Proton Pump Inhibitors
Histamine H2 Antagonists
Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
Drug Therapy, Combination
Mixed Function Oxygenases
Area Under Curve
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
Drug Administration Schedule
Symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: double blind controlled study of intermittent treatment with omeprazole or ranitidine. The European Study Group. (1/1291)OBJECTIVE: To assess intermittent treatment over 12 months in patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. DESIGN: Randomised, multicentre, double blind, controlled study. Patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy results or mild erosive changes received omeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for 2 weeks. Patients remaining symptomatic had omeprazole 10 mg or ranitidine dose doubled for another 2 weeks while omeprazole 20 mg was continued for 2 weeks. Patients who were symptomatic or mildly symptomatic were followed up for 12 months. Recurrences of moderate or severe heartburn during follow up were treated with the dose which was successful for initial symptom control. SETTING: Hospitals and primary care practices between 1994 and 1996. SUBJECTS: 677 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total time off active treatment, time to failure of intermittent treatment, and outcomes ranked from best to worst. RESULTS: 704 patients were randomised, 677 were eligible for analyses; 318 reached the end of the study with intermittent treatment without recourse to maintenance antisecretory drugs. The median number of days off active treatment during follow up was 142 for the entire study (281 for the 526 patients who reached a treatment related end point). Thus, about half the patients did not require treatment for at least 6 months, and this was similar in all three treatment groups. According to outcome, 378 (72%) patients were in the best outcome ranks (no relapse or one (or more) relapse but in remission until 12 months); 630 (93%) had three or fewer relapses in the intermittent treatment phase. Omeprazole 20 mg provided faster relief of heartburn. The results were similar in patients with erosive and non-erosive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent treatment is effective in managing symptoms of heartburn in half of patients with uncomplicated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. It is simple and applicable in general practice, where most patients are seen. (+info)
Reliability of the omeprazole hydroxylation index for CYP2C19 phenotyping: possible effect of age, liver disease and length of therapy. (2/1291)AIMS: To evaluate the reliability of the omeprazole hydroxylation index as a marker for polymorphic CYP2C19 activity in a Japanese population of healthy young subjects (n = 78) and patients with peptic ulcer (n = 72). METHODS: Healthy subjects were administered a single dose of omeprazole (20 mg), whereas patients received 20 mg daily for at least 1 week. The ratio of the serum concentration of omeprazole to hydroxyomeprazole at 3 h postdose was determined and used as a measure of CYP2C19 activity. The CYP2C19 wild type (wt) gene and four mutant alleles associated with the poor metaboliser phenotype of (S)-mephenytoin, CYP2C19*2 in exon 5, CYP2C19*3 in exon 4, CYP2C19m4 in exon 9, and CYP2C19m3 in the initial codon were analysed. RESULTS: In the healthy volunteer study there was complete concordance between genotype and phenotype. However, eight of the patients who had the EM genotype had a high value for their hydroxylation index, and were classified as phenotypic PMs. No CYP2C19m4 and CYP2C19m3 mutations were detected in the eight mismatched patients. They were all genotypic heterozygous EMs, elderly (> or = 65 years) and/or had hepatic disease. Therefore, impaired CYP2C19 activity combined with partial saturation of omeprazole metabolism during multiple dosing may have contributed to the discrepancy between CYP2C19 genotyping and phenotyping. CONCLUSION: Although omeprazole has been used instead of mephenytoin as a probe for polymorphic CYP2C19, it does not appear to be reliable enough for clinical application in Japanese patients. (+info)
Helicobacter pylori infection potentiates the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by omeprazole. (3/1291)BACKGROUND: Omeprazole has a greater intragastric pH elevating effect in Helicobacter pylori positive than negative subjects. Ammonia production by H pylori has been suggested as a probable mechanism. AIMS: To assess the effect of H pylori status on gastric acid secretion during omeprazole treatment, and to examine the possible role of ammonia neutralisation of intragastric acid in increased omeprazole efficacy in infected subjects. METHODS: Twenty H pylori positive and 12 H pylori negative healthy volunteers were examined before and six to eight weeks after commencing omeprazole 40 mg/day. On both occasions plasma gastrin and acid output were measured basally and in response to increasing doses of gastrin 17 (G-17). Gastric juice ammonium concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Prior to omeprazole, measurements were similar in the H pylori positive and negative subjects. During omeprazole, median basal intragastric pH was higher in the H pylori positive (7.95) versus negative (3.75) subjects (p<0.002). During omeprazole basal, submaximal (180 pmol/kg/h G-17), and maximal acid outputs (800 pmol/kg/h G-17) were lower in H pylori positive subjects (0.0, 3.6, 6.0 mmol/h respectively) versus negative subjects (0.3, 14.2, 18.6 mmol/h) (p<0.03 for each). This effect was not explained by neutralisation by ammonia. CONCLUSION: The presence of H pylori infection leads to a more profound suppression of acid secretion during omeprazole treatment. The effect cannot be explained by neutralisation of intragastric acid by bacterial ammonia production and its precise mechanism has to be explained. (+info)
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in functional dyspepsia: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial with 12 months' follow up. The Optimal Regimen Cures Helicobacter Induced Dyspepsia (ORCHID) Study Group. (4/1291)OBJECTIVES: To determine whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori relieves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. SUBJECTS: 278 patients infected with H pylori who had functional dyspepsia. SETTING: Predominantly secondary care centres in Australia, New Zealand, and Europe. INTERVENTION: Patients randomised to receive omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily or placebo for 7 days. Patients were followed up for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptom status (assessed by diary cards) and presence of H pylori (assessed by gastric biopsies and 13C-urea breath testing using urea labelled with carbon-13). RESULTS: H pylori was eradicated in 113 patients (85%) in the treatment group and 6 patients (4%) in the placebo group. At 12 months follow up there was no significant difference between the proportion of patients treated successfully by intention to treat in the eradication arm (24%, 95% confidence interval 17% to 32%) and the proportion of patients treated successfully by intention to treat in the placebo group (22%, 15% to 30%). Changes in symptom scores and quality of life did not significantly differ between the treatment and placebo groups. When the groups were combined, there was a significant association between treatment success and chronic gastritis score at 12 months; 41/127 (32%) patients with no or mild gastritis were successfully treated compared with 21/123 (17%) patients with persistent gastritis (P=0. 008). CONCLUSION: No convincing evidence was found that eradication of H pylori relieves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia 12 months after treatment. (+info)
