A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Transforming proteins coded by sis oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-sis is related to its interaction with the PDGF receptor and also its ability to alter other transcription factors.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION product from a GENE FUSION between a sequence from the tpr protein gene on the human CHROMOSOME 1 and the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (1/3187)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

A viral mechanism for inhibition of p300 and PCAF acetyltransferase activity. (2/3187)

Nucleosomal histone modification is believed to be a critical step in the activation of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription. p300/CBP and PCAF histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are coactivators for several transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors, p53, and Stat1alpha, and participate in transcription by forming an activation complex and by promoting histone acetylation. The adenoviral E1A oncoprotein represses transcriptional signaling by binding to p300/CBP and displacing PCAF and p/CIP proteins from the complex. Here, we show that E1A directly represses the HAT activity of both p300/CBP and PCAF in vitro and p300-dependent transcription in vivo. Additionally, E1A inhibits nucleosomal histone modifications by the PCAF complex and blocks p53 acetylation. These results demonstrate the modulation of HAT activity as a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation.  (+info)

Regulation of histone acetyltransferases p300 and PCAF by the bHLH protein twist and adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. (3/3187)

Histone acetyltransferases (HAT) play a critical role in transcriptional control by relieving repressive effects of chromatin, and yet how HATs themselves are regulated remains largely unknown. Here, it is shown that Twist directly binds two independent HAT domains of acetyltransferases, p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), and directly regulates their HAT activities. The N terminus of Twist is a primary domain interacting with both acetyltransferases, and the same domain is required for inhibition of p300-dependent transcription by Twist. Adenovirus E1A protein mimics the effects of Twist by inhibiting the HAT activities of p300 and PCAF. These findings establish a cogent argument for considering the HAT domains as a direct target for acetyltransferase regulation by both a cellular transcription factor and a viral oncoprotein.  (+info)

Three receptor genes for plasminogen related growth factors in the genome of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes. (4/3187)

Plasminogen related growth factors (PRGFs) and their receptors play major roles in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and neoplasia. In order to investigate the complexity and evolution of the PRGF receptor family we have cloned and sequenced three receptors for PRGFs in the teleost fish Fugu rubripes, a model vertebrate with a compact genome. One of the receptor genes isolated encodes the orthologue of mammalian MET, whilst the other two may represent Fugu rubripes orthologues of RON and SEA. This is the first time three PRGF receptors have been identified in a single species.  (+info)

Recruitment of the retinoblastoma protein to c-Jun enhances transcription activity mediated through the AP-1 binding site. (5/3187)

The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (RB) is a transcriptional modulator. One of the targets for this modulator effect is the AP-1 binding site within the c-jun and collagenase promoters. The physical interactions between RB and c-Jun were demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation of these two proteins using anti-c-Jun or anti-RB antisera, glutathione S-transferase affinity matrix binding assays in vitro, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The C-terminal site of the leucine zipper of c-Jun mediated the interaction with RB. Although the B-pocket domain of RB alone bound to c-Jun, a second c-Jun binding site in the RB was also suggested. Mammalian two-hybrid-based assay provided corroborative evidence that transactivation of gene expression by RB required the C-terminal region of c-Jun. We conclude that RB enhances transcription activity mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Adenovirus E1A or human papillomavirus E7 inhibits RB-mediated transcription activity. These data reveal that the interactions between these two distinct classes of oncoproteins RB and c-Jun may be involved in controlling cell growth and differentiation mediated by transcriptional regulation.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (6/3187)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Mutant p53 can provoke apoptosis in p53-deficient Hep3B cells with delayed kinetics relative to wild-type p53. (7/3187)

Wild-type (wt) p53 frequently induces apoptosis when expressed in tumor cells whereas mutant p53 acts as an oncoprotein and consequently, stimulates cell proliferation. We report here exceptions to that rule. p53 conformational mutant 175H and DNA contact mutant 273H provoke apoptosis in human p53-deficient Hep3B hepatoma cells with delayed kinetics relative to wt p53. Similarly, c-Myc strongly stimulates apoptosis in these cells. In contrast, viral oncoproteins E1A and E7, and the cellular oncoprotein MDM-2, fail to elicit cytocidal responses. Efficient apoptotic cell death by mutant p53 requires oligomerization as 175H and 273H with deletions between amino acid residues 326 and 347 of the oligomerization domain are nontoxic. Apoptosis by mutant or wt p53 was significantly inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor AEBSF but not by the inactive analog AEBSA. Together, these results suggest that a wt p53-independent control mechanism is operational in Hep3B cells that eliminates cells upon sensing illegitimate proliferation signals originating from certain oncoproteins, including mutant p53 and Myc. We suggest that some tumor cell types lack p53 altogether because they tolerate neither wild-type nor mutant forms of the protein.  (+info)

The tyrosines in the bidentate motif of the env-sea oncoprotein are essential for cell transformation and are binding sites for Grb2 and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. (8/3187)

The transforming gene product of the S13 avian erythroblastosis virus, the env-sea protein, is a member of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor family of tyrosine kinases comprising Met, Ron, and Sea. Like all three members of this family, the env-sea protein has a so-called bidentate motif (Y557INMAVTY564VNL) composed of two tandemly arranged tyrosines in the carboxyl terminus. To investigate whether the tyrosine residues in this motif are essential for the env-sea-mediated transformation, we generated tyrosine to phenylalanine mutations. Substitutions of both tyrosine residues resulted in complete loss of the transforming activity. In contrast, single mutations at either tyrosine did not inhibit transformation of Rat1 cells, and mutation of tyrosine 564 actually increased transformation of Rat 1 cells. To define signaling pathways activated by the env-sea protein, we looked for protein-protein interactions mediated by these tyrosine residues. We show that the bidentate motif is responsible for interaction with the adapter protein Grb2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. Furthermore, we show that microinjected Src homology 2 domains from either Grb2 or SHP-2 blocked the transforming activity of the env-sea protein. Together, these results suggest that the tyrosines within the bidentate motif are essential for the env-sea transformation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Human papillomavirus type-16 virus-like particles activate complementary defense responses in key dendritic cell subpopulations. AU - Yang, Rongcun. AU - Murillo, Francisco Martinez. AU - Lin, Ken Yu. AU - Yutzy IV, William H.. AU - Uematsu, Satoshi. AU - Takeda, Kiyoshi. AU - Akira, Shizuo. AU - Viscidi, Raphael P.. AU - Roden, Richard B.S.. PY - 2004/8/15. Y1 - 2004/8/15. N2 - Human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV16) L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) activate dendritic cells (DCs) and induce protective immunity. In this study, we demonstrate, using global gene expression analysis, that HPV16 VLPs produce quite distinct innate responses in murine splenic DC subpopulations. While HPV16 VLPs increase transcription of IFN-γ and numerous Th1-related cytokines and chemokines in CD8α+CD11c+ DCs, CD4 +CD11c+ DCs up-regulate only type I IFN and a different set of Th2-associated cytokines and chemokines. Type I IFN, but not IFN-γ, potentiates humoral immunity, notably production of ...
We analyzed immune responses to the 10 different HPV-VLP L1-derived peptides (20-mers) that had binding motifs to both HLA-class I (A2 or A24) and HLA-class II (DR) in animal model. We used BALB/c and C57BL/6N mice that have been regarded as Th2- and Th1-skewed strains, respectively, and widely known to express different immune responses in normal and pathological states [7]. When we examined humoral immune responses to the 10 different HPV-VLP L1-derived peptides in the Th2-skewed BALB/c mice, the levels of IgG to the peptide 4 and peptide 6 were clearly elevated in the sera after immunization with HPV-VLPs. We also used the Th1-skewed C57BL/6N mice to examine whether the selection of mouse strains tested has considerable and variable impacts on humoral immune responses to HPV-VLPs. In the C57BL/6N mice, one of the identified peptides , peptide 6 , but not another one (peptide 4), was also immunogenic, suggesting that the peptide 6 is a major common B cell epitope peptide in mice. Notably, our ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Bovine Papilloma Virus E2 antibody [5H4] (ab1072) : Immunoprecipitation protocols, Immunocytochemistry &…
We developed a non-oncogenic recombinant human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) E7 protein, incorporating the PADRE1024.03 universal T helper epitope, and site-specifically conjugated a chemically synthesised Pam2Cys to the proteins C-terminus. This defined protein was assessed for its capacity to clear a cervical cancer model in mice.
Aliquot removal should be performed in an appropriate location outside an area where amplification is performed. Pacienta se va dezbraca de la brau in jos si va fi acoperita cu un halat de hartie.
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OG Research Meeting Topic: The Mechanism of HPV Oncogenes in the Regulation of Upstream microRNA pathway in Cervical Cancer be Speaker: Ms. SONG Yi (a Ph.D. student who is under Prof. Ronald WANGs supervision) Lunch boxes will be provided for all the participants ...
OG Research Meeting Speaker: Ms. SONG Yi (a PhD student who under the supervision of Prof. Ronald WANG). Topic: The Mechanism of HPV Oncogenes in the Regulation of Upstream microRNA pathway in Cervical Cancer Lunch boxes will be provided for all the participants ...
We have sequenced 1730 bp of human papilloma virus type 18 (HPV 18) DNA containing the open reading frames (ORF) E6, E7, the N-terminal part of E1 and, additionally, 120 bp of the N-terminal part of L1. Based on these sequencing data, together with the human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV 16) DNA sequence published recently, we identified and cloned the ORF E6, E7, E1 and L1 of HPV 18 and the ORF E6, E7, E1, E4, E5, L2 and L1 of HPV 16 into prokaryotic expression vectors. The expression system used provides fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2 polymerase gene controlled by the heat-inducible lambda PL promoter. Using the purified fusion proteins as immunogens we raised antisera against the proteins encoded by the ORF E6, E7 and E1 of HPV 18 as well as those encoded by the ORF E6, E7, E4 and L1 of HPV 16. By Western blot analysis we could show that the E7 gene product is the most abundant protein in cell lines containing HPV 16 or HPV 18 DNA. It is a cytoplasmic protein of 15 kd in the SiHa and the
Human papillomavirus type 11 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 18 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 31 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 33 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 45 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 52 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 6 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 58 L1 ...
E7 proteins are major oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which play a key role in cervical carcinogenesis. These proteins have been shown to immortalize primary human cells. Due to the absence of antibodies with suitable sensitivity and specificity, little is known about expression of the E7 oncoproteins in naturally infected tissues. Recently, high-level expression of the E7 protein of HPV-16, the most prevalent oncogenic HPV type, was demonstrated in cervical carcinomas by immunohistochemistry; however, approximately 15 additional high-risk HPV types are known to be associated with cervical carcinoma. It is unknown whether the E7 oncoproteins of HPV-18 and -45, the second and third most prevalent HPV types, are expressed in cervical cancers. Using antibodies against HPV-18 and -45 E7 proteins, it is shown here for the first time that the HPV-18 and -45 E7 proteins can be detected in cervical carcinoma biopsies. Together with anti-HPV-16 E7 antibodies, this could create the
High-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is a risk factor for cervical cancer. Previous studies suggest that polymorphisms in the E6 gene or the long control region(LCR)of HPV16 may alter the oncogenic potential of the virus. The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic variations of HPV16 E6 gene and LCR in isolates from Chinese population and correlation of the E6 and LCR polymorphisms with disease status of infected patients. HPV16 positive endocervical specimens were collected from 304 women living in Northeast of China. Sequences of E6 gene and LCR were analyzed by PCR-sequencing. Two lineages were found in the populations, including EUR lineage and As lineage. Based on the HPV16 prototype, the most frequent variation in the E6 gene was T178A/G (48.7%), followed by mutations of G94A (12.2%) and T350G (9.9%). The rank orders of incidence of E6 variations in amino acid were as follows: D25E (46.3%), L83V (9.9%) and H78Y (4.3%). Nucleotide variations in LCR were found in all the 304
The activity and epithelial tropism of the human papillomavirus type 18 P105 early promoter, which directs the synthesis of the E6 and E7 transforming genes, are controlled by cis elements included in the viral long control region. To identify potential cellular regulators of this promoter, we mutagenized one or both of the 5-TGACTAA-3 cis elements capable of interacting with the AP1 transcription factor, which is composed either of homodimers or heterodimers of the Jun products or of heterodimers of Jun and Fos. Mutation of both elements completely abolished P105 promoter activity in human keratinocytes. We show that either AP1 site can interact efficiently in vitro with any of the three different Jun products as heterodimers with c-Fos. However, in nuclear extracts prepared from human keratinocytes, JunB was the predominant Jun component bound to the DNA probe containing this cis element. These results implicate JunB as an important factor in human papillomavirus type 18 transcription in ...
