Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.TritiumIn Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides: Modified oligonucleotides in which one of the oxygens of the phosphate group is replaced with a sulfur atom.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Ribonuclease H: A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.Oligoribonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.GuanineDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Aptamers, Nucleotide: Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Polyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The common nucleic acid detection method includes direct DNA hybridization. The direct DNA hybridization approach is the ... Similar to flat microarrays (e.g. DNA microarray), an appropriate receptor molecule, such as DNA oligonucleotide probes, ... Dunbar, Sherry A. (2006). "Applications of Luminex xMAP technology for rapid, high-throughput multiplexed nucleic acid ... Hybridization between the capture probe and the target DNA is achieved by melting and annealing complementary target DNA ...
... s are oligonucleotide hybridization probes that can report the presence of specific nucleic acids in homogenous ... If the nucleic acid to be detected is complementary to the strand in the loop, the event of hybridization occurs. The duplex ... The presence of the emission reports that the event of hybridization has occurred and hence the target nucleic acid sequence is ... fluorescent oligonucleotide (ECHO) probes. SNP detection Real-time nucleic acid detection Real-time PCR quantification Allelic ...
Nucleic acid hybridization assays have been used for decades to detect specific sequences of DNA or RNA, with a DNA microarray ... In such assays, positive control oligonucleotides are necessary to provide a standard for comparison of target sequence ... The degree of hybridization between the spike-ins and the control probes is used to normalize the hybridization measurements of ... This process of specific binding is called hybridization. A known quantity of RNA spike-in is mixed with the experiment sample ...
... and nucleic acid hybridization to DNA microarrays or beads. Several common genotyping techniques include restriction fragment ... Also known as a genotypic assay, techniques include PCR, DNA fragment analysis, allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes, ... Endophenotype Nucleic acid sequence Potentiality and actuality Quaternary numeral system Sequence (biology) "Genotype ...
It was during the 1980s that studies on fatty acid composition, nucleic acid hybridization, and comparative oligonucleotide ... In carbohydrate and raffinose broths, E. malodoratus forms acid. It does not form endospores thus separating it from bacilli ... Holzapfel, W. H.; Wood, Brian J. B. (1995). The Genera of lactic acid bacteria. London: Blackie Academic & Professional. ISBN 0 ... of Enterococcus Species and Phenotypically Similar Lactococcus and Vagococcus Species by Reverse Checkerboard Hybridization to ...
Antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, and other oligonucleotide and nucleic acid based biotherapeutics can be quantified with ... of two complementary strands of nucleic acids, known as nucleic acid hybridization.[citation needed] In the context of ... complementary oligonucleotide capture and detection probes. Generally, in the case of nucleic acid hybridization, monovalent ... In the sandwich hybridization ELISA assay format, the antigen ligand and antibodies in ELISA are replaced with a nucleic acid ...
... or bridged nucleic acid (BNA), morpholino, and peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Although these oligonucleotides have a different ... 2008). "Fluorescence and hybridization properties of peptide nucleic acid containing a substituted phenylpyrrolo-cytosine ... Artificial nucleic acids include peptide nucleic acid (PNA), Morpholino and locked nucleic acid (LNA), as well as glycol ... RNA may be too complex to be the first nucleic acid, so before the RNA world several simpler nucleic acids that differ in the ...
In contrast, the SNA structure can be synthesized independent of nucleic acid sequence and hybridization, instead relying upon ... 2007). "Silver nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates based on DNA with triple cyclic disulfide moieties". Nano Lett. 7 (7): ... Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) - defined as structures that are an arrangement of densely packed, highly oriented nucleic acids ... helps to explain why a three-dimensional nucleic acid structure fundamentally composed of linear, one-dimensional nucleic acids ...
This significantly increases the hybridization properties (melting temperature) of oligonucleotides. LNA was independently ... Custom Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA™) oligonucleotides LNA Oligo Tools and Design Guidelines LNA Oligo melting temperature ... Ng PS, Bergstrom DE (January 2005). "Alternative nucleic acid analogues for programmable assembly: hybridization of LNA to PNA ... A locked nucleic acid (LNA), often referred to as inaccessible RNA, is a modified RNA nucleotide. The ribose moiety of an LNA ...
