Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Oligosaccharides containing various types of glycosidic linkages that yield branching or antennae. The number of antennae (such as bi-, tri-, tetra-, or penta-antennary) in the oligosaccharides on the PROTEOGLYCANS; GLYCOPROTEINS; or LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES contribute to their biological activities, such as receptor binding and metabolism.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
These compounds function as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. Include the pyrophosphates.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Compounds functioning as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. They include the polyisoprenyl pyrophosphates.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
An inborn error of metabolism marked by a defect in the lysosomal isoform of ALPHA-MANNOSIDASE activity that results in lysosomal accumulation of mannose-rich intermediate metabolites. Virtually all patients have psychomotor retardation, facial coarsening, and some degree of dysostosis multiplex. It is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC, EC, EC, and EC
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A lipophilic glycosyl carrier of the monosaccharide mannose in the biosynthesis of oligosaccharide phospholipids and glycoproteins.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Phosphoric acid esters of dolichol.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminides.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (1/6298)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Synthesis and kinetic evaluation of 4-deoxymaltopentaose and 4-deoxymaltohexaose as inhibitors of muscle and potato alpha-glucan phosphorylases. (2/6298)

alpha-Glucan phosphorylases degrade linear or branched oligosaccharides via a glycosyl transfer reaction, occurring with retention of configuration, to generate alpha-glucose-1-phosphate (G1P). We report here the chemoenzymic synthesis of two incompetent oligosaccharide substrate analogues, 4-deoxymaltohexaose (4DG6) and 4-deoxymaltopentaose (4DG5), for use in probing this mechanism. A kinetic analysis of the interactions of 4DG5 and 4DG6 with both muscle and potato phosphorylases was completed to provide insight into the nature of the binding mode of oligosaccharide to phosphorylase. The 4-deoxy-oligosaccharides bind competitively with maltopentaose and non-competitively with respect to orthophosphate or G1P in each case, indicating binding in the oligosaccharide binding site. Further, 4DG5 and 4DG6 were found to bind to potato and muscle phosphorylases some 10-40-fold tighter than does maltopentaose. Similar increases in affinity as a consequence of 4-deoxygenation were observed previously for the binding of polymeric glycogen analogues to rabbit muscle phosphorylase [Withers (1990) Carbohydr. Res. 196, 61-73].  (+info)

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (3/6298)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

Relationship between UDP-glucose 4-epimerase activity and oligoglucose glycoforms in two strains of Neisseria meningitidis. (4/6298)

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel analysis of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from Neisseria meningitidis has demonstrated considerable microheterogeneity in the variable region of LOS due to the presence of novel glycoforms. As a step toward understanding the basis for the expression of these novel glycoforms, we have examined the LOS structures and UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (epimerase) activity levels in two strains (NMB and MA-1) and their respective galE mutants. Strain NMB was found to have low epimerase activity and to contain multiple glycoforms, some of which appear to contain only glucose sugars. The galE mutant had only the oligoglucose glycoforms. Strain MA-1 had higher epimerase activity at both log and stationary phases (2- and 12.5-fold, respectively) and one glycoform with a putative lactosyl structure. Strain MA-1 galE had two glycoforms that contained one or two glucose residues. To understand the molecular basis for the different epimerase activities, we examined the predicted amino acid sequences of the respective galE open reading frames and determined the relative amounts of GalE protein. We found no significant differences between the predicted amino acid sequence of the GalE protein in NMB and that in MA-1. We observed no significant differences in the level of GalE protein between MA-1 and NMB at exponential or stationary phase. We also observed an 8.2-fold drop in epimerase activity in NMB between the log and stationary phases that was not due to the GalE protein level or low glucose levels.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (5/6298)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Control of metastasis by Asn-linked, beta1-6 branched oligosaccharides in mouse mammary cancer cells. (6/6298)

Studies in cell lines and malignant human tissues have shown that increased cell-surface Asn-linked beta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-6Man) branching is associated with increased tumorigenic and metastatic properties. In this study, three mouse mammary cancer cell lines were transfected with an expression vector containing the mouse cDNA for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V EC, the glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating beta1-6 branching on Asn-linked carbohydrates. The cell lines were screened for increased cytotoxicity to L-PHA, a lectin specific for beta1-6 branching structures. Cell lines exhibiting increased L-PHA cytotoxicity expressed increased levels of beta1-6 branching structures. Northern blots detected the presence of GlcNAcT-V transcribed from the expression vector in the L-PHA sensitive cell lines. After injection into the tail veins of mice, transfected cell lines with increased beta1-6 branching on the cell surface formed elevated levels of lung tumors relative to control transfected cell lines (P < 0.002). Western blots of membrane proteins from GlcNAcT-V transfected and control cells probed with the lectins DSA and WGA did not show an increase in polyN-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid content in the transfected cell lines. These results demonstrate that a specific increase in beta1-6 branching due to an elevation in GlcNAcT-V expression increases metastatic potential.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CWH8 gene is required for full levels of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in the endoplasmic reticulum and for efficient N-glycosylation. (7/6298)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant cwh8 was previously found to have an anomalous cell wall. Here we show that the cwh8 mutant has an N -glycosylation defect. We found that cwh8 cells were resistant to vanadate and sensitive to hygromycin B, and produced glycoforms of invertase and carboxypeptidase Y with a reduced number of N -chains. We have cloned the CWH8 gene. We found that it was nonessential and encoded a putative transmembrane protein of 239 amino acids. Comparison of the in vitro oligosaccharyl transferase activities of membrane preparations from wild type or cwh8 Delta cells revealed no differences in enzyme kinetic properties indicating that the oligosaccharyl transferase complex of mutant cells was not affected. cwh8 Delta cells also produced normal dolichols and dolichol-linked oligosaccharide intermediates including the full-length form Glc3Man9GlcNAc2. The level of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in cwh8 Delta cells was, however, reduced to about 20% of the wild type. We propose that inefficient N -glycosylation of secretory proteins in cwh8 Delta cells is caused by an insufficient supply of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide substrate.  (+info)

An improved method for the structural profiling of keratan sulfates: analysis of keratan sulfates from brain and ovarian tumors. (8/6298)

A previously developed method for the structural fingerprinting of keratan sulfates (Brown et al., Glycobiology, 5, 311-317, 1995) has been adapted for use with oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid following keratanase II digestion. The oligosaccharides are separated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on a Dionex AS4A-SC column. This methodology permits quantitative analysis of labeled oligosaccharides which can be detected at the sub-nanogram ( approximately 100 fmol) level. Satisfactory calibration of this method can be achieved using commercial keratan sulfate standards. Keratan sulfates from porcine brain phosphocan and human ovarian tumors have been examined using this methodology, and their structural features are discussed.  (+info)

The oligosaccharide chains of microheterogeneous bovine pancreatic DNAases were characterized by the lectin-nitrocellulose sheet method. The active fractions of the DNAases from column chromatography showed four major and several minor spots on a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel. They were transferred on to nitrocellulose sheets and treated with glycosidases (neuraminidase, endo-beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase H or F, or peptide N-glycosidase F) and treated with peroxidase-coupled lectins (concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin or wheat-germ agglutinin). From the results, the most probable oligosaccharide types were proposed to be as follows: the four major spots contained components which had high-mannose type or hybrid-type oligosaccharides, such as those susceptible to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. In addition, spot 1 contained a complex-type biantennary oligosaccharide without sialic acid and spot 3 contained a tri- or tetra-antennary complex-type oligosaccharide with sialic ...
Eleven tested anions were able to form adducts with neutral oligosaccharides at low cone voltage in negative ion mode electrospray mass spectrometry. Among them, fluoride and acetate have the abilities to significantly enhance the absolute abundance of [M-H]- for neutral oliogosaccharides. The chloride adduct has the best stability among all the adduct species investigated. For the above three anions, CID of adduct species may be used for structural determination of neutral oligosaccharides. In the presence of F- and Ac-, simultaneous detection of acidic oligosaccharides and neutral oligosaccharides was achieved. The ratio of Cl- : non-Cl-containing product ions obtained in CID spectra of chloride adducts of disaccharides was used to differentiate anomeric configurations of disaccharides. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to evaluate the optimized structures of chloride adducts of disaccharides. The formation and decomposition of chloride adducts with oligosaccharides of different
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are an important class of polymeric carbohydrates found in virtually all living entities. Their structural features make their nomenclature challenging and their roles in living systems make their nomenclature important. Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates that are composed of several monosaccharide residues joined through glycosidic linkage, which can be hydrolyzed by enzymes or acid to give the constituent monosaccharide units. While a strict definition of an oligosaccharide is not established, it is generally agreed that a carbohydrate consisting of two to ten monosaccharide residues with a defined structure is an oligosaccharide. Some oligosaccharides, for example maltose, sucrose, and lactose, were trivially named before their chemical constitution was determined, and these names are still used today. Maltose Sucrose Lactose Trivial names, however, are not useful for most other oligosaccharides and, as such, systematic rules for the nomenclature of ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones which are synthesized in the placenta and pituitary, respectively. The beta subunits of eCG and eLH, like their alpha subunits, arise from a single gene and have identical amino acid sequences. In contrast, the beta subunits of CG and LH in primates arise from different genes and differ in sequence. We have examined the structures of the Asn-linked oligosaccharides on eCG and eLH. eCG bears di- and tri-branched Asn-linked oligosaccharides terminating with Sia alpha 2,3 or 6Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc. In contrast, , 72% of the Asn-linked oligosaccharides on eLH have 1 or 2 branches terminating with the sequence SO4-4-GalNAc beta 1,4GlcNAc. The nonsulfated oligosaccharides on eLH are neutral (6% of the total) or have branches terminating with sialic acid-Gal (22% of the total). Since the alpha and beta subunits of eCG and eLH both contain the tripeptide motif, Pro-Xaa-Arg/Lys, recognized by the glycoprotein ...
The multifaceted biological importance of carbohydrates has made them very popular targets in modern synthetic chemistry. Great progress has been made in stereoselective glycosylation methods and the construction of complex oligosaccharides. This Focus Review highlights the versatile applications of preactivation strategies in stereoselective glycosylation and oligosaccharide synthesis. Recent advances in synthetic methods, such as 4,6-O-benzylidene-acetal-directed beta-mannosylation, the 1,2-cis-glycosylation mediated by a chiral auxiliary, the use of an oxazolidinone or carbonate protecting group, and glycosylation with participating additives, are described. Various examples of sequential glycosylation based on preactivation protocols for efficient oligosaccharide assembly are also summarized. ...
The gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and chorionic gonadotropin (CG), are cysteine-knot growth-factor superfamily glycoproteins composed of a common alpha subunit noncovalently associated with a hormone-specific beta subunit. The cysteine-knot motifs in both subunits create two hairpin loops, designated L1 and L3, on one side of the knot, with the intervening long loop, L2, on the opposite side. As the average alpha-subunit loop 2 oligosaccharide mass increased from 1482 to 2327, LH and FSH receptor-binding affinities of the dual-specificity eLH declined significantly, while the decrease in FSH receptor-binding affinity for eFSH was not significant. In the present study, we characterized hormone-specific glycosylation of alphaL2 oligosaccharides in eLHalpha, eFSHalpha, and eCGalpha preparations. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed 28-57 structures, including high mannose, hybrid, bi-, and triantennary oligosaccharides. The same intact subunit preparations ...
Permeabilization of the plasma membrane of HepG2 cells subsequent to pulse-chase incubations has enabled us to evaluate the hypothesis that cytosolic-free oligosaccharides are sequestered into and degraded by lysosomes. Short chase incubations revealed that free oligosaccharides rapidly appear in the cytosol at a time during which there is a loss of these components from the MBCs (Fig. 1, A and B). This observation can be accounted for by the previously observed rapid translocation of large, free polymannose-type oligosaccharides out of the ER into the cytosol (Moore et al., 1995). At present it is unclear whether this ER-to-cytosol transport of free oligosaccharides is the sole mechanism responsible for the appearance of free oligosaccharides in the cytosol. Recently, it has been proposed that newly synthesized glycoproteins may be translocated out of the ER and degraded in this compartment (Wiertz et al., 1996) by the actions of a cytosolic N-glycanase (Kitajima et al., 1995; Suzuki et al., ...
Sialyllacto-N-neotetraose c is an oligosaccharide found in human breast milk. Two additional sialylated pentasaccharides include sialyllacto-N-tetraose-a and -b. Oligosaccharides containing N-acetyl (or N-glycolyl) neuraminic acid, i.e. sialylated oligosaccharides, are important components of glycoproteins and glycolipids. In nature, sialylated oligosaccharides often occur as homologous series, with incremental differences in composition, and as structural isomers with subtle differences in monosaccharide sequence and glycosyl linkage and, possibly, with presence or absence of molecular branching. A large number of such sialylated oligosaccharides occur in human milk, where they may have important biological functions. Major structural isomers of these acidic oligosaccharides in human milk are 3- and 6-sialyllactoses and the sialyllacto-N-tetraoses; appreciable amounts of 3- and 6-sialyllactosamines are found in human urine. (PMID:11471815 ). Oligosaccharides in human milk inhibit enteric ...
The Global Soybean Oligosaccharides report provides an elite resource to evaluate the Soybean Oligosaccharides market and support the strategic and preemptive decision-making. The report divulges the matter-of-fact statistics and in-detail examination of the market. It offers a basic layout of the Soybean Oligosaccharides industry, consisting of classifications, applications, definitions, and industry chain structure. It also encompasses a thorough inference of the market and embodies significant insights, facts, and industry-corroborated statistics of the global Soybean Oligosaccharides market.. Furthermore, the report also elaborates several factors concerning the Soybean Oligosaccharides market, comprising key trends, standardization, deployment models, future roadmap, strategies, technologies, value chain, opportunities, ecosystem player profiles, drivers, operator case studies, regulatory landscape, and challenges. Moreover, it also presents an outline regarding the Soybean Oligosaccharides ...