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Cervical carcinoma cells producing high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were shown to be unresponsive to the cytokine IL-6 due to the loss of their IL-6 receptor. Addition of IL-6 receptor in a soluble form restores IL-6 signalling in SW756 carcinoma cells. This leads to a rapid and strong activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Nuclear factor IL-6 (NF-IL6, C/EBPβ) was induced only as a late event. While C/EBPβ significantly repressed the human papillomavirus type 18 long control region (HPV18-LCR), IL-6 signalling unexpectedly activated the HPV18-LCR in these cells. This IL-6 receptor-mediated induction could be completely reverted by transfection of a dominant-negative STAT3 but not STAT1 expression construct, indicating that STAT3 might play an important role in HPV18 oncogene promoter activation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the human papillomavirus type 11 E5A protein from the [email protected]?E4,E5 transcript. AU - Brown, Darron R.. AU - McClowry, Tracy L.. AU - Sidner, Richard A.. AU - Fife, Kenneth H.. AU - Bryan, Jonine T.. PY - 1998/8/1. Y1 - 1998/8/1. N2 - The abundant human papillomavirus type II (HPV 11) [email protected]?E4,E5 transcript potentially encodes the [email protected]?E4,E5a and E5b proteins. It is not known if either of the E5 proteins are expressed from this transcript. For HPV 16, E5 is a single open reading frame (ORF), and the E5 protein is expressed from an unspliced E2,E5 transcript but not from tile spliced [email protected]?E4,E5 transcript. This study was undertaken to determine if the HPV 11 E5a protein is expressed from the [email protected]?E4,E5 transcript. To detect E5a expression in eukaryotic cells, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was fused to the [email protected]? end of the E5a gene in the pEGFP-N1 vector. Several recombinant plasmid constructs were made to determine if E5a translation is influenced by upstream ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning, analysis, and chromosomal localization of a mouse genomic sequence related to the human papillomavirus type 18 E5 region. AU - Kahn, Tomas. AU - Friesl, Holger. AU - Copeland, Neal G.. AU - Gilbert, Debra J.. AU - Jenkins, Nancy A.. AU - Gissmann, Lutz. AU - Kramer, Judith. AU - Hausen, Harald Zur. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The E5 open reading frame (ORF) from bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV 1) as well as the E5 ORFs from human papillomaviruses (HPV) type 6 and type 16 have been reported to transform immortalized rodent cells. In an analysis of murine and human tumors for the presence of putative papillomavirus-related sequences, we cloned amplified cellular sequences from the mouse cell line Eb that cross-hybridized with the E5 ORF of HPV 18. A 2.1-kb fragment termed HC1 was sequenced. In normal murine cells, it was present as a single-copy genomic sequence located on chromosome 8. A region of 213 nucleotides corresponded to the E5 gene (HC1 E5), ...
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells and lead to the production of warts. A subset of HPVs infect the anogenital tract and can be placed into two categories, the low- and high-risk genotypes. While both low- and high-risk HPV genotypes lead to the production of warts, the high-risk genotypes are also associated with anogenital cancers including cervical cancer. HPV-16 is the genotype most commonly found in cervical cancer (31). The HPV life cycle is intimately tied to the differentiation of the host epithelium that it infects. The HPV life cycle begins in the basal layer of the epithelium, where the virus is thought to gain entry at a site of wounding. In this layer of the epithelium, the nonproductive stage of the HPV life cycle occurs, where the virus establishes itself as a low-copy-number episome by synthesizing its DNA on average once per cell cycle via a bidirectional theta mode (1a, 8, 12, 30). The productive stage of the HPV ...
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the primary causative agents for cervical cancer, and HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 are known to be the main reason for the onset and maintenance of the malignancies. Therefore, inhibition of viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins expression represents a viable strategy to cervical cancer therapies. This study is to evaluate the antiviral effect of a novel N-Phenylbenzamide derivative, 3-(2-Chloropropyl amide)-4-methoxy-N-phenylbenzamide (L17), against HPV16 in vitro and identify its associated mechanism of action in cervical cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of L17 was assessed by MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels of E6 and E7 oncogenes were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. p53 and Rb protein levels were also detected by Western blot. The effect of L17 on cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxic effect of L17 was greater in cervical carcinoma cells than in normal cells. L17 significantly
Figura 2. Glandele salivare majore sunt parotida, glandele submandibulare si cele sublinguale. Hashemi Sadraei Discusses Biomarkers in HPV-Induced Tumors genital hpv long term effects Paraziti in corpul uman simptome que es un papiloma en el pecho, papiloma boca ninos cancer most aggressive treatment.
Intra-tumor injection of lentiviral-vector delivered shRNA targeting human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes reduces tumor growth in a xenograft cervical cancer model in mice
One thing I was surprised about is that when I go to the comment page and click on original post it doesnt show the picture of the microbe but rather shows the text [Photo]. I have to admit that I did not realize these were actual photographs. Great job catching them in such good poses! ...
Acestea includ negii genitali si negii aparuti in zona gatului cunoscuti sub numele de papilomatoza respiratorie recurenta. De retinut: Poti avea virusul HPV multi ani in organism, fara ca acesta sa cauzeze aparitia unor probleme. Pe lângă tulpinile virale care dau aceste manifestări mai exista și tulpini HPV care modifică structura celulelor normale și dau naștere diverselor tipuri de cancer, cancerul de col uterin fiind cel mai des întâlnit.
Human papillomaviruses have been implicated as a causative agent in the etiology of many human cancers, especially cervical carcinomas. Our laboratory had previously shown that the presence of the steroid hormones, dexamethasone and progesterone, markedly enhances the transformation of primary rodent cells by HPV type 16 DNA in cooperation with the EJ-ras oncogene. This enhancement could have been direct, through a previously known glucocorticoid response element (GRE) located at nt position 7640 in the transcriptional regulatory region of the HPV 16 genome. Two additional GRE-like sequences were also found at nt positions 7385 and 7474. Alternatively, indirect mechanisms could be conceived through hormone-mediated expression of other cellular transcription factors which in turn modulate HPV gene expression. To address the role of the GRE located at nt position 7640, site-directed mutational analysis was performed. In transformation assays in cultured rodent cells and in transient CAT assays ...
DNA damage, such as that elicited by UV-B, can induce either a cell cycle arrest or apoptosis that can be signalled by the p53 protein through the activation of a number of downstream cellular target genes. In contrast to oncogenic anogenital human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which mediate proteolytic degradation of p53, the E6 protein of cutaneous HPVs, such as HPV 77, do not promote p53 degradation. We have previously shown, however, that expression of HPV 77 E6 can effectively block UV-induced apoptosis in cells that have UV-activated p53. Here, we report that expression of the E6 protein from the cutaneous HPV 77 attenuates the UV-induced transactivation of p53-regulated proapoptotic genes Fas, PUMAbeta, Apaf-1, PIG3. This inhibition of p53-activation of proapoptotic genes by HPV77 E6 is exerted selectively, as the increased expression of p53 target genes involved in cell cycle arrest or regulatory functions regulation, such as p21 and Hdm2, is unaffected. Our data suggest that HPV 77 E6 may ...
A prospective cohort study was done to evaluation p53 codon 72 polymorphism in predictive the outcome of cervical cancer with other factors (94). Among 39 patients with HPV-16 positive cervical cancer, there was no difference between the lymph nodal metastases and p53 codon 72 polymorphism (Arg/Arg 54.5% vs 67.9%, Pro/Pro 0 vs 7.1%, Arg/Pro 45.5% vs 21.4%). The p53 codon 72 genotype did not influence the disease-free survival significantly (94). Similarly, another two studies also showed that there is no significant difference between p53 polymorphism and prognosis of cervical cancer patients (96,98).. Discussion. The development of cervical cancer correlates with some risk factors (7-11). There is evidence showing that certain human papillomavirus types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18 are the main cause of cervical cancer (3-5). HPV-16 and HPV-18 encode two major oncoproteins, E6 and E7. The E6 protein binds to the cellular tumour-suppressor protein p53 and directs its degradation through the ...
Nu se cunoaşte motivul pentru care femeile sunt mai puţin afectate decât bărbaţii! Informaţii generale şi recomandări Infecţia genitală cu papilomavirusuri umane HPV este cea mai frecventă boală virală cu transmitere sexuală, atât la femei cât şi la bărbaţi1. Pentru a diagnostica vegetaţiile veneriene, medicul realizează un examen vizual al ariei genitale.
MLL fusion proteins in leukemia induce aberrant transcriptional elongation and associated chromatin perturbations; however, the upstream signaling pathways and activators that recruit or retain MLL oncoproteins at initiated promoters are unknown. Through functional and comparative genomic studies, w …
Plays a role in viral genome replication by driving entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. Stimulation of progression from G1 to S phase allows the virus to efficiently use the cellular DNA replicating machinery to achieve viral genome replication. E7 protein has both transforming and trans-activating activities. Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor from RB1, with subsequent transcriptional activation of E2F1-regulated S-phase genes. Interferes with host histone deacetylation mediated by HDAC1 and HDAC2, leading to transcription activation. Plays also a role in the inhibition of both antiviral and antiproliferative functions of host interferon alpha. Interaction with host TMEM173/STING impairs the ability of TMEM173/STING to sense cytosolic DNA and promote the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta).
Plays a role in viral genome replication by driving entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. Stimulation of progression from G1 to S phase allows the virus to efficiently use the cellular DNA replicating machinery to achieve viral genome replication. E7 protein has both transforming and trans-activating activities. Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor from RB1, with subsequent transcriptional activation of E2F1-regulated S-phase genes. Interferes with host histone deacetylation mediated by HDAC1 and HDAC2, leading to transcription activation. Plays also a role in the inhibition of both antiviral and antiproliferative functions of host interferon alpha. Interaction with host TMEM173/STING impairs the ability of TMEM173/STING to sense cytosolic DNA and promote the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta).
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of New highly potent and specific E6 and E7 siRNAs for treatment of HPV16 positive cervical cancer. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
The laboratory is studying the structure and function of human and viral oncoproteins with a goal to develop small molecule inhibitors as molecular probes and as lead molecules for development to treat various cancers. There is a particular interest in melanoma and the laboratory had developed inhibitors to several important oncoprotein targets in melanoma including BRAF, PI3K and PAK1. The laboratory is also targeting the oncoproteins E7 and E6 from human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is known to be the causative agent of a number of epithelial cancers, most notably cervical cancer, and has also been implicated to have a causative role in about 20% of head and neck cancers as well as several other cancers. We have recently reported on the development of potent and selective HPV-E7 inhibitors, while the development of HPV-E6 inhibitors is in progress. The laboratory is also studying the structure and function of the tumor suppressor targets of HPV-E7 and -E6, pRb and p53, respectively ...