... the process of joining two complementary strands of nucleic acids - RNA, DNA or oligonucleotides In [chemistry], the mixing of ... Hybridisation (or hybridization) may refer to: Hybridisation (biology) the process of combining different varieties of ... of orbitals of nearly equal energies of an atom to give the same number of identical atom Nucleic acid hybridization, ... a common template for hybridisation In linguistics, the process of one variety blending with another variety The alteration of ...
Rychlik W, Rhoads RE (November 1989). "A computer program for choosing optimal oligonucleotides for filter hybridization, ... Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (21): 8543-51. doi:10.1093/nar/17.21.8543. PMC 335026 . PMID 2587212. Rychlik W (2007). "OLIGO 7 primer ... Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (21): 6409-12. doi:10.1093/nar/18.21.6409. PMC 332522 . PMID 2243783. ... Rychlik, W., Domier, L. L., Gardner, P. R., Hellmann, G. M., and Rhoads R. E. (1987) Amino Acid Sequence of the mRNA Cap- ...
A novel linker for oligonucleotide synthesis and hybridisation properties of oligonucleotides synthesised in situ". Nucleic ... Acids Research. 20 (7): 1679-1684. doi:10.1093/nar/20.7.1679. PMC 312256 . PMID 1579459. Milner, N.; Mir, K. U.; Southern, E. M ... Maskos, U.; Southern, E. M. (1992). "Oligonucleotide hybridisations on glass supports: ... 1997). "Selecting effective antisense reagents on combinatorial oligonucleotide arrays". Nature Biotechnology. 15 (6): 537-541 ...
"High-Throughput In Situ Hybridization" (2012), "Methods For Sequencing Nucleic Acid Molecules" (2012), and "Oligonucleotide ... Ting Wu has four patents pending on topics related to biomedical research and health applications "Oligonucleotide Trapping " ( ...
The label oligonucleotide and the branched DNA then detects the immobilized target nucleic acid. The immobilization of the ... Enzymes are used to indicate the extent of hybridization but are not used to manipulate the nucleic acids. Thus, small amounts ... "A branched DNA signal amplification assay for quantification of nucleic acid targets below 100 molecules/ml". Nucleic Acids ... The capture and capture-extender oligonucleotide bind to the target nucleic acid and immobilize it on a solid support. ...
... sequencing DNA sequencing Expression cloning Fluorescence in situ hybridization Lab-on-a-chip Comparison of nucleic acid ... oligonucleotide synthesis Amplification: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance Dual- ... Nucleic acid methods are the techniques used to study nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. Phenol-chloroform extraction Minicolumn ... spectroscopic nucleic acid quantitation Absolute abundance in number: real-time polymerase chain reaction (quantitative PCR) ...
Fragmented nucleic acid sequences of target, labelled with fluorescent dyes. A detection system that records and interprets the ... Other chip-based methods such as comparative genomic hybridization can detect genomic gains or deletions leading to LOH. SNP ... The three mandatory components of the SNP arrays are: An array containing immobilized allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) ... Sheils, O; Finn, S; O'Leary, J (2003). "Nucleic acid microarrays: An overview". Current Diagnostic Pathology. 9 (3): 155-8. doi ...
... a tool for identification of species-specific variations in 16S rRNA gene and oligonucleotides design; Nucleic Acids Research ... Wojciech Rychlik and Robert E. Rhoads (1989) A Computer Program for Choosing Optimal Oligonucleotides for Filter Hybridization ... Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 6409-6412. Bej AK, Mahbubani MH & Atlas RM (1991). "Amplification of Nucleic Acids by Polymerase Chain ... Nucleic Acids Research 17, 8543-8551. Wojciech Rychlik, William J. Spencer, and Robert E. Rhoads (1990) Optimization of the ...
Locked Nucleic Acid) probes Cycling Probe Technology (CPT) Within the field of microbial ecology, oligonucleotide probes are ... such as high hybridization temperature and low salt in hybridization buffers, permits only hybridization between nucleic acid ... "Nucleic Acid Hybridizations". www.ndsu.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-26. Amann R, Ludwig W (2000). "Ribosomal RNA-targeted nucleic ... The probe thereby hybridizes to single-stranded nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) whose base sequence allows probe-target base pairing ...
i.e. these algorithms satisfy some or all the design requirements for DNA oligonucleotides at the time of hybridization (which ... DNA code construction refers to the application of coding theory to the design of nucleic acid systems for the field of DNA- ... DNA computing requires that the self-assembly of the oligonucleotide strands happen in such a way that hybridization should ... Another important code design consideration linked to the process of oligonucleotide hybridization pertains to the GC content ...
