR function in prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results show that HER-2 inhibition leads to impairment of AR transcriptional function at the level of recruitment of AR to the androgen responsive enhancer on chromatin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor suppression depended on residues in the C-terminal domain of plexin B1 which mediate receptor GAP activity, and also correlated with AKT inhibition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dual targeting of glioblastoma with chimeric antigen receptor-engineered natural killer cells overcomes heterogeneity of target antigen expression and enhances antitumor activity and survival. (georg-speyer-haus.de)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered NK-92 cells: An off-the-shelf cellular therapeutic for targeted elimination of cancer cells and induction of protective anti-tumor immunity. (georg-speyer-haus.de)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered cytokine-induced killer cells overcome treatment resistance of pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and enhance survival. (georg-speyer-haus.de)
  • The chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is a newly developed adoptive antitumor treatment. (springermedizin.de)
  • Chmielewski M, Hombach AA, Abken H. Of CARs and TRUCKs: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells engineered with an inducible cytokine to modulate the tumor stroma. (springermedizin.de)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy targeting CD19-positive leukemia and lymphoma in the context of stem cell transplantation. (springermedizin.de)
  • BACKGROUND: Biological molecular markers such as proto-oncogene erbB-2 (HER-2/neu, c-erbB-2), the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), estrogen receptor (ER), Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), DNA topoisomerase II (topo II), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed for changes after administration of neochemotherapy and whether these protein expression changes were correlated with response to chemotherapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EGF receptor endocytosis is achieved by a constitutive pathway and a ligand-induced pathway (for review see Sorkin and Waters, 1993 ). (rupress.org)
  • It has been shown recently that kinase-deficient receptors fail to undergo ligand-induced sequestration into coated pits ( Lamaze and Schmid, 1995 ) and that, as a result, kinasedeficient receptors are not internalized via coated vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • 7-13 In addition, there is evidence that altered genes may cooperate with other oncogenes, such as ras, to generate cells with a growth advantage for tumor progression, a multifunctional process associated(14)with cutaneous carcinogenesis as well. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • some DNA polymorphism of estrogen and progesterone receptor genes may contribute to invasion and metastasis of gynecologic cancers. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The importance of AP-2 genes is highlighted by the embryonic lethal phenotypes of mice lacking AP-2α, β, or γ ( 5 -8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results from a screen for genes regulated by AP-2α indicate that AP-2 might play a central role at the checkpoint proliferation/differentiation by repressing differentiation-specific markers and inducing proliferation-specific genes during development ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has therefore been suggested that AP-2 genes might be causally involved in the tumorigenesis of the breast. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyr61 can also function as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor, depending on the origin of the cancer. (ebscohost.com)
  • Transcription Factor AP-2γ Stimulates Proliferation and Apoptosis and Impairs Differentiation in a Transgenic Model11Grants from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Scho 503) and HGF (SGF01SF9808) to H.S. supported this work. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There the effects of AP-2γ on proliferation and apoptosis were even more pronounced, and differentiation was impaired, too, as revealed by the absence of androgen receptor immunoreactivity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additionally, PI3K/AKT/Bcl-2/BAX axis was involved in Gab1-induced CS progression, indicating Gab1 might act as a new target for the treatment of CS patients. (springer.com)
  • There is a high prevalence of dysplastic change among(1,2,22) these lesions, approaching 80-90%, and progression to invasive carcinoma is high. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) likely plays a key role in this progression and in the continued survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells in the low androgen environment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Current evidence implicates the androgen receptor (AR) as playing a key role in the hormone refractory progression of prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is known to be involved in gastric carcinogenesis and tumor progression, but little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the up-regulation of COX-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The effect of estrogen and androgen on androgen receptor and mRNA levels in uterine leiomyoma,myometrium and endometrium. (nii.ac.jp)