Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Oncogene Protein p55(v-myc): Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Oncogene Protein p21(ras): Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Oncogene Protein gp140(v-fms): Transforming glycoprotein coded by the fms oncogene from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SM-FeSV). The oncogene protein v-fms lacks sequences, which, in the highly homologous proto-oncogene protein c-fms (CSF-1 receptor), normally serve to regulate its tyrosine kinase activity. The missing sequences in v-fms mimic the effect of ligand and lead to constitutive cell growth. The protein gp120(v-fms) is post-translationally modified to generate gp140(v-fms).Oncogene Proteins v-myb: Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Oncogene Proteins v-raf: A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oncogene Protein v-maf: An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Oncogene Proteins v-erbB: Transforming proteins encoded by erbB oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The protein is a truncated form of the EGF receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR) whose kinase domain is constitutively activated by deletion of the ligand-binding domain.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Oncogene Proteins v-abl: Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Oncogene Proteins v-sis: Transforming proteins coded by sis oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-sis is related to its interaction with the PDGF receptor and also its ability to alter other transcription factors.Oncogene Protein v-crk: A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Oncogene Proteins v-erbA: Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Oncogene Proteins v-rel: Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Oncogene Protein p65(gag-jun): Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Oncogene Proteins v-mos: Transforming proteins coded by mos oncogenes. The v-mos proteins were originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV).Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Oncogene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl: Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Harvey murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2: An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genes, abl: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf: A raf kinase subclass found at high levels in neuronal tissue. The B-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and young adults and characterized LYMPHADENOPATHY and THYMUS GLAND involvement. It most frequently presents as a lymphoma, but a leukemic progression in the bone marrow is common.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1: Serine-threonine protein kinases that relay signals from CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and are involved in control of CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; and APOPTOSIS.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Oncogene Protein v-cbl: An oncoprotein from the Cas NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces pre- B-CELL LYMPHOMA and MYELOID LEUKEMIAS. v-cbl protein is a tyrosine-phosphorylated, truncated form of its cellular homologue, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CBL.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Moloney murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF: A gene product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It antagonizes the function of MDM2 PROTEIN (which regulates P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN by targeting it for degradation). p14ARF is produced from the beta mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced alpha transcript, is CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the myb gene (GENES, MYB). They are expressed in a wide variety of cells including thymocytes and lymphocytes, and regulate cell differentiation. Overexpression of myb is associated with autoimmune diseases and malignancies.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.E-Box Elements: DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.Kirsten murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) capable of transforming mouse lymphoid cells and producing erythroid leukemia after superinfection with murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE). It has also been found to transform cultured human fibroblasts, rat liver epithelial cells, and rat adrenocortical cells.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Genes, myb: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Mice, Inbred BALB CRetinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.Carcinogenesis: The origin, production or development of cancer through genotypic and phenotypic changes which upset the normal balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Carcinogenesis generally requires a constellation of steps, which may occur quickly or over a period of many years.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Genes, fms: Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP140(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhosphoproteinsKeratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
... a novel leucine zipper protein that reverses the suppressive effects of Mad family members on c-myc". Oncogene. 16 (9): 1149-59 ... a novel leucine zipper protein that reverses the suppressive effects of Mad family members on c-myc". Oncogene. 16 (9): 1149-59 ... "Dynamic in vivo interactions among Myc network members". Oncogene. 20 (34): 4650-64. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204606. PMID 11498788 ... Benson LQ, Coon MR, Krueger LM, Han GC, Sarnaik AA, Wechsler DS (1999). "Expression of MXI1, a Myc antagonist, is regulated by ...
Transcription of PVT1 is regulated by Myc. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: PVT1 Pvt1 oncogene homolog, MYC activator ( ... Graham M, Adams JM (1986). "Chromosome 8 breakpoint far 3' of the c-myc oncogene in a Burkitt's lymphoma 2;8 variant ... 2007). "The PVT-1 oncogene is a Myc protein target that is overexpressed in transformed cells". J Cell Physiol. 213 (2): 511-8 ... 2008). "The PVT-1 oncogene is a Myc protein target that is overexpressed in transformed cells". J. Cell. Physiol. 213 (2): 511- ...
N-myc IRES Tobamovirus IRES TrkB IRES Stoneley, M; Spencer JP; Wright SC (2001). "An internal ribosome entry segment in the 5' ... untranslated region of the mnt gene". Oncogene. 20 (7): 893-897. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204157. PMID 11314024. Page for Mnt IRES ... Mnt is a transcriptional repressor related to the Myc/Mad family of transcription factors. It is thought that this IRES allows ...
Janus kinase 2
Xie S, Lin H, Sun T, Arlinghaus RB (October 2002). "Jak2 is involved in c-Myc induction by Bcr-Abl". Oncogene. 21 (47): 7137-46 ... Shigematsu H, Iwasaki H, Otsuka T, Ohno Y, Arima F, Niho Y (May 1997). "Role of the vav proto-oncogene product (Vav) in ... Oncogene. 14 (7): 751-61. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1200907. PMID 9047382. Takeshita T, Arita T, Higuchi M, Asao H, Endo K, Kuroda H, ... Oncogene. 14 (19): 2273-82. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201071. PMID 9178903. Yamashita Y, Watanabe S, Miyazato A, Ohya Ki, Ikeda U, ...
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element
Cancer stem cell
Components of this pathway have been proposed to act as oncogenes in mammary and other tumors. A branch of the Notch signaling ... Haupt Y, Bath ML, Harris AW, Adams JM (November 1993). "bmi-1 transgene induces lymphomas and collaborates with myc in ... The Polycomb group transcriptional repressor Bmi-1 was discovered as a common oncogene activated in lymphoma and later shown to ... Wnt signaling can become independent of regular stimuli, through mutations in downstream oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes ...
Pim-1 is a proto-oncogene which encodes for the serine/threonine kinase of the same name. The pim-1 oncogene was first ... Wang J, Kim J, Roh M, Franco OE, Hayward SW, Wills ML, Abdulkadir SA (April 2010). "Pim1 kinase synergizes with c-MYC to induce ... a putative proto-oncogene coding for a tissue specific member of the protein kinase family". Oncogene Research. 1 (1): 87-101. ... Proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase Pim-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIM1 gene. ...
Kanazawa S, Soucek L, Evan G, Okamoto T, Peterlin BM (August 2003). "c-Myc recruits P-TEFb for transcription, cellular ... Oncogene. 19 (3): 373-9. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203305. PMID 10656684. Fu TJ, Peng J, Lee G, Price DH, Flores O (December 1999). " ... Cyclin T1 has been shown to interact with: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, CDK9, Granulin, HEXIM1, Myc, NUFIP1, and Promyelocytic ... Oncogene. 23 (31): 5316-29. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207684. PMID 15107825. Young TM, Wang Q, Pe'ery T, Mathews MB (September 2003 ...
BRCA1 - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Li, Huchun; Lee Tae-Hee, Avraham Hava (2002). «A novel tricomplex of BRCA1, Nmi, and c-Myc inhibits c-Myc-induced human ... Chai, Y; Chipitsyna G, Cui J, Liao B, Liu S, Aysola K, Yezdani M, Reddy E S, Rao V N (2001). «c-Fos oncogene regulator Elk-1 ... Wang, Q; Zhang H, Kajino K, Greene M I (1998). «BRCA1 binds c-Myc and inhibits its transcriptional and transforming activity in ... Oncogene. 18 (1): 263-8. PMID 9926942. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202323. A referência emprega parâmetros obsoletos ,coautor=. (ajuda) ...
