Transforming proteins coded by sis oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-sis is related to its interaction with the PDGF receptor and also its ability to alter other transcription factors.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION product from a GENE FUSION between a sequence from the tpr protein gene on the human CHROMOSOME 1 and the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Transforming glycoprotein coded by the fms oncogene from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SM-FeSV). The oncogene protein v-fms lacks sequences, which, in the highly homologous proto-oncogene protein c-fms (CSF-1 receptor), normally serve to regulate its tyrosine kinase activity. The missing sequences in v-fms mimic the effect of ligand and lead to constitutive cell growth. The protein gp120(v-fms) is post-translationally modified to generate gp140(v-fms).
Transforming proteins coded by mos oncogenes. The v-mos proteins were originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV).
Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.
Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.
A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.
An oncoprotein from the Cas NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces pre- B-CELL LYMPHOMA and MYELOID LEUKEMIAS. v-cbl protein is a tyrosine-phosphorylated, truncated form of its cellular homologue, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CBL.
Transforming proteins encoded by erbB oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The protein is a truncated form of the EGF receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR) whose kinase domain is constitutively activated by deletion of the ligand-binding domain.
Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.
Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
A viral oncoprotein originally isolated from a murine T CELL LYMPHOMA infected with the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8. v-akt protein is the viral homologue of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-AKT.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
A raf kinase subclass found at high levels in neuronal tissue. The B-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) capable of transforming mouse lymphoid cells and producing erythroid leukemia after superinfection with murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE). It has also been found to transform cultured human fibroblasts, rat liver epithelial cells, and rat adrenocortical cells.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the myb gene (GENES, MYB). They are expressed in a wide variety of cells including thymocytes and lymphocytes, and regulate cell differentiation. Overexpression of myb is associated with autoimmune diseases and malignancies.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (1/2912)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (2/2912)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Identification of Grb4/Nckbeta, a src homology 2 and 3 domain-containing adapter protein having similar binding and biological properties to Nck. (3/2912)

Adapter proteins made up of Src homology (SH) domains mediate multiple cellular signaling events initiated by receptor protein tyrosine kinases. Here we report that Grb4 is an adapter protein closely related to but distinct from Nck that is made up of three SH3 domains and one SH2 domain. Northern analysis indicated that both genes are expressed in multiple tissues. Both Nck and Grb4 proteins could associate with receptor tyrosine kinases and the SH3-binding proteins PAK, Sos1, and PRK2, and they synergized with v-Abl and Sos to induce gene expression via the transcription factor Elk-1. Although neither protein was transforming on its own, both Nck and Grb4 cooperated with v-Abl to transform NIH 3T3 cells and influenced the morphology and anchorage-dependent growth of wild type Ras-transformed cells. Nck and Grb4 therefore appear to be functionally redundant.  (+info)

Control of neuronal precursor proliferation in the cerebellum by Sonic Hedgehog. (4/2912)

Cerebellar granule cells are the most abundant type of neuron in the brain, but the molecular mechanisms that control their generation are incompletely understood. We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is made by Purkinje cells, regulates the division of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Treatment of GCPs with Shh prevents differentiation and induces a potent, long-lasting proliferative response. This response can be inhibited by basic fibroblast growth factor or by activation of protein kinase A. Blocking Shh function in vivo dramatically reduces GCP proliferation. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of normal growth and tumorigenesis in the cerebellum.  (+info)

Developmental pathways: Sonic hedgehog-Patched-GLI. (5/2912)

Developmental pathways are networks of genes that act coordinately to establish the body plan. Disruptions of genes in one pathway can have effects in related pathways and may result in serious dysmorphogenesis or cancer. Environmental exposures can be associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including dysmorphic offspring or children with a variety of diseases. An important goal of environmental science should be reduction of these poor outcomes. This will require an understanding of the genes affected by specific exposures and the consequence of alterations in these genes or their products, which in turn will require an understanding of the pathways critical in development. The ligand Sonic hedgehog, the receptors Patched and Smoothened, and the GLI family of transcription factors represent one such pathway. This pathway illustrates several operating principles important in the consideration of developmental consequences of environmental exposures to toxins.  (+info)

The DNA binding site of the Dof protein NtBBF1 is essential for tissue-specific and auxin-regulated expression of the rolB oncogene in plants. (6/2912)

The Dof proteins are a large family of plant transcription factors that share a single highly conserved zinc finger. The tobacco Dof protein NtBBF1 was identified by its ability to bind to regulatory domain B in the promoter of the rolB oncogene. In this study, we show that the ACT T TA target sequence of NtBBF1 in domain B is necessary for tissue-specific expression of rolB. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) activity of tobacco plants containing a rolB promoter-GUS fusion with a mutated NtBBF1 target sequence within domain B is almost completely suppressed in apical meristems and is severely abated in the vascular system. The ACT T TA motif is shown here also to be one of the cis-regulatory elements involved in auxin induction of rolB. The pattern of NtBBF1 expression in plants is remarkably similar to that of rolB, except in mesophyll cells of mature leaves, in which only NtBBF1 expression could be detected. Ectopic expression of rolB in mesophyll cells was achieved by particle gun delivery if the NtBBF1 binding sequence was intact. These data provide evidence that in the plant, a Dof protein DNA binding sequence acts as a transcriptional regulatory motif, and they point to NtBBF1 as the protein involved in mediating tissue-specific and auxin-inducible expression of rolB.  (+info)

Evidence for proteasome involvement in polyglutamine disease: localization to nuclear inclusions in SCA3/MJD and suppression of polyglutamine aggregation in vitro. (7/2912)

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, also known as Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD), is one of at least eight inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the disease protein. Here we present two lines of evidence implicating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in SCA3/MJD pathogenesis. First, studies of both human disease tissue and in vitro models showed redistribution of the 26S proteasome complex into polyglutamine aggregates. In neurons from SCA3/MJD brain, the proteasome localized to intranuclear inclusions containing the mutant protein, ataxin-3. In transfected cells, the proteasome redistributed into inclusions formed by three expanded polyglutamine proteins: a pathologic ataxin-3 fragment, full-length mutant ataxin-3 and an unrelated GFP-polyglutamine fusion protein. Inclusion formation by the full-length mutant ataxin-3 required nuclear localization of the protein and occurred within specific subnuclear structures recently implicated in the regulation of cell death, promyelocytic leukemia antigen oncogenic domains. In a second set of experiments, inhibitors of the proteasome caused a repeat length-dependent increase in aggregate formation, implying that the proteasome plays a direct role in suppressing polyglutamine aggregation in disease. These results support a central role for protein misfolding in the pathogenesis of SCA3/MJD and suggest that modulating proteasome activity is a potential approach to altering the progression of this and other polyglutamine diseases.  (+info)

Expression of Zkrml2, a homologue of the Krml1/val segmentation gene, during embryonic patterning of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). (8/2912)

We have identified Zkrml2, a novel homologue of the segmentation gene Krml/val in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zkrml2 shows 72% and 92% identity in its basic leucine zipper domain with mouse Krml1 and zebrafish val, respectively. Zkrml2 is expressed coincident with MyoD throughout the somites starting at the three somite stage, becomes restricted to the dermomyotome, and subsequently disappears. Transient expression is also detected in the reticulospinal and oculomotor neurons. Zkrml2 maps to the Oregon linkage group 11 (Boston Linkage group 14) with no mapped zebrafish mutations nearby.  (+info)

The oncogene proteins v-sis are derived from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The v-sis gene in SSV is derived from a cellular gene called c-sis, which encodes for the platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) protein. The v-sis oncogene protein is a truncated and altered version of the PDGFB protein, which has lost its regulatory mechanisms and can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, contributing to the development of cancer.

In normal cells, the c-sis gene produces a precursor protein that is cleaved into two identical subunits, forming the functional PDGFB homodimer. This growth factor plays an essential role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, and survival, particularly in mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells.

However, in SSV-infected cells, the v-sis oncogene encodes a fusion protein that includes the viral gag protein and a truncated version of the c-sis gene product. This fusion protein can form homodimers or heterodimers with cellular PDGFB, leading to unregulated activation of PDGF receptors and subsequent intracellular signaling pathways, promoting tumor growth and progression.

In summary, v-sis oncogene proteins are aberrant forms of the platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) that lack proper regulation and contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and division, potentially leading to cancer development.

I could not find a specific protein named "tpr-met" in oncology or any other field of medicine. However, I was able to find information about the proteins TPR and MET, which can be relevant in the context of oncogenes.

TPR (Translocated Promoter Region) is a coiled-coil protein that plays a role in nuclear transport, chromatin remodeling, and transcription regulation. It has been found to interact with several other proteins, including the MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Upon HGF binding, MET activates various intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, motility, and morphogenesis. Dysregulation of the MET signaling pathway can contribute to oncogenic transformation and tumor progression.

In some cases, TPR has been found to interact with and regulate the MET receptor tyrosine kinase. This interaction may lead to aberrant activation of MET signaling, contributing to oncogenesis. However, there is no specific protein named "tpr-met" in the context of oncogene proteins.

The oncogene protein v-maf is a transcription factor that belongs to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family. It was originally identified as the viral oncogene product of the avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma virus (MAFV). The v-maf protein can transform cells and is believed to contribute to tumor development by altering the expression of various genes involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

The v-maf protein contains a basic region that is responsible for DNA binding and a leucine zipper domain that mediates protein-protein interactions. It can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing it to regulate the transcription of target genes.

The cellular counterpart of v-maf is the maf oncogene, which encodes a family of transcription factors that include MafA, MafB, and NRL. These proteins play important roles in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and metabolism. Dysregulation of maf gene expression or function has been implicated in the development of several types of cancer.

The v-mos oncogene protein is derived from the retrovirus called Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). This oncogene encodes for a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. When incorporated into the host genome during viral infection, the v-mos oncogene can cause unregulated cell growth and tumor formation, leading to sarcomas in mice. The normal cellular homolog of v-mos is called c-mos, which plays a crucial role in regulating cell division and is tightly controlled in normal cells. However, mutations or aberrant activation of c-mos can also contribute to oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis.

An oncogene protein, specifically the v-Raf protein, is a product of the viral oncogene found in certain retroviruses that are capable of transforming cells and causing cancer. The v-Raf protein is derived from the cellular homolog, c-Raf, which is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

The v-Raf protein, when compared to its cellular counterpart, lacks regulatory domains and possesses constitutive kinase activity. This results in uncontrolled signaling through the Ras/MAPK pathway, leading to aberrant cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The activation of the v-Raf oncogene has been implicated in various types of cancer, including some leukemias and sarcomas. However, it is important to note that mutations in the c-Raf gene can also contribute to cancer development, highlighting the importance of proper regulation of this signaling pathway in maintaining cellular homeostasis.

An oncogene protein, specifically the v-fos protein, is a product of the v-fos gene found in the FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus. This viral oncogene can transform cells and cause cancer in animals. The normal cellular counterpart of v-fos is the c-fos gene, which encodes a nuclear protein that forms a heterodimer with other proteins to function as a transcription factor, regulating the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and transformation.

However, when the v-fos gene is integrated into the viral genome and expressed at high levels, it can lead to unregulated and constitutive activation of these cellular processes, resulting in oncogenic transformation and tumor formation. The v-fos protein can interact with other cellular proteins and modify their functions, leading to aberrant signaling pathways that contribute to the development of cancer.

The Crk protein is a human homolog of the viral oncogene v-crk, which was first discovered in the avian retrovirus CT10. The v-crk oncogene encodes for a truncated and constitutively active version of the Crk protein, which has been shown to contribute to cancer development by promoting cell growth signaling and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

The human Crk protein is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that plays a role in various intracellular signaling pathways. It contains several domains, including an N-terminal Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and two C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, which allow it to interact with other signaling proteins and transmit signals from cell surface receptors to downstream effectors.