Treatment of Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections decreases fibrinogen plasma level in patients with ischemic heart disease. (5/1291)BACKGROUND: Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori infections could be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), possibly by increasing fibrinogen levels. The aim of our study was to evaluate changes in fibrinogen level in patients with IHD and H pylori and/or C pneumoniae positivity randomly assigned to antibiotic treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with chronic IHD, H pylori and/or C pneumoniae antibodies, and normal acute-phase reactants were randomly assigned to treatment or no treatment. Treatment consisted of omeprazole, clarithromycin, and tinidazole in H pylori-positive patients and clarithromycin alone in C pneumoniae-positive patients. The effect of treatment and other baseline variables on fibrinogen levels, determined at 6 months, was evaluated by multivariate analysis. Treatment significantly reduced fibrinogen level at 6 months in the overall study population and in the groups of patients divided according to H pylori or C pneumoniae positivity. In the 43 treated patients, mean (+/-SD) basal fibrinogen was 3.65+/-0.58 g/L, and mean final fibrinogen was 3. 09+/-0.52 g/dL (P<0.001), whereas in the 41 untreated patients, mean basal and final fibrinogen levels were 3.45+/-0.70 and 3.61+/-0.71 g/L, respectively. The largest decrease was observed in patients with both infections. Fibrinogen changes were also significantly and negatively correlated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a short, safe, and effective course of antibiotic therapy might be suggested as a means of interacting with an "emerging" risk factor. (+info)
Review article: Helicobacter pylori and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-clinical implications and management. (6/1291)A significant proportion of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have Helicobacter pylori infection, but it is unclear whether or not H. pylori should be treated in this clinical setting. The aim of this review was to critically assess the relationship between H. pylori and GERD and its potential implications for the management of GERD. Data for this review were gathered from the following sources up to April 1998-the biomedical database MEDLINE, a detailed review of medical journals, and a review of abstracts submitted to relevant international meetings. On average, 40% of GERD patients carry H. pylori infection, with a reported infection prevalence ranging from 16% to 88%. To date, there has been no reported controlled trial of effective H. pylori therapy in GERD. GERD has been reported to develop de novo following the cure of H. pylori in peptic ulcer disease. In the presence of H. pylori, proton pump inhibitor therapy appears to accelerate the development of atrophic corpus gastritis, a potentially precancerous condition. Conversely, proton pump inhibitor therapy seems to become less effective after cure of H. pylori. The mechanisms underlying these important contrasting phenomena are poorly understood. The relationship between H. pylori and GERD is complex, and it is difficult to give definitive guidelines on the management of H. pylori infection in GERD. Controlled trials of H. pylori therapy in GERD are urgently needed, as well as further long-term data on both the natural history of gastric histopathological changes in the H. pylori-positive GERD patient treated with proton pump inhibitors, and the impact of H. pylori status on the clinical efficacy of antisecretory therapy. Pending these data, it is perhaps advisable to advocate cure of H. pylori in young patients with proton pump inhibitor-dependent GERD who, in the absence of anti-reflux surgery, are faced with the likelihood of long-term medical therapy. (+info)
Serum gastrin and chromogranin A during medium- and long-term acid suppressive therapy: a case-control study. (7/1291)BACKGROUND: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is regarded as a reliable marker of neuroendocrine proliferation. We previously described increased serum CgA levels during short-term profound gastric acid inhibition. AIM: To investigate serum gastrin and CgA levels in dyspeptic patients during continuous medium- (6 weeks to 1 year), or long-term (1-8 years) gastric acid suppressive therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 consecutive dyspeptic patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in a cross-sectional, case-control study [62 patients on continuous antisecretory therapy, either with proton pump inhibitors (n = 47) or H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) (n = 15) for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with or without Barrett's oesophagus or functional dyspepsia, and 52 age- and sex-matched patients without medical acid inhibition and with normal endoscopic findings (control group)]. Omeprazole doses ranged from 20 mg to 80 mg daily and ranitidine from 150 mg to 450 mg daily. Fasting serum CgA and serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (reference values: serum CgA < 4.0 nmol/L; serum gastrin < 85 ng/L). RESULTS: Fasting serum CgA levels positively correlated with serum gastrin in the entire study population (r = 0. 55, P = 0.0001). Median serum CgA values were higher in patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor than H2RA [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 2 (1.9-2.3) nmol/L, P < 0.002] and controls [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 1.8 (1.5-2.2) nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and did not differ between patients treated with H2RA or controls. Serum gastrin and CgA levels in patients on proton pump inhibitor therapy positively correlated with the degree and duration of acid inhibition. Patients on long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy had significantly higher fasting serum gastrin and CgA than those on medium-term proton pump inhibitor therapy [127 (73-217) ng/L vs. 49 (29-78) ng/L, P < 0.0001 and 4.8 (2.8-8) ng/L vs. 2.1 (1.9-2.6) ng/L, P < 0.001]. No such relation was found in patients on medium- vs. long-term H2RA. Overall, patients with positive Helicobacter pylori serology had higher serum gastrin and CgA levels than those with negative H. pylori serology [51 (27-119) ng/L vs. 27 (14-79) ng/L, P = 0.01, 2.4 (1.9-3.4) nmol/L vs. 2.0 (1.7-2.5) nmol/L, P = 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: During long-term continuous proton pump inhibitor treatment, serum gastrin and CgA levels are significantly elevated compared to H2RA treatment and nontreated dyspeptic controls. H. pylori infection seems to affect gastric ECL cell secretory function. Increased serum CgA values during long-term profound gastric acid inhibition could reflect either gastric enterochromaffin-like cell hyperfunction or proliferative changes. (+info)