Oncogene. 29 (35): 4980-8. doi:10.1038/onc.2010.241. PMID 20562918. Cole MD, McMahon SB (May 1999). "The Myc oncoprotein: a ... Mir-22 also targets Myc Binding Protein (MYCBP). This prevents transcription of c-Myc target genes by silencing c-MYCBP. ... "Tumor-suppressive microRNA-22 inhibits the transcription of E-box-containing c-Myc target genes by silencing c-Myc binding ... However, c-Myc also inhibits expression of miR-22 in a positive feedback loop. When this spirals out of control, it can cause ...
Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1
Microarray analysis reveals defective induction of p53 target genes and upregulation of chaperone genes". Oncogene. 24 (28): ... "Inhibitory effect of c-Myc on p53-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. ... Oncogene. 22 (30): 4675-8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206655. PMID 12879012. "Entrez Gene: PMAIP1 phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- ...
L-myc-1 proto-oncogene protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYCL1 gene. MYCL1 is a bHLH (basic helix-loop- ... Atchley WR, Fitch WM (1995). "Myc and Max: molecular evolution of a family of proto-oncogene products and their dimerization ... "Entrez Gene: MYCL1 v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog 1, lung carcinoma derived (avian)". Ikegaki N, Minna J, ... DePinho RA, Hatton KS, Tesfaye A, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW (1988). "The human myc gene family: structure and activity of L-myc ...
Microarray analysis reveals defective induction of p53 target genes and upregulation of chaperone genes". Oncogene. 24 (28): ... "Inhibitory effect of c-Myc on p53-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. ... Oncogene. 19 (37): 4283-9. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203774. PMID 10980602. Bourdon A, Minai L, Serre V, Jais JP, Sarzi E, Aubert S, ...
Epigenetics and melanoma
"c-Myc-regulated microRNAs modulate E2F1 expression". Nature. Vol 435, issue 7043:839-43. He L, Thomson JM, Hemann MT, Hernando- ... "A microRNA polycistron as a potential human oncogene". Nature. Vol 435, Issue 7043:828-33. Munshi, A., Kurland, J. F., ... Oncogene, Vol 23:6031-9. Eskandarpour, M., Kiaii, S., Zhu, C., Castro, J., Sakko, A.J., Hansson, J. 2005. "Suppression of ...
One example is the Myc oncogene, which has important roles in cell growth and apoptosis. Transcription factors can also be used ... "Integrated control of cell proliferation and cell death by the c-myc oncogene". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ... Many transcription factors, especially some that are proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressors, help regulate the cell cycle and as ... Many transcription factors are either tumor suppressors or oncogenes, and, thus, mutations or aberrant regulation of them is ...
Li H, Lee TH, Avraham H (June 2002). "A novel tricomplex of BRCA1, Nmi, and c-Myc inhibits c-Myc-induced human telomerase ... Chai Y, Chipitsyna G, Cui J, Liao B, Liu S, Aysola K, Yezdani M, Reddy ES, Rao VN (March 2001). "c-Fos oncogene regulator Elk-1 ... BRCA1 also interacts with c-Myc, and other proteins that are critical to maintain genome stability. BRCA1 directly binds to DNA ... Wang Q, Zhang H, Kajino K, Greene MI (October 1998). "BRCA1 binds c-Myc and inhibits its transcriptional and transforming ...
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule
2004). "The carcinoma-associated antigen EpCAM upregulates c-myc and induces cell proliferation". Oncogene. 23 (34): 5748-58. ... Additionally, EpCAM has oncogenic potential via its capacity to upregulate c-myc, e-fabp, and cyclins A & E. Since EpCAM is ... Targets of upregulation include c-myc, e-fabp, and cyclins A & E. This has the effect of promoting tumor growth. Additionally, ...
Several known regulators of transcriptional amplification have been characterized including the oncogene Myc., the Rett ... In particular, the Myc protein amplifies transcription by binding to promoters and enhancers of active genes where it directly ... In cancer, Myc driven transcriptional amplification is posited to help tumor cells overcome rate-limiting constraints in growth ... Drugs that target the transcription or mRNA processing machinery are known to be particularly effective against Myc-driven ...
Ralph L. Brinster
Programmed cell death
The BCR-ABL oncogene has been found to be involved in the development of cancer in humans. c-Myc is involved in the regulation ... The first insight into the mechanism came from studying BCL2, the product of a putative oncogene activated by chromosome ... "Bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoietic cell survival and cooperates with c-myc to immortalize pre-B cells". Nature. 335 (6189): 440-2 ...
Mir-17 microRNA precursor family
Wang Z, Liu M, Zhu H, Zhang W, He S, Hu C, Quan L, Bai J, Xu N (2010). "Suppression of p21 by c-Myc through members of miR-17 ... Hwang HC, Martins CP, Bronkhorst Y, Randel E, Berns A, Fero ML, Clurman BE (2002). "Identification of oncogenes collaborating ... Rinaldi A, Poretti G, Kwee I, Zucca E, Catapano CV, Tibiletti MG, Bertoni F (2007). "Concomitant MYC and microRNA cluster miR- ... Rinaldi A, Poretti G, Kwee I, Zucca E, Catapano CV, Tibiletti MG, Bertoni F (2007). "Concomitant MYC and microRNA cluster miR- ...
Catherine Margaret Shachaf
The statin inhibited signaling pathways required for the tumor generating activities of the MYC oncogene. This study is an ... But more importantly, she showed that MYC reprograms the tumor cells. When MYC expression is taken away from the tumor cells, ... To find alternative downstream targets of MYC, Dr. Shachaf defined levels of MYC expression required to drive tumorigenic ... Systematic molecular analysis of a MYC overexpressing tumor cell following MYC inactivation. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 1;68(13):5132 ...
The encoded protein may also repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc. Alternatively spliced transcript ... 2002). "Physical interaction of p73 with c-Myc and MM1, a c-Myc-binding protein, and modulation of the p73 function". J. Biol. ... a novel c-Myc-associating protein that represses transcriptional activity of c-Myc". J Biol Chem. 273 (45): 29794-29800. doi: ... 2002). "MM-1, a c-Myc-binding protein, is a candidate for a tumor suppressor in leukemia/lymphoma and tongue cancer". J. Biol. ...
"The proto-oncogene c-myc in hematopoietic development and leukemogenesis". Oncogene 21 (21): 3414-21. PMID 12032779. doi: ... Myc (c-Myc) je regulatorni gen koji kodira transkripcioni faktor. Mutirane verzije Myc gena su nađene u mnoštvu tipova kancera ... V-myc mielocitomatozni viralni onkogenski homolog. Struktura c-Myc (crveno) u kompleksu sa Max (plavo) i DNK (1nkp). Oba ... Nilsson JA, Cleveland JL (2004). "Myc pathways provoking cell suicide and cancer". Oncogene 22 (56): 9007-21. PMID 14663479. ...
Platelet-derived growth factor
a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... The "c-Sis" oncogene is derived from PDGF. Age related downregulation of the PDGF receptor on islet beta cells has been ... It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain gene. PDGF-BB is the highest-affinity ligand for the ... McClintock JT, Chan IJ, Thaker SR, Katial A, Taub FE, Aotaki-Keen AE, Hjelmeland LM (1992). "Detection of c-sis proto-oncogene ...