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and type 18 (HPV18) are the two most prevalent high-risk HPVs for causing cervical cancer-a cancer that claims the lives of more than 250,000 women around the world every year. They transform healthy keratinocytes - cells that line the cervix - into cancerous cells by disrupting the host cell cycle. In particular, they use viral genes E6 and E7 to encode proteins E6 and E7 that bind and inactivate tumor-suppressor proteins p53 and pRb, respectively.. As E6 and E7 proteins of different high-risk HPVs have similar functions, however, the reason for HPV18 having a higher potential for causing cervical cancer is still unknown. Francoise Thierry at the A*STAR Institute of Medical Biology and co-workers have now solved this mystery through a study of the transcriptional regulation of E6 and E7.. E2F is a family of transcription factors that regulate the transcription of S-phase and mitotic genes, which are essential for cell duplication and division. There are ...
We hypothesized that hTERT activation and the decline of viral E6/E7 mRNA expression (26) could present a point of no return in the progression toward malignancy. Using molecular mining, nine potential genes interlinking hTERT and viral oncogene expression with the phenotypical features of CIN3 were initially identified. After preliminary testing, five potential genes were selected for further analyses: hTERT, DKC1, Bcl-2, S100A8, and S100A9. Analysis of the mRNA expression of these genes during different passages of UT-DEC-1 cells revealed three time points with significant changes. These time points, when the mRNA of target genes was overexpressed, matched with events previously shown to be important in the progression toward malignancy: (a) viral integration into the cell genome and episome loss; (b) the selection of cells with an acquired growth advantage and the ability to maintain telomerase activity; and (c) the final stage of malignancy with permanently upregulated telomerase ...
HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are the critical molecules in the process of malignant tumour formation. Exista un vaccin care ajuta la prevenirea cancerului de col uterin pentru ca te protejeaza impotriva Virusului Papiloma Uman HPVprincipala cauza a cancerului de col uterin Have you heard?
Dr. Moore received his training in England. He earned a B.Sc. from Durham University in Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and a Ph.D. in human retroviruses and cancer from Cambridge. His post doctoral research was also in Cambridge, focused on human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle and vaccines.
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and ISA Pharmaceuticals B.V., a clinical-stage immunotherapy company, today announced a clinical collaboration to advance ISA101, an immunotherapy targeting human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-induced cancer, in...
Human papillomaviruses: shared and distinct pathways for pathogenesis. De cele mai multe ori, diagnosticul este pus cu ușurință, bazându-se pe caracteristicile clinice.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Human papillomavirus type 16 E6-enhanced susceptibility of L929 cells to tumor necrosis factor α correlates with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species. AU - Liu, Yun. AU - Tergaonkar, Vinay. AU - Krishna, Sudhir. AU - Androphy, Elliot J.. PY - 1999/8/27. Y1 - 1999/8/27. N2 - Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 has been shown to prevent or enhance apoptosis depending on the stimulus and cell type. Here we present evidence that HPV-16 E6 sensitized murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells to tumor necrosis factor α (TNF)-induced cytolysis. The E6-enhanced cytolysis correlated with a precedent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and antioxidant treatment could completely block the E6-dependent sensitization. These findings represent the first demonstration of a link between a viral oncogene-sensitized cytolysis and ROS. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding whether TNF-induced cytolysis of L929 cells is through necrosis or apoptosis. Here we ...
1. Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM. et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999;189(1):12-9 2. Burd EM. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16(1):1-17 3. Boyer SN, Wazer DE, Band V. E7 protein of human papilloma virus-16 induces degradation of retinoblastoma protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cancer Res. 1996;56(20):4620-4 4. Thomas M, Pim D, Banks L. The role of the E6-p53 interaction in the molecular pathogenesis of HPV. Oncogene. 1999;18(53):7690-700 5. Thierry F. Transcriptional regulation of the papillomavirus oncogenes by cellular and viral transcription factors in cervical carcinoma. Virology. 2009;384(2):375-9 6. Badaracco G, Venuti A, Sedati A. et al. HPV16 and HPV18 in genital tumors: significantly different levels of viral integration and correlation to tumor invasiveness. J Med Virol. 2002;67(4):574-82 7. Romanczuk H, Howley PM. Disruption of either the E1 or the E2 regulatory ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2. Recombinant protein corresponding to full length Bovine Papillomavirus type-1 transactivator protein E2. (MAB7861) - Products - Abnova
Human Papilloma virus type 16 E6 antibody for WB. Anti-Human Papilloma virus type 16 E6 pAb (GTX132686) is tested in Human papillomavirus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Quantitative human papillomavirus type 16 viral load and prognosis of cervical cancer treatment efficiency is considered in the article.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human papillomavirus type 16-associated periungeal squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [7]. AU - Tosti, A.. AU - La Placa, M.. AU - Fanti, P. A.. AU - Gentilomi, G.. AU - Venturoli, S.. AU - Zerbini, M.. AU - Musiani, M.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028569606&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028569606&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Letter. C2 - 7701891. AN - SCOPUS:0028569606. VL - 74. SP - 478. EP - 479. JO - Acta Dermato-Venereologica. JF - Acta Dermato-Venereologica. SN - 0001-5555. IS - 6. ER - ...
Withaferin A induces p53-dependent apoptosis by repression of HPV oncogenes and upregulation of tumor suppressor proteins in human cervical cancer cells ...
The high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), in particular PV 16 and 18 are responsible for the development of almost all cases of cervical cancer, for a substantial fraction of other malignant anogenital tumors (penis, vulva and perianum) and for a proportion of head and neck cancer. The natural history of HPV infections and immunization experiments in animals with their respective papillomaviruses (e.g. the canine oral papillomavirus) clearly revealed the involvement of the immune system in controlling the viral infections and the diseases associated therewith. Antibodies appear to be the key molecules in preventing of an infection whereas mostly T cells and cytokines are involved in controlling virus persistence and progression towards malignancy. During the natural course of infection human papillomaviruses are not particularly immunogenic since their biology makes them barely visible by the immune system (infection is confined to the epithelium) but also since it has acquired ...
Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21cip1, which is distributed in a mutually exclusive manner with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis. In this study, double immunofluorescence labeling unexpectedly revealed that E7 caused a concordant accumulation of both cyclin E and p21cip1 to high levels in patient papillomas and in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. The induction of cyclin E is mutually exclusive with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis or abundant viral DNA. These novel virus-host interactions in differentiated keratinocytes are in contrast to previous observations made in submerged proliferating cultures, in which HPV E7 induces cyclin E and overcomes p21cip1 inhibition of S-phase entry. We ...
According to the WHO Classification, there are six histologic types of thymic epithelial tumors. Results: In the 13 patients that did not develop gingival overgrowth, the levels of MMP8 increased in the first hours after orthodontic appliance and then fall to the initial level. HPV 18 şi ale human papillomavirus oncogene oncogene precum 31, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58 şi 59, au avut o prevalenţă similară şi au făcut parte din tipurile human papillomavirus oncogenes mai întâlnite după HPV Femeile infectate cu un tip de HPV dat pot fi co- infectate sau infectate ulterior cu alte tipuri care pot cauza leziuni cervicale.
Results The seroprevalence for any HPV type and any of the types HPV-6/11/16/18 was 64.8% and 34.4%, respectively. 30.3% of adults were seropositive for any mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV, and HPV-58 (10.6%), HPV-16 (9.7%) and HPV-18 (9.3%) were the three most common types. 24.8% of seropositive individuals were positive for multiple mucosal HR-HPV serotypes. Seroprevalence for most HPV types was similar among men and women. While mucosal low-risk HPV seropositivity was found to significantly decrease with age, the prevalence of antibodies to mucosal HR antigens showed a general trend of increase with age. The lifetime number of sex partners was independently associated with mucosal HR-HPV seropositivity. Positive correlation of spousal seropositivity was observed for mucosal HPV but not for cutaneous HPV.. ...
Specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer. The viral E6 oncogene is a critical factor for maintaining the malignant phenotype of HPV-positive tumour cells. By yeast two-hyb
Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and recent epidemiological studies have strongly implicated the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) as a causative agent. The ability of high-risk HPVs to contribute to malignant progression seems to depend on expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes. The E6 oncoprotein forms a complex with the cellular tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to degradation of p53 via ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Thus, E6 expression results in the loss of p53 function in cells, including stimulation of apoptosis and inhibition of the expression of the antiapoptotic protein bcl-2. Recently, we found increased bcl-2 expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines containing mutated or E6-inactivated p53 (X. L. Liang, S. Mungal, A. Ayscue, J. D. Meissner, P. Wodnicki, G. Gordon, S. Lockett, and B. Herman. J. Cell. Biochem., 57: 509-520, 1995). Based on these findings, we examined Papanicolaou smears from 94 women with ...
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Gross A, Yin XM, Wang K, et al. Caspase cleaved BID targets mitochondria and is required for cytochrome c release, while BCL-XL prevents this release but not tumor necrosis factor-R1/Fas death. J Biol Chem 1999;274: 1156-63 ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephanie van de Wall, Mateusz Walczak, Nienke van Rooij, Baukje-Nynke Hoogeboom, Tjarko Meijerhof, Hans W Nijman, Toos Daemen].
High-risk human papillomaviruses are causative agents of cervical cancer. Viral protein E7 is required to establish and maintain the pro-oncogenic phenotype in infected cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which E7 promotes carcinogenesis are only partially understood. Our transcriptome analyses in primary human fibroblasts transduced with the viral protein revealed that E7 activates a group of mitotic genes via the activator B-Myb-MuvB complex. We show that E7 interacts with the B-Myb, FoxM1 and LIN9 components of this activator complex, leading to cooperative transcriptional activation of mitotic genes in primary cells and E7 recruitment to the corresponding promoters. E7 interaction with LIN9 and FoxM1 depended on the LXCXE motif, which is also required for pocket protein interaction and degradation. Using E7 mutants for the degradation of pocket proteins but intact for the LXCXE motif, we demonstrate that E7 functional interaction with the B-Myb-MuvB complex and pocket protein degradation ...
Introduction: Ether à go‐go 1 (Eag1) channels have oncogenic properties. This channel is widely expressed in human tumors. It has been shown that inhibition of its expression and/or activity reduces cellular proliferation. Some cancer‐associated factors up‐regulate Eag1 expression; including estradiol and the E6 and E7 human papilloma virus (HPV) oncogenes. On the other hand, calcitriol (the most active metabolite of vitamin D) has shown antiproliferative properties and it has been considered as a potential anticancer treatment. In this work, we studied Eag1 regulation by estradiol, tamoxifen, ICI 182 780, genistein and calcitriol in the cervical cancer cell line SiHa, that express E6 an E7 HPV oncogenes.. Methods: SiHa cells were cultivated with DMEM without phenol red and were treated with estradiol, tamoxifen, ICI 182 780, genistein or calcitriol during 48 hours. Total RNA was obtained with Trizol reagent, and cDNA was synthesized. Eag1 expression was evaluated by real time PCR. Eag1 ...
The HBE4-E6/E7 (formerly NBE4-E6/E7) cell line was derived from normal bronchial epithelium taken from a man undergoing a left upper lobectomy for a poorly differentiated (T2 N0) adenocarcinoma. Cells from the primary explant in their first passage were transfected with the p1321 plasmid encoding the E6 and E7 genes of Human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV 16) under the control of the human beta actin promotor.