The structure of Chondroitin B Lyase Complexed with Glycosaminoglycan Oligosaccharides Unravels a Calcium-Dependent Catalytic Machinery
N-linked glycosylation of proteins in eukaryotic cells follows a highly conserved pathway. The tetradecasaccharide substrate (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2) is first assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a dolichylpyrophosphate (Dol-PP)-linked intermediate, and then transferred to nascent polypeptide chains in the lumen of the ER. The assembly of the oligosaccharide starts on the cytoplasmic side of the ER membrane with the synthesis of a Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol intermediate. This lipid-linked intermediate is then translocated across the membrane so that the oligosaccharides face the lumen of the ER, where the biosynthesis of Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol continues to completion. The fully assembled oligosaccharide is transferred to selected asparagine residues of target proteins. The transmembrane movement of lipid-linked Man5GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide is of fundamental importance in this biosynthetic pathway, and similar processes involving phospholipids and glycolipids are essential in all types ...
Other leading players operating in the global polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market include Dupont, DSM, McComick, Novozyme, Chr Hansen, Wild Flavors, Symrise, IFF, Firmenich, Takasago, Senseint, and Glanbia Ingredients. Product innovations and new launches along with mergers & acquisitions are some of the key growth strategies adopted by polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market players.. Oligosaccharides to Gain Higher Traction with Rising Global Consumption. Although polysaccharides continue to lead the global market of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, the latter is expected to gain comparatively high traction, growing at a promising CAGR of 5.2% during 2017-2026. In 2018, worldwide sales of polysaccharides closed in on a valuation of nearly US$ 6.4 billion, and is projected to record a Y-o-Y growth of 4.6% in 2019.. Demand from Animal Feed Industry Continues to Surge. Growing adoption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in animal feed products is creating lucrative ...
The binding of interleukin-8 (IL-8) to heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans on the surface of endothelial cells is crucial for the recruitment of neutrophils to an inflammatory site. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements yielded an IL-8 dimerization constant of 120 nM. The binding affinities, obtained by isothermal fluorescence titration, of size-defined heparin and HS oligosaccharides to the chemokine were found to depend on the oligomerization state of IL-8: high affinity was detected for monomeric and low affinity was detected for dimeric IL-8, referring to a self-regulatory mechanism for its chemoattractant effect. The highest affinity for monomeric IL-8 was detected for the HS octamer with a Kd , 5 nM whereas the dissociation constants of dimeric IL-8 were found in the medium micromolar range. No indication for increasing affinities for monomeric IL-8 with increasing oligosaccharide chain length was found. Instead, a periodic pattern was obtained for the dissociation constants of the GAG ...
We have previously described the structures of neutral and sialylated O-glycosidic mannose-linked tetrasaccharides and keratan sulphate polysaccharide chains in the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of brain. The present paper provides information on a series of related sialylated and/or sulphated tri- to penta-saccharides released by alkaline-borohydride treatment of the proteoglycan glycopeptides. The oligosaccharides were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration, and their structural properties were studied by methylation analysis and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry. Five fractions containing [35S]sulphate-labelled oligosaccharides were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography, each of which was eluted from Sephadex G-50 as two well-separated peaks. The apparent Mr values of both the large- and small-molecular-size fractions increased with increasing acidity (and sulphate labelling) of the oligosaccharides. The larger-molecular-size fractions contained short ...
The cyclic (1----2)-beta-D-glucans produced by species of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium resemble the membrane-derived oligosaccharides of Escherichia coli in their periplasmic localization, intermediate size, and (1----2)-beta-D-glucan backbones. The regulation of the biosynthesis of cyclic (1----2)-beta-D-glucan by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is now shown to parallel the osmotic regulation of membrane-derived oligosaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. This result suggests a general role for periplasmic oligosaccharides in the osmotic adaptation of Gram-negative bacteria as ecologically diverse as enteric and soil bacteria. ...
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) could promote the growth of bifidobacteria, improving young childrens health. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulent activity against intestinal pathogens. Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO), structurally similar to HMO, are found at high concentration in cow whey. This is particularly observed for 3′-sialyllactose (3′SL). This study focused on enzymes and transport systems involved in HMO/BMO metabolism contained in B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense genomes, two species from bovine milk origin. The ability of B. mongoliense to grow in media supplemented with whey or 3′SL was assessed. Next, the effects of cell-free spent media (CFSM) were tested against the virulence expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Due to the presence of genes encoding β-galactosidases, β-hexosaminidases, α-sialidases and α-fucosidases, B.
The oligosaccharides ID in the library are used to refer to specific oligosaccharides for their tandem MS/MS fingerprints and structures and were obtained using their sequential monomeric composition. For example, the oligosaccharide with ID 11100 is made of 1 hexose + 1 HexNAc + 1 fucose + 0 NeuAc + 0 NeuGC.. ...
Pathogenic micro-organisms utilize protein receptors (lectins) in adhesion to host tissues, a process that in some cases relies on the interaction between lectins and human glycoconjugates. Oligosaccharide epitopes are recognized through their three-dimensional structure and their flexibility is a key issue in specificity. In this paper, we analysed by X-ray crystallography the structures of the LecB lectin from two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in complex with Lewis x oligosaccharide present on cell surfaces of human tissues. An unusual conformation of the glycan was observed in all binding sites with a non-canonical syn orientation of the N-acetyl group of N-acetyl-glucosamine. A PDB-wide search revealed that such an orientation occurs only in 4% of protein/carbohydrate complexes. Theoretical chemistry calculations showed that the observed conformation is unstable in solution but stabilised by the lectin. A reliable description of LecB/Lewis x complex by force field-based methods had ...
The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on glucose homeostasis. The search process was based on the selection of publications listed in the Pubmed-Medline database until April 2016 to identify studies evaluating the impact of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides or oligofructose on glucose homeostasis. Twenty-nine trials were included in the systematic review and the meta-analysis was performed on twelve of these papers according to the inclusion criteria. Fasting blood concentrations of glucose and insulin were selected as pertinent criteria of glucose homeostasis for the meta-analysis. The consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides decreased fasting blood glycaemia levels, whatever the metabolic status (healthy, obese or diabetic) and diet (low-fat or high-fat) throughout the experiment. This reduction was linear with prebiotic dose (from 0 to 13% of the feed). Fasting insulinaemia also decreased linearly with fructo-oligosaccharide
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Oligosaccharide Population Analysis from SGS - effective oligosaccharide analysis to help you identify the overall population profile of glycans present in a glycoprotein. Learn more.
Oligosaccharide Population Analysis from SGS - effective oligosaccharide analysis to help you identify the overall population profile of glycans present in a glycoprotein. Learn more.
The heparin hexasaccharide MS standard 6 has been purified as one defined sequence and structure. It is not a mix of oligosaccharides. It is a heparin hexasaccharide with six sulfates attached to a repeating structure of α(1-4) linked Uronic Acid (UA) β(1-4) linked to N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) or N-sulfylglucosamine (GlcNS). The exact structure of the heparin hexasaccharide MS standard 6 is ∆UA2S - GlcNS6S -UA- GlcNAc6S-IdoA - GlcNS6S. The uronic acid residue may be either glucuronic or iduronic acid. It has an exact mass of 1533.05 ...
Oligosaccharides vs Polysaccharides In subjects such as chemistry, biochemistry, and nutrition, one can vividly remember that oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are forms of sugar. The prefix attached to these words such as oligo means few while poly means plentiful. Oligosaccharides are called such because they contain a small amount of sugar components. They are mostly found […]
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are composed of longer chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic bonds. The distinction between the two is based upon the number of monosaccharide units present in the chain. Oligosaccharides typically contain between three and ten monosaccharide units, and polysaccharides contain greater than ten monosaccharide units. Definitions of how large a carbohydrate must be to fall into each category vary according to personal opinion. Examples of oligosaccharides include the disaccharides mentioned above, the trisaccharide raffinose and the tetrasaccharide stachyose.. Oligosaccharides are found as a common form of protein posttranslational modification. Such posttranslational modifications include the Lewis and ABO oligosaccharides responsible for blood group classifications and so of tissue incompatibilities, the alpha-Gal epitope responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransplantation, and O-GlcNAc modifications.. Polysaccharides represent an ...
Figure 2: Adapted from: M.A. Boon et al.(2000) Enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides: Product removal during a kinetically controlled reaction. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 70:411-420 In this project we are using an enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides as a model system. This model system has to be integrated with a highly specific separation of oligosaccharides, to show the increased conversion of substrate into product. In nature, lectins are common biocomplexants. In a sustainable process the biocomplexants have to be removed from the reaction mixture in order to regenerate the biocomplexant. Immobilization of the biocomplexant on magnetic beads is considered as an option. In this way the complex of biocomplexants and bound product can easily be picked out from the reaction mixture using only magnetic fields. The molecules can easily be transported for regeneration when the magnetic field is switched off (see figure 3). Extremes of pH, chaotropic salts, ionic strength and temperature shocks can ...
Info on benefits of fructooligosaccharides health supplement, diet, fructooligosaccharides supplement side effects, fructooligosaccharides dosage, health benefits and more.
This unit describes release of oligosaccharides that are attached to polypeptides through an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) linkage to the hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine. The b-elimination procedures described here can be used to recover the oligosaccharide chains (also called glycans) and/or identify the serine or threonine residues involved in the linkage. A b-elimination method employing sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and alkaline conditions is described, and an alternative method is also presented in which only alkaline conditions are used without a reducing agent. Another alternative protocol uses sodium sulfite. ...
We have analyzed the O-antigen polysaccharide of the previously uncharacterized Escherichia coli strain TD2158 which is a host of bacteriophage HK620. This bacteriophage recognizes and cleaves the polysaccharide with its tailspike protein (TSP). The polysaccharide preparation as well as oligosaccharides obtained from HK620TSP endoglycosidase digests were analyzed with NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, sugar analysis was performed on the O-antigen polysaccharide and MALDI-TOF MS was used in oligosaccharide analysis. The present study revealed a heterogeneous polysaccharide with a hexasaccharide repeating unit of the following structure: alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 6) vertical bar vertical bar 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 -, 6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 4)-alpha-D-Galp-(1 -, 3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc- (1 -,vertical bar beta-D-Glcp/beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 -, 3) A repeating unit with a D-GlcNAc substitution of D-Gal has been described earlier as characteristic for serogroup O18A1. Accordingly, we termed repeating units with D-Glc ...
US, Canadian, and Chinese chemists summarize recent research into the synthesis, principles, and applications of carbohydrates for graduate students and researchers in carbohydrate chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, and glycobiology. The topics include solid phase oligosaccharide synthesis, the chemical synthesis of bioactive steroidal saponins, the chemistry and biology of multi-valent saccharide displays, structures and mechanisms of action of aminoglycoside antibiotics, synthesizing glycosaminoglycans, glycosyltransferases in oligosaccharide synthesis, and metabolic substrate engineering as a tool for glycobiology Glycochemistry: Principles, Synthesis, and Applications presents methods used in the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics. It highlights applications in chemical and enzymatic synthesis of complex carbohydrates, carbohydrate function, and carbohydrate-mediated biological recognition processes. There are practical examples on the development of carbohydrate-based ...
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Years of analysis indicates that ovarian cancers harbor a heterogeneous mixture of cells including a subpopulation of so-called malignancy stem cells (CSCs) responsible for tumor initiation, maintenance and relapse following conventional chemotherapies. with clinically aggressive ovarian and breast carcinomas11,12. Therefore, with this statement we use a lentiviral reporter create containing a reddish MSI-1436 lactate fluorescence protein (RFP) whose manifestation is controlled by a regulatory region, as a method to isolate putative ovarian CSCs. By definition, CSCs can both self-renew and differentiate, giving rise to all tumor cell types. Putative CSC populations need to be analyzed in practical assays performed method was offered by Brent Reynolds and Sam Weiss who firstly reported the so-called neurosphere assay like a surrogate assay evaluating stem potential in neural cells14. Dontu and colleagues later confirmed the use of this assay for evaluation of stem cell potential in breast ...
Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A Oligosaccharides IgG negative control serum Serum Controls 600-801-ANC Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A Oligosaccharides IgG negative control serum Serum Controls 600-801-ANC
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The biosynthesis of eukaryotic lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLOs) that act as donor substrates in eukaryotic protein N-glycosylation starts on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum and includes
Li B, Wu RY, Horne RG, Ahmed A, Lee D, Robinson SC, Zhu H, Lee C, Cadete M, Johnson-Henry KC, Landberg E, Alganabi M, Abrahamsson T, Delgado-Olguin P, Pierro A, Sherman PM. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Protect against Necrotizing Enterocolitis by Activating Intestinal Cell Differentiation. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2020 11; 64(21):e2000519 ...
Several commercial enzymes were screened for chitosanolytic activity. The hydrolysis of different chitosans was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC-ELSD), mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF), and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Neutrase 0.8L converted 10 g/L of various chitosans into mostly deacetylated oligosaccharides, yielding approximately 2.5 g/L of chitobiose, 4.5 g/L of chitotriose and 3 g/L of chitotetraose. In collaboration with the Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine Lopez-Neyra (CSIC), the synthesized COS were tested in vitro for their neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities, and compared with other functional ingredients, namely fructooligosaccharides ...