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Mir-9/mir-79 microRNA precursor family
Almeida MI, Reis RM, Calin GA (2010). "MYC-microRNA-9-metastasis connection in breast cancer". Cell Res. 20 (6): 603-4. doi: ... Oncogene. 29 (42): 5724-8. doi:10.1038/onc.2010.305. PMID 20676129. Page for mir-9/mir-79 microRNA precursor family at Rfam ... Khew-Goodall Y, Goodall GJ (2010). "Myc-modulated miR-9 makes more metastases". Nat Cell Biol. 12 (3): 209-11. doi:10.1038/ ... a MYC/MYCN-activated microRNA, regulates E-cadherin and cancer metastasis". Nat Cell Biol. 12 (3): 247-56. doi:10.1038/ncb2024 ...
MeSH Myc proto-oncogene proteins. *. (EN) JoVE: Generating iPS Cells from MEFS through Forced Expression of Sox-2, Oct-4, c-Myc ... La proteina Myc appartiene alla famiglia Myc di fattori di trascrizione, che include anche i geni N-Myc e L-Myc. I fattori di ... The proto-oncogene c-myc in hematopoietic development and leukemogenesis (PDF), in Oncogene, vol. 21, nº 21, 13 maggio 2002, pp ... Finver SN, Nishikura K, Finger LR, et al., Sequence analysis of the MYC oncogene involved in the t(8;14)(q24;q11) chromosome ...
SUB1 - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
As described by Vogelstein et al., an average cancer of the colon has only 1 or 2 oncogene mutations and 1 to 5 tumor ... which results in increased activity of MYC, a central player in colorectal cancer. ... The oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are well studied and are described above under Pathogenesis. ... oncogenes. These genes are normally important for stem cell renewal and differentiation, but when inappropriately expressed at ...
Li H, Lee TH, Avraham H (June 2002). "A novel tricomplex of BRCA1, Nmi, and c-Myc inhibits c-Myc-induced human telomerase ... Chai Y, Chipitsyna G, Cui J, Liao B, Liu S, Aysola K, Yezdani M, Reddy ES, Rao VN (March 2001). "c-Fos oncogene regulator Elk-1 ... Wang Q, Zhang H, Kajino K, Greene MI (October 1998). "BRCA1 binds c-Myc and inhibits its transcriptional and transforming ... BRCA1 also interacts with c-Myc, and other proteins that are critical to maintain genome stability. ...
Mitogenom-aktivirana proteinska kinaza 1 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Myc, ADAM17, SORBS3, ELK1, VAV1, HDAC4, MKNK2, MAP3K1 i UBR5. ... Oncogene. ENGLAND. 19 (7): 858-69. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 10702794. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203408.. ... Gupta, S; Davis R J (1994). „MAP kinase binds to the NH2-terminal activation domain of c-Myc". FEBS Lett. NETHERLANDS. 353 (3 ... 1-butanone promotes functional cooperation of Bcl2 and c-Myc through phosphorylation in regulating cell survival and ...
Jacobs SM, Gorse KM, Westin EH (1994). "Identification of a second promoter in the human c-myb proto-oncogene". Oncogene. 9 (1 ... Myb proto-oncogene protein also known as transcriptional activator Myb is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYB gene.[ ... "Entrez Gene: v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)".. *^ Vargova K, Curik N, Burda P, Basova P, Kulvait V, ... Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ...
RHOQ - ويكيبيديا
"Oncogene. 8 (11): 2925-2929. PMID 8414495.. *^ Baloh RH, Enomoto H, Johnson EM, et al. (2000). "The GDNF family ligands and ... The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF ... 1993). "Exon structure and flanking intronic sequences of the human RET proto-oncogene". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196 (3 ... ret+Proto-Oncogene+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Apoptosis - Wikipédia Sunda, énsiklopédi bébas
Sattler, Martin; James D. Griffin (April 2001). "Mechanisms of transformation by the BCR/ABL oncogene". International Journal ... Burkitt's lymphoma t(8 MYC;14 IGH). *Follicular lymphoma t(14 IGH;18 BCL2) ... Nimmanapalli, R.; Bhalla, K. (2002). "Novel targeted therapies for Bcr-Abl positive acute leukemias: Beyond STI571". Oncogene. ...
Kostniakomięsak, wolna encyklopedia
c-MYC. W kostniakomięsaku stwierdza się niestabilność chromosomalną chromosomu 8q. Chromosom zawiera protoonkogen c-MYC w locus ... Oncogene". 27 (19), s. 2716-27, Apr 2008. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1210934. PMID: 18037967. ... C-Myc overexpression promotes osteosarcoma cell invasion via activation of MEK-ERK pathway. „Oncol Res". 20 (4), s. 149-56, ... Oncogene". 27 (36), s. 4954-61, Aug 2008. DOI: 10.1038/onc.2008.138. PMID: 18469863. ...
Researchers identify new roles for common oncogene MYC
The study, which will be published May 29 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, shows that MYC affects the efficiency and ... a powerful oncogene that is estimated to drive the development of almost half a million new cancer cases in the US every year. ... Cancer researchers have discovered surprising new functions for a protein called MYC, ... Newswise - Cancer researchers have discovered surprising new functions for a protein called MYC, a powerful oncogene that is ...
Researchers Uncover One Force Behind the MYC Oncogene in Many Cancers - Redorbit
"While MYC has a definite role in cancer, MYC also has an important place in the normal functioning of cells, so it may be ... DLX5, a gene crucial for embryonic development, promotes cancer by activating the expression of the known oncogene, MYC, ... Researchers Uncover One Force Behind the MYC Oncogene in Many Cancers. by Sam Savage ... One of the targets of DLX5 is the MYC gene itself, causing the cells to produce many copies of the MYC oncoprotein.. Normally ...
BPTF regulates growth of adult and pediatric high-grade glioma through the MYC pathway | Oncogene
BPTFs impact on growth is mediated through positive effects on expression of MYC and MYC pathway targets. HDAC inhibitors ... BPTF inhibition is a promising strategy to combat HGG through epigenetic regulation of the MYC oncogenic pathway. ... c-myc oncogene family expression in glioblastoma and survival. Surg Neurol. 1999;51:536-42. ... BPTFs impact on growth is mediated through positive effects on expression of MYC and MYC pathway targets. HDAC inhibitors ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Myc proto-oncogene protein - P01106 (MYC HUMAN)
The heterodimer MYC:MAX interacts with ABI1; the interaction may enhance MYC:MAX transcriptional activity. Interacts with TRIM6 ... By similarity). Interacts with NPM1; the binary complex is recruited to the promoter of MYC target genes and enhances their ... transcription (PubMed:25956029). Interacts with CIP2A; leading to the stabilization of MYC (PubMed:17632056). UniProt ...
Myc proto-oncogene protein - DrugBank
proto oncogene proteins c myc
Genomes and Genes about proto oncogene proteins c myc ... c-Myc products*Myc products*E2f1 products*ZBTB17 products*MXI1 ... proto oncogene proteins c myc. Summary. Summary: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally ... These findings support a model where Mnt represses Myc target genes and Myc functions as an oncogene by relieving Mnt-mediated ... B-MYC REGULATION AND FUNCTION. STEPHEN HANN; Fiscal Year: 2003. ..The interaction of B-Myc with critical c-Myc binding proteins ...