... (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids ... The key techniques currently in use include: in situ hybridization to mRNA with oligonucleotide and RNA probes (both radio- ... In situ hybridization is used to reveal the location of specific nucleic acid sequences on chromosomes or in tissues, a crucial ... Subsequent signal amplification is predicated on specific hybridization of adjacent probes (individual oligonucleotides [oligos ...
... labelled with two different fluorophores and used as probes that are cohybridized competitively onto nucleic acid targets. In ... High resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization analysis using spotted oligonucleotides. J Clin Pathol 57: 644-646 ... Array comparative genomic hybridization (also microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, matrix CGH, array CGH, aCGH) ... Although oligonucleotides do not have the sensitivity to detect single copy changes, averaging of ratios from oligos that map ...
"Detection of specific sequences in nucleic acids". US patent 4,883,750. J. Shendure, G.J. Porreca, N.B. Reppas, X. Lin, J.Pe ... The oligonucleotide probes may also be constructed with cleavable linkages which can be cleaved after identifying the label. ... Sequencing by hybridization 2 Base Encoding ABI Solid Sequencing S. C. Macevicz, US Patent 5750341, filed 1995 Whiteley (1988 ... A mixed pool of probe oligonucleotides is then brought in (eight or nine bases long), labeled (typically with fluorescent dyes ...
"Direct selection of human genomic loci by microarray hybridization". Nucleic Acids Res. 33 (21): e183. doi:10.1093/nar/gni177. ... Here, traditional, linear oligonucleotide probes failed to yield results. Thus, padlock probes possess sufficient specificity ... Nucleic Acids Res. 33 (8): e71. doi:10.1093/nar/gni070. PMC 1087789 . PMID 15860768. Bashiardes S, Veile R, Helms C, Mardis ER ... Nucleic Acids Res. 35 (7): e47. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm078. PMC 1874629 . PMID 17317684. Dahl F, Gullberg M, Stenberg J, Landegren ...
Similarly, diene carboxylic acids used as scaffolds for library construction at the 5'-end of amino modified oligonucleotide, ... containing a constant complementary hybridization domain can yield a combinatorial DNA-duplex library after hybridization with ... by fluorescence-based detection of fluorophore-labeled targets to determine relative abundance of the target nucleic acid ... Subsequently, the oligonucleotide tags of the binding compounds isolated from the selection are PCR amplified using a ...
Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 6(11), pp. 3543-3558 (1979). Conner BJ, Reyes AA, Morin C, Itakura K, Teplitz RL, and Wallace RB " ... and beta C-globin genes using allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization probes." Am J Hum Genet vol. 37(1), pp. 42-51 (1985 ... "Detection of sickle cell beta S-globin allele by hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. vol. ... An allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) is a short piece of synthetic DNA complementary to the sequence of a variable target ...
... is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of a nucleic acid sequence with ... Then an oligonucleotide complementary to the suspected pathogen's genetic code is synthesized and chemically tagged with a ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescence in situ hybridization.. *Fluorescent+in+Situ+Hybridization at the US ... Comparative genomic hybridization[edit]. Comparative genomic hybridization can be described as a method that uses FISH in a ...
No immobilization or labeling of sample nucleic acids is necessary and hybridization can be performed entirely in solution. ... selective for binding the hybrids in the presence of the single stranded sample and probe nucleic acids. ... A nucleic acid hybridization assay employing an immobilized or immobilizable polynucleotide probe selected to form DNA.RNA or ... Nucleic acid detection by oligonucleotide probes cleaved by both exonuclease and endonuclease. ...
... oligonucleotides, which are known to enhance both the sensitivity and specificity of RNA detection, as hybridization probes in ... In this study, we used locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides, which are known to enhance both the sensitivity and ... In this study, we used locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides, which are known to enhance both the sensitivity and ... In this study, we used locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides, which are known to enhance both the sensitivity and ...
Toward an on-chip multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization assay using immobilized quantum dot-oligonucleotide conjugates and ... Target nucleic acid sequences hybridized with QD-probe conjugates and were labeled with Cy3 or Alexa Fluor 647 as acceptor dyes ... Immobilized QD-probe conjugates were then passivated with adsorbed non-complementary oligonucleotides to achieve selectivity in ... A new strategy is presented for the development of multiplexed DNA hybridization assays using immobilized QDs in a microfluidic ...