Gabel, C A.; Goldberg, D E.; and Kornfeld, S, Lysosomal enzyme oligosaccharide phosphorylation in mouse lymphoma cells: specificity and kinetics of binding to the mannose 6-phosphate receptor in vivo. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1394 ...
Asparagine-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins in calf thymocyte plasma membrane. Isolation and fractionation of oligosaccharides liberated by hydrazinolysis.:Isolation and Fractionation of Oligosaccharides Liberated by Hydrazinolysis (1980 ...
An oligosaccharide is a small polymer that typically has three to ten individual sugar molecules. Most naturally occurring oligosaccharides can be found in
Dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase 48 kDa subunit ; Essential subunit of the N-oligosaccharyl transferase (OST) complex which catalyzes the transfer of a high mannose oligosaccharide from a lipid-linked oligosaccharide donor to an asparagine residue within an Asn-X-Ser/Thr consensus motif in nascent polypeptide chains (434 aa ...
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are both complex carbohydrates. Their building blocks are the dietary monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose,...
TY - CONF. T1 - Oxidation of hemicellulose derived oligosaccharides with carbohydrate oxidoreductases. AU - Karppi, Johanna. PY - 2018/7/8. Y1 - 2018/7/8. M3 - Poster. T2 - Oxizymes. Y2 - 8 July 2018 through 10 July 2018. ER - ...
Press release - Fact.MR - Global Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market Soaring Demand Assures Motivated Revenue Share during 2017-2026 / Novozyme, Takasago, Chr Hansen, Senseint, Wild Flavors, Symrise, Glanbia Ingredients, IFF, Tate & Lyle, Firemenich, McComick, ABF, DSM, Gi - published on
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Andrew S.Weiskopf and Paul Vouros Northeastern University Boston MA David J. Harvey University of Oxford Oxford UK Protein Analysis The data presented here can be acquired using the Thermo Finnigan LCQ Series of ion trap mass spectrometers. Introducti,Characterization,of,Protein,Oligosaccharides,Using,MSn,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
View Notes - BiologicalMolecules160-page6 from BIO 151 at SUNY Stony Brook. Humans cannot digest oligosaccharides, but the bacteria in our intestines can. Their digestive by-products are often
Various biological effects have been reported for sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides, but the molecular mechanisms of action of their anti-inflammatory effects are still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action. The results showed that pretreated low molecular weight sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. The sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylation of JNK and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-κB, into the nucleus by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α. Our investigation suggests sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibit IL-6/TNF-α in LPS-induced macrophages, regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways dependent on NF-κB activation.
BACKGROUND: The maternal environment and early life exposure affect immune development in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether development of food allergy in offspring is affected by supplementing pregnant or lactating sensitized or nonsensitized mice with a mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides. METHODS: Dams were sensitized intragastrically with ovalbumin before mating, with ... read more use of cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Nonsensitized dams received CT only. Dams were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with short-chain galacto oligosaccharides (scGOSs), long-chain fructo oligosaccharides (lcFOSs), and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOSs) in a ratio of 9:1:2 at a dose of 2% during pregnancy or lactation, resulting in 7 experimental groups. After weaning, offspring were fed a control diet and ovalbumin-CT sensitized. Acute allergic skin responses (ASRs), shock symptoms, body temperature, and specific plasma immunoglobulins were measured upon intradermal ...
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[118 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Asia-Pacific Human Milk Oligosaccharides Market by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 report by Global Info Research. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of structurally diverse...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of single or combined administration of resistant starch and chitosan oligosaccharides on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat diet. AU - Wang, Junxuan. AU - Si, Xu. AU - Shang, Wenting. AU - Zhou, Zhong Kai. AU - Strappe, Padraig. AU - Blanchard, Christopher. N1 - Imported on 12 Apr 2017 - DigiTool details were: Journal title (773t) = Starch. ISSNs: 1521-379X; PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - In this study, rats fed with a high-fat diet were treated with resistant starch (RS), chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), and a combination of these complexes with the aim of determining their effect on controlling blood glucose levels and improving insulin resistance (IR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that an outer thin layer of film produced by COS covered the surface of RS granules and resulted in an increased particle size distribution. Cross-linking between RS and COS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. ...
This research investigated the effect of enzymatically digested low molecular weight (MW) chitosan oligosaccharide on type 2 diabetes prevention. Three different chitosan oligosaccharide samples with varying MW were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic α-amylase (GO2KA1; <1000 Da, GO2KA2; 1000-10,000 Da, GO2KA3; MW > 10,000 Da). The in vitro results showed that all tested samples had similar rat α-glucosidase inhibitory and porcine α-amylase inhibitory activity. Based on these observations, we decided to further investigate the effect of all three samples at a dose of 0.1 g/kg, on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model after sucrose loading test. In the animal trial, all tested samples had postprandial blood glucose reduction effect, when compared to control, however GO2KA1 supplementation had the strongest effect. The glucose peak (Cmax) for GO2KA1 and control was 152 mg/dL and 193 mg/dL,
Heparin and heparan sulfate bind a host of basic proteins that take advantage of the sugars dense structural information. The significance of these interactions in various aspects of development, physiology, and disease stimulated keen interest in evaluating structure-activity relationships. The well-defined heparin and heparan sulfate oligosaccharides needed for these studies can be mainly accessed by chemical synthesis and, more recently by chemoenzymatic means. The various synthetic strategies available to chemical synthesis have recently enabled the acquisition of several regular and irregular sequences, including a number of dodecasaccharides, through improved coupling methods and judicial protecting group manipulations. Controlled chain elongation and critical application of modification enzymes allowed the generation of well-defined constructs via chemoenzymatie synthesis. Investigations of various protein interactions with the synthetic constructs delivered valuable informatio
This study was carried out to investigate effects of chitosan oligosaccharides and/or beta-glucan addition into diets containing organic zinc on performance and biochemical profiles in broilers. One-day old broiler chicks (n=540) were assigned to six groups for six replicates (15 chicks for each). Chicks in control group were fed basal diet containing soybean meal and corn, and experimental groups were fed diets containing 1% organic zinc (Or center dot Zn) or 0.025% chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) or 0.050% beta-glucan (BG) or 1% Or center dot Zn plus 0.025% COS or 1% Or center dot Zn plus 0.050% BG during 42 days. There were no significant differences between groups for performance (body weight, daily body weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio) during experimental period. Although, there were no differences between all groups for serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, urea, insulin and glucose levels, statistical significances were determined between Or ...
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FructoOligoSaccharide FructoOligoSaccharide is sweeter than most sweeteners. Low FOS absorption and calories can help with weight control. Lower levels of any type of sweetener in the body, such as FructoOligoSaccharide 100 gms Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are short-chain polymers comprised of D-fructose and D-glucose,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel arabinan and galactan oligosaccharides from dicotyledonous plants. AU - Wefers, Daniel. AU - Tyl, Catrin E.. AU - Bunzel, Mirko. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Arabinans and galactans are neutral pectic side chains and an important part of the cell walls of dicotyledonous plants. To get a detailed insight into their fine structure, various oligosaccharides were isolated from quinoa, potato galactan, and sugar beet pulp after enzymatic treatment. LC-MS2 and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy were used for unambiguous structural characterization. It was demonstrated that arabinans contain β-(1→3)-linked arabinobiose as a side chain in quinoa seeds, while potato galactan was comprised of β-(1→4)-linked galactopyranoses which are interspersed with α-(1→4)-linked arabinopyranoses. Additionally, an oligosaccharide with two adjacent arabinofuranose units O2-substituted with two ferulic acid monomers was characterized. The isolated oligosaccharides gave further insight ...
Chitosan oligosaccharides have been reported to inhibit various tumors. However, the water-soluble marine plant oligosaccharide alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) has only rarely been reported to have anti-cancer effects. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of AOS on prostate cancer and the underlying molec …
Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural carbohydrate structures. This can include the synthesis of monosaccharide residues or structures containing more than one monosaccharide, known as oligosaccharides. Generally speaking, carbohydrates can be classified into two groups, simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, are carbohydrates which can not be converted into smaller sugars by hydrolysis. When two or more monosaccharide units are connected to one another via a glycoside linkage, complex carbohydrates are formed. Complex carbohydrates, according to the different number of monosaccharide units, can be classed into three groups, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. A disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of monosaccharides linked together. Higher oligosaccharides are called polysaccharides. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural characterization of multibranched oligosaccharides from seal milk by a combination of off-line high-performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and sequential exoglycosidase digestion. AU - Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro. AU - Ohta, Hiroko. AU - Higaki, Kanata. AU - Kojima, Yoko. AU - Urashima, Tadasu. AU - Nakajima, Kazuki. AU - Suzuki, Minoru. AU - Kovacs, Kit M.. AU - Lydersen, Christian. AU - Hayakawa, Takao. AU - Kakehi, Kazuaki. PY - 2009/5/15. Y1 - 2009/5/15. N2 - A complex mixture of diverse oligosaccharides related to the carbohydrates in glycoconjugates involved in various biological events is found in animal milk/colostrum and has been challenging targets for separation and structural studies. In the current study, we isolated oligosaccharides having high molecular masses (MW ∼ 3800) from the milk samples of bearded and hooded seals and analyzed their structures by off-line ...
However, stringent government regulations to limit use of HMOs as infant food may restrict market growth in the coming years. In addition, high production cost involved in fermentation processes and use of complex technology can create obstruction in growth of this market. Moreover, high R&D cost coupled with lack of technical expertise can also impede market growth during the forecast period.. Nevertheless, focus on development of cost-effective production techniques by most manufacturing companies coupled with wide scope for improvement in HMOs are expected to create lucrative opportunities in the market.. The human milk oligosaccharides market is bifurcated on the basis of applications and regions. Based on applications, the market is segmented into functional food & beverages, infant formula, and food supplements. Based on region, the market is split into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and MEA.. View More Reports Of This Category By Grand View Research At: ...
The Global Industry Report Europe Human Milk Oligosaccharides Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 Market - by Manufacturers, States, Countries, Regions (Province), Type and Application, 2017 Forecast to 2022,Analysis, Regional Outlook, Share, Growth By Global Info Reports.
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The site-specific glycosylation of soluble recombinant variants of human and rat CD4 (sCD4) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been characterized. The presence of identical oligosaccharides at the conserved glycosylation site in domain 3 of rat and human sCD4 and the greater abundance of oligomannose and hybrid type glycans at the non-conserved glycosylation site of rat sCD4 clearly indicate that the protein structure influences oligosaccharide processing. Comparisons of rat sCD4 glycopeptides with mutant molecules with only single glycosylation sites and with a truncated form containing only the two NH2-terminal domains, indicate that independent processing occurs at each glycosylation site and that domain interactions can also affect oligosaccharide processing. These and other analyses of sCD2 expressed in CHO cells and Thy-1 purified from various tissues suggest that the diversity of oligosaccharide structures on a protein is regulated by the location of the glycosylation sites and
Chitosan Oligosaccharide Appearance: Yellow and light brown Odor: Sightly smell as acetic acid Molecular weight: less than 1500,less than 3000,less than5000 Degree of polymerization (DP): 2-10 Particle size: ≥100 mesh Moisture: ≤10% Residue on ignition :
We recently presented a model for site-specific protein N-glycosylation in Trypanosoma brucei whereby the TbSTT3A oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) first selectively transfers biantennary Man(5)GlcNAc(2) from the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) donor Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol to N-glycosylation sequons in acidic to neutral peptide sequences and TbSTT3B selectively transfers triantennary Man(9)GlcNAc(2) to any remaining sequons. In this paper, we investigate the specificities of the two OSTs for their preferred LLO donors by glycotyping the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) synthesized by bloodstream-form T. brucei TbALG12 null mutants. The TbALG12 gene encodes the alpha 1-6-mannosyltransferase that converts Man(7)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol to Man(8)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol. The VSG synthesized by the TbALG12 null mutant in the presence and the absence of alpha-mannosidase inhibitors was characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry both intact and as pronase glycopetides. The results show that TbSTT3A is able to ...
Isomaltose oligosaccharides varying in size from two sugars, isomaltose (IM2), to seven sugars, isomaltohepatose (IM7), were coupled to stearylamine by reductive amination with sodium cyanoborohydride. Each compound was purified by column chromatography to yield a series of glycolipids containing oligosaccharides differing in length. Stearyl-isomaltotriose to stearyl-IM7 could be incorporated into liposomes and could render them agglutinable by specific antibodies to alpha 1 leads to 6 dextran and could be lysed if complement was also added, whereas those containing stearyl-IM2 were not agglutinated or lysed, indicating that stearyl-IM2 may not be protruding from the liposome surface sufficiently to react with the antibody. Stearyl-isomaltosyl oligosaccharides by themselves or incorporated into liposomes were equally antigenic when emulsified in complete Freunds adjuvant. They elicited pauciclonal responses, and the antibodies were alpha 1 leads to 6 specific, cross-reacted with dextran, and ...
Bioactive copper complexes with pullulan or dextran oligosaccharides are the subject of intensive research mainly because of their possible application in veterinary and human medicine. The thermal stability and stability under oxidative conditions of the Cu(II) complexes with reduced low-molar pullulan or dextran were investigated in this paper, using a conductometric method. The influence of ligand constitutions on the stability of the complexes was examined on the basis of ligand property. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of complexes by using heat (25, 40 and 60°C) and an oxidation agent (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0% v/v hydrogen peroxide). It can be concluded, according to the results obtained (by examining conductivity during the forced degradation studies), that Cu(II) complexes show a large pharmaceutical stability for both tests ...