Crk protein has been implicated in several cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and adhesion. Dysregulation of Crk protein function or expression has been associated with various human diseases, including cancer. In particular, overexpression or hyperactivation of Crk protein has been observed in several types of cancer, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumors, and has been linked to increased cell proliferation, survival, and invasiveness.

Therefore, the oncogene protein v-crk is a truncated and constitutively active version of the Crk protein that contributes to cancer development by promoting aberrant signaling pathways leading to uncontrolled cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis.

v-Myb, also known as v-mybl2, is a retroviral oncogene that was originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). The protein product of this oncogene shares significant sequence homology with the human c-Myb protein, which is a member of the Myb family of transcription factors.

The c-Myb protein is involved in the regulation of gene expression during normal cell growth, differentiation, and development. However, when its function is deregulated or its expression is altered, it can contribute to tumorigenesis by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

The v-Myb oncogene protein has a higher transforming potential than the c-Myb protein due to the presence of additional sequences that enhance its activity. These sequences allow v-Myb to bind to DNA more strongly, interact with other proteins more efficiently, and promote the expression of target genes involved in cell growth and survival.

Overexpression or mutation of c-Myb has been implicated in various human cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinomas of the breast, colon, and prostate. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of Myb proteins is important for developing new strategies to prevent and treat cancer.

v-Cbl is a type of oncogene protein that is derived from the cellular c-Cbl protein. Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer, and they can do this by promoting cell growth and division when they should not. The v-Cbl protein is created when a virus called the avian reticuloendotheliosis virus infects a host cell and inserts its own version of the c-Cbl gene into the host's DNA. This results in the production of the abnormal v-Cbl protein, which can contribute to the development of cancer by disrupting the normal regulation of cell growth and division.

The c-Cbl protein is a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is an enzyme that helps to tag other proteins for degradation. The v-Cbl protein retains this function, but it also has additional activities that allow it to promote cell growth and division. For example, v-Cbl can activate signaling pathways that lead to the activation of transcription factors, which are proteins that control the expression of genes involved in cell growth and division.

In addition to its role in cancer, v-Cbl has also been implicated in the development of other diseases, including immune disorders and neurological conditions. However, more research is needed to fully understand the various functions of this oncogene protein and how it contributes to disease.

The oncogene proteins v-erbB are derived from the erbB oncogene, which is a retroviral oncogene first discovered in avian erythroblastosis viruses (AEV). The erbB oncogene is homologous to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/erbB-2) gene, which encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor involved in cell proliferation and differentiation.

The v-erbB oncogene protein is a truncated and mutated version of the normal EGFR/erbB-1 receptor, which has lost its extracellular ligand-binding domain and gained constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. This results in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the development of cancer.

The v-erbB oncogene protein has been extensively studied as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis and has provided valuable insights into the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Additionally, the study of v-erbB and other oncogenes has led to the development of targeted cancer therapies that inhibit the activity of these aberrant proteins and slow or stop the growth of cancer cells.

An oncogene protein, specifically the v-abl protein, is a tyrosine kinase enzyme that plays a role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The v-abl gene was originally discovered in the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV), which is a retrovirus that can cause leukemia in mice. The viral v-abl gene is a truncated and mutated version of the cellular c-abl gene, which is normally involved in important signaling pathways within cells.

The v-abl protein has gained oncogenic potential due to its altered regulation and constitutive activation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in cancer. In humans, abnormal expression or activation of the c-abl gene and its protein product have been implicated in several types of cancer, including leukemia and some solid tumors. The oncogenic nature of v-abl has made it an important target for cancer therapy, with drugs like Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) being developed to inhibit its activity.

Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. They can do this by promoting cell growth and division (cellular proliferation), preventing cell death (apoptosis), or enabling cells to invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). Oncogenes can be formed when normal genes, called proto-oncogenes, are mutated or altered in some way. This can happen as a result of exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or through inherited genetic mutations. When activated, oncogenes can contribute to the development of cancer by causing cells to divide and grow in an uncontrolled manner.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. "Oncogene proteins v-rel" is not a standard medical term. Instead, it seems like you are referring to the "v-rel" oncogene protein. Here's a definition:

The v-rel oncogene protein is a viral transcription factor initially discovered in the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), which causes avian lymphoma. The v-rel gene shares homology with the cellular c-rel gene, which encodes a member of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) family of transcription factors.

The v-rel protein is capable of transforming cells and contributing to tumorigenesis due to its ability to constitutively activate gene expression, particularly through the NF-κB signaling pathway. This aberrant activation can lead to uncontrolled cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death), and ultimately cancer development.

The v-rel protein is an example of a viral oncogene, which are genes that have been acquired by a virus from the host organism and contribute to tumor formation when expressed in the host. Viral oncogenes can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cancer development and potential therapeutic targets.

The oncogene proteins v-erbA are a subset of oncogenes that were initially discovered in retroviruses, specifically the avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These oncogenes are derived from normal cellular genes called proto-oncogenes, which play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as growth, differentiation, and survival.

The v-erbA oncogene protein is a truncated and mutated version of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRA) gene, which is a nuclear receptor that regulates gene expression in response to thyroid hormones. The v-erbA protein can bind to DNA but cannot interact with thyroid hormones, leading to aberrant regulation of gene expression and uncontrolled cell growth, ultimately resulting in cancer.

In particular, the v-erbA oncogene has been implicated in the development of erythroblastosis, a disease characterized by the proliferation of immature red blood cells, leading to anemia and other symptoms. The activation of the v-erbA oncogene can also contribute to the development of other types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma.

Oncogene proteins are derived from oncogenes, which are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. Normally, these genes help regulate cell growth and division, but when they become altered or mutated, they can become overactive and lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which is a hallmark of cancer. Oncogene proteins can contribute to tumor formation and progression by promoting processes such as cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Examples of oncogene proteins include HER2/neu, EGFR, and BCR-ABL.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are cancer-causing proteins that are encoded by the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of certain viruses. These viral oncogenes can be acquired through infection with retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and certain types of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

When these viruses infect host cells, they can integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes. These oncogenes may then cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in the formation of tumors or cancers. The process by which viruses contribute to cancer development is complex and involves multiple steps, including the alteration of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Examples of viral oncogenes include the v-src gene found in the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which causes chicken sarcoma, and the E6 and E7 genes found in human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Understanding viral oncogenes and their mechanisms of action is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat virus-associated cancers.

An oncogene protein fusion is a result of a genetic alteration in which parts of two different genes combine to create a hybrid gene that can contribute to the development of cancer. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in a malignant tumor. Oncogene protein fusions are often caused by chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, inversions, or deletions and are commonly found in various types of cancer, including leukemia and sarcoma. These genetic alterations can serve as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Ras genes are a group of genes that encode for proteins involved in cell signaling pathways that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Mutations in Ras genes have been associated with various types of cancer, as well as other diseases such as developmental disorders and autoimmune diseases. The Ras protein family includes H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras, which are activated by growth factor receptors and other signals to activate downstream effectors involved in cell proliferation and survival. Abnormal activation of Ras signaling due to mutations or dysregulation can contribute to tumor development and progression.

According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), AKT (also known as protein kinase B or PKB) is a type of oncogene protein that plays a crucial role in cell survival and signal transduction pathways. It is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that acts downstream of the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) signaling pathway, which regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

The activation of AKT promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis or programmed cell death through the phosphorylation and inactivation of several downstream targets, including pro-apoptotic proteins such as BAD and caspase-9. Dysregulation of the AKT signaling pathway has been implicated in various human cancers, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

The activation of AKT occurs through a series of phosphorylation events initiated by the binding of growth factors or other extracellular signals to their respective receptors. This leads to the recruitment and activation of PI3K, which generates phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) at the plasma membrane. PIP3 then recruits AKT to the membrane, where it is activated by phosphorylation at two key residues (Thr308 and Ser473) by upstream kinases such as PDK1 and mTORC2.

Overall, AKT plays a critical role in regulating cell survival and growth, and its dysregulation can contribute to the development and progression of various human cancers.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that are present in all cells and play crucial roles in regulating cell growth, division, and death. They code for proteins that are involved in signal transduction pathways that control various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. When these genes undergo mutations or are activated abnormally, they can become oncogenes, which have the potential to cause uncontrolled cell growth and lead to cancer. Oncogenes can contribute to tumor formation through various mechanisms, including promoting cell division, inhibiting programmed cell death (apoptosis), and stimulating blood vessel growth (angiogenesis).

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Genes, myc" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation. It seems like there might be a misunderstanding or a missing word in the request. "Myc" could refer to the Myc family of transcription factors that are involved in cell growth and division, and are often deregulated in cancer. However, without more context, it's difficult to provide an accurate definition. If you could provide more information or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further!

Gene amplification is a process in molecular biology where a specific gene or set of genes are copied multiple times, leading to an increased number of copies of that gene within the genome. This can occur naturally in cells as a response to various stimuli, such as stress or exposure to certain chemicals, but it can also be induced artificially through laboratory techniques for research purposes.

In cancer biology, gene amplification is often associated with tumor development and progression, where the amplified genes can contribute to increased cell growth, survival, and drug resistance. For example, the overamplification of the HER2/neu gene in breast cancer has been linked to more aggressive tumors and poorer patient outcomes.

In diagnostic and research settings, gene amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are commonly used to detect and analyze specific genes or genetic sequences of interest. These methods allow researchers to quickly and efficiently generate many copies of a particular DNA sequence, facilitating downstream analysis and detection of low-abundance targets.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Myc, are crucial regulators of normal cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When proto-oncogenes undergo mutations or alterations in their regulation, they can become overactive or overexpressed, leading to the formation of oncogenes. Oncogenic forms of c-Myc contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can ultimately result in cancer development.

The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor that binds to specific DNA sequences, influencing the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes, such as:

1. Cell cycle progression: c-Myc promotes the expression of genes required for the G1 to S phase transition, driving cells into the DNA synthesis and division phase.
2. Metabolism: c-Myc regulates genes associated with glucose metabolism, glycolysis, and mitochondrial function, enhancing energy production in rapidly dividing cells.
3. Apoptosis: c-Myc can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cellular context and the presence of other regulatory factors.
4. Differentiation: c-Myc generally inhibits differentiation by repressing genes that are necessary for specialized cell functions.
5. Angiogenesis: c-Myc can induce the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, promoting the formation of new blood vessels to support tumor growth.

Dysregulation of c-Myc is frequently observed in various types of cancer, making it an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Retroviridae proteins, oncogenic, refer to the proteins expressed by retroviruses that have the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous ones. These oncogenic proteins are typically encoded by viral genes known as "oncogenes," which are acquired through the process of transduction from the host cell's DNA during retroviral replication.

The most well-known example of an oncogenic retrovirus is the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1), which encodes the Tax and HBZ oncoproteins. These proteins manipulate various cellular signaling pathways, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all retroviruses are oncogenic, and only a small subset of them have been associated with cancer development in humans or animals.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

ERBB-2, also known as HER2/neu or HER2, is a gene that encodes for a tyrosine kinase receptor protein. This receptor is part of the EGFR/ERBB family and plays crucial roles in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Amplification or overexpression of this gene has been found in various types of human cancers, including breast, ovarian, lung, and gastric cancers. In breast cancer, ERBB-2 overexpression is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and poorer prognosis. Therefore, ERBB-2 has become an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment, with various targeted therapies developed to inhibit its activity.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Ras proteins are a group of small GTPases that play crucial roles as regulators of intracellular signaling pathways in cells. They are involved in various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Ras proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state to transmit signals from membrane receptors to downstream effectors. Mutations in Ras genes can lead to constitutive activation of Ras proteins, which has been implicated in various human cancers and developmental disorders.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

"ErbB-2" is also known as "HER2" or "human epidermal growth factor receptor 2." It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) found on the surface of some cells. ErbB-2 does not bind to any known ligands, but it can form heterodimers with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB-3 and ErbB-4, which do have identified ligands. When a ligand binds to one of these receptors, it causes a conformational change that allows the ErbB-2 receptor to become activated through transphosphorylation. This activation triggers a signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overexpression or amplification of the ERBB2 gene, which encodes the ErbB-2 protein, is observed in approximately 20-30% of breast cancers and is associated with a more aggressive disease phenotype and poorer prognosis. Therefore, ErbB-2 has become an important target for cancer therapy, and several drugs that target this receptor have been developed, including trastuzumab (Herceptin), lapatinib (Tykerb), and pertuzumab (Perjeta).