Oncotarget | https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11810 Dingqing Feng, Keqin Yan, Ying Zhou, Haiyan Liang, Jing Liang, Weidong Zhao, Zhongjun Dong, Bin Ling
The early genes E6 and E7 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are consistently and exclusively expressed in HPV16-induced cancer lesions and play major roles in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Because this protein is a good example of a tumor-associated antigen, we have used E7 as a model antigen to test the potential of an experimental vaccine as an immunotherapeutic approach. In this study, we used a murine E7-expressing tumor model (TC1 cells) to assess effects of an E7-based vaccine on tumor growth. We show that vaccination with the E7 protein, formulated in the SmithKline Beecham Biologicals proprietary adjuvants (SBAS 1 and SBAS 2), leads to the rejection of pre-established tumors. Tumor rejection was associated with the induction of a strong systemic T helper 1 response, including CTLs, and the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate within the regressing tumor. Because most identified tumor-associated antigens are self antigens rather viral antigens, we ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1dto.1. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLETE TRANSACTIVATION DOMAIN OF E2 PROTEIN FROM THE HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16
HPV invades the skin or mucosa by entering tiny breaks in the surface (even those not visible to the naked eye). Once inside, HPV infects host epithelial cells, tricking them into producing new viruses. In the process of normal cell replacement, the infected cells are shed, releasing viral particles. High risk strains of HPV can integrate viral DNA into the host genome, although this is not a normal part of the HPV life cycle. Viral integration may give infected host cells a selective advantage, leading to a longer infection time. The longer the infection lasts, the more time there is for cancer to develop.16. After integration, two viral genes (E6 and E7) may be over-expressed. The E6 and E7 proteins are responsible for the ability of HPV to cause cancer. The E6 and E7 proteins prevent the activity of key tumor suppressors. E6 inhibits p53, a protein that controls responses to different types of cellular stress including DNA damage and viral infection. E7 inhibits Rb, a protein that can prevent ...
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"Entrez Gene: AKT3 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (protein kinase B, gamma)". Hodgkinson CP, Sale EM, Sale GJ ( ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the AKT subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. AKT kinases are known to ... "Activation of protein kinase B beta and gamma isoforms by insulin in vivo and by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 ... "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs". Genome ...
... pol proteins, and env proteins. Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about ... Nontransforming viruses can randomly insert their DNA into proto-oncogenes, disrupting the expression of proteins that regulate ... Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. Env proteins play a role ... Next, some of these RNA molecules are translated into viral proteins. The proteins encoded by the gag and pol genes are ...
She has also worked on oncogenes, leading to the isolation of the Myc transcription factor protein; on virus diagnostics; and ... She is well known for her discovery of the ribonuclease H activity of reverse transcriptase, which is required for viral ...
Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ... Like the viral version, this gene is an oncogene, and rearrangements of the gene (often involving deletion in the C-terminal ... MYB+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Myb oncogene-like - The ... In humans, it includes Myb proto-oncogene like 1 and Myb-related protein B in addition to MYB proper. Members of the extended ...
The protein Abl gene is also known as abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 and is a protein that is encoded by the ... "Entrez Gene: ABL2 v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (arg, Abelson-related gene)". Nagy, Ádám; Pongor, ... Wang B, Kruh GD (1996). "Subcellular localization of the Arg protein tyrosine kinase". Oncogene. 13 (1): 193-7. PMID 8700546. ... 1996). "Proline-rich sequences mediate the interaction of the Arg protein tyrosine kinase with Crk". Oncogene. 13 (7): 1379-85 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is known to interact with cellular and viral survival-promoting proteins, such as BCL2 and the ... Oncogene. 11 (9): 1921-8. PMID 7478623. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, ... a novel death-inducing protein shares a distinct sequence motif with Bcl-2 family proteins and interacts with viral and ... this protein is suggested as a likely target for antiapoptotic proteins. This protein shares a critical BH3 domain with other ...
Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene ... "Entrez Gene: ABL1 v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1". Shah, N. P. (2004-07-16). "Overriding Imatinib ... The ABL1 proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ...
V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog LARP4: encoding protein La-related protein 4 LEPREL2: encoding enzyme ... encoding protein a protein of 377 amino acid residues FAM60A: encoding protein FAM60A FAM186B: encoding protein Protein FAM186B ... encoding protein Proline-rich protein HaeIII subfamily 2 PRR4: encoding protein Proline-rich protein 4 PTMS: encoding protein ... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 26 ZNF84: encoding protein Zinc finger protein 84 ZNF268: encoding protein Zinc finger ...
This gene is a putative oncogene encoding a protein belonging to the AKT subfamily of serine/threonine kinases that contain SH2 ... "Entrez Gene: AKT2 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2". Heron-Milhavet L, Khouya N, Fernandez A, Lamb NJ (2011). " ... The encoded protein is a general protein kinase capable of phosphorylating several known proteins. AKT2 has important roles in ... a putative oncogene encoding a member of a subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases, is amplified in human ovarian ...
The viral oncogenes E6 and E7 promote cell growth by inactivating the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb. Keratinocyte stem ... Encodes a protein that binds to the viral origin of replication in the long control region of the viral genome. E1 uses ATP to ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ... encoding a major capsid protein L1 and a minor capsid protein L2. All viral ORFs are encoded on one DNA strand (see figure). ...
The Nme1 proteins bind to viral proteins, oncogenes, and other metastasis-promoting factors. The binding may be indirect by ... This increase in GTP concentration near G protein α-subunits causes activation of G protein α-subunits for G-protein signaling ... The first group encodes proteins with NDPK functions. The other group genes code for other various proteins that display low or ... These proteins go about interrupting metastasis by binding metastasis-promoting proteins. ...
protein binding. Cellular component. • nucleolus. • cell projection. • nucleus. • membrane. • basolateral plasma membrane. • ... Pastoreková S, Závadová Z, Kostál M, Babusíková O, Závada J (Apr 1992). "A novel quasi-viral agent, MaTu, is a two-component ... Oncogene. 9 (10): 2877-88. PMID 8084592.. ... CAIX is a transmembrane protein and is a tumor-associated ... Závada J, Závadová Z, Pastoreková S, Ciampor F, Pastorek J, Zelník V (May 1993). "Expression of MaTu-MN protein in human tumor ...
Interactions of this protein with the v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 gene product p185 interferes ... Protein Tob1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TOB1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the tob/btg1 family of anti ... This protein inhibits T cell proliferation and transcription of cytokines and cyclins. The protein interacts with both mothers ... When exogenously expressed, this protein suppresses cell growth in tissue culture. The protein undergoes phosphorylation by a ...
The gene is also referred to as proto-oncogene B-Raf and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, while the protein is ... B-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family of growth signal transduction protein kinases. This protein plays a role in ... Once B-Raf is activated, a conserved protein kinase catalytic core phosphorylates protein substrates by promoting the ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ...
Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma viral (v-fgr) oncogene homolog, also known as FGR, is a protein which in humans is encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: FGR Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma viral (v-fgr) oncogene homolog". Rasheed S, Barbacid M, Aaronson S, Gardner MB ... This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein contains N-terminal sites for ... "Isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones homologous to the v-fgr oncogene from a human B lymphocyte cell line, IM-9". Oncogene. ...
... with the pocket proteins pRb, p107 and p130". Oncogene. 20 (39): 5533-7. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204823. PMID 11571651. Parsam VL, ... interacts with viral transforming proteins and cellular transcription factor E2F1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (2 ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated Rb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that is ... E2F1 to E2F5 are known to associate with proteins in the pRb-family of proteins while E2F6 and E2F7 are independent of pRb. ...
All three SR proteins are important for alternatively splicing the viral pre-mRNA. HIV can also change the concentrations of ... SFRS1, the gene that codes for SF2/ASF, is a known proto-oncogene. Mutations in the ESE sequence of BRCA1 have been linked to ... SR proteins are a conserved family of proteins involved in RNA splicing. SR proteins are named because they contain a protein ... SR proteins can be either shuttling SR proteins or nonshuttling SR proteins. Some SR proteins associate with RNA export factor ...
Viral integration tends to occur in or near oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes and it is for this reason that the integration ... HPV can induce tumor by several mechanisms: E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Disruption of tumor suppressor genes. High-level DNA ... Induction of cancer can be associated for the expression of viral oncoproteins, the most important E6 and E7, or other ... Suzuki T, Harashima H, Kamiya H (2010). "Effects of base excision repair proteins on mutagenesis by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8 ...
Oncogene. 26 (19): 2736-46. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210084. PMID 17072343. YBX1+protein,+human at the US National Library of ... proteins YB-1 and Pur alpha with the tumor antigen of the human JC polyomavirus determines their interaction with the viral ... Y box binding protein 1 also known as Y-box transcription factor or nuclease-sensitive element-binding protein 1 is a protein ... 1996). "The mouse poly(C)-binding protein exists in multiple isoforms and interacts with several RNA-binding proteins". Nucleic ...
These ras genes have GTP/GDP binding and GTPase activity, and their normal function may be as G-like regulatory proteins ... "Entrez Gene: NRAS neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog". Study Comparing the Efficacy of MEK162 Versus Dacarbazine ... The N-ras proto-oncogene is a member of the Ras gene family. It is mapped on chromosome 1, and it is activated in HL60, a ... Nitta N, Ochiai M, Nagao M, Sugimura T (1987). "Amino-acid substitution at codon 13 of the N-ras oncogene in rectal cancer in a ...
Named after the phosphotyrosine binding domain of the src viral oncogene, which is itself a tyrosine kinase. See also: SH3 ... of protein domains Protein Protein structure Protein structure prediction Protein structure prediction software Protein ... Protein modules are a subset of protein domains which are found across a range of different proteins with a particularly ... Ostermeier M, Benkovic SJ (2000). "Evolution of protein function by domain swapping". Evolutionary Protein Design. Adv Protein ...
Studies using high throughput viral insertional mutagenesis analysis also revealed that JDP2 functions as an oncogene. JDP2- ... Jun dimerization protein 2 (JUNDM2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JDP2 gene. The Jun dimerization protein is a ... Other proteins such as interferon regulatory factor-2-binding protein-1 (IRF2BP1). CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein gamma (C/EBPγ ... Broder YC, Katz S, Aronheim A (Oct 1998). "The ras recruitment system, a novel approach to the study of protein-protein ...
"Entrez Gene: SRC v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian)". Wheeler DL, Iida M, Dunn EF (July 2009). " ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, or simply c-Src (cellular Src; pronounced "sarc ... Eventually this normal gene mutated into an abnormally functioning oncogene within the Rous sarcoma virus. Once the oncogene is ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ...
Oncogene. 17 (2): 255-60. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201907. PMID 9674711. Koehler JA, Moran MF (May 2001). "RACK1, a protein kinase C ... "Molecular features of the viral and cellular Src kinases involved in interactions with the GTPase-activating protein". Mol. ... RAS p21 protein activator 1 or RasGAP (Ras GTPase activating protein), also known as RASA1, is a 120-kDa cytosolic human ... Acting as a suppressor of RAS function, the protein enhances the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in ...
"Entrez Gene: RALB v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog B (ras related; GTP binding protein)". Simicek M, Lievens S, ... Ras-related protein Ral-B (RalB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RALB gene on chromosome 2. This protein is one ... "Identification and characterization of a novel protein interacting with Ral-binding protein 1, a putative effector protein of ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
... and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase thymoma viral proto-onco- gene 1 (PI3K-AKT1) cascades. IFN-τ can also stimulate expression of ... January 2001). "Interferon-tau activates multiple signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and has complex ... It was observed that IFN-τ decreased intracellular HIV RNA in human macrophages and inhibited reverse transcription of viral ... This can be useful in treatment of viral diseases. IFN-τ has also demonstrated biological effects against influenza virus. ...