Anthraquinone-lectin hybrids were effectively synthesized using water-soluble anthraquinone derivative with concanavalin A (ConA) and hygrophorus russula lectin (HRL) to give anthraquinone-ConA () and anthraquinone-HRL (17) hybrids, respectively. These anthraquinone-lectin hybrids effectively and selectively degraded oligosaccharides containing a mannose residue as a non-reducing terminal sugar, which has affinity for ConA and HRL, under photo-irradiation with long-wavelength UV light without additives and under neutral conditions. In addition, anthraquinone-HRL (17) selectively photo-degraded only Man(α1,6)Man, which has a high affinity for HRL, among several mannosides by recognition of both the type and glycosidic linkage profile of the sugar in an oligosaccharide. ...
Cereal α-amylases (EC are typical secretory proteins found in many plants. In germinating cereal seeds, these enzyme molecules are biosynthesized and secreted from the secretory tissues, the scutellar epithelium and the aleurone, to the starchy endosperm, which has undergone programmed cell death. Numerous α-amylase isoforms have been identified in cereals, but the predominant α-amylase isoform I-1 (AmyI-1) in rice (Oryza sativa) is a unique glycoprotein that bears N-linked oligosaccharide side chains (Hayashi et al., 1990; Terashima et al., 1994). The biosynthesis and secretion of AmyI-1 have been extensively investigated: mRNA translation on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-bound ribosomes, signal sequence-dependent translocation of the ER, core glycosylation in the ER lumen, vesicular transport to the Golgi apparatus, oligosaccharide modification to the complex type, and exocytosis all proceed according to the canonical secretory mechanism (Palade, 1975; Blobel, 1980; Kornfeld ...
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide, usually by a stepwise addition of glycosyl chains to endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound dolichol-P.
Yos9 is an essential component of the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD) system that is responsible for removing terminally misfolded proteins from the ER lumen and mediating proteasomal degradation in the cytosol. Glycoproteins that fail to attain their native conformation in the ER expose a distinct oligosaccharide structure, a terminal α1,6-linked mannose residue, that is specifically recognized by the mannose 6-phoshate receptor homology (MRH) domain of Yos9. We have determined the structure of the MRH domain of Yos9 in its free form and complexed with 3α, 6α-mannopentaose. We show that binding is achieved by loops between β-strands performing an inward movement and that this movement also affects the entire β-barrel leading to a twist. These rearrangements may facilitate the processing of client proteins by downstream acting factors. In contrast, other oligosaccharides such as 2α-mannobiose bind weakly with only locally occurring chemical shift changes ...
Misfolded proteins are recognized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transported back to the cytoplasm and degraded by the proteasome. Processing intermediates of N-linked oligosaccharides on incompletely folded glycoproteins have an important role in their folding/refolding, and also in their targeting to proteolytic degradation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have identified a gene coding for a non-essential protein that is homologous to mannosidase I (HTM1) and that is required for degradation of glycoproteins. Deletion of the HTM1 gene does not affect oligosaccharide trimming. However, deletion of HTM1 does reduce the rate of degradation of the mutant glycoproteins such as carboxypeptidase Y, ABC-transporter Pdr5-26p and oligosaccharyltransferase subunit Stt3-7p, but not of mutant Sec61-2p, a non-glycoprotein. Our results indicate that although Htm1p is not involved in processing of N-linked oligosaccharides, it is required for their proteolytic degradation. We propose that this mannosidase ...
Objective To explore the modulating function of isomalto oligosaccharide on intestinal mucosal immunity of aging model mice and its possible mechanisms.Method 48 Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 group: young control group,aging model group,IMO group and IMOLCM group.After the aging models were made by injection of D-galactose,the IMO group was given IMO while IMOLCM group was given IMO and lincomycin.Each group were killed after 30 days.We detected the quantity of intestinal flora by the method of quantitative detection;the level of sIgA of intestinal mucous membrane by the method of radioimmunity;the expression of the IgA+ plasma cell in mice′s intestinal mucous membrane by the immunohistochemical method.Result(1) Dysbacteria could be observed in aging mice;The level of sIgA of intestinal mucous membrane,IgA+ plasma cell in aging model group were lower than the young control group′s;(2) Dysbacteria had improwed in IMO group;The level of sIgA of intestinal mucous membrane,the number of IgA+
The proposed role of oligosaccharides in seed longevity was derived from experiments performed on model systems (Levine and Slade, 1988; Koster, 1991; Wolkers et al., 1998a). Oligosaccharides are known to increase Tg and viscosity in model Suc glasses, and this increased viscosity is likely to slow down detrimental aging reactions. So far, most studies concerning the relationship between oligosaccharides and longevity in seeds have been based on correlative evidence (Horbowicz and Obendorf, 1994; Lin and Huang, 1994; Steadman et al., 1996 ; Sun and Leopold, 1997). The ratio of oligosaccharide to total sugar between 0 and 0.7 was found to correlate with longevity for several species (Sun and Leopold, 1997). In the present study, we found that the oligosaccharides disappeared and longevity decreased upon priming (compare Fig. 3 with Figs. 4 and 5); however, this correlation was not perfect. For example, primed bell pepper seeds survived longer than impatiens seeds under the same storage ...
CSIC has developed an enzymatic synthesis procedure of lactosil-fructosilated derivatives obtained from natural disaccharides. Lactosil-fructosilated derivatives are prebiotics potentially usable in healthy food compositions to prevent diseases of the gastrointestinal system. Looking for food or pharmaceutical companies to develop and produce the compound under patent license. An offer for Patent Licensing
The structures of hepta- to tetradeca-saccharides, generated by digestion of wheat-endosperm arabinoxylan with endo-(1-,4)-beta-D-xylanase, and isolated by gel-permeation chromatography on Bio-Gel P-6 and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (h.p.a.e.-p.a.d.), were elucidated using monosaccharide and methylation analysis, f.a.b.-m.s., and 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. The structures identified had two branching elements, -,4)[alpha-L-Araf-(1-,3)]-beta-D-Xylp-(1-, ... read more and/or -,4)[alpha-L-Araf-(1-,2)][alpha-L-Araf-(1-,3)]-beta-D-Xylp-(1-,, directly connected to each other in all four possible combinations. The h.p.a.e.-p.a.d. elution pattern showed that these combinations are not present in equal amounts. Also, compounds containing two 2,3-branched beta-D-Xylp residues separated by one or two unbranched beta-D-Xylp residues were found, and the presence of a tetradecasaccharide containing three 2,3-branched beta-D-Xylp residues was established. show ...
Clinical observational studies with breastfed infants and interventional trials with formula fed infants in combination with basic research position HMOs as multifunctional innate breastmilk component. HMOs shape the establishing early life gut microbiota and supposedly help the development of appropriate immune competence. This is particular evident in situations of an early life dysbiotic microbiota such as seen upon C-section birth.
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1.B.15 The Raffinose Porin (RafY) Family. The RafY family consists of a single porin protein, RafY, encoded within the E. coli plasmid pRSD2. pRSD2 also encodes the permease and enzymes required for raffinose utilization. The gene order is: rafR (regulatory protein), rafA (α-galactosidase), rafB (permease), rafD (invertase) and rafY (porin). The RafY porin in the outer membrane of E. coli can accommodate many oligosaccharides including several disaccharides, the trisaccharide raffinose, the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose and stachyose, the hexasaccharide maltohexaose and the heptasaccharide maltoheptaose. Thus, RafY is a general porin capable of transporting many oligosaccharides and other molecules across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this respect it resembles ScrY (TC #1.B.3.1.2), the sucrose porin, which also exhibits broad specificity, but not MalL (LamB) (TC #1.B.3.1.1), maltoporin which is largely specific for maltooligosaccharides. However, it has been shown to ...
The work in this thesis has been focused on two subjects. The first is the assembly of alginate oligosaccharides and the generation of building blocks for the enzymatic synthesis of alginate, and the second is the total synthesis of large fragments of the zwitterionic SP1 polysaccharide.
LONDON – Functional oligosaccharides are gradually substituting sucrose in the food industry from pole to pole. Still, the growth trajectory of the industry has not been smooth in China from 2014 to 2016. What occurred to the Chinese functional...
Health benefits of oligosaccharides stachyose and raffinose. These sugars have a strong probiotic effect, but are also responsible for flatulence
Sugar moieties on the cell surface play one of the most important roles in cellular recognition. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of these cellular phenomena, assessment of the structure...
Oligosaccharides derived from alkali-extracted sorghum glucuronoarabinoxylan by digestion with a combination of (1--|4)-beta-D-arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXH) and endo-(1--|4)-beta-D-xylanase (Xyl I), both from Aspergillus awamori, were purified by size-exclusion chromatography follo …
Two low-phytate soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merr.) mutant lines- V99-5089 (mipsmutation on chromosome 11) and CX-1834 (mrp-landmrp-nmutations on chromosomes 19 and 3, respectively) have proven to be valuable resources for breeding of low-phytate, high-sucrose, and low-raffinosaccharide soybeans, traits that are highly desirable from a nutritional and environmental standpoint. A recombinant inbred population derived from the cross CX1834 x V99-5089 provides an opportunity to study the effect of different combinations of these three mutations on soybean phytate and oligosaccharides levels. Of the 173 recombinant inbred lines tested, 163 lines were homozygous for various combinations of MIPS and two MRP loci alleles. These individuals were grouped into eight genotypic classes based on the combination of SNP alleles at the three mutant loci. The two genotypic classes that were homozygousmrp-l/mrp-nand either homozygous wild-type or mutant at themipslocus (MIPS/mrp-l/mrp-normips/mrp-l/mrp-n) displayed ...
Researchers have discovered that some oligosaccharides from human breast milk may possess antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against GBS.
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"Stool characteristics of infants receiving short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides: A ... Galacto-oligosaccharides are produced through the enzymatic conversion of lactose, a component of bovine milk. A range of ... Galacto-oligosaccharides support natural defenses of the human body via the gut microflora, indirectly by increasing the number ... Galacto-oligosaccharides are a substrate for bacteria, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Studies with infants and adults ...
... is classified as a type I chain oligosaccharide due to the β(1→3) linkage at the non-reducing end. The β(1→4) ... Isolating single oligosaccharides is needed to further study their biological function. Human milk is inaccessible in large ... "Human Milk Oligosaccharides". NNI Global Website. Retrieved 2020-12-01. Triantis, Vassilis; Bode, Lars; van Neerven, R. J. ... Humans do not have the enzymes to cleave the glycosidic bonds of human milk oligosaccharides, and so these sugars have no ...
"Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides". Retrieved 2008-01-29. Whitney, Ellie; Sharon Rady Rolfes (2011). Peggy Williams (ed.). ... Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and ...
Gränzle, M.G. (2011). "Lactose and Oligosaccharides , Lactose: Derivatives". Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (2nd ed.). Elsevier ...
OligosaccharidesEdit. Oligosaccharides are sugar containing polymers. In the membrane, they can be covalently bound to lipids ... "General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide". PLoS ONE. 10 (11 ...
In this respect, fermentable oligosaccharides may be considered prebiotics. The oligosaccharides in IMO mixtures are, at least ... linkages between glucose moieties and forming Isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO). The majority of oligosaccharides found in IMO ... IMO and other oligosaccharides have long been approved in China and Japan. In Japan, IMO is on the list of Foods for Specified ... Isomalto-oligosaccharides are a normal part of the human diet and occur naturally in fermented foods, such as fermented ...
Their products include oligosaccharides. The company was named to the 2013 Forbes "small and medium listed companies in Asia" ...
Oligosaccharides may be sequenced using tandem mass spectrometry in a similar manner to peptide sequencing. Fragmentation ... Spina E, Cozzolino R, Ryan E, Garozzo D (August 2000). "Sequencing of oligosaccharides by collision-induced dissociation matrix ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Zaia J (2004). "Mass spectrometry of oligosaccharides". Mass Spectrometry Reviews. 23 ( ...
... this generates HA oligosaccharides. According to their enzymatic mechanism, hyaluronidases are hyaluronoglucosidases (EC 3.2. ... and the degradation of HA into HA oligosaccharides by high HYAL levels result in increased tumor malignancy. Elevated tissue ...
Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of monosaccharides linked together. Higher oligosaccharides are called ... Therefore, the oligosaccharide synthesis becomes more and more important in studying biological activities. Oligosaccharides ... This concept is illustrated by an oligosaccharide synthesis in Scheme 1. Oligosaccharide synthesis normally consists of four ... The essence of the reducing oligosaccharide synthesis is connecting the anomeric hydroxyl of the glycosyl donors to the ...
Oligosaccharides (fructans and/or galactans). Cereals: wheat & rye when eaten in large amounts (e.g. bread, pasta, couscous, ... FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) that are present in gluten-containing grains ... Table 1. Sources of FODMAPs (...) Oligosaccharides (fructans and/or galactans). Cereals: wheat and rye when eaten in large ...
The chitinases hydrolyse chitin oligosaccharides. Another chitinase II member is the novel gene Chitinase domain-containing ...
Oligosaccharides (fructans and/or galactans). Cereals: wheat & rye when eaten in large amounts (e.g. bread, pasta, couscous, ... Tuck CJ, Muir JG, Barrett JS, Gibson PR (September 2014). "Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and ...
Commonly used FODMAPs comprise the following: oligosaccharides, including fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides disaccharides, ... Oligosaccharides (fructans and/or galactans). Cereals: wheat & rye when eaten in large amounts (e.g. bread, pasta, couscous, ... FODMAPs or fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols are short chain carbohydrates that are ... "New research: Enzyme therapy can help reduce symptoms in IBS patients sensitive to galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) present in ...