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

Retroviridae is a family of viruses that includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viruses that primarily use RNA as their genetic material. The name "retrovirus" comes from the fact that these viruses reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which then becomes integrated into the host cell's genome. This is a unique characteristic of retroviruses, as most other viruses use DNA as their genetic material.

Retroviruses can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including cancer, neurological disorders, and immunodeficiency syndromes like AIDS. They have a lipid membrane envelope that contains glycoprotein spikes, which allow them to attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is then integrated into the host genome by the enzyme integrase.

Retroviruses can remain dormant in the host genome for extended periods of time, and may be reactivated under certain conditions to produce new viral particles. This ability to integrate into the host genome has also made retroviruses useful tools in molecular biology, where they are used as vectors for gene therapy and other genetic manipulations.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

An oncogene fusion, also known as oncogenic fusion or chimeric oncogene, is a result of a genetic rearrangement where parts of two different genes combine to form a hybrid gene. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that contributes to cancer development and progression. In many cases, one of the fused genes is a proto-oncogene, a normal gene that regulates cell growth and division. When this gene is altered through fusion, it can acquire increased activity or new functions, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and eventually leading to tumor formation. Oncogene fusions are often associated with specific types of cancer and can be used as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight mistake in your question. "src" is not a term that is typically used in the context of genetics or genetics research. It is more commonly associated with computer programming and refers to the source code of a program.

On the other hand, genes are indeed an important concept in genetics! Genes are segments of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contain the instructions for making proteins, which are essential building blocks of all living organisms. Genes can also contain regulatory sequences that control when and where proteins are made.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and humans have around 20,000-25,000 genes distributed across 23 pairs of chromosomes. Variations in the DNA sequence of genes can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including susceptibility to certain diseases.

If you meant to ask about something else related to genetics or healthcare, please let me know and I'll do my best to provide a helpful answer!

Sarcoma viruses, murine, are a group of RNA viruses that primarily affect mice and other rodents. They are classified as type C retroviruses, which means they contain an envelope, have reverse transcriptase enzyme activity, and replicate through a DNA intermediate.

The murine sarcoma viruses (MSVs) are associated with the development of various types of tumors in mice, particularly fibrosarcomas, which are malignant tumors that originate from fibroblasts, the cells that produce collagen and other fibers in connective tissue.

The MSVs are closely related to the murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), and together they form a complex called the murine leukemia virus-related viruses (MLVRVs). The MLVRVs can undergo recombination events, leading to the generation of new viral variants with altered biological properties.

The MSVs are important tools in cancer research because they can transform normal cells into tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The study of these viruses has contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily affects chickens and other birds. It is responsible for a group of diseases known as avian leukosis, which includes various types of tumors and immunosuppressive conditions. The virus is transmitted horizontally through the shedder's dander, feathers, and vertical transmission through infected eggs.

There are several subgroups of ALV (A, B, C, D, E, and J), each with different host ranges and pathogenicity. Some strains can cause rapid death in young chickens, while others may take years to develop clinical signs. The most common form of the disease is neoplastic, characterized by the development of various types of tumors such as lymphomas, myelomas, and sarcomas.

Avian leukosis virus infection can have significant economic impacts on the poultry industry due to decreased growth rates, increased mortality, and condemnation of infected birds at processing. Control measures include eradication programs, biosecurity practices, vaccination, and breeding for genetic resistance.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

A fusion protein known as "BCR-ABL" is formed due to a genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome (derived from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22). This results in the formation of the oncogenic BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, which contributes to unregulated cell growth and division, leading to chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and some types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The BCR-ABL fusion protein has constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity, which results in the activation of various signaling pathways promoting cell proliferation, survival, and inhibition of apoptosis. This genetic alteration is crucial in the development and progression of CML and some types of ALL, making BCR-ABL an important therapeutic target for these malignancies.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Harvey murine sarcoma virus (HMSV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a sarcoma virus that was first isolated from mice. It is named after J. Harvey, who discovered the virus in 1964. HMSV is closely related to Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV).

HMSV is a complex retrovirus, which contains several accessory genes that are not required for replication but contribute to viral pathogenesis and oncogenic transformation. The most well-known oncogene carried by HMSV is v-src, which encodes the pp60v-src protein tyrosine kinase. This oncogene was the first cellular oncogene (c-src) to be discovered, and it plays a crucial role in the transformation of cells and the development of sarcomas in infected mice.

HMSV infection typically occurs through the direct introduction of viral particles into susceptible tissues or by the transfer of infected cells. Once inside the host, HMSV integrates its genetic material into the host cell's DNA, leading to the expression of viral genes and the production of new virus particles. The activation of the v-src oncogene results in uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors.

In summary, Harvey murine sarcoma virus is a retrovirus that carries the v-src oncogene, causing uncontrolled cell growth and leading to the development of sarcomas in infected mice.

Adenovirus E1A proteins are the early region 1A proteins encoded by adenoviruses, a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections in humans. The E1A proteins play a crucial role in the regulation of the viral life cycle and host cell response. They function as transcriptional regulators, interacting with various cellular proteins to modulate gene expression and promote viral replication.

There are two major E1A protein isoforms, 289R and 243R, which differ in their amino-terminal regions due to alternative splicing of the E1A mRNA. The 289R isoform contains an additional 46 amino acids at its N-terminus compared to the 243R isoform. Both isoforms share conserved regions, including a strong transcriptional activation domain and a binding domain for cellular proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, such as retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and p300/CBP.

The interaction between E1A proteins and pRb is particularly important because it leads to the release of E2F transcription factors, which are essential for the initiation of viral DNA replication. By binding and inactivating pRb, E1A proteins promote the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes that facilitate viral replication in dividing cells.

In summary, adenovirus E1A proteins are multifunctional regulatory proteins involved in the control of viral gene expression and host cell response during adenovirus infection. They manipulate cellular transcription factors and pathways to create a favorable environment for viral replication.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens refer to specific proteins expressed by polyomaviruses that can induce cellular transformation and lead to the development of cancer. These antigens are called large T antigen (T-Ag) and small t antigen (t-Ag). They manipulate key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

The large T antigen is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in viral replication and transformation. It has several domains with different functions:

1. Origin binding domain (OBD): Binds to the viral origin of replication, initiating DNA synthesis.
2. Helicase domain: Unwinds double-stranded DNA during replication.
3. DNA binding domain: Binds to specific DNA sequences and acts as a transcriptional regulator.
4. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding domain: Recruits PP1 to promote viral DNA replication and inhibit host cell defense mechanisms.
5. p53-binding domain: Binds and inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53, promoting cell cycle progression and preventing apoptosis.
6. Rb-binding domain: Binds to and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to deregulation of the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth.

The small t antigen shares a common N-terminal region with large T antigen but lacks some functional domains, such as the OBD and helicase domain. Small t antigen can also bind to and inactivate PP1 and pRb, contributing to transformation. However, its primary role is to stabilize large T antigen by preventing its proteasomal degradation.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens are associated with various human cancers, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus) and some forms of brain tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas (associated with simian virus 40).

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), also known as growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GRO-α), is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

CXCL1 specifically binds to and activates the CXCR2 receptor, which is found on various types of immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. The activation of the CXCR2 receptor by CXCL1 leads to a series of intracellular signaling events that result in the directed migration of these immune cells towards the site of chemokine production.

CXCL1 is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and tumor growth and metastasis. It has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atherosclerosis, as well as in cancer progression and metastasis.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight mistake in your question. The correct term is "ABL" (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), which refers to a specific gene that encodes a tyrosine kinase protein. ABL genes can play a role in the development of certain types of cancer when they become mutated or dysregulated. Here's a brief medical definition:

ABL (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1) gene:
A gene located on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a tyrosine kinase protein involved in various cellular processes, such as regulation of the cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). The ABL gene can become dysregulated or mutated, leading to the production of an abnormal tyrosine kinase protein that contributes to the development of certain types of cancer, most notably chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The Philadelphia chromosome, a result of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, creates the abnormal fusion gene BCR-ABL, which encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase that drives the development of CML. Targeted therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib (Gleevec), has been successful in treating CML and some forms of ALL with ABL mutations.

PROTEIN B-RAF, also known as serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf, is a crucial enzyme that helps regulate the cell growth signaling pathway in the body. It is a type of proto-oncogene protein, which means it has the potential to contribute to cancer development if mutated or overexpressed.

The B-RAF protein is part of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in controlling cell growth, division, and survival. When activated by upstream signals, B-RAF activates another kinase called MEK, which then activates ERK, leading to the regulation of various genes involved in cell growth and differentiation.

Mutations in the B-RAF gene can lead to constitutive activation of the protein, causing uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can contribute to the development of various types of cancer, including melanoma, colon cancer, and thyroid cancer. The most common mutation in the B-RAF gene is V600E, which affects around 8% of all human cancers.

Therefore, B-RAF inhibitors have been developed as targeted therapies for cancer treatment, particularly for melanoma patients with B-RAF V600E mutations. These drugs work by blocking the activity of the mutated B-RAF protein, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth and division.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA, involved in the process of protein synthesis in the cell. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are produced.

A neoplasm, on the other hand, is an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, however, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body through a process called metastasis.

Therefore, an 'RNA neoplasm' is not a recognized medical term as RNA is not a type of growth or tumor. However, there are certain types of cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses that contain RNA as their genetic material and can cause neoplasms. For example, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are RNA viruses that can cause certain types of cancer in humans.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Retroviridae is a family of viruses that includes HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Retroviridae proteins refer to the various structural and functional proteins that are encoded by the retroviral genome. These proteins can be categorized into three main groups:

1. Group-specific antigen (Gag) proteins: These proteins make up the viral matrix, capsid, and nucleocapsid. They are involved in the assembly of new virus particles.

2. Polymerase (Pol) proteins: These proteins include the reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease enzymes. Reverse transcriptase is responsible for converting the viral RNA genome into DNA, which can then be integrated into the host cell's genome by the integrase enzyme. The protease enzyme is involved in processing the polyprotein precursors of Gag and Pol into their mature forms.

3. Envelope (Env) proteins: These proteins are responsible for the attachment and fusion of the virus to the host cell membrane. They are synthesized as a precursor protein, which is then cleaved by a host cell protease to form two distinct proteins - the surface unit (SU) and the transmembrane unit (TM). The SU protein contains the receptor-binding domain, while the TM protein forms the transmembrane anchor.

Retroviral proteins play crucial roles in various stages of the viral life cycle, including entry, reverse transcription, integration, transcription, translation, assembly, and release. Understanding the functions of these proteins is essential for developing effective antiretroviral therapies and vaccines against retroviral infections.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-RET are a group of gene products that play crucial roles in the development and functioning of the nervous system, as well as in other tissues. The c-RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, which is a type of enzyme that helps transmit signals from the outside to the inside of cells. This receptor is activated by binding to its ligands, leading to the activation of various signaling pathways that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Mutations in the c-RET proto-oncogene can lead to its overactivation, resulting in the conversion of this gene into an oncogene. Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer when they are mutated or abnormally expressed. Activating mutations in c-RET have been implicated in several types of human cancers, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), papillary thyroid carcinoma, and certain types of lung and kidney cancers. These mutations can lead to the constitutive activation of c-RET, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a sarcoma virus that infects mice. It was first discovered and isolated by John Moloney in 1960. Mo-MSV is a horizontally transmitted virus, meaning it is typically spread through the direct transfer of bodily fluids between infected and uninfected hosts.