Ras protein signal transduction. • myoblast differentiation. • viral process. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA- ... with the pocket proteins pRb, p107 and p130". Oncogene. 20 (39): 5533-7. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204823. PMID 11571651.. ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that ... protein binding. • androgen receptor binding. • identical protein binding. • enzyme binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding ...
Oncogene. 8 (8): 2167-73. PMID 8336942. Ohno T, Rao VN, Reddy ES (December 1993). "EWS/Fli-1 chimeric protein is a ... Bergeron D, Poliquin L, Kozak CA, Rassart E (January 1991). "Identification of a common viral integration region in Cas-Br-E ... "Analysis of the DNA-binding and transcriptional activation functions of human Fli-1 protein". Oncogene. 8 (8): 2167-73. PMID ... which interacts with Fli-1 through protein-protein interactions. A recent study has demonstrated high levels of Fli-1 ...
The E6/E7 proteins inactivate two tumor suppressor proteins, p53 (inactivated by E6) and pRb (inactivated by E7).[14] The viral ... there needs to be activation of the ras oncogene. In the upper layers of the host epithelium, the late genes L1 and L2 are ... serves as an E7 mRNA to translate E7 protein.[99] However, viral early transcription subjects to viral E2 regulation and high ... E6 produces a protein (also called E6) that binds to and inactivates a protein in the host cell called p53. Normally, p53 acts ...
... a protein V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog Kras Stadion, a stadium in Volendam, Netherlands Kras, Istria ...
"Association between an oncogene and an anti-oncogene: the adenovirus E1A proteins bind to the retinoblastoma gene product". ... A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General ... In 1981 Michael Wigler co-discovers H-RAS, the first human cancer-causing gene, or oncogene; ... In 1988 Ed Harlow demonstrates that cancer-causing and cancer-preventing genes (oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes) interact; ...
... pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are ... Nontransforming viruses can randomly insert their DNA into proto-oncogenes, disrupting the expression of proteins that regulate ... This step will also make viral enzymes and capsid proteins (8). Viral RNA will be made in the nucleus. These pieces are then ... Next, some of these RNA molecules are translated into viral proteins. For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of ...
Hershey, AD; Chase, M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal ... Braig M, Schmitt CA (March 2006). "Oncogene-induced senescence: putting the brakes on tumor development". Cancer Research 66 (6 ... Jacob F; Monod J (June 1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J Mol Biol. 3 (3): 318-56. doi: ... Wu, DD; Irwin, DM; Zhang, YP (November 2011). "De novo origin of human protein-coding genes.". PLOS Genetics 7 (11): e1002379. ...
a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... A non-viral PDGF "bio patch" can regenerate missing or damaged bone by delivering DNA in a nano-sized particle directly into ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... The "c-Sis" oncogene is derived from PDGF.[26][32] Age related downregulation of the PDGF receptor on islet beta cells has been ...
Gao L, Aizaki H, He JW, Lai MM (2004). "Interactions between viral nonstructural proteins and host protein hVAP-33 mediate the ... Oncogene. 22 (21): 3307-18. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206406. PMID 12761501. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete ... Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAPA gene. Together with ... "Phosphorylation of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A modulates its protein interactions and viral RNA replication". ...
Their discovery triggered the identification of many other cellular proto-oncogenes-progenitors of viral oncogenes and targets ... discovery of ribosomal frameshifting to make retroviral proteins (with Tyler Jacks[16]); isolation of a cellular receptor for ... "Harold E. Varmus - Nobel Lecture: Retroviruses and Oncogenes I". nobelprize.org.. *^ The Lasker Foundation - 1982 Basic Medical ... Their best-known accomplishment[7] was the identification of a cellular gene (c-src) that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of ...
The protein ZIP1 is responsible for the active transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of the zinc's important roles is to ... Viral infection. Papilloma virus has been proposed in several studies to have a potential role in prostate cancer, but as of ... "Oncogene. 29 (9): 1293-302. doi:10.1038/onc.2009.420. PMC 2896817 . PMID 19946339.. ... Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ...
... and V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2 (AKT2). GLTPD1 is involved in the fatty acid metabolism, while AKT2 pertains ... Transcriptome sequencing has identified two genes that are under positive selection: Glycolipid transfer protein domain ...
Neoplasm: Tumor suppressor genes/proteins and Oncogenes/Proto-oncogenes. Ligand. Growth factors. ... HIV infected individuals who naturally suppress viral replication have elevated levels of p21 and its associated mRNA. p21 ... protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • ...
This fusion protein has enzyme activity that can be inhibited by imatinib, a small molecule drug.[119][120][121][122] ... The susceptibility of an individual to liver damage can be altered by other factors such as the cancer itself, viral hepatitis ... These factors lead to accumulations of genetic mutations in oncogenes (genes that control the growth rate of cells) and tumor ... As different proteins are utilised by different cancer types, the targeted therapy drugs are used on a cancer type specific, or ...
viral translational termination-reinitiation. • protein biosynthesis. • IRES-dependent viral translational initiation. • ... "Monoclonal antibodies to individual tyrosine-phosphorylated protein substrates of oncogene-encoded tyrosine kinases". Proc. ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (eIF3a) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3A gene.[5][6][7] ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134 ...
Template:DNA and protein biosynthesis navs(edit talk links history)- Genetics ({{Protein biosynthesis navs}}, R) ...
"Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal of General Physiology. 36 (1 ... and gain of function mutations in the Ras proteins, or in other oncogenes. ... 2002), I.3. Proteins: The Shape and Structure of Proteins *^ Alberts et al. (2002), I.3. Proteins: Protein Function Archived 25 ... like the fibers formed by the protein collagen. Proteins can bind to other proteins and simple molecules, sometimes acting as ...
While it was known that plants expressing virus-specific proteins showed enhanced tolerance or resistance to viral infection, ... oncogene).[154] It has also been proposed that RNAi can enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents, ... Researchers believed that viral RNA produced by transgenes could also inhibit viral replication.[195] The reverse experiment, ... In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein Chp1, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function.[ ...
... leading to the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. ... "Negative regulation of BRCA1 gene expression by HMGA1 proteins accounts for the reduced BRCA1 protein levels in sporadic breast ... miRNAs do not code for proteins, but can "target" protein-coding genes and reduce their expression. ... Croce CM (January 2008). "Oncogenes and cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (5): 502-11. doi:10.1056/NEJMra072367 ...
"Suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing by a plant viral protein localized in the nucleus". EMBO J 19 (7): 1672-80. ... Zhang B, Pan X, Cobb G, Anderson T (2007). "microRNAs as oncogenes and tumor suppressors". Dev Biol 302 (1): 1-12. PMID ... Os investigadores crían que o ARN viral producido por transxenes podía tamén inhibir a replicación viral.[148] O experimento ... á infección viral, non se agardaba que as plantas que levasen só rexións non codificantes curtas de secuencias de ARN viral ...
miR-181 expression has a reverse correlation with Tcl1 protein expression. mir-181 a and b are over-expressed and act as bad ... It has been shown that the Tcl1 oncogene is a target of miR-181a in an inhibition relation (downregulated) that would result in ... "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells". Proceedings of the ... It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 and participates in establishing muscle tissue ...
"The C-terminus of the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein mediates interaction with the PDZ domain of cellular proteins". Oncogene. 16 (5): ... viral process. • transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity ... GTP-dependent protein binding. • ‏GO:0001948 ربط بروتيني. • Rho GTPase binding. • protein kinase C binding. ... Joberty G، Petersen C، Gao L، Macara IG (2000). "The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C to ...
Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[104] Some ... Niu XY, Peng ZL, Duan WQ, Wang H, Wang P (2006). "Inhibition of HPV 16 E6 oncogene expression by RNA interference in vitro and ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Expression of viral proteins coupled to MHC proteins on the surface of the infected cell, allowing recognition by cells of the ...
The DNA contains the information on how the cell function; in practice, it contains the recipes for protein synthesis. If the ... proto-oncogene activation and inhibition of tumour suppressor genes. SCLC may originate from neuroendocrine cells located in ... "Effect of mild-to-moderate smoking on viral load, cytokines, oxidative stress, and cytochrome P450 enzymes in HIV-infected ...
SMAD protein signal transduction. • transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription initiation from RNA ... "A novel mediator of class II gene transcription with homology to viral immediate-early transcriptional regulators". Cell. 78 (3 ... Oncogene. 20 (4): 484-9. PMID 11313979. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204113. ... identical protein binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence- ...
viral RNA genome replication. • small GTPase mediated signal transduction. • protein ubiquitination. • positive regulation of ... Oncogene. 21 (24): 3939-48. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205478. PMID 12032833.. ... protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ...
Myb proto-oncogene protein also known as transcriptional activator Myb is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYB gene.[ ... "Entrez Gene: v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)".. *^ Vargova K, Curik N, Burda P, Basova P, Kulvait V, ... Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ... Favier D, Gonda TJ (1994). "Detection of proteins that bind to the leucine zipper motif of c-Myb". Oncogene. 9 (1): 305-11. ...
In 1997, a protein similar to CED-4 was identified, as well, at the laboratory of Xiaodong Wang (Department of Biochemistry, ... 1988). Reséarchers had been hot in the track of oncogenes (genes that played a prominent role in causing cancer), and now more ... The p53 response not only contributes to tumor suppression, but is also important in eliciting an apoptotic response to viral ... Horvitz would recount in his Nobel Lecture: "I believe that the fact that Bcl-2 proved to look like a worm protein that ...
The protein SPAR has been found to be encoded by a lncRNA in mice and humans, and in vivo has biologically significant function ... Li J, Witte DP, Van Dyke T, Askew DS (April 1997). "Expression of the putative proto-oncogene His-1 in normal and neoplastic ... increases during cellular stress such as viral infection in some cancer cells where they may similarly regulate global changes ... In the broad sense, this mechanism allows the cell to harness RNA-binding proteins, which make up one of the largest classes ...
For his achievements in demonstrating how changes in the gene produce changes in the way protein is made in the body. ... For the identification and characterization of cellular oncogenes of human and animal tumors, thereby providing seminal ... For his contributions to the understanding of eukaryotic, viral, and cellular messenger RNAs. ... For contributions to our understanding of signal transduction, regulation of protein movement into and out of the nucleus, and ...
protein complex binding. • scaffold protein binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • cysteine-type ... viral process. • response to ethanol. • response to cobalt ion. • activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved ... Alcivar A, Hu S, Tang J, Yang X (January 2003). "DEDD and DEDD2 associate with caspase-8/10 and signal cell death". Oncogene. ... The N-terminal FADD-like death effector domain of this protein suggests that it may interact with Fas-interacting protein FADD ...
Chaperone proteins are three times more likely, and mitochondrial genes are more than twice as likely. Many basic housekeeping ... Recent evidence also indicates that several genes (including the proto-oncogene c-myc) have G-quadruplex motifs as potential ... as one of the common infection techniques used by these viruses and generally transcribe late viral genes. Subgenomic promoters ... Identifying a Protein Binding Sites on DNA molecule YouTube tutorial video. *Pleiades Promoter Project - a research project ...
Protein productionEdit. Main article: Expression vector. Another major use of plasmids is to make large amounts of proteins. In ... Cytoplasmic viral episomes (as in poxvirus infections) can also occur. Some episomes, such as herpesviruses, replicate in a ... where the viruses express oncogenes that promote cancer cell proliferation. In cancers, these episomes passively replicate ... Plasmids may also be used for gene transfer as a potential treatment in gene therapy so that it may express the protein that is ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. B3CJ87. V-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Fragment). ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. B3CJ87. V-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Fragment). ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Three unrelated viral transforming proteins (vIRF, EBNA2, and E1A) induce the MYC oncogene through the interferon-responsive ... Three unrelated viral transforming proteins (vIRF, EBNA2, and E1A) induce the MYC oncogene through the interferon-responsive ... Three unrelated viral transforming proteins (vIRF, EBNA2, and E1A) induce the MYC oncogene through the interferon-responsive ... Three unrelated viral transforming proteins (vIRF, EBNA2, and E1A) induce the MYC oncogene through the interferon-responsive ...