The sulfated oligosaccharides from Gracilaria sp. seem to be promising candidates for further development as antiviral agents. ... Gracilaria oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization 6 prepared by agarase digestion from agar-bearing Gracilaria sp. ...
Geng, Peng; Qiu, Feng; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Bai, Gang (April 2008). "Four acarviosin-containing oligosaccharides identified from ... Streptomyces coelicoflavus produces acarviosin-containing oligosaccharides. List of Streptomyces species LPSN ... "Four acarviosin-containing oligosaccharides identified from Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656 are potent inhibitors of α- ...
Spaink, Herman P. (1992-12-01). "Rhizobial lipo-oligosaccharides: answers and questions". Plant Molecular Biology. 20 (5): 977- ...
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), a primary component of human milk, are prebiotics which have been shown to promote growth ... Differences in milk oligosaccharides between humans and non-human primates could be indicative of variation in pathogen ... Jost T, Lacroix C, Braegger C, Chassard C (July 2015). "Impact of human milk bacteria and oligosaccharides on neonatal gut ... Human milk is typified by greater overall HMO diversity and predominance of oligosaccharides known to promote growth of ...
Kandler, Otto; Hopf, Herbert (1980). "Occurrence, metabolism and function of oligosaccharides". In Jack Preiss (ed.). The ... the most frequent oligosaccharides in plants. As a result of these findings, the function of galactinol, a galactoside of ...
Fructooligosaccharides, commonly known as FOS, consist of many different types of indigestible oligosaccharides. FOS is shown ... These compounds both contain oligosaccharides however; they work in different manners. Constipation prevention and treatment ...
Inulin can be degraded enzymatically or chemically to a mixture of oligosaccharides with the general structure Glu-Frun (abbrev ... R Hartemink , K M Van Laere , F M Rombouts; Van Laere; Rombouts (1997). "Growth of enterobacteria on fructo-oligosaccharides". ... 2004). "Nondigestible oligosaccharides increase calcium absorption and suppress bone resorption in ovariectomized rats". ... Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) also sometimes called oligofructose or oligofructan, are oligosaccharide fructans, used as an ...
Kornfeld, S; Li, E; Tabas, I (10 November 1978). "The synthesis of complex-type oligosaccharides. II. Characterization of the ... processing intermediates in the synthesis of the complex oligosaccharide units of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein". ...
Asparagine residues may serve as an important oligosaccharide binding site. C1orf167 has high expression in the larynx, blood, ... Kornfeld, R.; Kornfeld, S. (1985). "Assembly of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides" (PDF). Annual Review of Biochemistry. 54: ...
"Multifunctional fructans and raffinose family oligosaccharides". Frontiers in Plant Science. 4: 247. doi:10.3389/fpls. ...
Hanson, Sarah; Best, Michael; Bryan, Marian C.; Wong, Chi-Huey (2004-12-01). "Chemoenzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides and ...
... isolation and identification of the oligosaccharides". The Biochemical Journal. 60 (3): 399-403. PMC 1215714. PMID 13239572. ...
oligosaccharides. Short-chain fatty acids[edit]. When fermentable fiber is fermented, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are ... complex carbohydrates, such as long-chained sugars also called starch, oligosaccharides, or polysaccharides, are sources of ... Chemically defined as oligosaccharides occurring naturally in most plants, inulins have nutritional value as carbohydrates, or ... Some non-absorbed carbohydrates, e.g. pectin, gum arabic, oligosaccharides and resistant starch, are fermented to short-chain ...
oligosaccharides. Short-chain fatty acids[edit]. When fermentable fiber is fermented, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are ... complex carbohydrates, such as long-chained sugars also called starch, oligo saccharides, or poly saccharides, are sources of ... These components include resistant starches and oligo saccharides along with other substances that exist within the plant cell ... Chemically defined as oligosaccharides occurring naturally in most plants, inulins have nutritional value as carbohydrates, or ...
Krasnova, Larissa; Wong, Chi-Huey (2019-03-06). "Oligosaccharide Synthesis and Translational Innovation". Journal of the ... Sears, P. (2001-03-23). "Toward Automated Synthesis of Oligosaccharides and Glycoproteins". Science. 291 (5512): 2344-2350. ... Sears, P. (2001-03-23). "Toward Automated Synthesis of Oligosaccharides and Glycoproteins". Science. 291 (5512): 2344-2350. ... Sears, P. (2001-03-23). "Toward Automated Synthesis of Oligosaccharides and Glycoproteins". Science. 291 (5512): 2344-2350. ...
... contains a unique type of sugars, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are not present in infant formula. HMOs ... Bode L (November 2015). "The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides". Early Human Development. 91 (11): 619-22. doi: ... several lactose-based oligosaccharides have been identified as minor components. The fat fraction contains specific ...
oligosaccharides* Carbohydrates composed of 3-10 monosaccharide units (with more than 10 units they are termed polysaccharides ... oligosaccharides A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by Oxford ... fructo-oligosaccharides A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by ... oligosaccharides Carbohydrates composed of 3-10 monosaccharide units (with more than 10 units they are termed polysaccharides ...
N-linked oligosaccharides[edit]. An example of N-linked oligosaccharide, shown here with GlcNAc. X is any amino acid except ... O-linked oligosaccharides[edit]. An example of O-Linked oligosaccharide with β-Galactosyl-(1n3)-α-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-Ser/ ... Dietary oligosaccharides[edit]. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are found in many vegetables, are short chains of fructose ... The oligosaccharides found on the A, B, and H antigen occur on the non-reducing ends of the oligosaccharide. The H antigen ( ...
Protecting groups play a vital role in oligosaccharide synthesis as they help in differentiating the functional groups in the ... structurally well-defined and reasonable quantities of oligosaccharides. The chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides has been ... The synthesis of oligosaccharides is a challenge. This is due to the versatility of glycosylation (either alpha or beta ... Oligosaccharides are one of the most important class of biomolecules, playing a critical role in important biological processes ...
Os Oligosaccharides são construídos das unidades do monómero do hidrato de carbono que contêm grupos de hidróxilo múltiplos, ... estrutural bem definidas e razoáveis de oligosaccharides. A síntese química dos oligosaccharides foi instrumental em resolver ... A síntese dos oligosaccharides é um desafio. Isto é devido à versatilidade do glycosylation (enlaces alfa ou beta) e à presença ... Os Oligosaccharides são construídos das unidades do monómero do hidrato de carbono que contêm grupos de hidróxilo múltiplos, ...
Mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) based nutritional supplements are widely used in nutrition as a natural additive. MOS have been ... Mannan oligosaccharides have been widely evaluated in feeding trials. As animal health and performance are influenced by many ... and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) larvae growth performance, gut morphology and gut ... Franklin, S.T.; Newman, M.C.; Newman, K.E.; Meek, K.I. (2005). "Immune Parameters of Dry Cows Fed Mannan Oligosaccharide and ...
... oligosaccharides up to 10 residues long. The EDD mass spectra of DS oligosaccharides were compared with their infrared ... Electron detachment dissociation of dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides.. Wolff JJ1, Laremore TN, Busch AM, Linhardt RJ, Amster ... In contrast, IRMPD produces only A-type cross-ring fragmentation for long oligosaccharides (dp6-dp10). As all the structurally ... The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) oligosaccharides has been a long-standing challenge in the field of ...
Find patient medical information for FRUCTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and ... Oligosaccharide Complex, Oligosaccharides, Prebiotic, Prébiotique, SC-FOS, Short Chain Fructo-Oligosaccharides.. Hide Names ... In foods, fructo-oligosaccharides are used as a sweetener.. How does it work?. Fructo-oligosaccharides pass undigested into the ... FRUCTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES Side Effects & Safety. Fructo-oligosaccharides seem to be safe when taken in less than 30 grams per day ...
Core oligosaccharide (or Core-OS) is a short chain of sugar residues within Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Core-OS are ... LPS that include lipid A and a complete core oligosaccharide (inner and outer) is referred to as "rough LPS." The enzymes ... The mechanism whereby the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide affect the membrane behavior is not well understood. ... involved in core oligosaccharide synthesis are conserved among Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has some ...
... an oligosaccharide acceptor for the sialyltransferase having a galactosyl unit at the oligosaccharide non-reducing terminus, ... Use of oligosaccharides for treatment of arthritis. US5278299 *. 18 Mar 1991. 11 Jan 1994. Scripps Clinic And Research ... Oligosaccharides are considered to have a reducing end and a non-reducing end, whether or not the saccharide at the reducing ... Oligosaccharide enzyme substrates and inhibitors: methods and compositions. WO1994025615A1 *. 4 May 1994. 10 Nov 1994. Cytel ...
Introducti,Characterization,of,Protein,Oligosaccharides,Using,MSn,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory ... GlcNAc8Man3 oligosaccharide from chicken ovalbumin. Experimental Conditions. Oligosaccharides were released from hen ovalbumin ... The oligosaccharide in Figure 1b is a heavily GlcNAcylated oligosaccharide of ovalbumin. The MS2 spectrum of the doubly- ... Characterization of Protein Oligosaccharides Using MSn. Andrew S.Weiskopf and Paul Vouros Northeastern University Boston MA ...
... Demand Assures Motivated Revenue Share during 2017-2026 / Novozyme, ... Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market Global Forecast over 2026 Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are complex form of ... Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market to Rear Excessive Growth During 2026 Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are ... Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market to Undertake Strapping Growth During … Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are ...
The present invention relates to a process for spray drying uronic acid oligosaccharides and to a powder compositions thus ... Uronic Acid Oligosaccharides. The term uronic acid oligosaccharide as used in the present invention refers to a oligosaccharide ... of the uronic acid oligosaccharide. The uronic acid oligosaccharide preferably is a galacturonic acid oligosaccharide. ... uronic acid oligosaccharide with a DP of 2 to 50, more preferably 0.2 to 5 wt. % uronic acid oligosaccharide with a DP of 2 to ...
... and O-linked oligosaccharides. The O-linked oligosaccharide chains were attached to a single tryptic fraction of the β-subunit ... We report that the β-subunit also contains O-linked oligosaccharides. The proreceptor, α-subunit, and β-subunit were labeled ... Therefore, the insulin receptor contains O-linked oligosaccharides on the NH2-terminal tryptic peptide of the β-subunit, and ... N- and O-linked oligosaccharide chains were identified on these peptides by specific enzymatic digestions. The proreceptor and ...
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are both complex carbohydrates. Their building blocks are the dietary monosaccharides ... The Role of Oligosaccharides. The nondigestibility of oligosaccharides provides a health benefit as they help to feed friendly ... Therefore, oligosaccharides are often referred to as prebiotics. Two common oligosaccharides are raffinose, composed of three ... Another oligosaccharide category are the fructo-oligosaccharides, composed of varying numbers of fructose molecules. They are ...
... DOCTORHIM at DOCTORHIM at Thu Oct 2 00:31:44 EST 1997 *Next ... It has five enzymes that will remove virtually all N and O linked oligosaccharides. You can download the Instructions for this ...
Selective oligosaccharide production Introduction. For many biotechnological processes, a large part of the manufacturing costs ... Since specific oligosaccharide synthesis reactions are not yet cost effective due to the lack of diversity of the available ... 70:411-420 In this project we are using an enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides as a model system. This model system has to ... 2003) Oligosaccharide synthesis by the hyperthermostable ß-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus: kinetics and modelling. Enzyme ...
... is the leading global supplier of human milk oligosaccharides and the sole HMO milk entity with its own product development & ... GlyCare™ Human Milk Oligosaccharides. Next-generation HMOs are part of our exciting innovation roadmap, with four new HMOs ... Human Milk Oligosaccharides are a collection of carbohydrate structures and the third most abundant solid component of human ... To prove the impact on human health and document the mechanisms of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs), we lead a rich program ...
... Ralf ralf.hartemink at Wed Apr 1 02:03:25 ... On Tue, 31 Mar 1998 14:12:30 -0800, Michael Sierchio ,kudzu at, wrote: ,oligosaccharides *are* digestible - by ... Previous message: Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides - healthy food for the colon ? *Next message: NEED help finding microbio ... Previous message: Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides - healthy food for the colon ? *Next message: NEED help finding microbio ...
An important developmental role for oligosaccharides during early embryogenesis of cyprinid fish. Jeroen Bakkers, Carlos E. ... Lipo-Chitin Oligosaccharides, Plant Symbiosis Signalling Molecules That Modulate Mammalian Angiogenesis In Vitro ... Synthesis and biological evaluation of oligosaccharides related to the molecule signals in plant defence and the Rhizobium- ... Proteins involved in the production and perception of oligosaccharides in relation to plant and animal development ...
... Chia-Chien Hsieh,1 Blanca Hernández- ... In addition to being a source of proteins and peptides, milk contains complex oligosaccharides that possess important functions ... Some of the health benefits attributed to milk oligosaccharides include prebiotic probifidogenic effects, antiadherence of ... and oligosaccharides towards the prevention of diseases of the 21st century. Processing challenges hindering large-scale ...
... Ginkgo offers ... Glycosyn develops efficient and cost effective technologies for synthesizing and producing Human Milk Oligosaccharides (hMOS), ... 14MM deal to optimize and scale the production of human milk oligosaccharides (hMOS) for a suite of products that offer health ...
... Fructo-Oligo-Saccharides (FOS) are naturally occurring sugars that have beneficial effects as ... Nutraflora FOS supplies non-digestible fructo-oligo-saccharides to further encourage growth of beneficial microorganisms. N- ...