Mo-MSV is closely related to Moloney leukemia virus (Mo-MLV), and both viruses are often found as co-infections in mice. Mo-MSV is associated with the development of sarcomas, which are malignant tumors that arise from connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, or fibrous tissue.

The virus contains an RNA genome and integrates its genetic material into the host cell's DNA upon infection. Mo-MSV is capable of transforming cells by introducing oncogenes into the host cell's genome, which can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and ultimately result in cancer formation.

Mo-MSV has been extensively studied as a model system for retroviral infection and tumorigenesis, contributing significantly to our understanding of oncogene function and the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-MDM2, are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in regulating various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When these genes undergo mutations or are overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, which contribute to the development of cancer.

The c-MDM2 protein is a key regulator of the cell cycle and is involved in the negative regulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Under normal conditions, p53 helps prevent the formation of tumors by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to DNA damage or other stress signals. However, when c-MDM2 is overexpressed or mutated, it can bind and inhibit p53, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and increased risk of cancer development.

In summary, proto-oncogene proteins like c-MDM2 are important regulators of normal cellular processes, but when they become dysregulated through mutations or overexpression, they can contribute to the formation of tumors and cancer progression.

Papillomavirus E7 proteins are small, viral regulatory proteins encoded by the E7 gene in papillomaviruses (HPVs). These proteins play a crucial role in the life cycle of HPVs and are associated with the development of various types of cancer, most notably cervical cancer.

The E7 protein functions as a transcriptional activator and can bind to and degrade the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), which is a tumor suppressor. By binding to and inactivating pRb, E7 promotes the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation.

E7 proteins are also capable of inducing genetic alterations, such as chromosomal instability and DNA damage, which can contribute to the development of cancer. Additionally, E7 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death) and promote angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), further contributing to tumor growth and progression.

Overall, Papillomavirus E7 proteins are important oncogenic factors that play a central role in the development of HPV-associated cancers.

NIH 3T3 cells are a type of mouse fibroblast cell line that was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The "3T3" designation refers to the fact that these cells were derived from embryonic Swiss mouse tissue and were able to be passaged (i.e., subcultured) more than three times in tissue culture.

NIH 3T3 cells are widely used in scientific research, particularly in studies involving cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction, and gene expression. They have also been used as a model system for studying the effects of various chemicals and drugs on cell behavior. NIH 3T3 cells are known to be relatively easy to culture and maintain, and they have a stable, flat morphology that makes them well-suited for use in microscopy studies.

It is important to note that, as with any cell line, it is essential to verify the identity and authenticity of NIH 3T3 cells before using them in research, as contamination or misidentification can lead to erroneous results.

'Mammary neoplasms, experimental' is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide definitions for the individual terms:

1. Mammary: Pertaining to the breast or mammary glands in females, which are responsible for milk production.
2. Neoplasms: Abnormal growths of tissue, also known as tumors or masses, that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
3. Experimental: Relating to a scientific experiment or study, typically conducted in a controlled setting to test hypotheses and gather data.

In the context of medical research, 'experimental mammary neoplasms' may refer to artificially induced breast tumors in laboratory animals (such as rats or mice) for the purpose of studying the development, progression, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. These studies can help researchers better understand the biology of breast cancer and develop new therapies and strategies for its diagnosis and management.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are a type of transmembrane receptors found on the cell surface that play a crucial role in signal transduction and regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and survival. They are called "tyrosine kinases" because they possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their function.

RTKs are composed of three main domains: an extracellular domain that binds to specific ligands (growth factors, hormones, or cytokines), a transmembrane domain that spans the cell membrane, and an intracellular domain with tyrosine kinase activity. Upon ligand binding, RTKs undergo conformational changes that lead to their dimerization or oligomerization, which in turn activates their tyrosine kinase activity. Activated RTKs then phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues on downstream signaling proteins, initiating a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the appropriate cellular response.

Dysregulation of RTK signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and developmental disorders. As such, RTKs are important targets for therapeutic intervention in these conditions.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

Avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily infects birds, particularly chickens. It is named after the disease it causes, avian myeloblastosis, which is a malignant condition affecting the bone marrow and blood cells of infected birds.

AMV is classified as an alpharetrovirus and has a single-stranded RNA genome. When the virus infects a host cell, its RNA genome is reverse transcribed into DNA, which then integrates into the host's chromosomal DNA. This integrated viral DNA, known as a provirus, can then direct the production of new virus particles.

AMV has been extensively studied as a model system for retroviruses and has contributed significantly to our understanding of their replication and pathogenesis. The virus is also used in laboratory research as a tool for generating genetically modified animals and for studying the regulation of gene expression. However, it is not known to infect or cause disease in humans or other mammals.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Tumor suppressor genes are a type of gene that helps to regulate and prevent cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled manner. They play a critical role in preventing the formation of tumors and cancer. When functioning properly, tumor suppressor genes help to repair damaged DNA, control the cell cycle, and trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) when necessary. However, when these genes are mutated or altered, they can lose their ability to function correctly, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of tumors. Examples of tumor suppressor genes include TP53, BRCA1, and BRCA2.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Burkitt lymphoma is a type of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which is a cancer that originates in the lymphatic system. It is named after Denis Parsons Burkitt, an Irish surgeon who first described this form of cancer in African children in the 1950s.

Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by the rapid growth and spread of abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which can affect various organs and tissues, including the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.

There are three main types of Burkitt lymphoma: endemic, sporadic, and immunodeficiency-associated. The endemic form is most common in equatorial Africa and is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The sporadic form occurs worldwide but is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all NHL cases in the United States. Immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma is seen in individuals with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS or immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation.

Burkitt lymphoma typically presents as a rapidly growing mass, often involving the jaw, facial bones, or abdominal organs. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a biopsy of the affected tissue, followed by immunohistochemical staining and genetic analysis to confirm the presence of characteristic chromosomal translocations involving the MYC oncogene.

Treatment for Burkitt lymphoma typically involves intensive chemotherapy regimens, often combined with targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The prognosis is generally good when treated aggressively and promptly, with a high cure rate in children and young adults. However, the prognosis may be poorer in older patients or those with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis.

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is not a single virus but a group of related viruses that can cause a variety of diseases in birds, including reticuloendotheliosis, lymphomas, and immunosuppression. These viruses belong to the family Retroviridae and the genus Gammaretrovirus. They have been identified in several bird species, including chickens, turkeys, quails, and pheasants.

Reticuloendotheliosis virus can cause a range of clinical signs, depending on the age and immune status of the infected bird. The virus primarily targets the reticuloendothelial system, which includes cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. Infection with REV can lead to the development of tumors in various organs, including the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

The virus is transmitted horizontally through direct contact with infected birds or their feces, as well as vertically from infected parents to their offspring. Control measures for reticuloendotheliosis include biosecurity practices, vaccination, and testing and culling of infected birds.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Neuroblastoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in the fetal or early postnatal period, called neuroblasts. It typically occurs in infants and young children, with around 90% of cases diagnosed before age five. The tumors often originate in the adrenal glands but can also arise in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Neuroblastoma is characterized by its ability to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, including bones, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin. The severity and prognosis of neuroblastoma can vary widely, depending on factors such as the patient's age at diagnosis, stage of the disease, and specific genetic features of the tumor.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of cells. In humans, there are typically 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs, with one member of each pair coming from each parent. The six pairs of chromosomes numbered 6 through 12, along with the X chromosome, are part of these 23 pairs and are referred to as autosomal chromosomes and a sex chromosome.

Human chromosome 6 is one of the autosomal chromosomes and contains an estimated 170 million base pairs and around 1,500 genes. It plays a role in several important functions, including immune response, cell signaling, and nervous system function.

Human chromosome 7 is another autosomal chromosome that contains approximately 159 million base pairs and around 1,200 genes. Chromosome 7 is best known for containing the gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, whose mutations can lead to cystic fibrosis.

Human chromosome 8 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 146 million base pairs and approximately 900 genes. Chromosome 8 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Smith-Magenis syndrome and 8p deletion syndrome.

Human chromosome 9 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 139 million base pairs and approximately 950 genes. Chromosome 9 has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Hereditary Spherocytosis and CHARGE syndrome.

Human chromosome 10 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 135 million base pairs and approximately 800 genes. Chromosome 10 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Dyschondrosteosis and Melanoma.

Human chromosome 11 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 135 million base pairs and approximately 800 genes. Chromosome 11 has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Wilms tumor and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

Human chromosome 12 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 133 million base pairs and approximately 750 genes. Chromosome 12 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP).

The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The X chromosome contains around 155 million base pairs and approximately 1,000 genes. It has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Fragile X syndrome.

The Y chromosome is the other sex chromosome in humans. Males have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome contains around 59 million base pairs and approximately 70 genes. It is primarily responsible for male sexual development and fertility.

In summary, the human genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, including 22 autosomal pairs and one sex chromosome pair (XX in females and XY in males). The total length of the human genome is approximately 3 billion base pairs, and it contains around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins called histones, which help to package the DNA into a compact structure. The chromosomes contain genetic information that is passed down from parents to their offspring through reproduction.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

"Gene rearrangement" is a process that involves the alteration of the order, orientation, or copy number of genes or gene segments within an organism's genome. This natural mechanism plays a crucial role in generating diversity and specificity in the immune system, particularly in vertebrates.

In the context of the immune system, gene rearrangement occurs during the development of B-cells and T-cells, which are responsible for adaptive immunity. The process involves breaking and rejoining DNA segments that encode antigen recognition sites, resulting in a unique combination of gene segments and creating a vast array of possible antigen receptors.

There are two main types of gene rearrangement:

1. V(D)J recombination: This process occurs in both B-cells and T-cells. It involves the recombination of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments to form a functional antigen receptor gene. In humans, there are multiple copies of V, D, and J segments for each antigen receptor gene, allowing for a vast number of possible combinations.
2. Class switch recombination: This process occurs only in mature B-cells after antigen exposure. It involves the replacement of the constant (C) region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene with another C region, resulting in the production of different isotypes of antibodies (IgG, IgA, or IgE) that have distinct effector functions while maintaining the same antigen specificity.

These processes contribute to the generation of a diverse repertoire of antigen receptors, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond effectively to a wide range of pathogens.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a protein responsible for controlling cell growth and division. The p53 protein plays a crucial role in preventing the development of cancer by regulating the cell cycle and activating DNA repair processes when genetic damage is detected. If the damage is too severe to be repaired, p53 can trigger apoptosis, or programmed cell death, to prevent the propagation of potentially cancerous cells. Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes the p53 protein, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Cellular aging, also known as cellular senescence, is a natural process that occurs as cells divide and grow older. Over time, cells accumulate damage to their DNA, proteins, and lipids due to various factors such as genetic mutations, oxidative stress, and epigenetic changes. This damage can impair the cell's ability to function properly and can lead to changes associated with aging, such as decreased tissue repair and regeneration, increased inflammation, and increased risk of age-related diseases.

Cellular aging is characterized by several features, including:

1. Shortened telomeres: Telomeres are the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell divides. When telomeres become too short, the cell can no longer divide and becomes senescent or dies.
2. Epigenetic changes: Epigenetic modifications refer to chemical changes to DNA and histone proteins that affect gene expression without changing the underlying genetic code. As cells age, they accumulate epigenetic changes that can alter gene expression and contribute to cellular aging.
3. Oxidative stress: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of cellular metabolism that can damage DNA, proteins, and lipids. Accumulated ROS over time can lead to oxidative stress, which is associated with cellular aging.
4. Inflammation: Senescent cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases that contribute to a low-grade inflammation known as inflammaging. This chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and increase the risk of age-related diseases.
5. Genomic instability: DNA damage accumulates with age, leading to genomic instability and an increased risk of mutations and cancer.