Comparison of rabeprazole 20 mg versus omeprazole 20 mg in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer: a European multicentre study. (8/1291)BACKGROUND: Rabeprazole sodium is the newest member of a class of substituted benzimidazole molecules known as proton pump inhibitors. Other proton pump inhibitors have been shown to be effective in healing active duodenal ulcer. METHOD: This randomized, double-blind, multicentre study, conducted at 25 European sites, compared the efficacy and tolerability of rabeprazole and omeprazole in patients with active duodenal ulcers. One hundred and two patients with active duodenal ulcer received rabeprazole 20 mg and 103 patients omeprazole 20 mg once daily for 2 or 4 weeks, with ulcer healing monitored by endoscopy. RESULTS: After 2 weeks, complete ulcer healing was documented in 69% of patients given rabeprazole 20 mg and in 62% of patients given omeprazole 20 mg (N.S.). After 4 weeks, healing rates were 98% in the rabeprazole group and 93% in the omeprazole group (P = 0.083). Rabeprazole-treated patients had significantly greater improvement in daytime pain symptom relief than those treated with omeprazole at the conclusion of the study (P = 0.038). Both drugs were well tolerated over the 4-week treatment period. Mean changes from baseline to end-point in fasting serum gastrin were significantly greater in the rabeprazole group, but at end-point mean values were well within normal limits for both groups. No clinically meaningful changes or other between-group differences were observed in laboratory parameters. CONCLUSION: In this study, rabeprazole produced healing rates equivalent to omeprazole at weeks 2 and 4, and provided significantly greater improvement in daytime pain. Both treatments were well tolerated. (+info)
Omeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is used to treat a variety of conditions related to the digestive system, including: 1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. 2. Ulcers: Omeprazole is often used to treat stomach ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. 3. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: This is a rare condition in which the stomach produces too much acid. 4. Erosive esophagitis: This is a condition in which the lining of the esophagus is damaged by stomach acid. Omeprazole works by blocking the production of stomach acid by the cells in the lining of the stomach. This helps to reduce symptoms of acid-related conditions and promote healing of the digestive tract. It is usually taken once a day, with or without food.
2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles are a class of compounds that have a benzimidazole ring with a 2-pyridinylmethylsulfinyl substituent. They are used in the medical field as potential drugs for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and viral infections. Some specific examples of 2-pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles that have been studied in the medical field include: * BMS-790052: a drug that is being developed for the treatment of multiple myeloma, a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow. * BMS-986016: a drug that is being developed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. * BMS-986015: a drug that is being developed for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, a type of cancer that affects the lungs. These compounds are thought to work by inhibiting the activity of enzymes that are involved in the growth and survival of cancer cells. They are also being studied for their potential anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects.
Ranitidine is a medication that is used to treat conditions such as heartburn, acid reflux, and stomach ulcers. It works by reducing the production of stomach acid, which can help to relieve symptoms and promote healing. Ranitidine is available in both over-the-counter and prescription forms, and it is usually taken by mouth. It is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and constipation. In some cases, ranitidine may interact with other medications or medical conditions, so it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking it.
Lansoprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is used to treat a variety of conditions related to the digestive system, including: 1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. 2. Ulcers: Lansoprazole is used to treat stomach ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and to prevent ulcers from recurring. 3. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: This is a rare condition in which the stomach produces too much acid. Lansoprazole is used to reduce the amount of acid produced. Lansoprazole works by blocking the production of stomach acid by the cells in the lining of the stomach. This helps to reduce the symptoms of GERD, ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is usually taken once or twice a day, with or without food.
Rabeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is used to treat a variety of conditions related to the digestive system, including: 1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. 2. Duodenal ulcers: sores in the lining of the small intestine. 3. Gastric ulcers: sores in the lining of the stomach. 4. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection: a bacterial infection that can cause ulcers in the stomach and duodenum. 5. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: a rare condition in which the stomach produces too much acid. Rabeprazole works by blocking the production of stomach acid, which helps to reduce symptoms and promote healing of the digestive lining. It is usually taken by mouth, either as a tablet or a liquid, and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated.
Esophagitis, peptic refers to an inflammation of the lining of the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach) caused by stomach acid. This type of esophagitis is also known as acid reflux disease or GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Symptoms of peptic esophagitis may include heartburn, difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and a sour taste in the mouth. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, such as avoiding trigger foods and eating smaller, more frequent meals, as well as medications to reduce stomach acid production or block acid reflux. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.
A stomach ulcer is a sore or open wound in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is caused by a combination of factors, including the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, excessive production of stomach acid, and the use of certain medications, such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. In some cases, ulcers can lead to more serious complications, such as bleeding, perforation, and the formation of a stomach abscess. Treatment for stomach ulcers typically involves a combination of medications, such as antibiotics to kill H. pylori bacteria, acid-suppressing drugs to reduce stomach acid production, and pain relievers. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair a perforated ulcer or remove a large abscess.
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic medication that is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, ear infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. It is a type of penicillin antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria in the body. Amoxicillin is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and it is often prescribed for short-term use. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if you start to feel better before the medication is finished. Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin can cause side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. It is important to let your healthcare provider know if you experience any side effects while taking amoxicillin.
Sulfoxides are a class of organic compounds that contain a sulfur-oxygen double bond (S=O). They are derivatives of sulfides, which have a sulfur-sulfur double bond (S=S). Sulfoxides are commonly used in the medical field as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and as anticonvulsants, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory agents. They are also used as reagents in organic chemistry reactions. Some sulfoxides have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of cancer, but their effectiveness as anticancer agents is still being investigated.
Benzimidazoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. They are widely used in the medical field as drugs and as active ingredients in pesticides. In the medical field, benzimidazoles are used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Helminth infections: Benzimidazoles are effective against a range of parasitic worms, including roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes. They work by interfering with the worms' ability to absorb glucose, which leads to their death. 2. Gastric ulcers: Benzimidazoles are used to treat stomach ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. They work by inhibiting the production of enzymes that break down the stomach lining, allowing the ulcers to heal. 3. Migraines: Benzimidazoles are sometimes used to prevent migraines by reducing inflammation in the brain. 4. Cancers: Some benzimidazoles are being studied as potential treatments for certain types of cancer, including colon cancer and ovarian cancer. Overall, benzimidazoles are a versatile class of compounds with a wide range of potential medical applications.
Helicobacter infections refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). H. pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine. It is estimated that more than half of the world's population is infected with H. pylori, and the majority of infected individuals do not experience any symptoms. H. pylori infections can lead to a range of health problems, including gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or duodenum), and stomach cancer. In some cases, H. pylori infections can also cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. Diagnosis of H. pylori infections typically involves a combination of tests, including a breath test, stool test, and endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors, which can help to eliminate the bacteria and reduce inflammation in the stomach. Prevention of H. pylori infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. Vaccines for H. pylori are currently being developed, but are not yet available for widespread use.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a condition in which stomach contents flow back up into the esophagus, causing irritation and discomfort. This can occur due to a weakening of the muscles between the stomach and esophagus, allowing stomach acid and other contents to flow back up. Symptoms of GER can include heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and a sour taste in the mouth. In severe cases, GER can lead to more serious complications such as esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus) and Barrett's esophagus (a condition in which the cells lining the esophagus change in response to chronic irritation). Treatment for GER typically involves lifestyle changes, such as avoiding certain foods and beverages, as well as medications to reduce acid production in the stomach. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the weakened muscles between the stomach and esophagus.
Clarithromycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, skin infections, and ear infections. It is a macrolide antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to make proteins. Clarithromycin is available in both oral and intravenous forms and is typically taken for a duration of 7 to 14 days, depending on the specific infection being treated. It is important to note that clarithromycin may not be effective against all types of bacteria and that it can have side effects, including nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain.
Metronidazole is an antibiotic medication that is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial and protozoal infections. It is particularly effective against anaerobic bacteria, which are bacteria that thrive in oxygen-poor environments. Metronidazole is often used to treat infections of the gastrointestinal tract, such as giardiasis and trichomoniasis, as well as infections of the vagina, skin, and respiratory tract. It is also sometimes used to treat infections caused by certain types of parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and creams, and is typically taken orally or applied topically. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking metronidazole, as it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Cimetidine is a medication that is primarily used to treat ulcers in the stomach and esophagus. It works by blocking the production of stomach acid, which can help to reduce pain and inflammation associated with ulcers. Cimetidine is also sometimes used to treat other conditions, such as heartburn, GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), and certain types of cancer. It is available in both oral and intravenous forms, and is typically taken two to four times per day. Side effects of cimetidine may include headache, dizziness, nausea, and constipation. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to let them know if you experience any side effects while taking this medication.
Famotidine is a medication that is used to treat conditions such as heartburn, acid reflux, and stomach ulcers. It works by blocking the production of stomach acid, which helps to reduce symptoms such as heartburn and acid reflux. Famotidine is available in both over-the-counter and prescription forms, and is typically taken by mouth. It is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but like all medications, it can cause side effects in some people. Some common side effects of famotidine include headache, dizziness, and nausea.
Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage (PUH) is a medical condition that occurs when a peptic ulcer in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) bleeds. The bleeding can be mild or severe, and it can occur suddenly or gradually over time. PUH is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. The bleeding can cause symptoms such as black or tarry stools, (vomiting blood), weakness, dizziness, and fainting. In severe cases, PUH can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition. The most common cause of PUH is the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or other medications that irritate the stomach lining. Other risk factors include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, chronic stress, and a history of peptic ulcers. Treatment for PUH typically involves stopping the bleeding and preventing further bleeding. This may involve medications to reduce stomach acid production, endoscopic therapy to stop the bleeding, or surgery to remove the affected part of the stomach or duodenum. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases (AHHs) are a group of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). These enzymes are primarily found in the liver and are responsible for the oxidation of these compounds to their corresponding hydroxylated derivatives. AHHs play an important role in the detoxification of these compounds, as the hydroxylated derivatives are more water-soluble and can be more easily excreted from the body. In addition, the hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbons can also lead to the formation of reactive intermediates, such as quinones, which can be further metabolized or detoxified by other enzymes. AHHs are also involved in the metabolism of other compounds, such as certain drugs and hormones. Mutations in the genes encoding AHHs can lead to impaired metabolism of these compounds, which can result in toxicity or other health effects. In the medical field, AHHs are often studied in the context of their role in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and their potential health effects. For example, exposure to PAHs and HAHs has been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other health problems, and AHHs are thought to play a key role in this process.
Gastrins are a family of hormones that are produced by cells in the lining of the stomach and small intestine. They play a key role in regulating the production of stomach acid and the movement of food through the digestive tract. Gastrins are also involved in the growth and development of the stomach and other digestive organs. In the medical field, gastrins are often measured as a diagnostic tool for conditions such as peptic ulcers, stomach cancer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which is a rare condition characterized by excessive production of stomach acid.
A peptic ulcer is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is caused by a combination of factors, including the production of excess stomach acid and the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the stomach. Peptic ulcers can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. They can also lead to complications such as bleeding, perforation, and the formation of. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to reduce stomach acid production and antibiotics toH. pylori, as well as lifestyle changes such as avoiding spicy or acidic foods and not smoking.
Esophagitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including acid reflux, infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of esophagitis may include difficulty swallowing, chest pain, heartburn, regurgitation of food or stomach acid, and a sore throat. In severe cases, esophagitis can lead to complications such as bleeding, strictures (narrowing of the esophagus), and Barrett's esophagus (a condition in which the lining of the esophagus changes to resemble the lining of the stomach). Treatment for esophagitis depends on the underlying cause. In cases caused by acid reflux, lifestyle changes such as avoiding trigger foods and sleeping with the head of the bed elevated may be recommended. Medications such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine H2 blockers may also be prescribed to reduce acid production. In cases caused by infections, antibiotics may be necessary. In severe cases, surgery may be required to remove damaged tissue or repair strictures.