... Glycoconj J. 1998 Aug;15(8):737-47. doi: 10.1023/a ... Specific applications such as clean-up of N-linked oligosaccharides after removal by PNGase F and hydrazine, desalting of O- ... There is complete recovery of the oligosaccharides from the adsorbent which can also be used to fractionate acidic and neutral ... precipitation of salt by a non-aqueous solvent can result in co-precipitation of oligosaccharides, and gel chromatography uses ...
... effective oligosaccharide analysis to help you identify the overall population profile of glycans present in a glycoprotein. ... Life Sciences Oligosaccharide Population Analysis. Oligosaccharide population analysis from SGS - effective oligosaccharide ... Why choose oligosaccharide population analysis from SGS?. Our oligosaccharide analysis (including N-glycosylation analysis and ... Trusted oligosaccharide population analysis from the leading provider. As the worlds leading provider of oligosaccharide ...
What is oligosaccharides? Meaning of oligosaccharides medical term. What does oligosaccharides mean? ... Looking for online definition of oligosaccharides in the Medical Dictionary? oligosaccharides explanation free. ... oligosaccharides. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to oligosaccharides: Polysaccharides. ... oligosaccharides (ol´igōsak´ərīdz),. carbohydrates that are formed by combining as few as two or as many as six ...
Human milk oligosaccharide composition predicts risk of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants Chloe A Autran, Benjamin P ... Human milk oligosaccharide DSLNT and gut microbiome in preterm infants predicts necrotising enterocolitis Andrea C Masi, ... The human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose modulates CD14 expression in human enterocytes, thereby attenuating LPS- ...
Fructo-oligosaccharides and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ...
... at Memorial Health Supplement Forms/Alternate Names FOS Galacto-oligosaccharides Inulin GOS Prebiotics Uses Principal... ... Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are starches that the human body cannot fully digest. Inulin and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) ... Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on large-bowel functions, blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in young ... Influence of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (sc-FOS) on absorption of Cu, Zn, and Se in healthy postmenopausal women. J Am ...
Two oligosaccharides, 3-sialyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose, were prepared as 1% w/v solutions and delivered using each of ... Oligosaccharides may be employed to inhibit lung infections. Since these molecules are water soluble they may be administered ... Two oligosaccharides, 3-sialyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose, were prepared as 1% w/v solutions and delivered using each of ... Oligosaccharides may be employed to inhibit lung infections. Since these molecules are water soluble they may be administered ...
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides are also used as prebiotics. (
  • Oligosaccharides are used as prebiotics owing to their characteristic non-digestibility nature that proves beneficial to human health. (
  • Therefore, oligosaccharides are often referred to as prebiotics. (
  • Therefore, various oligosaccharides are now being added to livestock feed as prebiotics to improve animal health, production, and immune ability and to influence the gut microbiota (White et al. (
  • Significance and Impact of the Study: The study provides comparative data on the properties of commercial prebiotics, allowing targeting of dietary intervention for particular applications and blending of oligosaccharides to enhance overall functionality. (
  • It is divided into three sections: (i) Production and bioactivity of oligosaccharides, (ii) Analysis and (iii) Prebiotics in Food Formulation. (
  • Scientists are increasingly interested in studying the health benefits of oligosaccharides and their many varieties because of their benefits as prebiotics as well as antitumor, immunity-increasing and antioxidant characteristics. (
  • According to rigid criteria for prebiotics, only FOS and trans-galacto (TOS) oligosaccharides are labeled prebiotics. (
  • [iv] Because of their inability to be digested, oligosaccharides as prebiotics stimulate the growth of good bacteria in your colon and have many health benefits. (
  • They are found to be good for health because undigested oligosaccharides in the stomach help in the production of good bacteria called prebiotics. (
  • Although they are non-digestible oligosaccharides, the mode of action of MOSs differs from other prebiotics. (
  • Ingredients recognized as prebiotics include various oligosaccharides such as galactooligosaccharides and some food fibers. (
  • Macroalga-derived oligosaccharides are candidate prebiotics, and herein, we determined the effects of Laminaria sp. (
  • Also, the use of nutraceuticals and prebiotics in treating chronic diseases is anticipated to further boost the growth of the galacto-oligosaccharide market. (
  • Galacto-oligosaccharide are prebiotics and non-digestible food ingredients that benefit the host by stimulating the growth and activity of good bacteria in the gut. (
  • As a result, galacto-oligosaccharides are increasingly being used in applications such as prebiotics and nutritional supplements in the healthcare industry. (
  • To prove the impact on human health and document the mechanisms of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs), we lead a rich program of preclinical and clinical studies. (
  • BOSTON , Nov. 8, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, Ginkgo Bioworks , the organism company, and Glycosyn LLC , a biotech company developing components of human milk, announced a $14MM deal to optimize and scale the production of human milk oligosaccharides (hMOS) for a suite of products that offer health benefits by fostering a healthy gut microbial ecology. (
  • Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third-largest solid component of milk. (
  • BASF and the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) announced a collaboration to unlock new benefits of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). (
  • Representatives from BASF and UC Davis recently signed a collaboration agreement expressing their mutual commitment to unlocking new potential for human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). (
  • The addition of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) to DSM's Early Life Nutrition portfolio brings evidence-based innovation to an already robust offering of nutrition solutions. (
  • Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the 3rd most abundant solid component of breast milk after fat and carbohydrates. (
  • These are termed human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and have been demonstrated to be critical to infant health, as beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the infant utilise these materials. (
  • The cryoprotective effect of intracellular free high-mannose oligosaccharides (HMOS) on mammalian cells and proteins was examined by monitoring PC-12 cell viability and assaying protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon activity. (
  • New Abbott data presented this week, at the 50th Annual Congress of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) in Prague, further supports the important role Human Milk Oligosaccharides (or HMOs) play in supporting the immune system of formula-fed babies. (
  • Inulin and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are similar substances also discussed in this article. (
  • Inulin-based fructo oligosaccharides are incorporated as a prominent ingredient in dietary supplements as they help manage blood pressure, diabetes, and prevent cardiovascular and other chronic degenerative diseases. (
  • This is in contrast with other popular non-digestable oligosaccharides like inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides. (
  • Gas production was lowest on isomalto-oligosaccharides and highest on inulin. (
  • Chicory root (from which inulin is commercially extracted) and Jerusalem artichokes (the root of a member of the sunflower family) have the most oligosaccharides, but they can also be found in onions , leeks, garlic , legumes ( beans , lentils), asparagus and jicama. (
  • Fructo- (FOS) (from artichokes or onions and related family) and inulin-oligosaccharides (from chicory root) are the most used "prebiotic" additives in baked goods and other foods to date. (
  • Recent research shows prebiotic properties of other oligosaccharides including galacto (GOS), inulin and pectin (POS) oligosaccharides. (
  • While the name is still largely unfamiliar to consumers, these compounds are being added to many food and supplement products and include inulin, oligofructose, FOS (fructo-oligosaccharides) and GOS (galacto-oligosaccharides). (
  • Clinical studies have demonstrated that the administration of fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides or inulin can enhance the levels of useful intestinal bacteria and simultaneously reduce the number of harmful bacteria ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Arslanoglu S, Moro GE, Boehm G (2007) Early supplementation of prebiotic oligosaccharides protects formula-fed infants against infections during the first 6 months of life. (
  • Arslanoglu S, Moro GE, Schmitt J, Tandoi L, Rizzardi S, Boehm G (2008) Early dietary intervention with a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of allergic manifestations and infections during the first two years of life. (
  • Aims: Comparison of in vitro fermentation properties of commercial prebiotic oligosaccharides. (
  • It also looks at practical issues faced by food industry professionals seeking to incorporate prebiotic oligosaccharides into food products, including the effects of processing on prebiotic bioavailability. (
  • oligosaccharides Carbohydrates composed of 3-10 monosaccharide units (with more than 10 units they are termed polysaccharides ). (
  • According to Fact.MR's recent research report, the global market for polysaccharides and oligosaccharides is anticipated to expand at a value CAGR of 4.8% throughout the period of assessment, 2017-2026. (
  • By the end of the assessment year, 2026, above 7540 Bn tons of production of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides is estimated to be consumed across the globe. (
  • Asia Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ) region is expected to be a highly lucrative region for the growth of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market. (
  • The consumption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides is expected to grow in this region owing to increased demand from the food sector in various applications. (
  • The Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market in APEJ is estimated to reach a valuation a little under US$ 9 Bn by the end of the year of assessment from a value of about US$ 5 Bn in 2017. (
  • Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are essentially complex carbohydrates that include chain of monosaccharide molecules. (
  • Europe followed by North America are also expected to largely contribute to the growth of the global polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market. (
  • Also the consumption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in this region is expected to grow at a moderate pace in the coming years. (
  • Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are used in various applications such as in the production of beverages, infant milk formula, animal feed, bakery and confectionery, dairy products and snacks. (
  • The consumption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in animal feed is expected to increase at a robust rate in the coming years. (
  • Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are both complex carbohydrates. (
  • Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides have separate and overlapping functions in maintaining good colon health and energy. (
  • Marine oligosaccharides are produced in algae naturally and/or by hydrolysis of derived polysaccharides. (
  • In subjects such as chemistry, biochemistry, and nutrition, one can vividly remember that oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are forms of sugar. (
  • 1. Oligosaccharides contain a small amount of sugar while polysaccharides contain plentiful sugar. (
  • 2. Oligosaccharides are found mainly in small plants while polysaccharides can be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and starch. (
  • 3. Oligosaccharides have a good effect on the stomach while polysaccharides provide the overall energy needed by humans. (
  • 4. Oligosaccharides have a little sweetness while polysaccharides are sweet tasting in nature. (
  • Oligosaccharides consist of short chains of sugars, generally two to ten sugars in length, placing them between simple sugars and polysaccharides like starch. (
  • The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) oligosaccharides has been a long-standing challenge in the field of mass spectrometry. (
  • In this work, we present the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) Fourier transform mass spectrometry to the analysis of dermatan sulfate (DS) oligosaccharides up to 10 residues long. (
  • As all the structurally informative fragment ions observed by IRMPD appear as a subset of the peaks found in the EDD mass spectrum, EDD shows great potential for the characterization of GAG oligosaccharides using a single tandem mass spectrometry experiment. (
  • Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) has become a valuable technique in oligosaccharide characterization. (
  • Specific applications such as clean-up of N-linked oligosaccharides after removal by PNGase F and hydrazine, desalting of O-linked glycans after removal by alkali, on-line desalting of HPAEC-separated oligosaccharides and beta-eliminated alditols prior to electrospray mass spectrometry, and purification of oligosaccharides from urine are described. (
  • Structural analyses of the newly synthesized GAGs and their oligosaccharides were performed by ion-spray mass spectrometry (17) and HPLC. (
  • Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry identified two series of oligosaccharides, one derived from acharan sulfate's major repeating unit and a second minor group of undersulfated oligosaccharides. (
  • The method described in this article allows the fast, non-radioactive and reliable multistage tandem mass spectrometry characterization of oligosaccharides released from LLO of microalgae including the ones belonging to the Phaeodactylaceae and Chlorophyceae classes, respectively. (
  • Human Milk Oligosaccharides are a collection of carbohydrate structures and the third most abundant solid component of human milk after lipids and lactose. (
  • There are around 200 different types of human milk oligosaccharides. (
  • In addition to being a source of proteins and peptides, milk contains complex oligosaccharides that possess important functions related to the newborn's development and health. (
  • Some of the health benefits attributed to milk oligosaccharides include prebiotic probifidogenic effects, antiadherence of pathogenic bacteria, and immunomodulation. (
  • This review focuses on recent findings demonstrating the biological activities of milk peptides, proteins, and oligosaccharides towards the prevention of diseases of the 21st century. (
  • In addition to inhibition of pathogens, milk oligosaccharides also appear to stimulate the growth of various other bifidobacteria which are quite commonly found in the feces of breastfed infants. (
  • But extracting or producing human milk oligosaccharides on an affordable, industrial scale won't be easy. (
  • Human Milk Oligosaccharides represent a major component of mother's milk, and provide short and long-term benefits to infants from birth onwards. (
  • Human milk contains a remarkable content and structural diversity of oligosaccharides (HMO) that act as a component of the innate immunity by preventing attachment of pathogens to the intestinal lining and by promoting colonization by a healthy microbiota. (
  • Bovine milk has very low levels of oligosaccharides. (
  • Additionally, bovine oligosaccharides are structurally different from those found in human milk. (
  • When human milk is lacking, dietary supplementation with infant formula fortified with manufactured LBOs, such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), is pursued. (
  • High inter- and intra-individual variation were found for oligosaccharides present in equine and porcine milk. (
  • In vivo fermentation fate of porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was also described analysing PMOs as found in fecal samples of piglets. (