Understanding cellular aging is crucial for developing interventions that can delay or prevent age-related diseases and improve healthy lifespan.

The Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KiMSV) is a type of retrovirus that can cause tumors in mice. It was first discovered in 1968 by Charlotte Kirsten and her colleagues. KiMSV is a complex retrovirus, which means that it contains additional genes beyond the standard gag, pol, and env genes found in simple retroviruses.

In particular, KiMSV contains an oncogene called v-Ki-ras, which encodes a protein that can transform cells and lead to cancer. This oncogene is derived from the host cell's c-Ki-ras gene, which is involved in normal cell signaling pathways. When the viral oncogene is expressed in infected cells, it can cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the formation of tumors.

KiMSV primarily causes fibrosarcomas, a type of cancer that arises from connective tissue cells called fibroblasts. However, it has also been shown to induce other types of tumors in mice, including leukemias and lymphomas.

While KiMSV is not known to infect humans or cause disease in humans, the study of this virus and its oncogene have provided important insights into the mechanisms of cancer development and progression. The v-Ki-ras oncogene, for example, has been found to be mutated and activated in many human cancers, including lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers.

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a type of receptor found on the surface of many cells in the body, including those of the epidermis or outer layer of the skin. It is a transmembrane protein that has an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain.

EGFR plays a crucial role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. When EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) or other ligands bind to the extracellular domain of EGFR, it causes the receptor to dimerize and activate its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. This leads to the autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues on the receptor, which in turn recruits and activates various downstream signaling molecules, resulting in a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

Abnormal activation of EGFR has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer. Overexpression or mutation of EGFR can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, angiogenesis, and metastasis, making it an important target for cancer therapy.

Adenovirus early proteins refer to the viral proteins that are expressed by adenoviruses during the early phase of their replication cycle. Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that can cause various symptoms, such as respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

The adenovirus replication cycle is divided into two phases: the early phase and the late phase. During the early phase, which occurs shortly after the virus infects a host cell, the viral genome is transcribed and translated into early proteins that help to prepare the host cell for viral replication. These early proteins play various roles in regulating the host cell's transcription, translation, and DNA replication machinery, as well as inhibiting the host cell's antiviral response.

There are several different adenovirus early proteins that have been identified, each with its own specific function. For example, E1A is an early protein that acts as a transcriptional activator and helps to activate the expression of other viral genes. E1B is another early protein that functions as a DNA-binding protein and inhibits the host cell's apoptosis (programmed cell death) response.

Overall, adenovirus early proteins are critical for the efficient replication of the virus within host cells, and understanding their functions can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of viral infection and pathogenesis.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-MET are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in normal cell growth and development. They are encoded by the c-MET gene, which provides instructions for making a receptor protein called MET. This receptor is located on the surface of certain cells and becomes active when it binds to a specific molecule called hepatocyte growth factor (HGF).

Activation of the MET receptor triggers a series of signaling pathways inside the cell that promote cell growth, survival, and motility. Proto-oncogene proteins c-MET help regulate various biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels).

However, when the c-MET gene undergoes mutations or is abnormally activated, it can lead to the production of excessive or constantly active MET receptors. This results in uncontrolled cell growth and division, contributing to the development and progression of various types of cancer, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and glioblastomas. Therefore, c-MET and its signaling pathways are attractive targets for cancer therapy.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight mistake in your question. There is no single gene or genetic concept known as "myb." Instead, "MYB" refers to a family of genes that are involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

The MYB gene family is named after the first member of this family to be discovered, c-Myb, which was initially identified as an oncogene in birds. These genes encode transcription factors that contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the MYB domain. This domain consists of up to four repeats of a helix-turn-helix structure that recognizes and binds to specific DNA sequences.

The MYB gene family is divided into three subfamilies based on the number of MYB domains they contain: 1-MYB, 2-MYB, and 3-MYB. Each subfamily has distinct functions and expression patterns in different tissues. For example, c-Myb (a member of the 3-MYB subfamily) is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells and plays a crucial role in their development and proliferation.

Therefore, if you are looking for information on a specific MYB gene or family member, please let me know, and I would be happy to provide more details!

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Gene silencing is a process by which the expression of a gene is blocked or inhibited, preventing the production of its corresponding protein. This can occur naturally through various mechanisms such as RNA interference (RNAi), where small RNAs bind to and degrade specific mRNAs, or DNA methylation, where methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule, preventing transcription. Gene silencing can also be induced artificially using techniques such as RNAi-based therapies, antisense oligonucleotides, or CRISPR-Cas9 systems, which allow for targeted suppression of gene expression in research and therapeutic applications.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit the expression of specific genes. This process is mediated by small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

RNAi plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and defending against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and transposons. It has also emerged as an important tool for studying gene function and developing therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

A point mutation is a type of genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base (A, T, C, or G) in DNA is altered, deleted, or substituted with another nucleotide. Point mutations can have various effects on the organism, depending on the location of the mutation and whether it affects the function of any genes. Some point mutations may not have any noticeable effect, while others might lead to changes in the amino acids that make up proteins, potentially causing diseases or altering traits. Point mutations can occur spontaneously due to errors during DNA replication or be inherited from parents.

Mammary neoplasms in animals refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the mammary glands. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are slow growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body, while malignant tumors are aggressive, can invade surrounding tissues, and may metastasize to distant organs.

Mammary neoplasms are more common in female animals, particularly those that have not been spayed. The risk factors for developing mammary neoplasms include age, reproductive status, hormonal influences, and genetic predisposition. Certain breeds of dogs, such as poodles, cocker spaniels, and dachshunds, are more prone to developing mammary tumors.

Clinical signs of mammary neoplasms may include the presence of a firm, discrete mass in the mammary gland, changes in the overlying skin such as ulceration or discoloration, and evidence of pain or discomfort in the affected area. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as mammography or ultrasound), and biopsy with histopathological evaluation.

Treatment options for mammary neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the animal's overall health status. Surgical removal is often the primary treatment modality, and may be curative for benign tumors or early-stage malignant tumors. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in cases where the tumor has spread to other parts of the body. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to ensure early detection and treatment of any recurrence or new mammary neoplasms.

Cyclin D1 is a type of cyclin protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is the process by which cells divide and grow. Specifically, Cyclin D1 is involved in the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It does this by forming a complex with and acting as a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) or CDK6, which phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). This allows the E2F transcription factors to be released and activate the transcription of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression.

Overexpression of Cyclin D1 has been implicated in the development of various types of cancer, as it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Therefore, Cyclin D1 is an important target for cancer therapy, and inhibitors of CDK4/6 have been developed to treat certain types of cancer that overexpress Cyclin D1.

The Abelson murine leukemia virus (Abelson murine leukemia virus, or A-MuLV) is a type of retrovirus that can cause cancer in mice. It was first discovered in 1970 and has since been widely studied as a model system for understanding the mechanisms of retroviral infection and cancer development.

A-MuLV is named after Peter Nowell and David A. Harrison, who first described the virus and its ability to cause leukemia in mice. The virus contains an oncogene called "v-abl," which encodes a tyrosine kinase enzyme that can activate various signaling pathways involved in cell growth and division. When the v-abl oncogene is integrated into the genome of an infected mouse cell, it can cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the development of leukemia.

A-MuLV has been used extensively in laboratory research to study the molecular mechanisms of cancer development and to develop new therapies for treating cancer. It has also been used as a tool for introducing specific genetic modifications into mouse cells, allowing researchers to study the effects of those modifications on cell behavior and function.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Sarcoma viruses in cats, also known as feline sarcoma viruses (FeSVs), are a group of retroviruses that can cause tumors and other diseases in felines. There are two main types of FeSVs: the feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-related sarcoma viruses and the independent feline sarcoma viruses.

The FeLV-related sarcoma viruses are formed when a cat is infected with FeLV, and the FeLV genome integrates into the host's DNA in such a way that it becomes rearranged and acquires new oncogenic properties. These rearranged FeLV proviruses can then cause various types of tumors, including fibrosarcomas, lymphosarcomas, and leukemias.

The independent feline sarcoma viruses, on the other hand, are not associated with FeLV infection. They contain their own unique oncogenes that can induce the formation of fibrosarcomas, a type of soft tissue cancer. These viruses are typically transmitted through direct contact with an infected cat or its saliva and can cause rapidly growing tumors at the site of inoculation.

It is important to note that not all cats infected with FeSVs will develop tumors, and other factors such as the cat's age, immune status, and genetic background may also play a role in the development of disease.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-Myb, also known as MYB proteins, are transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression during normal cell growth, differentiation, and development. They are named after the avian myeloblastosis virus, which contains an oncogenic version of the c-myb gene.

The human c-Myb protein is encoded by the MYB gene located on chromosome 6 (6q22-q23). This protein contains a highly conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain, followed by a transcription activation domain and a C-terminal negative regulatory domain. The DNA-binding domain recognizes specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes, allowing c-Myb to regulate their expression.

Inappropriate activation or overexpression of c-Myb can contribute to oncogenesis, leading to the development of various types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. This occurs due to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation, impaired differentiation, and increased resistance to apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Regulation of c-Myb activity is tightly controlled in normal cells through various mechanisms, including post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and degradation. Dysregulation of these control mechanisms can result in the aberrant activation of c-Myb, contributing to oncogenesis.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