Activation of the c-abl oncogene by viral transduction or chromosomal translocation generates altered c-abl proteins with ... Activation of the c-abl oncogene by viral transduction or chromosomal translocation generates altered c-abl proteins with ... Activation of the c-abl oncogene by viral transduction or chromosomal translocation generates altered c-abl proteins with ... Activation of the c-abl oncogene by viral transduction or chromosomal translocation generates altered c-abl proteins with ...
The encoded protein associates with the plasma membrane and may function as a signal transducer. This protein may play an ... RRAS2; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2; ras-related protein R-Ras2; TC21; ras-like protein TC21; teratocarcinoma ... Recombinant Mouse RRAS2 Protein. Mammalian Cells. Mouse. His. +Inquiry. RRAS2-4035R. Recombinant Rhesus monkey RRAS2 Protein, ... Recombinant Human Related RAS Viral (r-ras) Oncogene Homolog 2, His-tagged. E. coli. Human. His. +Inquiry. ...
The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor, which is encoded by the c-Myc gene on human chromosome 8q24. c-Myc is commonly ... CD71 (Cluster of Differentiation 71)/TfR1 (Transferrin Receptor Protein 1). MO47070. 100 ul. ...
NATURAL PROTEINS \ pro-794 for more molecular products just contact us ... Recombinant Human Neuroblastoma RAS Viral Oncogene Homolog RECOMBINANT & ... WP1256: NLR proteins. WP1294: NLR proteins. WP1360: NLR proteins. WP163: Cytoplasmic Ribosomal Proteins. WP1780: ABC-family ... NATURAL PROTEINS. Related products : Recombinant Human Neuroblastoma RAS Viral Oncogene Homolog RECOMBINANT & NATURAL PROTEINS ...
ProteoGenix provides you the best Recombinant proteins. Shop now from our 200 000 + products. ... Buy online Recombinant Human v-yes-1 Yamaguchi Sarcoma Viral Related Oncogene Protein from Prospec cat# pro-136. ... Proteins>Recombinant proteins>Recombinant Human v-yes-1 Yamaguchi Sarcoma Viral Related Oncogene Protein ... More info about Recombinant Human v-yes-1 Yamaguchi Sarcoma Viral Related Oncogene Protein. Catalog#: pro-136. ...
G-protein-coupled receptor of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is a viral oncogene and angiogenesis activator. Nature. ... G-protein-coupled receptor of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is a viral oncogene and angiogenesis activator. / Bais, ... title = "G-protein-coupled receptor of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is a viral oncogene and angiogenesis activator", ... T1 - G-protein-coupled receptor of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is a viral oncogene and angiogenesis activator ...
Apoptosis mediated by the proapoptotic BCL-2 family members BCL-2-associated X-protein (BAX) and BCL-2 antagonist/killer (BAK) ... These same v-BCL-2 proteins cooperate with loss of retinoblastoma protein and p53 tumor suppressor function, by inactivating ... Mechanisms of apoptosis regulation by viral oncogenes in infection and tumorigenesis Cell Death Differ. 2006 Aug;13(8):1371-7. ... Apoptosis mediated by the proapoptotic BCL-2 family members BCL-2-associated X-protein (BAX) and BCL-2 antagonist/killer (BAK) ...
Oncogene Proteins, Viral/genetics. *Oncogene Proteins, Viral/physiology*. *Papillomaviridae/genetics*. *Papillomaviridae/ ... The E6 and E7 proteins were detected in the lines induced by the E6E7 DNA and by co-transfection of the E6 and E7 plasmids. ... HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes.. Hawley-Nelson P1, Vousden KH, Hubbert NL, Lowy ... In this study we have determined the HPV16 genes that are responsible for the immortalizing activity of the viral genome. ...
Oncogene Proteins, Viral/metabolism. *Papillomaviridae/metabolism*. *Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology*. Substance. *Oncogene ... Furthermore, these proteins induce structural and numerical chromosome alterations and modulate cellular response to DNA damage ...
The MYCN gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays an important role in the formation of tissues and organs ... N-myc proto-oncogene protein. *neuroblastoma MYC oncogene. *neuroblastoma-derived v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral related ... v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived. *v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, ... v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog. *v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene ...
Recombinant measles virus (rMV) expressing HPV genotype 16 L1 capsid protein was generated by construction of an antigenomic ... Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics * Oncogene Proteins, Viral / immunology* * Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology* * ... The high genetic stability of MVb2-L1 was confirmed by 10 serial viral transfers in cell culture. In transgenic mice expressing ... Recombinant measles virus (rMV) expressing HPV genotype 16 L1 capsid protein was generated by construction of an antigenomic ...
Bicyclic protein mimetics inhibit the oncogene β-catenin. 2 hours ago Gold leaf could help diagnose viral infections in low- ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fes/Fps. A. 377. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: FES, FPS. EC: 2.7.10.2. ... Crystal structure of phosphorylated human feline sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (v-FES) in complex with staurosporine and a ...
Oncogene Proteins, Viral [D12.776.964.700]. *Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic [D12.776.964.700.750]. *Oncogene Proteins v-rel [ ... Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms ... "Oncogene Proteins v-rel" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Oncogene Proteins v-rel" was a major or ... "Oncogene Proteins v-rel" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
The GaHV-2 genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq, with similarity to the Jun/Fos family of proteins. We have previously shown that ... Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics * Oncogene Proteins, Viral / metabolism* * Protein Multimerization Substances * Eco-Q ... The GaHV-2 genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq, with similarity to the Jun/Fos family of proteins. We have previously shown that ...
The BRAF gene provides instructions for making a protein that helps transmit chemical signals from outside the cell to the ... B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase. *BRAF1. *BRAF1_HUMAN. *Murine sarcoma viral (v-raf) oncogene homolog B1 ... The BRAF gene belongs to a class of genes known as oncogenes. When mutated, oncogenes have the potential to cause normal cells ... These mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the BRAF protein. Almost all of these genetic changes ...
It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK. ... A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. ... Neoplasm Proteins: 2*Oncogene Proteins: 1748*Viral Oncogene Proteins: 10*Oncogenic Retroviridae Proteins*Oncogene Protein v-crk ... v-crk Oncogene Protein; Oncogene Protein v crk; Oncogene Protein, crk; Oncogene Protein, v-crk; crk, Oncogene Protein; v crk ...
0 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16); 0 (DNA, Viral); 0 (Oncogene Proteins, Viral). ... Cytoskeletal Proteins); 0 (Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); 0 (LIM Domain Proteins); 0 (PDLIM7 protein, human). ... 0 (Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Bone Density Conservation Agents); 0 (Proteins); 0 (SQSTM1 protein ... is associated with certain methylation patterns of the viral genome which promote the expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. ...
Proto-Oncogene Proteins); 0 (RNA, Viral); EC 3.6.1.- (DDX6 protein, human); EC 3.6.4.13 (DEAD-box RNA Helicases). ... RNA-Binding Proteins); 0 (Repressor Proteins); 0 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins); EC 3.6.1.- (DHH1 protein, S cerevisiae); ... 0 (5 Untranslated Regions); 0 (Internal Ribosome Entry Sites); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (RNA, Viral); 0 (Viral Proteins). ... The viral protein Vpg is covalently attached to the 5 end of both segments. There is little knowledge about its viral cycle, ...
... model viral oncogene that immortalizes primary cells and mediates oncogenic cell transformation in cooperation with other viral ... Adenovirus E1A Proteins / metabolism*. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / metabolism*. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. ... 0/Adenovirus E1A Proteins; 0/Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0/Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0/Virulence Factors ... The E1A gene of species C human adenovirus is an intensely investigated model viral oncogene that immortalizes primary cells ...
N myc proto oncogene protein. *N-myc proto-oncogene protein. *Neuroblastoma derived v myc avian myelocytomatosis viral related ... V myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog. *v myc avian myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ...
Acutely transforming retroviruses contain a viral oncogene (v-onc ) and induce polyclonal cancers (that is, many different ... Viral proteins are made in the cytoplasm of the host cell by cellular ribosomes. ... Some retroviruses have incorporated viral oncogene sequences. An example of this is reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T. The ... see also AIDS; Oncogenes and Cancer Cells; Protein Synthesis; Replication; Reverse Transcriptase; Transcription; Transposon; ...
Prior treatment with a Oncogene fusion protein (BCR-ABL) inhibitor. *Extramedullary involvement of the testicles ...
Proto oncogene tyrosine protein kinase Kit. *SCFR *v kit Hardy Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog ... c-kit was first identified as the cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit. KIT is a type 3 transmembrane ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By ... KIT encodes the human homolog of the proto-oncogene c-kit. ...
LMP1 is an integral membrane protein which acts like a constitutively active ... encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is essential for the immortalization of human B cells and is linked etiologically to ... 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0/Transcription Factor AP-1; 0/Viral Matrix Proteins; EC 2.7.11.24/JNK Mitogen-Activated ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / metabolism*. Signal Transduction / physiology*. Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism*. Tumor ...
Adenovirus E2 Proteins [D12.776.624.664.520.045.060]. *Viral Proteins [D12.776.964]. *Oncogene Proteins, Viral [D12.776.964.700 ... Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication. ... Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with Brd4 tethers the viral DNA to host mitotic chromosomes. Cell. 2004 Apr ... "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 37. *MODED. *neuroblastoma-derived v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene ... v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived. *v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, ... n-Myc, also known as bHLHe37, NMYC, N-myc proto-oncogene protein, and MYCN, is a transcriptional regulator of cell ... This protein is located in the nucleus and must dimerize with another bHLH protein in order to bind DNA. Amplification of this ...
DNA-Binding Proteins E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 18 Oncogene Proteins, Viral ... DNA-Binding Proteins Female Genetic Variation Genotype Human papillomavirus 18 Humans Molecular Typing Oncogene Proteins, Viral ...