  • Intact dietary oligosaccharides including GOS and milk oligosaccharides from the piglet diet were found in piglet blood and urine samples. (
  • Boehm G, Lidestri M, Casetta P, Jelinek J, Negretti F, Stahl B, Marini A (2002) Supplementation of a bovine milk formula with an oligosaccharide mixture increases counts of faecal bifidobacteria in preterm infants. (
  • Urinary excretion of in vivo 13C-labelled milk oligosaccharides in breastfed infants. (
  • Recent observations indicate that human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are involved in a variety of physiological processes in infants. (
  • In the initial phase of this trial, 30 premature infants will be randomly assigned to receive increasing doses of one of four dietary supplements: Permeate (a pasteurized human milk concentrate containing human milk oligosaccharides processed by Prolacta), GOS (galacto-oligosaccharides manufactured by Friesland foods), Bifidobacterium infantis or Bifidobacterium animalis. (
  • This study is limited to formula fed infants in order to avoid the confounding effects of the human milk oligosaccharides in breast milk. (
  • Oligosaccharides represent a significant fraction of breast milk, reaching up to 20 g/l in early milk. (
  • Human milk oligosaccharides comprise close to 200 structures, which are not absorbed by the intestinal tissue and have no nutritional value for the breastfed infant. (
  • Early studies conducted around 1930 already attributed a prebiotic activity to milk oligosaccharides by showing their stimulatory effects on the growth of specific intestinal microbiota. (
  • In addition, milk oligosaccharides contribute to the defence against enteric pathogens by acting as soluble decoys preventing the adhesion of viruses and bacteria to their carbohydrate mucosal receptors. (
  • The structural complexity of milk oligosaccharides hampers the assignment of specific functions to single carbohydrates. (
  • The application of mouse models allows the investigation of unique milk oligosaccharides in the context of intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity. (
  • In this respect, our recent work has demonstrated that uptake of the milk oligosaccharide 3-sialyllactose increases the inflammatory response observed in different colitis models. (
  • Human milk oligosaccharides are not digested during intestinal passage and can be detected in stools. (
  • Dr. Ardythe Morrow, PhD, Director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Human Milk and Lactation at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, commented that, "Human milk delivers optimal nutrition to support infant health and development, including a rich repertoire of human milk oligosaccharides. (
  • All N-linked Oligosaccharides are pentasaccharides: five monosaccharides long. (
  • Oligosaccharides, on the other hand, are branched structures, with their constituent monosaccharides linked together by a variety of glycosidic bonds. (
  • As a result, while six amino acids can yield only 720 different peptides, six unique monosaccharides can be arranged to form many millions of oligosaccharides. (
  • 1 Permethylation of the oligosaccharide before analysis more effectively directs fragmentation of the ion into various familiar series of product ions: glycosidic-bond fragments which indicate monosaccharide sequence and branching, and crossring fragments which identify the linkages between monosaccharides. (
  • We demonstrate that graphitized carbon as a solid phase extraction cartridge can be used for the purification of oligosaccharides (or their derivatives) from solutions containing one or more of the following contaminants: salts (including salts of hydroxide, acetate, phosphate), monosaccharides, detergents (sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100), protein (including enzymes) and reagents for the release of oligosaccharides from glycoconjugates (such as hydrazine and sodium borohydride). (
  • Jennewein Biotechnologie est une entreprise internationale leader spécialisée dans les biotechnologies industrielles qui propose une vaste gamme de produits dans le champ complexe des oligosaccharides (OLH) et des monosaccharides rares. (
  • Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides and Monosaccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs). (
  • Oligosaccharides can be synthesised from monosaccharides or disaccharides, using glycosidases as a catalyst. (
  • Fractionation of this mixture of oligosaccharides by strong-anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography afforded oligosaccharides that capillary electrophoresis established were sufficiently pure for structural characterization. (
  • There is therefore a considerable demand for a concentrated source of information on the development and characterization of new oligosaccharides with novel and/or improved bioactivities. (
  • [10] Glycosylation sites in O-linked oligosaccharides are determined by the secondary and tertiary structures of the polypeptide, which dictate where glycosyltransferases will add sugars. (
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides are made up of plant sugars linked in chains. (
  • Core-OS are highly diverse among bacterial species and even within strains of species The core domain always contains an oligosaccharide component which attaches directly to lipid A and commonly contains sugars such as heptose and 3-deoxy-D-mannooctulosonic acid (also known as KDO or keto-deoxyoctulosonate). (
  • All desalting methods which are currently used have limitations: for example, mixed-bed ion-exchange columns risk the loss of charged sugars, precipitation of salt by a non-aqueous solvent can result in co-precipitation of oligosaccharides, and gel chromatography uses highly crosslinked packings in which separation of small oligosaccharides is difficult to achieve. (
  • Oligosaccharides differ from other types carbohydrates (sugars) in that they are indigestible in the stomach and small intestine. (
  • Interestingly, certain enzymes may produce oligosaccharides from ingested starches and sugars when consumed with a meal. (
  • Oligosaccharides can also inhibit the binding of pathogenic bacteria to intestinal cells. (
  • Mannan oligosaccharide products maintain intestinal integrity and the digestive and absorptive function of the gut in the post-weaning period in pigs and enhance disease resistance by promoting antigen presentation. (
  • derived alginate oligosaccharide (AlgOS) on the distal intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). (
  • When oligosaccharides are consumed, any undigested remnants act as fuel for the intestinal microflora. (
  • The availability of pure oligosaccharides in large amounts will soon enable the study of these compounds in humans in the context of intestinal and metabolic disorders associated to various forms of dysbiosis. (
  • Oligosaccharides are constructed from carbohydrate monomer units which contain multiple hydroxyl groups, along with amino and carboxyl groups. (
  • Protecting groups play a vital role in oligosaccharide synthesis as they help in differentiating not only the same type of functional groups but also the different functional groups present in the carbohydrate. (
  • How MS n can be used in oligosaccharide analysis to determine monosaccharide sequence and composition, carbohydrate branching, and monosaccharide linkages. (
  • Figure 1a shows two oligosaccharides from the ovalbumin carbohydrate mixture. (
  • 21. A process for the production of a powdered product from an aqueous solution comprising: a. admixing an uronic acid oligosaccharide containing powder, water, protein and carbohydrate to form an aqueous solution comprising between 0.1 and 5 wt. (
  • 22. A powder obtainable by: a. admixing an uronic acid oligosaccharide containing powder, water, protein and carbohydrate to form an aqueous solution comprising between 0.1 and 5 wt. (
  • Hopkins M Cummings JH, Macfarlane GT (1998) Inter-species differences in maximum spesific growth rates and cell yields of bifidobacteria cultured on oligosaccharides and other simple carbohydrate sources. (
  • Oligosaccharide are carbohydrate molecules, comprising repeating units joined together by glycosidic bonds. (
  • The sialyl-Lewis(x) oligosaccharide, identified in a study in 2011 ( 5 ), is believed to be the most abundant carbohydrate receptor in the outer coating, or zona pellucida (ZP), of human female ova. (
  • Nonetheless, thanks to their straightforward stereoselectivity and efficiency, carbohydrate-processing enzymes follow being a powerful practical alternative in a wide set of synthetic applications targeted to the obtainment of natural oligosaccharides, glycoconjugates and their analogues. (
  • 2003) Oligosaccharide synthesis by the hyperthermostable ß-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus: kinetics and modelling. (
  • Not all natural oligosaccharides occur as components of glycoproteins or glycolipids. (
  • Glycoproteins have distinct Oligosaccharide structures which have significant effects on many of their properties, [11] affecting critical functions such as antigenicity , solubility , and resistance to proteases . (
  • Unlike starting material obtained by chemical synthesis or direct isolation from natural sources, which can be time consuming and costly to generate, our approach involves precursors derived from renewable sources including wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycoproteins and lipid-linked oligosaccharides from glycoengineered Escherichia coli . (
  • This precursor is then transferred en bloc on neo-synthesized proteins through the action of the oligosaccharyltransferase giving birth to glycoproteins. (
  • fructo‐oligosaccharides See oligosaccharides . (
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides are used for constipation , traveler's diarrhea , and high cholesterol levels. (
  • In foods, fructo-oligosaccharides are used as a sweetener. (
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides pass undigested into the colon where they increase bowel mass and promote growth of certain bacteria that are thought to be beneficial. (
  • Some evidence suggests that fructo-oligosaccharides may relieve constipation by increasing the bulk of the body's solid waste. (
  • More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of fructo-oligosaccharides for these uses. (
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides seem to be safe when taken in less than 30 grams per day. (
  • Not enough is known about the use of fructo-oligosaccharides during pregnancy and breast -feeding. (
  • The appropriate dose of fructo-oligosaccharides depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. (
  • At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for fructo-oligosaccharides. (
  • Another oligosaccharide category are the fructo-oligosaccharides, composed of varying numbers of fructose molecules. (
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are starches that the human body cannot fully digest. (
  • For example, a 6-week, double-blind study of 105 people with mild irritable bowel syndrome compared 5 g of fructo-oligosaccharides daily against placebo, and returned conflicting results. (
  • The global fructo oligosaccharides (FOS) market size is expected to reach USD 3.52 billion by 2024. (
  • Xylo-oligosaccharides and lactulose produced the highest increases in numbers of bifidobacteria whilst fructo-oligosaccharides produced the highest populations of lactobacilli. (
  • Pour remplacer les substituts d'OLH inutiles, comme les galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) et les fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), dans les préparations pour nourrissons, il faut aborder le coût des OLH. (
  • Cosmetic compositions providing a suitable medium for the development of beneficial endogenous flora, and including at least one oligosaccharide selected from the group consisting of gluco-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, α- and β-galacto-oligosaccharides and mixtures thereof. (
  • The present review summarizes clinical and experimental data concerning the possible effects of a prebiotic mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides. (
  • The binding mechanisms of receptors to the oligosaccharides depends on the composition of the oligosaccharides that are exposed or presented above the surface of the membrane. (
  • Since galactose and mannose are both hexoses, and therefore diastereomers of one another, both permethylated oligosaccharides have the same composition (HexNAc 5 Hex 5 ) and molecular weight (2293 Da). (
  • and d. spray drying the fat containing aqueous solution to form a powder composition with an oligosaccharide content of between 0.1 and 5 wt. (
  • uronic acid oligosaccharide based on total dry weight of the composition. (
  • Moreover, the composition and sequence analysis of marine oligosaccharides are still a challenging task because of their complexity in structures and heterogeneity. (
  • More particularly, it is directed to an improved method for the preparation of a composition comprising an oligosaccharide such as 1-kestose, 6-kestose, neokestose, fructooligosaccharides, difructose dianhydrides, and fructoglucans. (
  • The composition of claim 1 wherein the lipophilic oligosaccharide antibiotics represented by Formula 1 are selected from flambamycin, the everninomicins, the everninomicintype antibiotics, curamycin, and the avilamycin AN antibiotics. (
  • [7] Lectins , or proteins that bind carbohydrates, can recognize specific oligosaccharides and provide useful information for cell recognition based on oligosaccharide binding. (
  • Oligosaccharides are an odd-sounding group of carbohydrates that are gaining attention for their numerous roles in promoting and protecting human health. (
  • Oligosaccharide-producing enzymes transform digestible carbohydrates to indigestible forms and offer the advantage of increased fiber. (
  • Second, we hypothesize that HMO will promote the growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, leading to fermentation of oligosaccharides and enhanced mucosal resistance to RV infection. (
  • In vitro fermentation of lactulose-derived oligosaccharides by mixed fecal microbiota. (
  • Conclusions: The oligosaccharides differed in their fermentation characteristics. (
  • oligosaccharide chains linked to lipids or to compatible amino acid side chains in proteins , by N - or O - glygosidic bonds . (
  • The insulin receptor, an integral membrane glycoprotein, is synthesized as a single-chain precursor that is cleaved to produce two mature subunits, both of which contain N -linked oligosaccharide chains and covalently linked fatty acids. (
  • N - and O -linked oligosaccharide chains were identified on these peptides by specific enzymatic digestions. (
  • The O -linked oligosaccharide chains were attached to a single tryptic fraction of the β-subunit, which also contained N -linked chains. (
  • Oligosaccharide chains comprise on sugar residues in specific sequence, particular linkages and defined anomery. (
  • The caries susceptibility test, which we call the CARE test, is based on the types of oligosaccharides (sugar chains) attached to proteins in saliva. (
  • Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are chains of xylose molecules linked with β1-4 bonds ( Figure 8.1 ) with degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 10. (
  • The b-elimination procedures described here can be used to recover the oligosaccharide chains (also called glycans) and/or identify the serine or threonine residues involved in the linkage. (
  • The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains) and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends) on mung bean ( Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. (
  • The enzymatic synthesis using mono and/or disaccharides as substrates results in the production of a wide range of oligosaccharides, of diverse chain length, monomer sequence and chain morphology. (
  • Fig. 1 shows a typically enzymatic reaction where oligosaccharides are synthesized, but the just formed product is hydrolyzed resulting in poor yields. (
  • 2000) Enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides: Product removal during a kinetically controlled reaction. (
  • 70:411-420 In this project we are using an enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides as a model system. (
  • Here, we describe a combined biological/enzymatic synthesis that is capable of efficiently converting microbially-derived precursor oligosaccharides into structurally uniform human-type N- glycans. (
  • Using heparin lyases prepared from Flavobacterium heparinum and a newly isolated heparinase from Bacteroides stercoris , the controlled enzymatic depolymerization of acharan sulfate was undertaken to prepare a mixture of oligosaccharides. (