Heartburn is a common symptom of acid reflux, which occurs when stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach). This can cause a burning sensation in the chest and throat, which is commonly referred to as heartburn. Heartburn can also be accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, a sour taste in the mouth, and a persistent cough. It is a common condition that affects many people, and can often be treated with over-the-counter medications or lifestyle changes. However, if heartburn persists or is severe, it may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.
Furazolidone is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and is often used in combination with other antibiotics to increase its effectiveness. Furazolidone is available in both oral and topical forms and is generally well-tolerated by most people. However, like all antibiotics, it can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. It is important to take Furazolidone exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.
Dyspepsia is a term used in the medical field to describe a group of symptoms that affect the upper part of the digestive system, including the stomach and the small intestine. These symptoms can include: 1. Bloating or fullness after eating 2. Nausea or vomiting 3. Heartburn or acid reflux 4. Pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen 5. Loss of appetite 6. Early satiety (feeling full soon after eating) 7. Pain or discomfort that is relieved by eating or drinking something Dyspepsia can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, certain foods or drinks, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as ulcers, gastritis, or gallbladder disease. Treatment for dyspepsia depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery.
Mixed-function oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of substrates, including drugs, toxins, and endogenous compounds. These enzymes typically contain a non-heme iron or copper atom in their active site, which is coordinated by a variety of amino acid residues. Mixed-function oxygenases are involved in a variety of biological processes, including drug metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, and the synthesis of important biological molecules such as cholesterol and bile acids. They are also involved in the metabolism of many environmental pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons. In the medical field, mixed-function oxygenases are important because they play a key role in the metabolism of many drugs, which can affect their efficacy and toxicity. For example, the cytochrome P450 family of mixed-function oxygenases is responsible for the metabolism of many commonly prescribed drugs, including anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, and anticoagulants. Understanding the role of these enzymes in drug metabolism is important for optimizing drug therapy and minimizing adverse drug reactions.
Bismuth is a chemical element that is used in the medical field as an active ingredient in certain medications. It is most commonly used in combination with other medications to treat stomach ulcers and acid reflux. Bismuth also has antidiarrheal properties and has been used to treat bacterial infections, such as salmonellosis and shigellosis. In addition, bismuth has been used in the treatment of certain skin conditions, such as acne and rosacea. It is usually taken as a medication in the form of a tablet or capsule.
Penicillins are a group of antibiotics that are derived from the Penicillium fungi. They are one of the most widely used antibiotics in the medical field and are effective against a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, strep throat, and urinary tract infections. Penicillins work by inhibiting the production of cell walls in bacteria, which causes the bacteria to burst and die. There are several different types of penicillins, including penicillin G, penicillin V, amoxicillin, and cephalosporins, which have different properties and are used to treat different types of infections. Penicillins are generally well-tolerated by most people, but can cause side effects such as allergic reactions, diarrhea, and nausea. It is important to take penicillins exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to finish the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.
Pentagastrin is a synthetic peptide that stimulates the release of gastric acid and other digestive enzymes from the stomach. It is commonly used in medical research and diagnostic testing to evaluate the function of the stomach and its digestive system. Pentagastrin is typically administered intravenously or orally, and its effects can be measured through various methods, such as pH monitoring or enzyme assays. In some cases, pentagastrin may also be used to treat certain digestive disorders, although its use in this context is limited and typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective.
Proton pumps are a type of protein found in the membranes of cells, particularly in the lining of the stomach and the cells that make up the walls of blood vessels. These pumps work to regulate the pH of the cell's interior by actively transporting hydrogen ions (protons) out of the cell and into the surrounding environment. This process is essential for maintaining the proper functioning of many cellular processes, including the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy. In the medical field, proton pumps are often targeted by medications used to treat conditions such as acid reflux and stomach ulcers.
Sucralfate is a medication that is used to treat stomach ulcers, including those caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. It works by forming a protective layer over the ulcer, which helps to reduce stomach acid and protect the ulcer from further damage. Sucralfate is usually taken as a suspension or tablet, and it is usually taken with food or milk to help with absorption. It is not recommended for use in people with kidney disease or who are allergic to any of the ingredients in the medication.
Lynestrenol is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in the treatment of various conditions, including menstrual disorders, endometriosis, and abnormal uterine bleeding. It is also used in combination with estrogen to prevent pregnancy in women. Lynestrenol works by thickening the cervical mucus, which makes it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and by inhibiting ovulation. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Side effects of lynestrenol may include nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual bleeding patterns.
Dexlansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medication used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It works by reducing the production of stomach acid, which can help to relieve symptoms and heal damaged tissues in the digestive tract. Dexlansoprazole is available in both immediate-release and delayed-release formulations. The immediate-release version is typically taken once daily, while the delayed-release version is taken once daily in the morning. Common side effects of dexlansoprazole include headache, diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, liver problems, and low magnesium levels may occur. Dexlansoprazole is generally considered safe and effective when used as directed by a healthcare provider. However, as with any medication, it is important to weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks and to discuss any concerns with a healthcare provider.
The cytochrome P-450 enzyme system is a group of enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs, toxins, and other substances in the body. These enzymes are found in the liver, lungs, and other organs, and they play a critical role in the detoxification of harmful substances and the elimination of drugs from the body. The cytochrome P-450 enzymes are classified into several families, each of which is responsible for the metabolism of specific types of compounds. For example, the CYP3A family is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs, including many commonly prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 family is responsible for the metabolism of some antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other drugs. The activity of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic variations, age, sex, and the presence of other medications. In some cases, these factors can lead to differences in the metabolism of drugs, which can affect their effectiveness and the risk of side effects. Overall, the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system plays a critical role in the metabolism of drugs and other substances in the body, and understanding its function is important for the safe and effective use of medications.