Analysis of gene expression during myc oncogene-induced lymphomagenesis in the bursa of Fabricius | PNAS
... myc in reference normal bursal samples. HB1 virus-induced TF (8) in which the same v-myc oncogene as in LmycSN was ... The LmycSN retroviral vector we used to express the myc-oncogene in the bursa produced levels of transgene expression that ... expressing the myc-oncogene of the recovered avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC-29-HB1 (HB1), LmycSN, as previously ... Relationship of level of myc-oncogene expression to change in expression of other mRNAs on the array. The number of mRNAs (y ...
Exploiting oncogene-induced replicative stress for the selective killing of Myc-driven tumors. - PubMed - NCBI
Eμ-myc+: 24; Atr+/+; Eμ-myc+: 31; AtrS/S; Eμ-myc-: 32). The asterisks indicate the statistical significance of the different ... Exploiting oncogene-induced replicative stress for the selective killing of Myc-driven tumors.. Murga M#1, Campaner S#2, Lopez- ... a) Observed birth rates of the different genotypes obtained from Atr+/S; Eμ-myc+ x Atr+/S; Eμ-myc- crosses (n = 512 mice; χ2: P ... c) Quantification from the analysis presented in (a,b). (d) γH2ax, C3A and c-Myc IHC on the pancreatic tumor from an Ela-myc ...
Cooperative interaction between c-myc and bcl-2 proto-oncogenes. - PubMed - NCBI
The bcl-2 proto-oncogene is activated by translocation in a variety of B-lymphoid tumours and synergizes with the c-myc ... Cooperative interaction between c-myc and bcl-2 proto-oncogenes.. Fanidi A1, Harrington EA, Evan GI. ... specifically abrogates c-myc-induced apoptosis without affecting the c-myc mitogenic function. This provides a novel mechanism ... We have shown that the c-myc gene is a potent inducer of apoptosis, in addition to its established role in mitogenesis. Here we ...
Infamous proto-oncogene, c-myc, turns up in a new role
... 12.05.2006 ... we discovered that its actually c-myc, which is known primarily as an oncogene, that acts downstream of the IL-15 signaling ... c-myc, a gene commonly involved in cancer onset, has been found to have a role in the immune systems normal function according ... Before we design new therapies that inactivate a gene product, which is an approach being considered for c-myc in cancer, we ...
MYC - Myc proto-oncogene protein - Homo sapiens (Human) - MYC gene & protein
Myc proto-oncogene protein. Myc proto-oncogene protein (Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 39, bHLHe39) (Proto-oncogene c- ... Myc proto-oncogene protein (V-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Avian), isoform CRA_b) ... tr,Q14899,Q14899_HUMAN Myc proto-oncogene protein OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=MYC PE=1 SV=1 ... Myc proto-oncogene proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p ...
Mapping the c-MYC Oncogene-Induced Pathway to Cell Death | Science Signaling
Mapping the c-MYC Oncogene-Induced Pathway to Cell Death Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... Myc is a transcription factor that can both activate and repress gene transcription and thus influences many potential targets ... Indeed, expression of BCL2 was decreased by wild-type c-MYC but not by the c-MYCV394D mutant, and inhibition of expression of ... Many earlier studies of mouse models and of human tumor cells have shown that BCL2 and c-MYC appear to work together in ...
What you need to know about the oncogene c-MYC
... the role of c-MYC & MAX in gene regulation, structure & function of Myc the protein & phosphorylation & degradation of c-Myc ... c-Myc), a human gene that is often over-expressed in several cancers. Two further transcription factors, n-Myc and l-Myc, were ... Structure of c-Myc c-Myc is a 62 kDa protein (439 amino acids) and belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix zipper (bHLHZip) class ... The Myc family of human transcription factors was identified after discovering homology between an oncogene carried by the ...
MYC - V-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog - Homo sapiens (Human) - MYC gene & protein
tr,B3CJ87,B3CJ87_HUMAN V-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=MYC PE=4 SV=1 ... V-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... MYC, human. Family and domain databases. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR002418, Tscrpt_reg_Myc. IPR012682, Tscrpt_ ... Myc_NInterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual ...
Therapeutic potential of a synthetic lethal interaction between the MYC proto-oncogene and inhibition of aurora-B kinase | PNAS
Therapeutic potential of a synthetic lethal interaction between the MYC proto-oncogene and inhibition of aurora-B kinase. Dun ... Therapeutic potential of a synthetic lethal interaction between the MYC proto-oncogene and inhibition of aurora-B kinase ... Therapeutic potential of a synthetic lethal interaction between the MYC proto-oncogene and inhibition of aurora-B kinase ... Therapeutic potential of a synthetic lethal interaction between the MYC proto-oncogene and inhibition of aurora-B kinase ...
MYC-Generated Osteosarcoma Kicked Cancer Habit After Key Oncogene Switched Two Ways | BioWorld
Nanotechnology for label-free colorimetric detection of c-myc mRNA oncogene
... for specific detection of c-myc mRNA biomarkers. ... In the presence of target c-myc mRNA, the PNA prefers to switch ... Nanowerk News) Given the important role in functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, c-myc mRNA has emerged as a potential ... Nanotechnology for label-free colorimetric detection of c-myc mRNA oncogene. ( ... In addition, we aim to integrate the bar code technology and smart phone to develop a portable oncogene screening biosensor for ...
NKT cell adjuvant-based tumor vaccine for treatment of myc oncogene-driven mouse B-cell lymphoma | Blood Journal
The c-myc oncogene driven by immunoglobulin enhancers induces lymphoid malignancy in transgenic mice. Nature 1985;318(6046):533 ... NKT cell adjuvant-based tumor vaccine for treatment of myc oncogene-driven mouse B-cell lymphoma. Stephen R. Mattarollo, Alison ... NKT cell adjuvant-based tumor vaccine for treatment of myc oncogene-driven mouse B-cell lymphoma. Blood, 120(15), 3019-3029. ... Eμ-myc, AML-ETO9a, or Vk*myc tumor cells were loaded overnight with 500 ng/mL of α-GalCer or another indicated glycolipid. ...
Myc oncogene | definition of Myc oncogene by Medical dictionary
Myc oncogene explanation free. What is Myc oncogene? Meaning of Myc oncogene medical term. What does Myc oncogene mean? ... Looking for online definition of Myc oncogene in the Medical Dictionary? ... Myc oncogene , definition of Myc oncogene by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Myc+oncogene ... myc. (redirected from Myc oncogene). Also found in: Dictionary. Myc. (mĭk). n.. Any of several genes encoding DNA-binding ...
Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human c-myc proto-oncogene product. | Molecular and Cellular Biology
Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human c-myc proto-oncogene product.. G I Evan, G K Lewis, G Ramsay, J M Bishop ... Five of these antibodies precipitate p62c-myc from human cells, and three of these five also recognize the mouse c-myc gene ... Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human c-myc proto-oncogene product. ... Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human c-myc proto-oncogene product. ...
Detection of N-myc Oncogene Expression in Human Neuroblastoma by in Situ Hybridization and Blot Analysis: Relationship to...