... , also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, or simply c-Src (cellular Src; pronounced "sarc ... Eventually this normal gene mutated into an abnormally functioning oncogene within the Rous sarcoma virus. Once the oncogene is ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... "Characterization of protein tyrosine kinases from human breast cancer: involvement of the c-src oncogene product". Cancer Res. ...
The resultant protein encoded by an oncogene is termed oncoprotein. Oncogenes play an important role in the regulation or ... Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that help to regulate the cell growth and differentiation. Proto-oncogenes are often involved ... Many cancer drugs target the proteins encoded by oncogenes. Oncogenes are a physically and functionally diverse set of genes, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Proto-oncogene proteins. Drosophila Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors - The Interactive ...
... the protein is called a "transforming protein". Note that since the viral oncogenes originated from a host genome, the ... "Oncogene Protein p65(gag-jun) - MeSH - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-11. Principles of Virology, 3rd edition, ... The gag-onc fusion protein is a general term for a fusion protein formed from a group-specific antigen ('gag') gene and that of ... The Gag-v-Onc fusion protein from the Rous sarcoma virus illustrates the dual role that the fusion protein plays in the viral ...
Alexiadis V, Waldmann T, Andersen J, Mann M, Knippers R, Gruss C (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes ... The human DEK gene encodes the DEK protein. This gene encodes a protein with one SAP domain. The protein binds to cruciform DNA ... Kappes F, Burger K, Baack M, Fackelmayer FO, Gruss C (2001). "Subcellular localization of the human proto-oncogene protein DEK ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Protein DEK v t e (Articles with ...
Amplification occurs within a protein called the MYCN oncogene. This protein is amplified in approximately 20% of primary ... Through genotype analysis CD133 expression is found to be associated with the expression of the EFNA2 protein. This protein can ... ALK inhibitors can target this mutation and suppress the MYCN protein in the tumor cell. The following is a list of ALK ... Mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) oncogene can be inherited and are a major cause of neuroblastoma. These ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Oncogenes). ... It was the first retroviral oncogene to be discovered. The src ... v-Src is therefore an instructive example of an oncogene whereas c-Src is a proto-oncogene. The first sequence of v-Src was ... c-Src Vogt PK (September 2012). "Retroviral oncogenes: a historical primer". Nat. Rev. Cancer. 12 (9): 639-48. doi:10.1038/ ... "The CD4 receptor is complexed in detergent lysates to a protein-tyrosine kinase (pp58) from human T lymphocytes". Proc. Natl. ...
"SH3RF2 functions as an oncogene by mediating PAK4 protein stability". Carcinogenesis. 35 (3): 624-34. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgt338 ... PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, include PAK1, PAK2, PAK3 and PAK4. PAK proteins are critical ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK4 gene. PAK4 is one of six members of ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
This protein may have lethal interactions with the Ras Oncogene. There may be an association between mutations in the FOPV gene ... The more enriched protein compared to other human proteins was serine(12.9%) and the pattern of serine then threonine was also ... "Prediction of Protein sorting Signals and Localization Sites in Amino Acid Sequences(PSORT)". "The Human Protein Atlas profile ... C4orf54 human protein is made up of 1793 amino acids. This unmodified form has a predicted molecular weight of approximately ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM267 gene. It is a possible oncogene which encodes a transmembrane ... Role of Mammalian Vacuolar Protein-sorting Proteins in Endocytic Trafficking of a Non-ubiquitinated G Protein-coupled Receptor ... There is no evidence of post-translational modifications of the TMEM267 protein found in tissues. According to protein sequence ... The protein was identified as a member of a large group of proteins that comprise a filter in mammalian cells which allow ...
NCBI (April 2015). "MDM2 MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". {{cite journal}}: Cite ... Glutamate-rich protein 3, also known as Uncharacterized Protein C1orf173, is a protein encoded by the ERICH3 gene. ERICH3 was ... The C1orf173 protein has been predicted or experimentally observed to interact with the following proteins: CRISPLD2 GIMAP4 ... C1orf173 is predicted to be a nuclear protein based on PSORT II analysis and the suggested protein interactions found between ...
SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction blocking drug". Oncogene. 21 (13): 2037-50. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205271. PMID ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (p59-FYN, Slk, Syn, MGC45350, Gene ID 2534) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded ... Changes in its DNA sequence transform it into an oncogene that leads to the formation of a different protein with implications ... Fyn is a member of the protein-tyrosine kinase oncogene family. It encodes a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase that has been ...
"Protein elongation factor EEF1A2 is a putative oncogene in ovarian cancer". Nature Genetics. 31 (3): 301-5. doi:10.1038/ng904. ... Endogenous activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity is decreased by miR-663 and there is additional impaired lipopolysaccharide ... Oncogene. 31 (41): 4421-33. doi:10.1038/onc.2011.629. PMID 22249270. Yang Y, Wang LL, Li YH, Gao XN, Liu Y, Yu L (February 2012 ...
... proto-oncogene protein also known as N-Myc or basic helix-loop-helix protein 37 (bHLHe37), is a protein that in humans is ... Ramsay G, Stanton L, Schwab M, Bishop JM (1987). "Human proto-oncogene N-myc encodes nuclear proteins that bind DNA". Mol. Cell ... This protein is located in the cell nucleus and must dimerize with another bHLH protein in order to bind DNA. N-Myc is highly ... "Identification and characterization of the protein encoded by the human N-myc oncogene". Science. 232 (4751): 768-72. Bibcode: ...
"Protein elongation factor EEF1A2 is a putative oncogene in ovarian cancer". Nat. Genet. 31 (3): 301-5. doi:10.1038/ng904. PMID ... Elongation factor 1-alpha 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EEF1A2 gene. This gene encodes an isoform of the ... Li R, Wang H, Bekele BN, Yin Z, Caraway NP, Katz RL, Stass SA, Jiang F (2006). "Identification of putative oncogenes in lung ... Lee JM (2004). "The role of protein elongation factor eEF1A2 in ovarian cancer". Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 1: 69. doi:10.1186/ ...
Mao S, Neale GA, Goorha RM (Apr 1997). "T-cell oncogene rhombotin-2 interacts with retinoblastoma-binding protein 2". Oncogene ... Mao S, Neale GA, Goorha RM (Apr 1997). "T-cell oncogene rhombotin-2 interacts with retinoblastoma-binding protein 2". Oncogene ... The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein. It binds directly, with several other proteins, ... It was formerly known as Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 2 (RBP2). This protein also interacts with rhombotin-2 which functions ...
Tian X, Sun D, Zhang Y, Zhao S, Xiong H, Fang J (April 2008). "Zinc finger protein 278, a potential oncogene in human ... POZ-, AT hook-, and zinc finger-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PATZ1 gene. The protein ... Its Poz domain is thought to function as a site for protein-protein interaction and is required for transcriptional repression ... Since the encoded protein has typical features of a transcription factor, it is postulated to be a repressor of gene expression ...
Another example of TSAs are abnormal products of mutated oncogenes (e.g. Ras protein) and anti-oncogenes (e.g. p53). Tumor- ... TSAs can be products of oncoviruses like E6 and E7 proteins of human papillomavirus, occurring in cervical carcinoma, or EBNA-1 ... Weon JL, Potts PR (December 2015). "The MAGE protein family and cancer". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 37: 1-8. doi:10.1016/ ... Frenzel A, Grespi F, Chmelewskij W, Villunger A (April 2009). "Bcl2 family proteins in carcinogenesis and the treatment of ...
Nishida K, Kaziro Y, Satoh T (1999). "Association of the proto-oncogene product dbl with G protein betagamma subunits". FEBS ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene. ... Huang CL, Jan YN, Jan LY (1997). "Binding of the G protein betagamma subunit to multiple regions of G protein-gated inward- ... "Entrez Gene: GNB1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1". Ogorodnikov A, Levin M, Tattikota S, ...
The DBL proto-oncogene is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCF2 gene. The commonly-used name DBL is derived from " ... Nishida K, Kaziro Y, Satoh T (October 1999). "Association of the proto-oncogene product dbl with G protein betagamma subunits ... "The predicted DBL oncogene product defines a distinct class of transforming proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Noguchi T, Galland F, Batoz M, Mattei MG, Birnbaum D (December 1988). "Activation of a mcf.2 oncogene by deletion of amino- ...
Complete primary structure and homology to an oncogene transformation-induced rat protein". J. Biol. Chem. 261 (14): 6600-5. ... MMP-1 was the first vertebrate collagenase both purified to homogeneity as a protein, and cloned as a cDNA. MMP-1 has an ... Protein Sci. 4 (5): 823-40. doi:10.1002/pro.5560040502. PMC 2143131. PMID 7663339. Huang SF, Li YH, Ren YJ, Cao ZG, Long X ( ... that longitudinally spans protein site. The β-strands sII and sIII follows separated by the respective loops, loop 4 being ...
Nishida K, Kaziro Y, Satoh T (1999). "Association of the proto-oncogene product dbl with G protein betagamma subunits". FEBS ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNG2 gene. ... Heterotrimeric G proteins play vital roles in cellular responses to external signals. The specificity of a G protein-receptor ... 2004). "A single Gbeta subunit locus controls cross-talk between protein kinase C and G protein regulation of N-type calcium ...
"Monoclonal antibodies to individual tyrosine-phosphorylated protein substrates of oncogene-encoded tyrosine kinases". Proc. ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134 ... Méthot N, Rom E, Olsen H, Sonenberg N (January 1997). "The human homologue of the yeast Prt1 protein is an integral part of the ... Morris-Desbois C, Réty S, Ferro M, Garin J, Jalinot P (December 2001). "The human protein HSPC021 interacts with Int-6 and is ...
August 2019). "The Oncogene Metadherin Interacts with the Known Splicing Proteins YTHDC1, Sam68 and T-STAR and Plays a Novel ... February 2002). "A role for KH domain proteins (Sam68-like mammalian proteins and quaking proteins) in the post-transcriptional ... KHDRBS3 interacts with splicing protein Sam68 and oncogene metadherin in prostate cancer cells. KHDRBS3 (T-STAR) expression has ... KH domain-containing, RNA-binding, signal transduction-associated protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
"The EVI5 TBC domain provides the GTPase-activating protein motif for RAB11". Oncogene. 26 (19): 2804-8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... Ecotropic viral integration site 5 protein homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EVI5 gene. Model organisms ... "Identification of Rab11 as a small GTPase binding protein for the Evi5 oncogene". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Faitar SL, Dabbeekeh JT, Ranalli TA, Cowell JK (Nov 2005). "EVI5 is a novel centrosomal protein that binds to alpha- and gamma- ...
v t e (Proteins, Oncogenes, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... TRIM52, also known as RNF102, is a protein in the tripartite ...
Some oncogenes can also stimulate the transcription of proteins that bind to MDM2 and inhibit its activity. If the TP53 gene is ... or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53) is a regulatory protein that is often mutated in human cancers. The p53 proteins ( ... Oncogenes also stimulate p53 activation, mediated by the protein p14ARF. In unstressed cells, p53 levels are kept low through a ... All these p53 proteins are called the p53 isoforms. These proteins range in size from 3.5 to 43.7 kDa. Several isoforms were ...
"Oncogene ect2 is related to regulators of small GTP-binding proteins". Nature. 362 (6419): 462-465. Bibcode:1993Natur.362..462M ... Other proteins known to bind RhoG in its GTP-bound state include the microtubule-associated protein kinectin, Phospholipase D1 ... RhoG (Ras homology Growth-related) (or ARGH) is a small (~21 kDa) monomeric GTP-binding protein (G protein), and is an ... GDIs can also sequester G proteins in the cytosol which also prevents their activation. The dynamic regulation of G protein ...
Miki T, Smith CL, Long JE, Eva A, Fleming TP (Apr 1993). "Oncogene ect2 is related to regulators of small GTP-binding proteins ... Protein ECT2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ECT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a transforming ... "Nucleotide exchange factor ECT2 interacts with the polarity protein complex Par6/Par3/protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta) and ... "Nucleotide exchange factor ECT2 interacts with the polarity protein complex Par6/Par3/protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta) and ...
The MAS1 oncogene (MAS receptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the angiotensin II metabolite angiotensin (1-7). ... IUPHAR GPCR Database - MAS1 IUPHAR GPCR Database - MAS1L proto-oncogene+proteins+c-mas-1 at the U.S. National Library of ... "Isolation and characterization of a new cellular oncogene encoding a protein with multiple potential transmembrane domains". ... July 2003). "Angiotensin-(1-7) is an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor Mas". Proceedings of the National ...
"Identification and characterization of protein products of the cot oncogene with serine kinase activity". Oncogene. 6 (9): 1515 ... Aoki M, Hamada F, Sugimoto T, Sumida S, Akiyama T, Toyoshima K (Oct 1993). "The human cot proto-oncogene encodes two protein ... The encoded protein is a member of the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase family. This kinase can activate ERK1, ERK2 and ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K8 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8". Arthur JS, Ley SC (Sep 2013). "Mitogen-activated protein ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, or simply c-Src (cellular Src; pronounced "sarc ... Eventually this normal gene mutated into an abnormally functioning oncogene within the Rous sarcoma virus. Once the oncogene is ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... "Characterization of protein tyrosine kinases from human breast cancer: involvement of the c-src oncogene product". Cancer Res. ...
... that forms a complex with both mutant and wild-type p53 protein has been characterized, purified, and identified. The protein ... Thus, a product of the mdm-2 oncogene forms a tight complex with the p53 protein, and the mdm-2 oncogene can inhibit p53- ... The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation Cell. 1992 Jun 26;69( ... that forms a complex with both mutant and wild-type p53 protein has been characterized, purified, and identified. The protein ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase lck CD4/CD8 interacting region ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase lck CD4/CD8 interacting region: *Family j.108.1.1: Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein ... Protein:. *. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase lck CD4/CD8 interacting region [103751] (1 species). zinc ion-mediated ... Family j.108.1.1: Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase lck CD4/CD8 interacting region [103750] (1 protein). ...
"Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2" by people in this website by year, and whether "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2" was a major or ... "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2". ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested ...
"The proto-oncogene bcl-3 encodes an I kappa B protein." Genes Dev, vol. 6, no. 12A, Dec. 1992, pp. 2352-63. Pubmed, doi:10.1101 ... The proto-oncogene bcl-3 encodes an I kappa B protein.. Publication , Journal Article ... The proto-oncogene bcl-3 encodes an I kappa B protein. Genes Dev. 1992 Dec;6(12A):2352-63. ... The proto-oncogene bcl-3 encodes an I kappa B protein. Genes Dev. 1992 Dec;6(12A):2352-2363. ...
"Specific transforming potential of oncogenes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases." EMBO J, vol. 4, no. 7, July 1985, pp. 1769-74 ... Mathey-Prevot B, Baltimore D. Specific transforming potential of oncogenes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases. EMBO J. 1985 Jul; ... Mathey-Prevot B, Baltimore D. Specific transforming potential of oncogenes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases. EMBO J. 1985 Jul; ... Specific transforming potential of oncogenes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases.. Publication , Journal Article ...
"Oncogene Proteins, Fusion" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Oncogene Proteins, Fusion" was a major or minor ... "Oncogene Proteins, Fusion" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Oncogene Proteins, Fusion" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Oncogene Proteins, Fusion". ...
"Oncogene Protein tpr-met" by people in this website by year, and whether "Oncogene Protein tpr-met" was a major or minor topic ... "Oncogene Protein tpr-met" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Oncogene Protein tpr-met" by people in Profiles. ... a GENE FUSION between a sequence from the tpr protein gene on the human CHROMOSOME 1 and the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C ...
"Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl" by people in this website by year, and whether "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl" was a major or ... "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl". ...
Proto-Oncogene Protein p21(c-N-ras)*Proto-Oncogene Protein p21(c-N-ras) ... Proto-Oncogene Protein p21(c-Ha-ras)*Proto-Oncogene Protein p21(c-Ha-ras) ... Proto-Oncogene Protein p21(c-Ki-ras)*Proto-Oncogene Protein p21(c-Ki-ras) ... "Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)" by people in this website by year, and whether "Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)" was a major ...
Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1*Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1 ... Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-2. *Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1 ... "Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1" by people in this website by year, and whether "Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1" was a major or ... "Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1" by people in Profiles. ...
It is published weekly and covers all aspects of the structure and function of Oncogenes. ... Oncogene is one of the world’s leading cancer journals. ... Ras protein abundance correlates with Ras isoform mutation ... Epithelial specific splicing regulator proteins as emerging oncogenes in aggressive prostate cancer *Rahul Advani ... Join the Oncogene Twitter Community @oncogenejournal. Follow us to keep up-to-date with the latest research and news from ...
5. Analysis of Oncogene Proteins Click on the red plus signs below to view Standard Operating Procedures for each item. ... whereas RH123 is pumped by other multidrug resistance proteins. When using single color analysis of protein function, propidium ... C.P. Leith et al. (1995) Correlation of Multidrug Resistance (MDR1) Protein Expression with Functional Dye/Drug Efflux in Acute ... C.P. Leith et al. (1995) Correlation of Multidrug Resistance (MDR1) Protein Expression with Functional Dye/Drug Efflux in Acute ...
As a molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that PTPRD interacts with aurora kinase A (AURKA), an oncogenic protein that is over- ... the stabilization of MYCN protein, the gene of which is amplified in approximately 25 to 30% of high risk neuroblastoma. PTPRD ... regulation of PTPRD in neuroblastoma dephosphorylates tyrosine residues in AURKA resulting in a destabilization of this protein ... is a member of a large family of protein tyrosine phosphatases which negatively regulate tyrosine phosphorylation. ...
DNA-Binding Proteins - Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf PubMed MeSh Term *Overview ...
The resultant protein encoded by an oncogene is termed oncoprotein. Oncogenes play an important role in the regulation or ... Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that help to regulate the cell growth and differentiation. Proto-oncogenes are often involved ... Many cancer drugs target the proteins encoded by oncogenes. Oncogenes are a physically and functionally diverse set of genes, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Proto-oncogene proteins. Drosophila Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors - The Interactive ...
PROTO-ONCOGENE TYROSINE-PROTEIN KINASE SRC: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ...
The ABL1 gene provides instructions for making a protein involved in many processes in cells throughout the body. Learn about ... proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1. *tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 isoform a ... The ABL1 protein functions as a kinase, which is an enzyme that changes the activity of other proteins by adding a cluster of ... The ABL1 gene belongs to a class of genes known as oncogenes. When mutated, oncogenes have the potential to cause normal cells ...
The Myc protein and proteins that participate in mitosis represent attractive targets for cancer therapy. However, their ... The Myc protein and proteins that participate in mitosis represent attractive targets for cancer therapy. However, their ... Therapeutic potential of a synthetic lethal interaction between the MYC proto-oncogene and inhibition of aurora-B kinase Proc ... not reliant on the tumor suppressor protein p53; and effective against mouse models for B-cell and T-cell lymphomas initiated ...
Identification of the protein encoded by the human diffuse B-cell lymphoma (dbl) oncogene. / Srivastava, S. K.; Wheelock, R. H. ... Identification of the protein encoded by the human diffuse B-cell lymphoma (dbl) oncogene. In: Proceedings of the National ... Dive into the research topics of Identification of the protein encoded by the human diffuse B-cell lymphoma (dbl) oncogene. ... Identification of the protein encoded by the human diffuse B-cell lymphoma (dbl) oncogene. ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src4-(2-HYDROXYETHYL)-1-PIPERAZINE ETHANESULFONIC ACIDNICKEL (II) ION ... Protein (1 molecule). A. 1. Proto-oncogene Tyrosine-protein Kinase SRC. (Gene symbol: SRC) ...
In this study, LINE-1 ORF1 and c-MET proto-oncogene protein expression levels and expression patterns were analyzed in primary ... LINE-1 ORF1 and c-Met proto-oncogene protein expression were confirmed in 10 pairs of patient colorectal cancer samples by ... Correlation of long interspersed element-1 open reading frame 1 and c-Met proto-oncogene protein expression in primary and ... Correlation of long interspersed element-1 open reading frame 1 and c-Met proto-oncogene protein expression in primary and ...
Targeted protein degrader drugs (TPDs) saw a greater than 2,000% increase in the total value of venture financing deals from ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein drugs in development, 2023 Data Insights Bromodomain Containing Protein 4 drugs in development, 2023 ... Venture financing for targeted protein degraders soared in 2022. The ability of TPDs to target disease-causing proteins has ... TPD drugs are an emerging modality that selectively targets disease-causing proteins by leveraging intracellular protein ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src. A. 535. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: SRC, SRC1. EC: 2.7.10.2. ... These compounds exhibit high selectivity for SFKs over a panel of recombinant protein kinases, excellent pharmacokinetics, and ...
PROTO-ONCOGENE TYROSINE-PROTEIN KINASE SRC. A. 108. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: SRC, SRC1. EC: 2.7.1.112 (PDB ... Results from a novel approach which uses protein crystallography for the screening of a low affinity inhibitor fragment library ... Results from a novel approach which uses protein crystallography for the screening of a low affinity inhibitor fragment library ... Our results suggest that a screening approach using protein crystallography is particularly useful to identify universal ...
... of Histone H1 in Mouse Fibroblasts Transformed with Oncogenes or Constitutively Active Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase ...
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade - protein binding - protein heterodimerization activity - protein ... Oncogene. 2018; 37(47):6136-6151 [PubMed] Related Publications Recent studies revealed trajectories of mutational events in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein ... transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity - vagina development Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP [Hide] ...
The ABL oncogene encodes a tyrosine protein kinase. The resulting BCR-ABL fusion gene encodes a chimeric protein with strong ... Omacetaxine (Synribo): Protein translation inhibitor indicated for chronic- or accelerated-phase CML with resistance and/or ... This translocation relocates an oncogene called ABL from the long arm of chromosome 9 to a specific breakpoint cluster region ( ... The expression of this protein leads to the development of the CML phenotype, through processes that are not yet fully ...
Aberrant expression and activity of G proteins and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently associated with ... This Analysis article reviews these findings and the indications that G proteins, GPCRs and their signalling pathways represent ... These studies indicate that G proteins, GPCRs and their linked signalling circuitry represent novel therapeutic targets for ... Aberrant expression and activity of G proteins and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently associated with ...
  • pronounced "sarc", as it is short for sarcoma), is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This induces long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics, causing the structure to be destabilized, resulting in the opening up of the SH3, SH2 and kinase domains and the autophosphorylation of the residue tyrosine 416. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase Cd and c-Abl kinase are required for transforming growth factor ß induction of endothelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro. (jefferson.edu)
  • As a molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that PTPRD interacts with aurora kinase A (AURKA), an oncogenic protein that is over-expressed in multiple forms of cancer, including neuroblastoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ABL1 protein functions as a kinase, which is an enzyme that changes the activity of other proteins by adding a cluster of oxygen and phosphorus atoms (a phosphate group) at specific positions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ABL1 kinase can be turned on by a number of different triggers and can add a phosphate group to many different proteins (also called substrates). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ABL1 kinase interacts with several proteins involved in the network of fibers called the actin cytoskeleton, which makes up the structural framework inside cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein produced from the abnormal fusion gene, called BCR-ABL1, functions as a kinase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. (cancerindex.org)
  • This gene is a member of the protein-tyrosine kinase oncogene family. (cancerindex.org)
  • The protein associates with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and interacts with the fyn-binding protein. (cancerindex.org)
  • The canonical form of this glycosylated transmembrane protein has an N-terminal extracellular region with five immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane region, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain at the C-terminus. (nih.gov)
  • Belongs to the tyr protein kinase family. (lu.se)
  • In addition to the scavengers of reactive oxygen species and calcium, inhibitors specific for transcription (actinomycin D), protein kinase C (RO-31-8220), and MAP kinase (PD 98059) also blocked the cadmium -induced overexpression of the proto-oncogenes in the tumor cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Further, the cadmium -induced overexpression of the proto-oncogenes is dependent on transcriptional activation as well as on pathways involving protein kinase C and MAP kinase. (cdc.gov)
  • A proto-oncogene is a normal gene that could become an oncogene due to mutations or increased expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Recent cancer genome deep sequencing efforts have revealed an unanticipated high frequency of mutations in G proteins and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in most tumour types. (nature.com)
  • Mutually exclusive activating mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 (encoding Gα q family members) occur in 5.6% of tumours, and they are present in ∼ 66% and ∼ 6% of melanomas arising in the eye and skin, respectively, where they can act as driver oncogenes. (nature.com)
  • Different cancer types tend to depend on a limited number of 'driver' oncogene mutations. (cancerquest.org)
  • Possible mechanisms for developing acquired resistance to anti-cancer drugs include mutations of genes encoding proteins that are the targets of drugs or are present in downstream pathways of proteins inhibited by drugs as well as the activation of collateral pathways ( 19 , 20 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The bcl-3 protein does not inhibit either the DNA-binding activity of the Rel protein or its ability to trans-activate genes linked to the kappa B site. (duke.edu)
  • Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. (uchicago.edu)
  • Most oncogenes began as proto-oncogenes: normal genes involved in cell growth and proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually multiple oncogenes, along with mutated apoptotic or tumor suppressor genes will all act in concert to cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncogenes are a physically and functionally diverse set of genes, and as a result, their protein products have pleiotropic effects on a variety of intricate regulatory cascades within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ABL1 gene belongs to a class of genes known as oncogenes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The exact mechanisms by which these rare fusion genes lead to blood cancer are not completely understood, although it is likely that the proteins produced from them promote uncontrolled growth of cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Genes whose protein products stimulate or enhance the division and viability of cells. (cancerquest.org)
  • Genes whose protein products can directly or indirectly prevent cell division or lead to cell death. (cancerquest.org)