Silicic acid is a naturally occurring compound that is found in many minerals, including quartz, feldspar, and mica. In the medical field, silicic acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a treatment for certain medical conditions. There is some evidence to suggest that silicic acid may have a number of potential health benefits. For example, some studies have found that it may help to improve bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. It may also have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which could help to protect against a range of chronic diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of silicic acid, and it is important to note that it is not a cure for any medical condition. If you are considering taking silicic acid as a supplement, it is important to talk to your doctor first to ensure that it is safe for you and will not interact with any other medications you may be taking.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A is a group of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of a wide range of drugs and other substances in the body. These enzymes are found in the liver, lungs, and other organs, and they play a critical role in the elimination of drugs from the body. CYP3A enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of many commonly prescribed medications, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and cholesterol-lowering drugs. They also play a role in the metabolism of some recreational drugs, such as marijuana and cocaine. The activity of CYP3A enzymes can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, sex, and the presence of other medications. In some cases, interactions between different medications can lead to changes in the metabolism of one or both drugs, which can affect their effectiveness and increase the risk of side effects. In the medical field, understanding the role of CYP3A enzymes in drug metabolism is important for optimizing drug therapy and minimizing the risk of adverse effects. This information is often used to guide the selection and dosing of medications, as well as to develop strategies for managing drug interactions.
Mephenytoin is a medication that is used to treat epilepsy. It is a type of anticonvulsant, which means that it helps to prevent seizures. Mephenytoin is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to reduce the activity of nerve cells and prevent seizures. Mephenytoin may also be used to treat other conditions, such as nerve pain and muscle spasms. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking mephenytoin, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Aluminum hydroxide is a white, odorless, and tasteless powder that is commonly used in the medical field as an antacid and an adsorbent. It works by neutralizing stomach acid and reducing symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and acid reflux. In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia, a condition characterized by high levels of phosphate in the blood. It works by binding to phosphate and preventing it from being absorbed by the body. Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter as well as by prescription. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but long-term use at high doses may increase the risk of aluminum toxicity, which can lead to neurological and bone problems.
Safrole is a chemical compound that is found in the bark and leaves of certain plants, including sassafras, sweet flag, and nutmeg. It is also found in some essential oils, such as those derived from cinnamon, cassia, and wintergreen. In the medical field, safrole has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects, including its ability to act as an anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer agent. However, it is also known to be a potent carcinogen, and exposure to high levels of safrole has been linked to the development of liver cancer in humans. As a result, the use of safrole as a dietary supplement or in the preparation of certain foods and beverages, such as absinthe and some types of herbal tea, is now restricted or banned in many countries.
Magnesium hydroxide is a white, odorless powder that is commonly used in the medical field as an antacid and laxative. It is also used in some mouthwashes and toothpastes to neutralize acid and freshen breath. In the body, magnesium hydroxide works by binding to stomach acid and neutralizing it, which can help to relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion. It can also help to soften stools and promote regular bowel movements, which makes it useful for treating constipation. Magnesium hydroxide is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea in some people. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and to talk to a healthcare provider before using magnesium hydroxide if you have any medical conditions or are taking any medications.
Achlorhydria is a medical condition characterized by the absence or significantly reduced production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is a digestive enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in the stomach. Achlorhydria can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the stomach lining, certain medications, autoimmune disorders, and genetic mutations. It can also be a side effect of certain medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Symptoms of achlorhydria may include heartburn, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and difficulty digesting certain foods. In severe cases, achlorhydria can lead to malnutrition and other complications. Treatment for achlorhydria typically involves dietary changes and the use of medications to help with digestion and absorption of nutrients. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damage to the stomach lining or to remove tumors that are causing the condition.
Sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used in cooking and baking as a leavening agent. In the medical field, sodium bicarbonate is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve heartburn and indigestion. It is also used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid, and to alkalinize the urine in certain medical conditions. In addition, sodium bicarbonate is used in some emergency situations, such as treating severe acidosis or as an antidote for certain types of poisonings.
Ticlopidine is a medication that is used to prevent blood clots in people who have had a heart attack or stroke. It works by inhibiting the formation of platelet clumps, which can lead to the formation of blood clots. Ticlopidine is typically prescribed to people who are unable to take aspirin or other antiplatelet medications due to an allergy or other medical condition. It is usually taken in combination with aspirin or another blood thinner to reduce the risk of blood clots. Ticlopidine can cause side effects such as bleeding, stomach pain, and an increased risk of infection. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking ticlopidine and to report any side effects to your healthcare provider.
In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.
Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by blocking the synthesis of proteins that are essential for bacterial growth and reproduction. Tetracycline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It is usually taken orally, although it can also be given intravenously in severe cases. Tetracycline is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain. It can also cause tooth discoloration and interfere with the development of bones in children. Tetracycline is not recommended for use in pregnant women or children under the age of eight, as it can cause permanent discoloration of the teeth and interfere with bone development. It is also not recommended for use in people with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, or in those who are allergic to tetracycline or other antibiotics.
Pepsinogens are inactive precursors of the digestive enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the stomach lining. There are two main types of pepsinogens: pepsinogen A and pepsinogen B. Pepsinogen A is produced by chief cells in the stomach lining and is found in the stomach juice. Pepsinogen B is produced by parietal cells in the stomach lining and is also found in the stomach juice. Pepsinogens are activated to pepsin by hydrochloric acid, which is produced by parietal cells in the stomach lining. Pepsin then breaks down proteins in the food we eat, helping to digest them. In the medical field, pepsinogens are often measured in blood or stool samples as a way to diagnose and monitor certain conditions, such as stomach ulcers, gastritis, and Helicobacter pylori infection. High levels of pepsinogens in the blood or stool may indicate inflammation or damage to the stomach lining, while low levels may indicate a deficiency in stomach acid production.