Detection of N-myc Oncogene Expression in Human Neuroblastoma by in Situ Hybridization and Blot Analysis: Relationship to ... We studied N-myc oncogene expression in 13 human neuroectodermal tumors and one teratoma by in situ hybridization. In four of ... Detection of N-myc Oncogene Expression in Human Neuroblastoma by in Situ Hybridization and Blot Analysis: Relationship to ... Detection of N-myc Oncogene Expression in Human Neuroblastoma by in Situ Hybridization and Blot Analysis: Relationship to ...
anti-V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian) (MYC) (pThr358), (AA 340-385) antibody (Cy5.5) ABIN752598 from...
MYC) (pThr358), (AA 340-385) antibody (Cy5.5) ABIN752598 from antibodies-online ... anti-V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian) ( ... anti-V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian) (MYC ... anti-V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian) (MYC) (pThr358), (AA 340-385) antibody (Cy5.5) from antibodies- ... Itemanti-V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian) (MYC) (pThr358), (AA 340-385) antibody (Cy5.5) ...
Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Pipeline Review, H1...
Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Pipeline Review, H1 ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Myc cMyc protein ... The report Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Pipeline Review, H1 2018 outlays comprehensive information on the Myc Proto Oncogene ... According to the recently published report Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Pipeline Review, H1 2018; Myc Proto Oncogene Protein ...
Noncorrelation of the Expression of the c-myc Oncogene in Colorectal Carcinoma with Recurrence of Disease or Patient Survival |...
Noncorrelation of the Expression of the c-myc Oncogene in Colorectal Carcinoma with Recurrence of Disease or Patient Survival. ... Noncorrelation of the Expression of the c-myc Oncogene in Colorectal Carcinoma with Recurrence of Disease or Patient Survival ... Noncorrelation of the Expression of the c-myc Oncogene in Colorectal Carcinoma with Recurrence of Disease or Patient Survival ... Noncorrelation of the Expression of the c-myc Oncogene in Colorectal Carcinoma with Recurrence of Disease or Patient Survival ...
Amplification and expression of a cellular oncogene (c-myc) in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. | Molecular and Cellular...
Amplification and expression of a cellular oncogene (c-myc) in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.. M Shibuya, J Yokota, Y ... Amplification and expression of a cellular oncogene (c-myc) in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. ... Amplification and expression of a cellular oncogene (c-myc) in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. ... Amplification and expression of a cellular oncogene (c-myc) in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. ...
Expression of c-myc and c-fms oncogenes in trophoblastic cells in hydatidiform mole and normal human placenta
... J Clin Pathol. ... c-myc expression was very low in hydatidiform moles and normal placentas. Both oncogenes, however, had no direct correlation ... c-myc and c-fms proto-oncogene expression was analysed by northern blot hybridisation and immunohistochemical staining. ... Aims: To compare the expression of c-myc and c-fms proto-oncogenes in the placenta and hydatidiform mole. ...
N-myc: V-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived
GoPubMed lists recent and important papers and reviews for v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived ... Double deletion of c-Myc and N-Myc results in nearly complete loss of the residual pigmentation, indicating that N-Myc is ... Papers on N-myc. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 4, up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor kappa B, ... c-Myc (Myc) or MycN overexpression in granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) induces Group 3 (G3) or Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) MBs, ...
The N-myc Oncogene: Maximizing its Targets, Regulation, and Therapeutic Potential | Molecular Cancer Research
N-myc in normal development. N-myc belongs to the Myc family of proto-oncogenes, which are transcription factors of the basic- ... MYC), and this region was designated N-myc (MYCN). Genomic amplification of N-myc resulted in overexpression of N-myc at the ... Other Myc family transcription factors include C-myc and L-myc. Although similarly diverse in their function, Myc genes are ... The L-myc gene is less well characterized, demonstrates homology to N-myc and C-myc (5), and is expressed in both neonatal and ...
Induction of Apoptosis by Flavopiridol in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Is Enhanced under Hypoxia and Associated With N-myc Proto...
Our aim was to investigate flavopiridol effects on advanced-stage, N-myc proto-oncogene (MYCN)-amplified human neuroblastomas ... Amplification of the N-myc proto-oncogene (MYCN), which occurs in a subset of tumors and results in enhanced MYCN expression, ... A 2-kb EcoRI band corresponding to the amplified MYCN oncogene is shown in the GI-LI-N and LAN-5 cells. A 1-kb marker was run ... of Apoptosis by Flavopiridol in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Is Enhanced under Hypoxia and Associated With N-myc Proto-oncogene ...
The N-myc proto-oncogene and IGF-II growth factor mRNAs are expressed by distinct cells in human fetal kidney and brain. | JCB
The N-myc proto-oncogene and IGF-II growth factor mRNAs are expressed by distinct cells in human fetal kidney and brain.. H ... The N-myc proto-oncogene and IGF-II growth factor mRNAs are expressed by distinct cells in human fetal kidney and brain. ... We studied the expression of the N-myc proto-oncogene and the insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene in human fetuses of ... Expression of N-myc mRNA was observed in the brain and in the kidney by Northern hybridization analysis. In in situ ...
ProteinProteinsDifferentiationExpressionLymphomaGenesMYCNTRANSCRIPTION FACTORViral oncogeneOncoproteinTherapeuticLymphomasPathwaysTargetsPathwayGene expressionMember of the MYC familyDownstreamExample of an oncogeneProto-oncogene expressionInactivationProgression2019TransactivationMechanism2018AntibodiesExpression of N-mycMolecularInhibitorsMutationsStabilization
- Using this technique we report that the DNA-binding activity of c-Myc-containing complexes is reduced during induced differentiation of U-937 monoblasts and F9 embryonic teratocarcinoma cells. (springernature.com)
- However, our studies of early kinetics of TPA-induced differentiation of U-937 cells as well as of late events during F9 differentiation suggest that post-translational regulation of Myc and Max DNA-binding may also occur. (springernature.com)
- Although the main regulation of this network seems to be the control of myc- and mad family gene expression, regulation at the level of DNA-binding and transactivation may also be in operation. (springernature.com)
- In general, the DNA-binding activity of c-Myc and Mad1 correlate with their expression. (springernature.com)
- They found that there were two sites where DLX5 could bind to the MYC promoter, which is a section of DNA where certain proteins known as transcription factors attach in order to recruit the cellular machinery used to transcribe genes into messenger RNA and then proteins. (redorbit.com)
- the binary complex is recruited to the promoter of MYC target genes and enhances their transcription (PubMed:25956029). (rcsb.org)
- Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. (labome.org)
- This review is focused on two major aspects of Myc: the nature of the genes and pathways that are targeted by Myc, and the role of Myc in stem cell and cancer biology. (labome.org)
- The mRNAs for another cluster of genes were overexpressed in neoplasia independent of myc expression level, including a small subset with the expression signature of embryonic bursal lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
- Overexpression of myc , and some of the genes overexpressed with myc , may be important for generation of preneoplastic transformed follicles. (pnas.org)
- The four-helix structure of c-Myc and MAX binds to DNA sequences, such as E-box motifs (5'-CACGTG -3'), to control transcription of specific genes. (abcam.com)
- The typical translocation in Burkitt's lymphoma is t(8;14)(q24;q23), juxtaposing the c-myc and the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Myc protein is a transcription factor that activates expression of many genes through binding enhancer box sequences and recruiting histone acetyltransferases. (bioportfolio.com)
- Three of 16 human gastric adenocarcinoma samples, maintained as solid tumors in nude mice, were found to carry amplified c-myc genes. (asm.org)