  • Recombinant Human Neuroblastoma RAS Viral Oncogene Homolog RECOMBINANT & NATURAL PROTEINS Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Recombinant Human Neuroblastoma RAS Viral Oncogene Homolog RECOMBINANT & NATURAL PROTEINS. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK. (curehunter.com)
  • KIT encodes the human homolog of the proto-oncogene c-kit. (abcam.com)
  • c-kit was first identified as the cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit. (abcam.com)
  • This gene is the cellular homolog of viral raf gene (v-raf). (genecards.org)
  • FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog is commonly known as Cellular protooncogene Fos (c-Fos). (thermofisher.com)
  • The KRAS gene ( Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog ), produces proteins called K-Ras that influence when cells divide. (news-medical.net)
  • Several factors are involved in enhanced TF expression in tumor tissues, such as hypoxia or genetic modifications of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, e.g. tumor protein p53 (TP53) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) (2, 4, 17). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cow´s milk (subsequently termed "milk") appears to promote mTORC1 signaling by providing amino acids that function as endocrine messengers to increase IGF-1 and insulin secretion as well as by milk-derived exosomal regulatory microRNAs (miRs), especially miR-21, which attenuates the inhibitory effects of various tumor suppressor proteins like phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), Sprouty 1 and 2 and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) on mTORC1-signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Your search returned 11 v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)-like 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 4 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • v-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog 1 [EC:2.7.1. (wikipathways.org)
  • The SPRED1 protein is a negative regulator of the RAS (rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)‐MAPK (mitogen‐activated protein kinase) pathway. (els.net)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 82 V-Ral Simian Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog B (Ras Related, GTP Binding Protein) (Ralb) Antikörper von 21 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src , also known as proto-oncogene c-Src or simply c-Src , is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • KSHV infects malignant and progenitor cells of Kaposi's sarcoma and PEL, it encodes putative oncogenes and genes that may cause Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis by stimulating angiogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study we have determined the HPV16 genes that are responsible for the immortalizing activity of the viral genome. (nih.gov)
  • The MYCN protein regulates the activity of other genes by attaching (binding) to specific regions of DNA and controlling the first step of protein production (transcription). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The MYCN gene belongs to a class of genes known as oncogenes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, only half the normal amount of this protein is available to control the activity of specific genes during development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The BRAF gene belongs to a class of genes known as oncogenes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis validated their identity of dicot microsomal or plastidial ω-3 FAD proteins, and revealed some important evolutionary features of plant ω-3 FAD genes such as convergent evolution across different phylums, single-copy status in algae, and duplication events in certain taxa. (bireme.br)
  • The late region contains two genes, which code for the capsid proteins L1 and L2. (inchem.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that shear stress induces several genes that encode proteins implicated in atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases, including MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, PDGF, nitric oxide synthase, and c- fos proto-oncogene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the transcriptional mechanism of HIF-1ɑ/β and HIF-2ɑ/β in activating hypoxia-inducible genes is prominent, other mechanisms are necessary to be coordinated that ensure swift and robust adjustment of protein expression levels in response to hypoxia. (nature.com)
  • c-Fos heterodimerizes with c-Jun to form the Activator Protein -1 (AP-1) transcription factor which regulates transcription of several genes that play an important role in cellular signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Expression of two viral genes called E6 and E7 are fundamental to the process, as well as a sequence of epigenetic effects. (brighthub.com)
  • Other genes proposed in 2005 by Harrison and Weinberger included G72, D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), regulator of G-protein signalling 4 (RGS4), proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), mGluR3, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), COMT, NRG1 and dystrobrevin-binding protein 1( dysbindin , or DTNBP1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The susceptibility genes with the strongest evidence are dystrobrevin binding protein 1 or dysbindin (DTNB1) and neuregulin 1 (NRG1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome, transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the cell's own genes, producing the proteins required to assemble new copies of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, all organs expressing HPV oncogenes displayed up-regulation of several E2F1 target genes. (mdpi.com)
  • It is able to transactivate viral as well as cellular target genes by interaction with cellular transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • In the presence of estrogen the ER-EBNA2 fusion protein is located in the nucleus and can transactivate its target genes, whereas in the absence of estrogen the ER-EBNA2 fusion protein is sequestered to the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • Whereas some of these regions contain known (or candidate) oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, the biologically relevant genes within other regions remain to be identified ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is similar to what is seen in a group of disorders caused by mutations in other genes coding for key proteins of the RAS‐MAPK pathway (referred as RASopathies). (els.net)
  • The GaHV-2 genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq, with similarity to the Jun/Fos family of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The gag (group antigen) gene encodes proteins that make up the nucleocapsid of the virus as well as a matrix layer, the two of which surround the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • n-Myc is a member of the MYC family and encodes a protein with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain. (novusbio.com)
  • This gene is a proto-oncogene and encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. (origene.com)
  • The ABL1 protooncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response. (discoverx.com)
  • The viral genomic RNA (G-RNA) is first replicated into the full-length antigenomic RNA (AG-RNA) and is also transcribed into a 0.8-kb mRNA, which encodes the only HDV protein, hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The human genome encodes four SUMO proteins: SUMO1 to SUMO4 ( 13 , 17 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The relA gene encodes a protein composed 551 amino acids with an approximately molecular weight of 65 kDa. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • RAF1 activation initiates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that comprises a sequential phosphorylation of the dual-specific MAPK kinases (MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2). (genecards.org)
  • In both a defined K-Ras-transformed fibroblast model and in human tumor cell lines with mutationally activated Ras, MCP110 selectively synergizes with other agents targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and with multiple agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, and vincristine) targeting the microtubule network. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This analysis showed that MCP compounds inhibited Ras-induced activation of the Raf and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, Ras-induced cell migration, morphologic changes and anchorage-independent growth, and Ras-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteases and cyclin D1 ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • mTORC2 therefore functionally acts as the long-sought PDK2 molecule, although other molecules, including Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activated Kinase-2 ( MAPKAPK2 ) can also serve as PDK2. (wikidoc.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor, which is encoded by the c-Myc gene on human chromosome 8q24. (neuromics.com)
  • The MYCN gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during development before birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The MYCN gene is a member of the Myc family of oncogenes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These genetic changes prevent one copy of the gene in each cell from producing any functional MYCN protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The BRAF gene provides instructions for making a protein that helps transmit chemical signals from outside the cell to the cell's nucleus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The BRAF gene mutations change single amino acids in the BRAF protein: One mutation replaces the amino acid threonine with the amino acid proline at position 241 (written as Thr241Pro or T241P) and the other mutation replaces the amino acid leucine with the amino acid phenylalanine at position 245 (written as Leu245Phe or L245F). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The BRAF gene changes that cause Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines are believed to abnormally activate the BRAF protein, which disrupts the regulation of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway that controls cell functions such as proliferation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of viral gene expression. (bireme.br)
  • The E1A gene of species C human adenovirus is an intensely investigated model viral oncogene that immortalizes primary cells and mediates oncogenic cell transformation in cooperation with other viral or cellular oncogenes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transformation of fibroblasts by several retroviruses that produce transforming gene products associated with protein kinase activity results in the phosphorylation of a normal cellular protein with an Mr of 34,000 (the 34K protein). (biomedsearch.com)
  • RAF1 (Raf-1 Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and protein kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. (genecards.org)
  • AKT1 (AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Similarly, c-Src should not be mistaken for v-Src , a viral (hence the prefix v- ) gene that shares similarity with c-Src and is also an oncogene, which can be found in Rous sarcoma virus . (wikidoc.org)
  • Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. (wikidoc.org)
  • [5] This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikidoc.org)
  • Eventually this normal gene mutated into an abnormally functioning oncogene within the Rous sarcoma virus . (wikidoc.org)
  • pronounced "sarc", as it is short for sarcoma), is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to a family of Src family kinases and is similar to the v-Src (viral Src) gene of Rous sarcoma virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the mechanisms that enable EBV to infect nonactivated, noncycling B cells provide compelling evidence for a sequence of events in which EBV binding to CD21 on purified resting human B cells rapidly activates the NF-kappaB transcription factor, which, in turn, binds to and mediates transcriptional activation of Wp, the initial viral latent gene promoter. (nih.gov)
  • The earlier time frame for viral gene transcription obtained here in comparison to previous studies is undoubtedly explained by the use of the more sensitive RT PCR technique. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of muscle cells with cycloheximide to inhibit c-JUN synthesis at the protein level and suppression of c-JUN function by a dominant-negative mutant blocked neuregulin-induced expression of the ε-subunit gene, indicating an essential role of c-JUN in neuregulin signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKT3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the AKT subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this respect, it should be evident that among some of the most researched gene candidates such as DTNBP1 ( dysbindin ), NRG1 (neuregulin), RGS4 (G-protein signalling 4) provide only minor and subtle clues as to what is their involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as any issues relating to genetic risk factors (Allen et al, 2008). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Epitope tags provide a method to localize gene products in a variety of cell types, study the topology of proteins and protein complexes, identify associated proteins, and characterize newly identified, low abundance or poorly immunogenic proteins when protein specific antibodies are not available. (thermofisher.com)
  • The promyelocytic leukemia tumor suppressor gene (PML) critically regulates several cellular functions that oppose tumorigenesis such as oncogene-induced senescence, apoptosis, the response to DNA damage and to viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The RNA genome also has terminal noncoding regions, which are important in replication, and internal regions that encode virion proteins for gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a regulatory link between the membrane-associated Ras GTPases and the MAPK/ERK cascade, and this critical regulatory link functions as a switch determining cell fate decisions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, survival and oncogenic transformation. (genecards.org)
  • AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. (genecards.org)
  • These enzymes are members of the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase family ( EC 2.7.11.1 ). (wikidoc.org)
  • Your search returned 72 B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • MBS077112 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich (Quantitative) ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the C-Raf Proto Oncogene Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase (CRAF) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • We find that this receptor can activate two protein kinases, JNK/SAPK and p38MAPK, by triggering signalling cascades like those induced by inflammatory cytokines that are angiogenesis activators and mitogens for Kaposi's sarcoma cells and B cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract -The aim of this study was to elucidate the upstream signaling mechanism that mediates the fluid shear stress activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Once activated, the cellular RAF1 protein can phosphorylate to activate the dual specificity protein kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate to a. (genecards.org)
  • adhesion receptors , receptor tyrosine kinases , G-protein coupled receptors and cytokine receptors . (wikidoc.org)
  • It activated the un-mutated, wild-type B-Raf protein kinases, which again triggered melanoma. (phys.org)
  • c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein coupled receptors and cytokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon binding to their receptors, peptide growth factors initiate a cascade of signaling events which leads to the activation of cellular Ras, which in turn functions as a molecular switch to transmit mitogenic signals to a cascade of cytoplasmic kinases ( 35 ), ultimately resulting in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • For example, PI 3-kinases may be activated by a G protein coupled receptor or receptor tyrosine kinase such as the insulin receptor . (wikidoc.org)
  • In our previous studies we showed antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of protein kinases inhibitor pyrrol derivate 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) on rat colon cancer model. (hindawi.com)
  • A number of protein kinases can phosphorylate RelA and consequently potentiate the transcriptional activity of NF-kB complexes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Purified recombinant protein of Homo sapiens epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFR vIII) extracellular domain, residues Leu25-Ser378, with C-terminal DDK/His tag, expressed in HEK293 cells. (origene.com)
  • Investigations have indicated that exactly the transition from the permissive infection stage to a transformation stage, where neoplastic alterations can occur due to expression of the viral oncogenes, is associated with certain methylation patterns of the viral genome which promote the expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. (bireme.br)
  • Different assays are now available that can detect small amounts of HPV DNA, quantify the amount of viral DNA in clinical specimens, identify a broad spectrum of genital and cutaneous HPV types, test for selected HPV types and localize the viral genome and viral transcripts to individual cells. (inchem.org)