In the medical field, a suspension is a type of medication that is administered as a liquid or powder that is suspended in a liquid. Suspensions are typically used when a medication needs to be given in a form that is not available as a tablet, capsule, or other solid form. Suspensions can be made from a variety of ingredients, including active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and stabilizers. APIs are the active ingredients that provide the therapeutic effect of the medication, while excipients are substances that help to improve the stability, texture, or taste of the suspension. Stabilizers are added to prevent the API from settling out of the suspension and to ensure that the suspension remains homogeneous. Suspensions are commonly used to deliver medications to children, as well as to patients who have difficulty swallowing solid forms of medication. They can also be used to deliver medications that are not available in solid form, such as certain vaccines or antiviral medications. It is important to note that suspensions can be more prone to contamination and degradation than solid forms of medication, so they must be stored and handled properly to maintain their effectiveness and safety.
Tinidazole is an antibiotic medication used to treat a variety of bacterial and protozoal infections. It is a member of the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics and works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Tinidazole is commonly used to treat infections of the digestive tract, such as giardiasis (an infection caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia) and trichomoniasis (a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis). It may also be used to treat infections of the skin, respiratory tract, and urinary tract. Tinidazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspension. It is usually taken orally, with or without food, as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects of tinidazole may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by a healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.
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Omeprazole: MedlinePlus Drug Information
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Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing standard clinical doses of omeprazole and lansoprazole in erosive...
Omeprazole may exert both a bacteriostatic and a bacteriocidal effect on the growth of Helicobacter pylori (NCTC 11637) in...
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- Prescription omeprazole is also used to treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) and it is also used with other medications to treat and prevent the return of ulcers caused by a certain type of bacteria ( H. pylori ) in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prescription omeprazole is usually taken once a day before a meal but may be taken twice a day when used with other medications to eliminate H. pylori , or up to three times a day, before meals when used to treat conditions in which the stomach produces too much acid. (medlineplus.gov)
- Omeprazole may exert both a bacteriostatic and a bacteriocidal effect on the growth of Helicobacter pylori (NCTC 11637) in vitro by inhibiting bacterial urease activity. (bmj.com)
- AIMS: To assess the potential antibacterial effect of omeprazole, a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor, on the growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and to evaluate the effect of this compound on bacterial urease activity. (bmj.com)
- METHODS: The growth of H pylori was observed in liquid culture in the presence and absence of omeprazole (0.8 mg/ml). (bmj.com)
- RESULTS: The minimum inhibitory concentration of omeprazole against H pylori was 0.8 mg/ml. (bmj.com)
- CONCLUSION: The results suggest that omeprazole exerts both a bacteriocidal and a bacteriostatic effect against H pylori and competitively inhibits bacterial extracellular urease activity. (bmj.com)
- When used to treat stomach ulcers caused by H. pylori in adults, the dose of omeprazole is 20 mg taken 2 times daily with 1,000 mg of amoxicillin 2 times daily and 500 mg of clarithromycin 2 times daily, all for 7 days. (pocketpills.com)
- Another dosing regimen for H. pylori infections is 20 mg of omeprazole, 500 mg of Metronidazole , and 250 mg of clarithromycin, all twice daily for 7 days. (pocketpills.com)
- Omeprazole is in a class of medications called proton-pump inhibitors. (medlineplus.gov)
- Omeprazole is one of the proton pump inhibitor drugs used to reduce excess acid production in humans. (agapepress.org)
- Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor, which means it helps to lower stomach acid. (agapepress.org)
- Losec (Omeprazole) is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that can reduce suffering from ulcers and stomach acid problems. (pharmacygeoff-uk.md)
- Omeprazole belongs to the family of medications called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). (pocketpills.com)
- To investigate, by meta-analysis, whether treatment with lansoprazole 30 mg increases erosive oesophagitis healing rates over omeprazole 20 mg. (nih.gov)
- We searched for randomized, double-blind trials comparing omeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 30 mg in endoscopically diagnosed erosive oesophagitis. (nih.gov)
- By per protocol analysis, pooled healing rates for omeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 30 mg were, respectively, 74.7% and 77.7% after 4 weeks and 87.0% and 88.7% after 8 weeks. (nih.gov)
- Lansoprazole 30 mg produces healing rates in erosive oesophagitis that are not statistically significantly different to those of omeprazole 20 mg. (nih.gov)
- This is because Omeprazole can prolong the effects of caffeine and other drugs on the stomach, and may prolong their effects on the heartburn or reflux symptoms that people with GERD are experiencing. (agapepress.org)
- A single dose of selective substrates (probe drugs) was administered orally on days 15 and 30: caffeine (CYP1A2), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and digoxin (P-gp). (bvsalud.org)
- Can a patient take Famotidine and omeprazole for reflux and heartburn or is it too much? (drugs.com)
- Omeprazole vs famotidine for irritable bowl syndrome? (drugs.com)
- Is famotidine safer than omeprazole for heartburn? (drugs.com)
- Platelet inhibitory effect of clopidogrel in patients treated with omeprazole, pantoprazole, and famotidine: a prospective, randomized, crossover study. (medscape.com)
- Prescription omeprazole is used alone or with other medications to treat the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and possible injury of the esophagus (the tube between the throat and stomach) in adults and children 1 year of age and older. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prescription omeprazole is used to treat damage from GERD in adults and children 1 month of age and older. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prescription omeprazole is used to allow the esophagus to heal and prevent further damage to the esophagus in adults and children 1 year of age and older with GERD. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prescription omeprazole is also used to treat conditions in which the stomach produces too much acid such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prescription omeprazole comes as a delayed-release (releases the medication in the intestine to prevent break-down of the medication by stomach acids) capsule, and packets of delayed-release (releases the medication in the intestine to prevent break-down of the medication by stomach acids) granules for suspension (to be mixed with liquid) to take by mouth or give through a feeding tube. (medlineplus.gov)