- Although similarly diverse in their function, Myc genes are separately regulated. (aacrjournals.org)
- Because Myc proteins preferentially regulate the same sets of genes involved in differentiation and cell growth (i.e., translation, ribosome biogenesis, and metabolic processes), they can partially compensate for one another. (aacrjournals.org)
- For instance, mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) homozygous for deletion of either C-myc or N-myc genes display morphology without aberrant proliferation or differentiation compared with wild-type ESCs ( 6, 7 ) and N-myc can functionally replace C-myc in murine development ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The fetal expression patterns of the N-myc and IGF-II mRNAs are reflected by the types of tumors known to express the corresponding genes during postnatal life such as Wilms' tumor. (rupress.org)
- However, the apparent coexpression of the IGF-II and N-myc genes in immature kidneys occurs largely in distinct cell types. (rupress.org)
- As a result of synergistic or sequential damages of DNA, several proto-oncogenes such as c-Myc are activated and tumor suppressor genes are inactivated, leading to the alteration of DNA repair system and apoptosis regulation. (ijbs.com)
- The myc genes are highly conserved through evolution and are found in all animals examined with the exception of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that seems to lack a myc ortholog. (cancerlink.ru)
- Two additional myc genes, S-myc and B-myc, are expressed exclusively in rodents and are not as well characterized. (cancerlink.ru)
- Schematic presentation of the Myc network proteins, including chromosomal localization of the human genes encoding these proteins. (cancerlink.ru)
- Cyclin D2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), carbamoyl-transferase-dihydroorotase (cad), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) are examples of target genes activated by c-Myc, and genes repressed by Myc include those encoding the CDK inhibitors p15 INK4b and p21 and the transcriptional repressor Mxd4. (cancerlink.ru)
- To identify genes involved in coping with this stress, Westbrook and his colleague Dr. Stephen Elledge of Harvard Medical School used a special RNA interference screen to disrupt the function of each gene in the genome and identify the genes required to allow the cancer cell to tolerate the stress of the myc oncogene. (healthcanal.com)
- It is crucial to understand how these cancer-causing genes (such as c-Myc when malfunctioning) are regulated. (ysjournal.com)
- Capping Enzyme is regulating other proteins/genes that can in turn be acting on c-Myc (eg CRD-BP). (ysjournal.com)
- As Capping Enzyme has the potential to regulate a number of genes, CRD-BP may be one of them and thus c-Myc may be regulated this way. (ysjournal.com)
- Early studies identified oncogenes, genes that that normally control cell growth, but which can cause mutations responsible for the creation of cancer cells and explain their competitive advantage. (etottho.com)
- In the human genome , Myc is located on chromosome 8 and is believed to regulate expression of 15% of all genes through binding on enhancer box sequences ( E-boxes ) and recruiting histone acetyltransferases (HATs). (wikipedia.org)
- Myc protein belongs to Myc family of transcription factors, which also includes N-Myc and L-Myc genes. (wikipedia.org)
- By modifying the expression of its target genes, Myc activation results in numerous biological effects. (wikipedia.org)
- found that the MYC oncogene, which is aberrantly activated in many human cancers, up-regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins that dampen the antitumor response. (sciencemag.org)
- MYC was found to bind directly to the promoters of the Cd47 and Pd-l1 genes. (sciencemag.org)
- These data, together with MYC, positively correlated pathways as well as mutually exclusive cancer genes, will be a resource for understanding MYC-driven cancers and designing of therapeutics. (uu.nl)
- Deregulated expression of the MYC family of transcription factors, particularly c - MYC and MYCN genes, has been found in many of these neoplasms, and their expression levels are often correlated with poor prognosis. (mdpi.com)
- Swartling, F.J. Modeling and Targeting MYC Genes in Childhood Brain Tumors. (mdpi.com)
- The MYCN gene belongs to a class of genes known as oncogenes. (medlineplus.gov)
- Thus , NOL5A expands the link between MYC-induced regulation of nucleolar target genes which are rate-limiting for cell transformation and tumor growth . (dartmouth.edu)
- c-Myc may control multiple natural functions by immediate rules of two specific sets of focus on genes: ((Fig. 3E), indicating that under physiological circumstances any connection of Sin3A with c-Myc was transient. (aboutpetshealth.com)
- N-Myc and L-Myc were subsequently identified as the products of amplified genes in neuroblastoma and in small cell lung malignancy, respectively (6C8). (fk866.net)
- Col1a1-tetO-OKSM mice have expression of the OKSM cassette consisting of four mouse reprogramming genes, Pou5f1 , Klf4 , Sox2 , and Myc , under the control of the bi-directional tet-responsive element ( tetO ) with CMV minimal enhancer-less promoter. (jax.org)
- Most oncogenes began as proto-oncogenes, normal genes involved in cell growth and proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- If normal genes promoting cellular growth, through mutation, are up-regulated, (gain of function mutation) they will predispose the cell to cancer and are thus termed oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
- Usually multiple oncogenes, along with mutated apoptotic or tumor suppressor genes will all act in concert to cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Neuroblastoma is a model pediatric solid tumor in its use of recurrent genomic alterations, such as high-level MYCN (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog) amplification, for risk stratification. (gopubmed.org)
- N-myc (MYCN), a member of the Myc family of basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLHZ) transcription factors, is a central regulator of many vital cellular processes. (aacrjournals.org)
- The N-myc gene was first reported in 1983, when Schwab and colleagues ( 1 ) and Kohl and colleagues ( 2 ) discovered that there were a subset of human neuroblastoma cell lines harboring multiple copies of a DNA sequence related to the C-myc oncogene (MYC), and this region was designated N-myc (MYCN). (aacrjournals.org)
- Our aim was to investigate flavopiridol effects on advanced-stage, N-myc proto-oncogene (MYCN)-amplified human neuroblastomas and the modulation of its activity by hypoxia, a critical determinant of tumor progression and a major challenge of therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- In vertebrates, c-myc and MYCN are essential during development. (cancerlink.ru)
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect chromosome 17 abnormalities, losses of 9q22 and 10q24, and amplification of the MYCC and MYCN oncogenes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Elevated c-MYC/MYCN initiates and drives tumorigenesis in many in vivo model systems of pediatric brain tumors. (mdpi.com)
- N-myc proto-oncogene protein also known as N-Myc or basic helix-loop-helix protein 37 (bHLHe37), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYCN gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The MYCN gene is a member of the MYC family of transcription factors and encodes a protein with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain. (wikipedia.org)
- The MYCN gene is a member of the Myc family of oncogenes. (medlineplus.gov)
- Myc is a transcription factor that can both activate and repress gene transcription and thus influences many potential targets that might contribute to regulation of apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
- Patel and McMahon extended earlier studies showing that binding of Myc to another transcription factor, MIZ-1, and inhibition of MIZ-1-dependent transcription were important for promotion of apoptosis by c-MYC. (sciencemag.org)
- Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC pipeline Target constitutes close to 13 molecules. (bioportfolio.com)
- Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Myc cMyc protein encoded by Myc gene, a regulator gene that code for a transcription factor. (bioportfolio.com)
- It also reviews key players involved in Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (bioportfolio.com)
- The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor, which is encoded by the c-Myc gene on human chromosome 8q24. (neuromics.com)
- The nuclear transcription factor c-Myc is a member of the Myc gene family with multiple functions and located on band q24.1 of chromosome 8. (ijbs.com)