  • For Wp to represent a target of the signaling pathway, the viral genome must have reached the nucleus and transcriptional activation of Wp must have occurred within the time frame of EBV-induced NF-κB activation. (nih.gov)
  • For carcinogenesis to occur, the viral DNA must integrate into the host genome. (brighthub.com)
  • demonstrated that mutation of the oncogene KRAS led to increased TF expression in colorectal cancer cells (17). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus is definitely a complicated disease that's seen as a gross derangement in carbohydrate, proteins, and fat rate of metabolism. (antibodyassay.com)
  • These same v-BCL-2 proteins cooperate with loss of retinoblastoma protein and p53 tumor suppressor function, by inactivating the BAX and BAK apoptotic pathway to promote epithelial solid tumor growth and resistance to chemotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • Investigations using E1A proteins have illuminated important paradigms in cell proliferation and about the functions of cellular proteins such as the retinoblastoma protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, passage through G 1 phase in quiescent and proliferating cells exhibits several important molecular differences, including expression of the cyclin-inhibitory protein p27 kip1 ( 3 ), Cdc6 ( 42 ), and Fos and related proteins ( 14 ), and formation of a complex between E2F and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-related p130 ( 19 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • This inhibits the function of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). (brighthub.com)
  • HPV expresses the viral oncogene E7 that binds to the retinoblastoma protein (RB1) in order to activate the E2F pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Most of these mutations lead to a premature stop signal in the instructions for making the protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the BRAF protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The E17 hotspot is the most characterized of AKT1 mutations, and has been shown to result in activation of the protein. (genecards.org)
  • In 2002, scientists found a link between skin cancer and mutations of B-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase, a protein that's part of the signal chain that starts outside the cell and goes inside to direct cell growth. (phys.org)
  • Though mutations in viral Fos proteins confer full resistance to proteasomal degradation, stabilization is limited because mutations also entail sensitivity to an unidentified proteolytic system. (cnrs.fr)
  • 2005) Germline mutations in HRAS proto‐oncogene cause Costello syndrome. (els.net)
  • This protein is part of a signaling pathway known as the RAS/MAPK pathway, which controls several important cell functions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Almost all of these genetic changes abnormally activate the protein, which disrupts the tightly regulated RAS/MAPK signaling pathway in cells throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. (wikidoc.org)
  • Antibodies to early HPV proteins have also been detected in patients with HPV-associated diseases as well as in healthy individuals. (inchem.org)
  • Antibodies against c-myc epitopes recognize overexpressed proteins containing Myc epitope tag fused to either amino- or carboxy-termini of targeted proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • It is an integral membrane protein of 386 amino acids (aa) composed of a short intracellular N terminus, six hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and an intracellular C terminus including three functional domains, CTAR1, CTAR2, and CTAR3 (for C-terminal activator region). (asm.org)
  • The F-box domain is a protein structural motif of about 50 amino acids that mediates protein-protein interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • 704 amino acids, 93kDa protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Depending on the species, pol can also encode protease, a protein that cleaves the initial multiprotein products of retrovirus translation to make functional proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Furthermore, several viruses encode viral proteins that promote viral replication through degradation of PML. (frontiersin.org)
  • The production of HDAg, which is intimately involved in HDV RNA replication, is a unique feature distinguishing HDV from plant viroids, which do not encode any protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we show that signalling by this KSHV G- protein-coupled receptor leads to cell transformation and tumorigenicity, and induces a switch to an angiogenic phenotype mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor, an angiogenesis and Kaposi's-spindle-cell growth factor. (elsevier.com)
  • On the basis of the prediction that other interferon-inhibiting viral transforming proteins behave similarly, we found that Epstein-Barr virus-induced nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) also binds p300/CBP, and that both EBNA2 and adenovirus E1A transactivate MYC through the PRF element. (pnas.org)
  • Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about 2000-4000 copies per virion. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD28 is the receptor for CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) proteins which are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). (creative-biolabs.com)
  • EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is one of the first viral proteins expressed after infection. (asm.org)
  • Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is a nuclear protein that is intimately involved in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although viral nucleocapsids are detectable near the nucleus 60 to 90 min after infection (29), EBNA 2 RNA and protein have not been detected until 8-12 h after EBV addition (13, 14). (nih.gov)
  • We have developed an animal model to evaluate the consequences of a viral infection characterized by lack of fetal transmission. (jimmunol.org)
  • The experiments described in this work show that viral infection of the placenta can elicit a fetal inflammatory response that, in turn, can cause organ damage and potentially downstream developmental deficiencies. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that viral infection of the placenta may sensitize the pregnant mother to bacterial products and promote preterm labor. (jimmunol.org)
  • Most viral infections affecting the mother do not cause congenital fetal infection, and only in a small number of cases is the virus found in the fetuses ( 12 - 17 ), attesting to the unique ability of the placenta to act as a potent barrier with an immune-regulatory function that protects the fetus from systemic infection ( 10 , 12 , 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOPTOSIS, a morphologically distinguished type of programmed cell death, is critical not only during development but also in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including cancer, autoimmune disease, viral infection, and neurodegenerative disorders. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Apoptosis mediated by the proapoptotic BCL-2 family members BCL-2-associated X-protein (BAX) and BCL-2 antagonist/killer (BAK) is part of the antiviral response at the cellular level to limit virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • The potential role of these opposing functions in viral replication in epithelial cells is also discussed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several of these are required for viral DNA replication. (harvard.edu)
  • The early region codes for proteins involved in the regulation of viral transcription (E2), viral DNA replication (E1 and E2), cell proliferation (E5, E6 and E7) and, possibly, some late steps in the viral life cycle (E4). (inchem.org)
  • Many DNA virus replication-related proteins are associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), which has been investigated for its potential involvement in viral replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that the KSHV G-protein-coupled receptor is a viral oncogene that can exploit cell signalling pathways to induce transformation and angiogenesis in KSHV-mediated oncogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, these proteins induce structural and numerical chromosome alterations and modulate cellular response to DNA damage. (nih.gov)
  • Akt1 is also able to induce protein synthesis pathways, and is therefore a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and general tissue growth. (wikidoc.org)
  • Polimorphisms can induce changes in protein conformation and therefore may in part deactivate B-MYB functions. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This protein may play an important role in activating signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by an open reading frame (ORF 74) of KSHV is expressed in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and in PEL and stimulates signalling pathways linked to cell proliferation in a constitutive (agonist-independent) way. (elsevier.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells evolved highly complex and accurate protein synthesis machinery that is finely tuned by various signaling pathways. (bireme.br)
  • Thus, p60src plays a critical role in the shear stress activation of MAPK pathways and induction of Activating Protein-1 (AP-1)/TRE and Elk-1/SRE-mediated transcription in ECs. (ahajournals.org)
  • It was also shown that shear stress differentially regulates JNK and ERK by signaling that involves PTx-insensitive G protein-dependent and G i2 -dependent pathways, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of nuclear oncogene activity by cellular and viral proteins. (linkgroup.hu)
  • Although sumoylated proteins have been found throughout the cell, most of the known SUMO targets are cellular and viral proteins that function in the nucleus ( 19 , 56 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Characterization of a human REL-estrogen receptor fusion protein with a reverse conditional transforming activity in chicken spleen cells. (harvard.edu)
  • We could show that the viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is responsible for the induction of CD83 by using an LCL expressing a ligand- or antibody-inducible recombinant nerve growth factor receptor-LMP1 fusion protein. (asm.org)
  • Full length human recombinant protein of human FOS produced in E.coli. (thermofisher.com)
  • MYC MS Standard C13 and N15-labeled recombinant protein (NP_002458) with a C-terminal MYC/DDK tag, was expressed in HEK293 cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The study of this virus family has led to the discovery of oncogenes , resulting in a quantum advance in the field of cancer genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The genetics of papilloma virus and the pathogenesis of HPV associated malignancy is better understood than many other viral induced cancers. (brighthub.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vIRF is a viral transcription factor that inhibits interferon signaling and transforms NIH 3T3 cells, but does not bind interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) DNA sequences. (pnas.org)
  • On the basis of this action, this protein is called a transcription factor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the related transcription factor MAX. (origene.com)
  • Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), PML oncogenic domain (POD) or PML nuclear bodies (PML-NB), has tumor suppressive and antiviral defense activities. (frontiersin.org)
  • PML is the NBs' organizer ( 20 , 26 ), since in acute promyelocytic leukemia and in PML knockout −/− cells, PML NBs do not exist, and proteins normally recruited to these structures are no longer NB-associated and present a diffuse nuclear localization outside the NBs. (asm.org)
  • 3 Relatively high levels of Bcl-2 protein have been detected in 20% of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and in 70% with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. (curehunter.com)
  • Some retroviruses have incorporated viral oncogene sequences. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In all retroviruses the Gag protein is the precursor to the internal structural protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-clinical immunogenicity of human papillomavirus alpha-7 and alpha-9 major capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic relationship between the major capsid proteins of the Alpha-7 and Alpha-9 genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • A) Amino acid sequences of the L1 major capsid proteins representing both VLP and pseudoviruses of the Alpha-7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59, HPV68) and Alpha-9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58) genotypes and the control BPV [20]. (nih.gov)
  • This virion is composed of a single-stranded RNA molecule of positive polarity surrounded by an icosahedral capsid composed of four proteins, VP1 to VP4. (asm.org)
  • Transcription from Wp does not require new protein synthesis (28). (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, in quiescent cells the restriction point is identical to the G 1 arrest point induced by other conditions, including protein synthesis inhibitors and amino acid deprivation ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • EBNA2 is a master regulator that transactivates viral (e.g. (asm.org)
  • Notably, either inhibiting apoptosis (by exogenously expressing antiapoptotic Bcl family proteins) or enhancing proliferation (via Cyclin D1 or HPV E7 overexpression) does not result in luminal filling, suggesting glandular architecture is resistant to such isolated oncogenic insults. (nih.gov)
  • However, the lumen is filled when oncogenes that enhance proliferation are coexpressed with those that inhibit apoptosis, or when ErbB2, which induces both activities, is activated by homodimerization. (nih.gov)
  • This observation is consistent with the idea that Fos-expressing viruses have evolved to ensure control protein levels to avoid high protein accumulation-linked apoptosis. (cnrs.fr)
  • By identifying microRNAs implicated in Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, it is envisaged that protein targets involved in same can be identified through specifically selected microRNAs. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Here, we assessed the extent to which E2F1 mediates lethality of HPV oncogenes. (mdpi.com)
  • The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Fan G, Fan Y, Gupta N, Matsuura I, Liu F, Zhou XZ, Lu KP, Gélinas C. Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 markedly enhances the oncogenic activity of the rel proteins in the nuclear factor-kappaB family. (harvard.edu)
  • PML nuclear bodies (NBs) are dynamic intranuclear structures harboring numerous transiently or permanently localized proteins. (asm.org)
  • Nuclear matrix-targeting of PML was shown, however, to occur independently of SUMOylation ( 23 ), even though this modification of PML is important for formation of NBs and the recruitment of specific proteins to these structures ( 20 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • This mutation leads to production of a BRAF protein that is abnormally active, which disrupts regulation of cell proliferation and may allow histiocytes to grow and divide uncontrollably, leading to the abnormal accumulation of histiocytes that occurs in Erdheim-Chester disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This mutation leads to production of a BRAF protein that is abnormally active, which disrupts regulation of cell proliferation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Plays a role in the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells via repression of the TJ protein, occludin (OCLN) by inducing the up-regulation of a transcriptional repressor SNAI2/SLUG, which induces down-regulation of OCLN. (genecards.org)
  • HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms of milk signaling presented here have been elucidated by translational research of the endocrine effects of cow´s milk consumption as well as individual protein components of bovine milk (whey protein and casein) on human subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exon-intron structure of human SPRED1 showing noncoding sequences as open boxes and protein‐coding exons as filled grey boxes. (els.net)
  • Proteomics-based identification of proteins secreted in apical surface fluid of squamous metaplastic human tracheobronchial epithelial cells cultured by three-dimensional organotypic air-liquid interface method. (labome.org)
  • This protein is located in the nucleus and must dimerize with another bHLH protein in order to bind DNA. (novusbio.com)
  • 7 Interestingly, expression levels of the Bcl-2 family of proteins change as tumors become more malignant or after treatment suggesting that expression of these survival proteins is critical not only for tumor development, but also for tumor progression and resistance to therapy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • F-box proteins (FBPs) are a large and diverse family of proteins present in all eukaryotes that are characterized by presence of the F-box domain [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The mutation affects a single amino acid in the BRAF protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. (umassmed.edu)
  • Oncogene Proteins v-rel" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • RALB is activated by a unique nucleotide exchange factor, Ral GDS, and deactivated by a distinct GTPase-activating protein. (prospecbio.com)
  • Neurofibromin and SPRED1 are both negative regulators of this pathway, neurofibromin as a RAS‐GAP (GTPase‐activating protein) and SPRED1 with its effect on RAS-RAF interaction. (els.net)