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- You could get Teva Omeprazole delivered at your doorstep from us in Canada if you ordered prescription medications with a valid prescription. (pocketpills.com)
- Prescription omeprazole is used to treat damage from GERD in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
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- Omeprazole (brand name: Prilosec) and pantoprazole (brand name: Protonix) are medications belonging. (yahoo.com)
- However, omeprazole tablets must not be cut, crushed or chewed. (drugsdb.com)
- Nonprescription (over-the-counter) omeprazole is used to treat frequent heartburn (heartburn that occurs at least 2 or more days a week) in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- Nonprescription (over-the-counter) omeprazole comes as a delayed-release tablet to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- omeprazole decreases levels of erlotinib by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
- omeprazole decreases levels of nelfinavir by unspecified interaction mechanism. (medscape.com)
- omeprazole decreases levels of rilpivirine by increasing gastric pH. (medscape.com)
- Omeprazole (Prilosec, Zegerid) decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach and so is used to treat symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and similar conditions. (drugsdb.com)
- When taken with certain other medications, omeprazole can cause mild side effects like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. (agapepress.org)
- Omeprazole is used to treat conditions where reduction in acid secretion is required for proper healing, including stomach and intestinal ulcers (gastric and duodenal ulcers), the prevention and treatment of ulcers associated with medications known as NSAIDs, reflux esophagitis, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, heartburn, and GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease) (GERD). (pocketpills.com)
- Depending on the calcium source, horses treated with omeprazole (such as GastroGard, the FDA-approved medications for the treatment and prevention of equine gastric ulcers) could be digesting 15-20% less calcium than when they're not on omeprazole. (endurance.net)
- Reported that previously serviced on an eye care center and diagnosed with conjunctivitis and was under use of the following medications: allopurinol,nimesulide, simvastatin, omeprazole and front. (bvsalud.org)
- Do not take nonprescription omeprazole for immediate relief of heartburn symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- Save yourself the embarrassment of buying Omeprazole at your local pharmacy, and simply order online Omeprazole in the dose that you require. (nppharmacy.net)
- If you are taking omeprazole and have any of these side effects (such as nausea) within two hours after taking your morning dose. (agapepress.org)
- Bacterial urease activity is competitively inhibited by omeprazole in a dose dependent manner. (bmj.com)
- The usual recommended dose of omeprazole is 10 mg to 40 mg once daily. (pocketpills.com)
- Nous avons évalué l'équivalence des propriétés pharmacocinétiques et pharmacodynamiques de comprimés d'aténolol génériques et de marque au cours d'une étude croisée en deux phases, randomisée, ouverte, sur une dose unique administrée à jeun chez 24 volontaires de sexe masculin en bonne santé. (who.int)
- Des échantillons de sang ont été prélevés pendant les 24 heures suivant l'administration de la dose et la concentration en aténolol a été évaluée par chromatographie en phase liquide à haute performance. (who.int)
- Esomeprazole is an S-isomer of omeprazole. (medscape.com)
- Omeprazole can also be taken in the form of an oral suspension by mixing the contents of 1 packet of powdered medication with water. (drugsdb.com)
- It is important if you are taking this medication for self-treatment to read the manufacturer's package instructions carefully so you know when to consult your doctor or pharmacist.How to use Omeprazole OralTake this medication by mouth usually once daily, 15-30 minutes before a meal, or as directed by your doctor.Do not crush, break or chew the medication. (nppharmacy.net)
- This medication is also referred to as its generic name of Omeprazole, and it works very well for many people. (pharmacygeoff-uk.md)
- Feeding horses treated with omeprazole a well-balanced concentrate ration can ensure they receive enough calcium to make up for any deficiencies the ulcer medication could potentially cause. (endurance.net)
- If you are taking omeprazole as part of your treatment for GERD. (agapepress.org)
- Patients who have trouble swallowing pills whole can open up omeprazole capsules and sprinkle the contents onto a spoonful of pudding or applesauce. (drugsdb.com)
- If you are taking omeprazole and feel that your stomach is acting up (e.g., cramping), feeling nauseous (e.g., feeling sick to your stomach), or having diarrhea (e.g., having loose stools). (agapepress.org)
- All products are authentic brand names and will include a product information insert in English.Medical Information:Omeprazole works by blocking acid production in the stomach. (nppharmacy.net)
- This is the first study to demonstrate that omeprazole exerts a bacteriocidal effect against low bacterial densities and a bacteriostatic effect when bacterial density is high. (bmj.com)
- When used at the onset of growth, this concentration of omeprazole has a bacteriocidal effect after four hours, although it exerts a bacteriostatic effect when added to cultures after the exponential phase. (bmj.com)
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- While omeprazole use is unlikely to cause bone issues in horses consuming correct rations, researchers said it's important to respect professional recommendations for both omeprazole treatment duration and commercial feeding instructions. (endurance.net)
- If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking Teva Omeprazole, speak to your doctor. (pocketpills.com)
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- It can be harmful for people to take Teva Omeprazole if their doctor has not prescribed it. (pocketpills.com)
- Teva Omeprazole may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. (pocketpills.com)
- In total, 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms including three new coding variants, V394M, E405K, and D256N, were identified by direct DNA sequencing in 50 randomly selected subjects and in individuals who exhibited an outlier phenotype response in the omeprazole study. (aspetjournals.org)
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- Patients with pathological hypersecretory conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome typically require higher omeprazole dosages, upwards of 60mg once a day. (drugsdb.com)
- RÉSUMÉ Nous avions l'objectif d'étudier la prévalence des effets secondaires causés par les statines chez des patients iraniens admis dans un hôpital spécialisé en cardiologie et sous traitement par statines avant leur hospitalisation. (who.int)
- The corner of she's mouth raised a smile He omeprazole no erectile dysfunction thought it was the remnants of the Mrs or Tibetan independence elements who came to assassinate him After all, he let them escape from Yunnan. (thymio.org)
- Any unwanted side effects arising from taking omeprazole can be mitigated by drinking more water or non-carbonated beverages, eating smaller meals more often, chewing your food well before swallowing it, and avoiding acidic foods like tomatoes and oranges. (agapepress.org)
- NPPharmacy provides you with the opportunity to buy Omeprazole online at lower international prices. (nppharmacy.net)
- Carbanio assures your payment which will be made for Omeprazole Impurity G is safe and secure. (carbanio.com)
- As well, some forms of Teva Omeprazole may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here. (pocketpills.com)