  • The normal versions of genes in the first group are called proto-oncogenes. (cancerquest.org)
  • The mutated or otherwise damaged versions of these genes are called oncogenes. (cancerquest.org)
  • Numerous genes have been identified as proto-oncogenes. (cancerquest.org)
  • As stated in the introduction to this section, the defective versions of these genes, known as oncogenes, can cause a cell to divide in an unregulated manner. (cancerquest.org)
  • The fusion proteins SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2 are believed to function as aberrant transcriptional regulators, resulting in either activation of proto-oncogenes or inhibition of tumor suppressor genes. (medscape.com)
  • Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the rel gene (GENES, REL). (bvsalud.org)
  • LINE-1 hypomethylation induces the activation of proto-oncogenes in human colorectal cancer metastasis. (kosinmedj.org)
  • A synthetic peptide containing amino acids 61-76 of the human Bcl-2 protein was used as immunogen. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein coupled receptors and cytokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Specific transforming potential of oncogenes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases. (duke.edu)
  • These compounds exhibit high selectivity for SFKs over a panel of recombinant protein kinases, excellent pharmacokinetics, and in vivo activity following oral dosing. (rcsb.org)
  • Our results suggest that a screening approach using protein crystallography is particularly useful to identify universal fragments for the conserved hydrophilic recognition sites found in target families such as SH2 domains, phosphatases, kinases, proteases, and esterases. (rcsb.org)
  • As in the case of the tumor cells, treating the nontransformed cells with the various modulators prior to their exposure to cadmium chloride resulted in inhibition in the expression of the proto-oncogenes. (cdc.gov)
  • Aberrant expression and activity of G proteins and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently associated with tumorigenesis. (nature.com)
  • Its activity is directed by intracellular signals mediated by various types of receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors. (embl.de)
  • The theory of oncogenes was foreshadowed by the German biologist Theodor Boveri in his 1914 book Zur Frage der Entstehung Maligner Tumoren (Concerning the Origin of Malignant Tumors) in which he predicted the existence of oncogenes (Teilungsfoerdernde Chromosomen) that become amplified (im permanenten Übergewicht) during tumor development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antisera from mice bearing tumors induced by this oncogene specifically detected a protein of about 66 kDa (p66) in dbl transformants. (mssm.edu)
  • Upon acquiring an activating mutation, a proto-oncogene becomes a tumor-inducing agent, an oncogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • TPD drugs are an emerging modality that selectively targets disease-causing proteins by leveraging intracellular protein degradation mechanisms, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Upon activation by its cytokine ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), this protein phosphorylates multiple intracellular proteins that play a role in in the proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis of many cell types and thereby plays an important role in hematopoiesis, stem cell maintenance, gametogenesis, melanogenesis, and in mast cell development, migration and function. (nih.gov)
  • Bcl-2 is an intracellular membrane protein and resides primarily in the nuclear envelope, outer mitochondrial membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • This confirmed that the overexpression of the proto-oncogenes in the tumor cells required elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and calcium. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on these data, we conclude that the cadmium -induced overexpression of cellular proto-oncogenes is mediated by the elevation of intracellular levels of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and calcium. (cdc.gov)
  • Rabbit polyclonal antibody recognizes the C terminal of ETS2 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (avian)) protein. (fishersci.com)
  • This gene was initially identified as a homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit and is often referred to as proto-oncogene c-Kit. (nih.gov)
  • The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. (uchicago.edu)
  • Proto-oncogenes are often involved in signal transduction and execution of mitogenic signals, usually through their protein products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wnt proteins constitute a family of secreted glyocoproteins that activate signal transduction pathways to mediate tissue homeostasis, cell fate, cell proliferation, and self-renewal. (thermofisher.com)
  • Bcl-2 protein blocks apoptosis (programmed cell death), and thereby may contribute to tomorigenesis by prolonging cell survival rather than by accelerating the rate of cell proliferation. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor delta (PTPRD) is a member of a large family of protein tyrosine phosphatases which negatively regulate tyrosine phosphorylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor delta ( PTPRD ) is an important regulator of axon growth and guidance and is highly expressed in the central nervous system where it functions as a transmembrane homophilic neuronal cell adhesion molecule [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and high protein levels of stomatin-like protein 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor ( 17 , 18 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Dbl targets Rho family proteins thereby stimulating their GDP/GTP exchange, and thus is believed to be involved in receptor-mediated regulation of the proteins. (embl.de)
  • Ectopic up-regulation of PTPRD in neuroblastoma dephosphorylates tyrosine residues in AURKA resulting in a destabilization of this protein culminating in interfering with one of AURKA's primary functions in neuroblastoma, the stabilization of MYCN protein, the gene of which is amplified in approximately 25 to 30% of high risk neuroblastoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ATP + a protein tyrosine = ADP + a protein tyrosine phosphate. (lu.se)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: The proto-oncogene bcl-3 encodes an I kappa B protein. (duke.edu)
  • ORF1 encodes ~40 kDa nucleic acid binding protein (ORF1p) [ 12 - 16 ] with nucleic acid chaperone activity [ 16 , 17 ]. (kosinmedj.org)
  • ORF2 encodes a ~150 kDa protein (ORF2p) with DNA endonuclease [ 18 ] and reverse transcriptase activity [ 19 , 20 ]. (kosinmedj.org)
  • According to recent studies, the long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon open reading frame (ORF) is located in the intron of the c-Met proto-oncogene, which is involved in cancer progression and metastasis, and regulates its expression. (kosinmedj.org)
  • Specifically, the activation of proto-oncogene c-Met is involved in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients [ 7 ]. (kosinmedj.org)
  • These alterations may arise from cancer-specific changes in gene copy number, as well as from other genetic, epigenetic and post-translational changes resulting in higher protein expression, thereby enhancing tumour progression and metastasis. (nature.com)
  • A cellular phosphoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 90 kd (p90) that forms a complex with both mutant and wild-type p53 protein has been characterized, purified, and identified. (nih.gov)
  • Bishop and Varmus were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1989 for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The domain is named after cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and TRIO guanine exchange factor. (embl.de)
  • The Rho family of GTP-binding proteins has been implicated in the regulation of various cellular functions including actin cytoskeleton-dependent morphological change. (embl.de)
  • Cadmium -induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis are associated with transcriptional activation of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc proto-oncogenes: role of cellular calcium and reactive oxygen species. (cdc.gov)
  • Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our previous study has shown that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is an important regulator in METH-induced neuronal autophagy and apoptosis. (cancerindex.org)
  • Abundant evidence implicates this protein in the suppression of apoptosis in many types of cells. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • Malignant transformation is usually the result of chromosomal translocations that activate proto-oncogenes or create a chimeric fusion protein. (oncolink.org)
  • Expression of the bcl-2 oncogene protein is not specific for the 14;18 chromosomal translocation. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Mdm2 Phosphorylation Regulates Its Stability and Has Contrasting Effects on Oncogene and Radiation-Induced Tumorigenesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • The CRAL-TRIO domain is found in GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and a family of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins, including the yeast SEC14 protein and mammalian retinaldehyde- and alpha-tocopherol-binding proteins. (embl.de)
  • Eventually this normal gene mutated into an abnormally functioning oncogene within the Rous sarcoma virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several chimeric murine retroviruses were constructed to test whether the gag sequence of Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) could influence the in vitro specificity of two sarcoma-inducing oncogenes: src of Rous sarcoma virus and fps of Fujinami sarcoma virus. (duke.edu)
  • Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that help to regulate the cell growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "The dbl oncogene was initially isolated from a human diffuse B-cell lymphoma. (mssm.edu)
  • NFAT2, as an important transcriptional promoter, regulates expression of TNF-α, myc proto-oncogene protein (c-myc), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Fas ligand (FasL) and also generates crosstalks with ERK/MAPK pathway and AKT/GSK3b signaling, which achieves its control of the cell fate [7-12]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Expression patterns and correlations between LINE-1 ORF1 and c-Met proto-oncogene proteins were analyzed by immunofluorescence staining using both LINE-1 ORF1 and c-Met antibodies. (kosinmedj.org)
  • The expression patterns of LINE-1 ORF1 and c-Met showed significant individual differences, and the expression of both proteins was correlated in all colorectal cancer patients. (kosinmedj.org)
  • The protein expression levels of LINE-1 ORF1 and c-Met were correlated, but did not change significantly in cases of recurrent colorectal cancer in the same patient. (kosinmedj.org)
  • Aberrant expression, overexpression or signal reprogramming of GPCRs and G proteins in tumour cells can contribute to cancer development and progression. (nature.com)
  • The changes in protein expression associated with the development of resistance were analyzed using a proteomic approach, detecting 1,321 proteins and significant changes in the expression of 267 proteins. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis bioinformatics software, it was revealed that the activity of multiple signaling pathways varied alongside the changes in expression of these proteins, and c‑SRC was identified as a protein involved in a number of these signaling pathways, with its activity varying markedly upon the acquisition of resistance. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • At last, the mRNA and protein expression of NFAT2, Egr2, FasL, COX-2 and c-myc in carcinoma and adjacent tissues was investigated. (researchsquare.com)
  • Here, we show the association of Dbl with G protein betagamma subunits (Gbetagamma) in transient co-expression and cell-free systems. (embl.de)
  • It was originally identified as a protein that provides a retroviral integration site for integration of FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. (childrensmercy.org)
  • PTPRD has a tumor suppressor function in neuroblastoma through AURKA dephosphorylation and destabilization and a downstream destabilization of MYCN protein, representing a novel mechanism for the function of PTPRD in neuroblastoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We further demonstrate that PTPRD has a tumor suppressor function in neuroblastoma through dephosphorylating and destabilizing AURKA, leading to a downstream decrease of MYCN protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many cancer drugs target the proteins encoded by oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeted protein degrader (TPD) drugs have seen a greater than 2,000% increase in the total value of venture financing deals, rising from $33 million in 2017 to $707 million in 2022, according to GlobalData's Pharma Intelligence Center Deals Database. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was identified as a product of the murine double minute 2 gene (mdm-2). (nih.gov)
  • The first confirmed oncogene was discovered in 1970 and was termed SRC (pronounced "sarc" as it is short for sarcoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • The constantly active BCR-ABL1 protein signals cells to continue dividing abnormally and prevents them from self-destructing, which leads to overproduction of the abnormal cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Oncoproteins are proteins encoded by an oncogene - a gene which can cause the transformation of a normal cell into a tumor cell. (dailyiowan.com)
  • The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. (uams.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Oncogene Proteins, Fusion" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Oncogene Proteins, Fusion" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Oncogene Proteins, Fusion" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • The GENETIC TRANSLATION product from a GENE FUSION between a sequence from the tpr protein gene on the human CHROMOSOME 1 and the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET. (ouhsc.edu)
  • A correlation appears to exist between the histologic subtype of the tumor and either of these two fusion proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, a product of the mdm-2 oncogene forms a tight complex with the p53 protein, and the mdm-2 oncogene can inhibit p53-mediated transactivation. (nih.gov)
  • The bcl-3 protein is able to inhibit the DNA binding and trans-activation of authentic NF-kappa B heterodimers p50-p65 and p49-p65, as well as p50 and p49 homodimers. (duke.edu)
  • A human 37-kD protein (I kappa B alpha), identified previously as a member of the I kappa B family, is also unable to inhibit DNA-binding activity of the Rel protein. (duke.edu)
  • Removal of the amino-terminal sequences of the bcl-3 protein generates a protein that inhibits the DNA binding of the p50-p65 heterodimer but, like the 37-kD (I kappa B alpha) protein, is no longer able to inhibit the binding of the p50 and p49 homodimers with kappa B DNA. (duke.edu)
  • The Myc protein and proteins that participate in mitosis represent attractive targets for cancer therapy. (nih.gov)
  • G proteins, GPCRs and their linked signalling circuitry represent novel therapeutic targets for cancer prevention and treatment. (nature.com)
  • These studies indicate that G proteins, GPCRs and their linked signalling circuitry represent novel therapeutic targets for cancer prevention and treatment. (nature.com)