- The MYC proto-oncogene encodes a nuclear transcription factor of the basic region-helix-loophelix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) family, belonging to the Myc/Max/Mad(Mxd) network (Fig. 1). (cancerlink.ru)
- Myc ( c-Myc ) is a regulator gene that codes for a transcription factor . (wikipedia.org)
- This means that in addition to its role as a classical transcription factor, Myc also functions to regulate global chromatin structure by regulating histone acetylation both in gene-rich regions and at sites far from any known gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Through its bHLH DNA-binding motif, Myc interacts with DNA , while the leucine zipper TF-binding motif allows the dimerization with its partner Max, another bHLH transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
- The product of the c-myc proto oncogene, MYC, encodes a transcription factor that is essential for normal cell cycle progression. (searlescholars.net)
- The transcription factor MYC regulates the expression of a multitude of gene products involved in cell proliferation, growth, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis ( 1 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Some 20 years ago, c-Myc was discovered in human Burkitt's lymphoma, as a celluar homologue of the viral oncogene v-Myc which was isolated from an avian retrovirus [ 7 , 8 ]. (ijbs.com)
- Should the Human V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (MYC) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (noveoninc.com)
- Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (MYC) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
- Cloning the break-point of the fusion chromosomes revealed a gene that was similar to myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (v-Myc). (wikipedia.org)
- One of the targets of DLX5 is the MYC gene itself, causing the cells to produce many copies of the MYC oncoprotein. (redorbit.com)
- Regulation of expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2 links the c-MYC oncoprotein to control of cell death. (sciencemag.org)
- Kato, G. & Dang, C. Function of the c‐Myc oncoprotein. (abcam.com)
- PROJECT SUMMARY: The overarching goal of this proposal is to uncover a previously uncharacterized molecular function of c-Myc (hereafter referred to as Myc), a proto-oncoprotein that is frequently amplified in breast cancer and many other types of human cancer. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Small-molecule inhibitors of the Myc oncoprotein. (springer.com)
- The resultant protein encoded by an oncogene is termed oncoprotein . (wikipedia.org)
- As a master regulator of many of the processes associated with cancer, c-Myc is an attractive therapeutic target. (abcam.com)
- Overall, our results demonstrate a potent immune adjuvant effect of NKT cell ligands in therapeutic anticancer vaccination against oncogene-driven lymphomas, and this work supports clinical investigation of NKT cell-based immunotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies. (bloodjournal.org)
- Finally, the clinical implications of N-Myc as a biomarker and potential as a target using novel therapeutic approaches are discussed. (aacrjournals.org)
- Studies also have shown that c-Myc is essential for tumor cell development in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis that distribute blood throughout the cells, and which brought extensive attention in the development of new therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. (neuromics.com)
- In this minireview, we summarize unique characteristics of c-Myc and therapeutic strategies against cancer using small molecules targeting the oncogene, and discuss the prospects in the development of agents targeting c-Myc, in particular G-quadruplexes formed in c-Myc promoter and c-Myc/Max dimerization. (ijbs.com)
- The therapeutic value is that a drug targeting SAE will cause the cancer cell to no longer tolerate myc but will not be detrimental to normal cells. (healthcanal.com)
- Still, finding c-MYC inhibitors for therapeutic use has been problematic and MYC itself has long been viewed as undruggable. (etottho.com)
- Dang CV, Le A, Gao P. MYC-induced cancer cell energy metabolism and therapeutic opportunities. (springer.com)
- Finally, we comment on the therapeutic implications of the role of MYC in affecting PSCs. (frontiersin.org)
- For these reasons, unraveling the MYC-mediated mechanism in those cells is fundamental to exploit their full potential and to identify therapeutic targets. (frontiersin.org)
- In follicles of the chicken bursa of Fabricius, myc induction of B-cell neoplasia requires a target cell population present during early bursal development and progresses through preneoplastic transformed follicles to metastatic lymphomas. (pnas.org)
- Immortalized cell lines have been generated from myc -induced bursal lymphomas, perhaps the best characterized of which is DT-40 ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
- Moreover, Chk1 inhibitors were highly effective in killing Myc-driven lymphomas. (nih.gov)
- Burkitt's Lymphomas (BLs) acquire consistent point mutations in a conserved Myc Box I domain . (dartmouth.edu)
- using integrated bioinformatics analysis of DMR and DEG, and identify potential biological pathways preferentially affected by Myc through epigenetic regulation. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- The knowledge that CSCs exhibit characteristics comparable to normal stem cells that could be associated with the expression of similar transcription factors (TFs) including SOX2, OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and c-Myc, and signaling pathways such as the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog (Hh), Notch and PI3K/AKT/mTOR directed the attention to the use of these similarities to identify and target CSCs in different tumor types. (frontiersin.org)
- The N-myc-induced cell cycle entry, but not enhanced survival, was inhibited by coexpression of a constitutively hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, suggesting that these two effects of N-myc are mediated by separate pathways. (jneurosci.org)
- Although secondary reprogramming mutations are generally required, some cells such as centroblasts or memory B cells that have certain stem cell-like features, or lymphocytes with MYC rearrangements that deregulate self-renewal pathways, may bypass this need and directly function as the lymphoma-originating cells. (haematologica.org)
- BPTF's impact on growth is mediated through positive effects on expression of MYC and MYC pathway targets. (nature.com)
- Metformin targets c-MYC oncogene to prevent prostate cancer. (mysciencework.com)
- To date, several thousand Myc targets have been identified, some of which are activated and some which are repressed. (cancerlink.ru)
- We are currently investigating which components of the cell cycle machinery are direct targets of c-Myc. (searlescholars.net)
- and (3) rank Myc ?epigenetic targets? (researchwithrutgers.com)
- targets of Myc to be found in Aim 1. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- We will also examine the expression of TDG and the Myc epigenetic targets in various breast cancer cell lines. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Furthermore, we will examine the expression patterns of TDG and validated epigenetic Myc targets by IHC using de-identified breast cancer clinical tissue samples, and correlate them with histopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- By analyzing genetically engineered mouse models with reduced c-myc, reduced IL-15 or absent IL-15, we discovered that it's actually c-myc, which is known primarily as an oncogene, that acts downstream of the IL-15 signaling pathway to regulate T memory cell homeostasis. (innovations-report.com)
- N - myc downstream-regulated gene 4, up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor kappa B, aggravates cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway. (gopubmed.org)
- Myc is activated upon various mitogenic signals such as serum stimulation or by Wnt , Shh and EGF (via the MAPK/ERK pathway ). (wikipedia.org)
- We developed a chicken immune system cDNA microarray to analyze broad changes in gene expression that occur during normal embryonic B-cell development and during myc -induced neoplastic transformation in the bursa. (pnas.org)
- Consequently, the levels of c- myc gene expression observed in primary tumor tissue did not help to define those individuals at higher or lower risk for recurrence of disease and did not point to the likelihood of increased or decreased survival in individuals undergoing surgery for adenocarcinoma of the colon. (aacrjournals.org)
- The c-Myc gene expresses a c-Myc protein, which conducts many important cell functions such as growth, division and gene expression. (ysjournal.com)