  • The company offers Prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharide, which is produced through the enzymatic conversion of lactose and is available in the powder form. (
  • Marco Filice and Marzia Marciello, "Enzymatic Synthesis of Oligosaccharides: A Powerful Tool for a Sweet Challenge", Current Organic Chemistry (2013) 17: 701. (
  • Protein N -glycosylation is initiated within the endoplasmic reticulum through the synthesis of a lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLO) precursor. (
  • In the present study, water-soluble oligosaccharides were extracted and purified from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. (
  • Most oligosaccharides are composed of three to 10 monosaccharide units. (
  • Two common oligosaccharides are raffinose, composed of three monosaccharide units, and stachyose, composed of five monosaccharide units, found in beans and other legumes. (
  • However, due to their low abundance in nature, it is difficult to get pure, structurally well-defined and reasonable quantities of oligosaccharides. (
  • The book addresses classical and advanced techniques to structurally characterize and quantitatively analyse food bioactive oligosaccharides. (
  • Isomalto-oligosaccharides and GOS were effective at increasing numbers of bifidobacteria and lactate whilst generating the least gas. (
  • Projects described here will be to design and synthesise molecules of interest for use in biological studies with bifidobacteria to understand how these bacteria process these important oligosaccharides. (
  • Moreover, researchers have reported that sucrose-derived oligosaccharides may be used as a diet supplement to support the growth of bifidobacteria. (
  • Dietary oligosaccharides are partially present systemically, as suggested from HMO studies. (
  • All dietary oligosaccharides were fermented/absorbed in vivo , not being detectable in the piglet fecal samples. (
  • Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on survival, growth, physiological condition, and immunological responses of marron, Cherax tenuimanus (Smith 1912). (
  • Oligosaccharides that are resistant to digestion are another form of dietary fiber that contributes to a healthy digestive system. (
  • There are currently two oligosaccharide-producing enzymes with New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) applications on file with the US Food and Drug Administration: transglucosidase and levansucrase. (
  • The company's key offerings include BIOLIGO GL 5700 IMF, which is a soluble dietary fiber made from lactose in the form of a syrup that contains 57% galacto-oligosaccharide (dry basis). (
  • There is complete recovery of the oligosaccharides from the adsorbent which can also be used to fractionate acidic and neutral glycans. (
  • Our oligosaccharide population analysis provides you with a powerful technique to determine the overall population profile of the N-glycans or O-glycans present in a glycoprotein. (
  • The crystal structure of Pterocarpus angolensis seed lectin is presented in complex with a series of high mannose (Man) oligosaccharides ranging from Man-5 to Man-9. (
  • The first step, beginning in the cytoplasmic side of the ER, results in the assembly of an oligosaccharide on a lipid carrier called dolichol pyrophosphate (PP-Dol) by successive additions of two N -acetylglucosamine and five mannose residues respectively through the action of ALG7, 13, 14, 1, 2 and 11. (
  • Beneficial effect of intracellular free high-mannose oligosaccharides on cryopreservation of mammalian cells and proteins. (
  • Hydrolysis of the terminal (1->2)-linked alpha-D-mannose residues in the oligo-mannose oligosaccharide Man 9 (GlcNAc) 2 . (
  • In recent years, an increasing number of oligosaccharides have been reported to exhibit various biological activities, including antitumor, immune-stimulation and antioxidation effects. (
  • This unit describes release of oligosaccharides that are attached to polypeptides through an N -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) linkage to the hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine. (
  • This can be attribute to the growing consumption of oligosaccharides across the globe in various applications. (
  • Core oligosaccharide (or Core-OS) is a short chain of sugar residues within Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (
  • Work to establish the structure-function relationship of complex, non-linear and highly heterogeneous oligosaccharides need to be done in order to determine the structural variations in the sugar residues into specific functions. (
  • Thus, the molecular size is characterized by the degree of polymerization (DP) defined as follows: DP with generally 20-25 or higher are defined as polymers while oligosaccharides contain between 2 and 10 residues ( Courtois, 2009 ). (
  • Thus, the differential liability of certain residues or chemical groups for the elucidation of the depolymerization mechanisms has to be further investigated with a multi-disciplinary approach for the fine structural analysis of algae-derived marine oligosaccharides. (
  • These similarities in substrate orientation in the active site and in essential amino acid residues involved in substrate binding were utilized to localize the two HA oligosaccharide binding sites. (
  • adds "Soybean Oligosaccharides Market 2018 Global Analysis, Growth, Trends and Opportunities Research Report Forecasting to 2023" reports to its database. (
  • Short-term supplementation of non-human neutral and acidic oligosaccharides during the first postnatal weeks may enhance the maturation of the immune response in preterm infants and may lead to less allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life. (
  • Short-term enteral supplementation of non-human neutral and acidic oligosaccharides during the neonatal period in preterm infants does not decrease the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life. (
  • Group 2 infants will have their formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) for each feeding as follows: week 1 0.25 g/dL, week 2 0.5 g/dL, week 3 1.0 g/dL, week 4 1.5 g/dL, and week 5 2.0 g/dL. (
  • [13] Glycolipids are lipid molecules bound to oligosaccharides, generally present in the lipid bilayer . (
  • The potential of marine oligosaccharides is still unexplored, and these molecules, including their derivatives, are a versatile source of chemical diversity. (
  • Lipochitin oligosaccharides called Nod factors function as primary rhizobial signal molecules triggering legumes to develop new plant organs: root nodules that host the bacteria as nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. (
  • The enzyme produces glucose polymers known as gluco-oligosaccharides or GLOS. (
  • Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota. (
  • Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. (
  • Kabel M, Kortenoeven L, Schols HA, Voragen AG (2002) In vitro fermentability of differently substituted xylo-oligosaccharides. (
  • Koga K, Fujikawa S (1993) Xylo-oligosaccharides In: Nakakuki T Oligosaccharides: Production, Properties and Applications, Japanese Technology Reviews. (
  • Kontula P, von Wright A, Mattila-Sandholm, T (1998) Oat bran beta-gluco- and xylo-oligosaccharides as fermentative substrates for lactic acid bacteria. (
  • Since specific oligosaccharide synthesis reactions are not yet cost effective due to the lack of diversity of the available catalysts the oligosaccharides has to be purified to obtain pure oligosaccharides. (
  • Chito-oligosaccharides (COSs) are a substance class of high interest due to various beneficial bioactive properties. (
  • Mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) based nutritional supplements are widely used in nutrition as a natural additive. (
  • But although a high fat diet supplemented with mannan oligosaccharide in mice reduced food intake, there was no significant effect on body weight, total fat, or visceral fat. (
  • Utilization of Bio-Mos[R] mannan oligosaccharide and Bioplex[R] copper in broiler diets. (
  • Egg and serum cholesterol as influenced by mannan oligosaccharide and anatoxin. (
  • The aim of the paper is to provide a review of mannan oligosaccharide products in relation to their growth promoting effect and mode of action. (
  • The various oligosaccharides identified provide additional insight into the structure of sorghum glucuronoarabinoxylan. (
  • This report provides in depth study of " Soybean Oligosaccharides Market " using SWOT analysis i.e. (
  • The Soybean Oligosaccharides Market report also provides an in-depth survey of key players in the market which is based on the various objectives of an organization such as profiling, the product outline, the quantity of production, required raw material, and the financial health of the organization. (
  • This report studies the global Soybean Oligosaccharides market status and forecast, categorizes the global Soybean Oligosaccharides market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. (
  • The first one concerns lectins in complex with a fucosylated or nonfucosylated complex-type biantennary oligosaccharide or with the pentasaccharide GlcNAc β (1-2)Man α (1-3)[GlcNAc β (1-2)Man α (1-6)]Man derived thereof. (
  • Formula companies already sell an easy-to-synthesize oligosaccharide called galacto- oligosaccharide as an additive to infant formula, a product scientists once thought similar to the oligosaccharides found in human mile But now they know better, Bode says. (
  • Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) resulted in the largest decreases in numbers of clostridia. (
  • Technavio has announced its latest market research report titled global galacto-oligosaccharide market 2020-2024. (
  • LONDON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--The global galacto-oligosaccharide market size is poised to grow by USD 498.15 million during 2020-2024, according to a new report by Technavio, progressing at a CAGR of close to 10% during the forecast period. (
  • The market is driven by the health benefits of galacto-oligosaccharide. (
  • The health benefits of galacto-oligosaccharide will drive the growth of the market during the forecast period. (
  • The company provides galacto-oligosaccharides in the powder and syrup form for the food and beverage, animal feed, pharmaceutical, and personal care sectors. (
  • Clasado BioSciences develops and manufactures advanced galacto-oligosaccharide products for the food, healthcare, and pharmaceutical companies in the global wellness market. (
  • The company's offerings include Bimuno, a daily fiber supplement containing galacto-oligosaccharides, which feeds and stimulates the growth of good bacteria in the gut. (
  • The SureStart galacto-oligosaccharide is available as GOS 57 Syrup, GOS 70 Syrup, and powder. (
  • The asparagine residue linked to an N-linked oligosaccharide usually occurs in the sequence Asn-X-Ser/Thr, [7] where X can be any amino acid except for proline , although it is rare to see Asp, Glu, Leu, or Trp in this position. (
  • Examples of these plants with a huge amount of oligosaccharides are: onions and its other family, Jerusalem artichoke (a family of the sunflower), asparagus, wheat, legumes, and chicory root. (
  • The EDD mass spectra of DS oligosaccharides were compared with their infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) mass spectra. (
  • The specific aims will 1) assess the potential for HMO, LNnT and PDX/GOS to be fermented, to stimulate DC activation and to inhibit RV infectivity and binding in vitro, 2) evaluate the prebiotic actions of oligosaccharides on microbial colonization, mucosal immunity and the response RV vaccination in the piglet, and 3) establish how oligosaccharides alone or in combination with vaccination modulate the response to RV infection in the piglet. (
  • A substantial gluco-oligosaccharide metabolism by non-pathogenic strains such as Micrococcus kristinae, Micrococcus sedentarius, Staphylococcus capitis, Corynebacterium xerosis and Lactobacillus pentosus has thus been observed during in vitro culture studies. (
  • A clinical trial of xylo (XOS) oligosaccharide supplementation in both healthy and pre-diabetic subjects showed XOS's prebiotic properties may reverse changes in the gut microbiota during the development of diabetes. (
  • Despite the wealth of data obtained from x-ray crystallography, relatively few structures of lectins in complex with large oligosaccharides are available. (
  • The validity of the developed method was confirmed by the analysis of the oligosaccharide structures released from the LLO of two xylosyltransferase mutants of C. reinhardtii confirming that this green microalga synthesizes a linear Glc 3 Man 5 GlcNAc 2 identical to the one of the wild-type cells. (
  • To elucidate this unique feature of hG9, x-ray structures of hG9C in the free form and in complexes with N-acetyllactosamine, the biantennary pyridylaminated oligosaccharide, and α2-3-sialyllactose were determined. (
  • Oligosaccharides are not digestible by human gut enzymes. (
  • oligosaccharides *are* digestible - by coliform bacteria. (
  • 1) Digestible means degraded by enzymes of the host and absorbed, non digestible means that the material reaches the colon 2) coliform bacteria are of no importance to flatulence 3) coliform bacteria (E.coli is the only one in the intestine) do not degrade many oligosaccharides (they do degrade and ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS, Nutraflora) though) 4) flatulence is mainly due to clostridia. (
  • The efficacy of cranberry xyloglucan SSGG oligosaccharides can now be tested in human clinical trials. (
  • 1995) HNK-1 reactive novel oligosaccharide , sulfate- O-3GlcAO1 4XylO1-(4-methylumbelliferone), synthesized by cultured human skin fibroblasts. (
  • The binding of the (1→4)-linked galactan to Gal-3 highlights the oligosaccharides of pectic galactan, which is abundant in the human diet, as putative Gal-3 ligands. (
  • Many of these benefits are directly linked to the digestion-resistant nature of oligosaccharides in the human body. (
  • Human galectin-9 (hG9) has high affinity for branched N-glycan-type oligosaccharides (dissociation constants of 0.16-0.70 μM) and linear β1-3-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamines (0.09-8.3 μM) and significant affinity for the α2-3-sialylated oligosaccharides (17-34 μM). (
  • Cela s'est suivi en 2017 par une autorisation de commercialisation au sein de l'Union européenne dans le cadre du règlement relatif aux nouveaux aliments. (
  • 1500 g) were allocated to receive enteral neutral and acidic oligosaccharide supplementation or placebo between days 3 and 30 of life. (
  • The past decade has provided a wealth of structural and thermodynamic data that provide insight on how oligosaccharide specificity, quaternary structure, and metal binding cooperate to generate a variety of biological effects. (
  • The results clearly revealed the mechanism by which branched and α2-3-sialylated oligosaccharides are recognized and explained the difference in specificity between hG9N and hG9C. (
  • Interestingly, the specificity constant k cat /K M increased with polymer length from HA 5 to HA 7 to a value of 44 mM -1 s -1 , indicating an oligosaccharide binding site with increasing specificity towards a heptasaccharide at the UA domain. (
  • Bachmann M, Keller F (1995) Metabolism of the raffinose family oligosaccharides in leaves of Ajuga reptans L.-inter and intracellular compartmentation. (
  • Oligosaccharides are one of the most important class of biomolecules, playing a critical role in important biological processes like cell adhesion, immune response, bacterial and viral infection and cell differentiation and proliferation. (
  • Incorporation of bioactive oligosaccharides into foods can yield health benefits in the gastrointestinal tract and other parts of the body that are linked via the immune system. (
  • Seaweed, particularly red, contains many agaro (AOS) and carrageenan oligosaccharides, which exhibit prebiotic, immuno-modulatory (strengthens and balances the immune response), antioxidant and antitumor properties. (
  • In a recent meta-study, two oligosaccharides -- chito (COS), made from crustaceans such as crab, shrimp and crawfish, and xylo (XOS), a synthetic supplement mostly made from corn cobs and birch wood -- were found to have the most meaningful antioxidant activity, particularly when they were polymerized naturally using enzymes. (
  • To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to characterize the chemical structure of the extracted Hericium erinaceus oligosaccharide ( HEO-A). The antioxidant activity of HEO-A was evaluated using three biochemical methods. (
  • Background: Agaro-oligosaccharides derived from red seaweed polysaccharide have been reported to possess antioxidant activity. (

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