- In prostate cancer cells in vitro, MYC expression is needed for maintenance of nucleolar number, and a nucleolar program of gene expression. (elsevier.com)
- c-Myc induces MTDH (AEG-1) gene expression and in turn itself requires AEG-1 oncogene for its expression. (wikipedia.org)
- These results suggest an unexpected role of Myc in promoting glutamine synthesis, and intriguingly, suggest a previously unidentified molecular function of Myc in activating gene expression by regulating DNA methylation. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- This prompts us to form the hypothesis that Myc can regulate gene expression via the modulation of DNA methylation. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- In Aim 1, we plan to identify Myc-induced DNA methylation and gene expression profiles by whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and RNA-Seq using various breast cancer cell lines with stable or inducible expression or knock-down of Myc. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- If successful, this project will uncover DNA demethylation as a novel mechanism for Myc regulated gene expression and oncogenesis. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- For the c-myc gene expression, only three (23%) of the 13 control slides were positive. (westminster.ac.uk)
- Furthermore , two different BL-associated MYC mutations induced similar gene expression profiles independently of T58 phosphorylation , and these profiles are dramatically different from MycWT . (dartmouth.edu)
Member of the MYC family1
- BPTF knockdown interaction with MYC and downstream effectors. (nature.com)
- Interestingly, the MYC oncogenes have been implicated downstream of Flt3-ITD signaling . (thefreedictionary.com)
- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) is expressed weakly in heart and has been reported to modulate cardiac development and QT interval duration, but the role of NDRG4 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. (gopubmed.org)
- N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a responsible gene for a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D). (gopubmed.org)
- Particular emphasis is bestowed on the potent metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) and its interactions with the Src signaling cascade. (gopubmed.org)
Example of an oncogene2
- One classical example of an oncogene that creates such a delicate balance is c-myc. (healthcanal.com)
- Another example of an oncogene is the Bcr-Abl gene found on the Philadelphia chromosome , a piece of genetic material seen in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia caused by the translocation of pieces from chromosomes 9 and 22. (wikipedia.org)
- c-myc and c-fms proto-oncogene expression was analysed by northern blot hybridisation and immunohistochemical staining. (nih.gov)
- In order to investigate the mechanism of the attack of asthma, the authors examined the proto-oncogene expression of c-fos and c-myc in the airway and lung tissue of the ovalbumin-induced asthmatic guinea pigs by using Dot-blot. (elsevier.com)
- The results suggest that the increase in proto-oncogene expression of c-fos and c-myc may be related to the attack of asthma. (elsevier.com)
- Constitutive deletion of N-myc is embryonic lethal ( 6 , 9 ), whereas conditional inactivation in neuronal progenitor cells leads to ataxia, behavioral abnormalities, and tremors that correlate with an overall 2-fold decrease in brain mass that disproportionately affects the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex, both of which show signs of disorganization. (aacrjournals.org)
- MYC inactivation elicits oncogene addiction through both tumor cell-intrinsic and host-dependent mechanisms. (springer.com)
- The bcl-2 proto-oncogene is activated by translocation in a variety of B-lymphoid tumours and synergizes with the c-myc oncogene in tumour progression. (nih.gov)
- The ability of the Myc oncogene to directly alter this process may well explain the rapid progression of cancer formation," the researcher added. (thefreedictionary.com)
- no biopsies performed during this progression expressed increased N- myc RNA. (aacrjournals.org)
- Global Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein Market Report 2019 - Market Size, Share, Price, Trend and Forecast is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein industry. (theinnovativereport.com)
- 5.The report estimates 2019-2024 market development trends of Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein industry. (theinnovativereport.com)
- Acetylation of c-Myc by GCN5 and Suggestion60 raises its protein balance and transactivation 38. (aboutpetshealth.com)
- c-Myc RNA amounts had been the same when GCN5 or Sin3A had been over-expressed and GCN5 and Sin3A protein had been expressed similarly (Fig. S4B,C). Reporter assays shown that transactivation of c-Myc was induced by GCN5 and decreased by Sin3A (Fig. 4D). (aboutpetshealth.com)
- The Myc transactivation domains (TAD) spans the N-terminal conserved motifs MB0, MBI, and MBII. (fk866.net)
- This provides a novel mechanism for oncogene cooperation, of potential importance both in carcinogenesis and in the evolution of drug resistance in tumours. (nih.gov)
- To investigate the mechanism by which c-Myc is regulated two experiments were performed. (ysjournal.com)
- Cowling VH, Cole MD. Mechanism of transcriptional activation by the Myc oncoproteins. (springer.com)
- We also propose a model for the stabilization mechanism in which binding to Aurora-A alters how N-Myc interacts with SCFFbxW7 to disfavor the generation of Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains. (fk866.net)
- Catalytic activity of Aurora-A is not needed for N-Myc stabilization, as well as the root mechanism is normally unclear. (fk866.net)
- He spent the following months extending his research, eventually discovering that such oncogene was the mutation of an allele of the Ras subfamily , as well as its activation mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
- The Cancer Genome Atlas Network 2018, ' Pan-cancer Alterations of the MYC Oncogene and Its Proximal Network across the Cancer Genome Atlas ', Cell Systems , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 282-300.e2. (elsevier.com)
- Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein 2018 Market Research Report was a professional and depth research report on Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein that you would know the world's major regional market conditions of Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein main region including North American, Europe and Asia etc, and the main country including USA, EU, China, South East Asia, India, Japan and etc. (theinnovativereport.com)
- Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human c-myc proto-oncogene product. (asm.org)
- Six monoclonal antibodies have been isolated from mice immunized with synthetic peptide immunogens whose sequences are derived from that of the human c-myc gene product. (asm.org)
- Five of these antibodies precipitate p62c-myc from human cells, and three of these five also recognize the mouse c-myc gene product. (asm.org)
- None of the antibodies sees the chicken p110gag-myc protein. (asm.org)
- All six antibodies recognize immunoblotted p62c-myc. (asm.org)
- The Traditional western Blots had been labelled using antibodies for Sin3A, c-Myc and Flag. (aboutpetshealth.com)
Expression of N-myc1
- Since continued expression of N-myc and IGF-II mRNAs is also a characteristic feature of Wilms' tumor, a childhood neoplasm of probable fetal kidney origin, we were particularly interested in the possibility that their expression might be linked or coordinately regulated in the developing kidney. (rupress.org)
- We report here that deregulated expression of MYC or N-MYC disrupts the molecular clock in vitro by directly inducing REV-ERBα to dampen expression and oscillation of BMAL1, and this could be rescued by knockdown of REV-ERB. (gopubmed.org)
- For 30 years, scientists have tried to attack the oncogene myc," said Dr. Thomas Westbrook , assistant professor of molecular and human genetics and biochemistry and molecular biology at BCM and a senior author of the report. (healthcanal.com)
- Some Aurora-A inhibitors such as for example MLN8237/alisertib and Compact disc532 Rabbit polyclonal to IL10RB can destabilize N-Myc by disrupting the complicated, whereas various other Aurora-A inhibitors haven't any impact (19, 20). (fk866.net)
- We attempt to investigate the structural basis of Aurora-A stabilization of N-Myc and the result of Aurora-A inhibitors over the complicated. (fk866.net)
- We present a crystal framework from the complicated between Aurora-A along with a fragment of N-Myc matching to the spot instantly C-terminal to MBI which unveils Aurora-A in a completely active conformation that's incompatible with inhibitors of Aurora-A that disrupt the complicated. (fk866.net)