Nucleic Acid Hybridization * Oligonucleotide Probes * Poly A * RNA Splicing * RNA, Messenger / analysis ... Expression monitoring by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays Nat Biotechnol. 1996 Dec;14(13):1675-80. doi: ... We have developed an approach that is based on hybridization to small, high-density arrays containing tens of thousands of ... synthetic oligonucleotides. The arrays are designed based on sequence information alone and are synthesized in situ using a ...
Nucleic Acid Hybridization * Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis * Oligonucleotides / metabolism* * Polymerase Chain ... Solution hybrid selection with ultra-long oligonucleotides for massively parallel targeted sequencing Nat Biotechnol. 2009 Feb; ... generating sufficient bait for multiple captures at concentrations high enough to drive the hybridization. We tested this ...
OLIGONUCLEOTIDES; BIOTECHNOLOGY; GENETIC ENGINEERING; HYBRIDIZATION; NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION; NUCLEIC ACIDS; ORGANIC ... contacting the extracted hybridized DNA with a second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the oligonucleotide molecules ... contacting said extracted hybridized DNA with a second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the oligonucleotide ... contacting said extracted hybridized DNA with a second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the oligonucleotide ...
... dyes at opposite ends provide a quenched probe system useful for detecting PCR product and nucleic acid hybridization.. Livak ... Thus, oligonucleotides with reporter and quencher dyes attached at opposite ends can be used as homogeneous hybridization ... The probe is an oligonucleotide with both a reporter fluorescent dye and a quencher dye attached. An increase in reporter ... The 5 nuclease PCR assay detects the accumulation of specific PCR product by hybridization and cleavage of a double-labeled ...
The conditions under which oligonucleotide probes hybridize preferentially with entirely complementary and homologous nucleic ... acid targets are described. Using these hybridization conditions, overlapp ... Nucleic Acids Research, 2:625-634 (1975). Gingeras and Davis, "Hybridization properties of immobilized nucleic acids," Nucleic ... novel method of sequencing of a target nucleic acid sequence by hybridization of short oligonucleotide probes to a nucleic acid ...
Methods for preparing oligonucleotide analogs which have improved nuclease resistance and improved cellular uptake are provided ... Nucleic acid hybridization assay and detectable molecules useful in such assay. 1987-11-17. Stavrianopoulos. 536/25.3. ... Hybridization is the sequence-specific hydrogen bonding of oligonucleotides or oligonucleotide analogs to RNA or to single ... Ma, et al., Nucleic Acids Research 1993, 21, 2585. Nielsen, et al., Science 1991, 254, 1497. Niitsu, et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull ...
... when the hairpin structure exists but this quenching is relieved by duplex formation between probe and a sample oligonucleotide ... for specific nucleic acid sequences can be immobilized as arrays on solid phase surfaces for detection of multiple nucleic acid ... particularly those used for plasmon surface detection and electron transfer detection of nucleic acid. The probes can be washed ... structure between the fluorophore label and a point of attachment to a solid phase is useful as a probe to detect nucleic acid ...
The invention relates to the protein and nucleic acids encoding the protein. The invention further relates to an assay system ... 1985); Oligonucleotide Synthesis (M. J. Gait ed. 1984); Nucleic Acid Hybridization [B. D. Hames & S. J. Higgins eds. (1985)]; ... Nucleic acid sequences, protein sequence, nucleic acid and protein fragments, oligonucleotides, vectors, transformed host cells ... a recombinant nucleic acid is an isolated nucleic acid. An isolated protein may be associated with other proteins or nucleic ...
1985); Oligonucleotide Synthesis (M. J. Gait, Ed. 1984); Nucleic Acid Hybridization (B. D. Hames and S. J. Higgins, Eds. 1984 ... Reeck, et al.;"Homology in Proteins and Nucleic Acids: A Terminology Muddle and a Way out of It,"; 1987 Cell, vol. 50, pp. 667. ... ACIDS RES. 8:4057 (1981), Yelverton, Nuc. Acids Res. 9:731 (1981), U.S. Pat. No. 4,738,921 and EP Patent Pub. Nos. 36 776 and ... The method comprises transfecting a mammalian cell line with an expression vector comprising nucleic acid sequences encoding ...
Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction. Nucleic Acids Res 2003;31:3406-15. ... bridged nucleic acid (also known as a locked nucleic acid, LNA) and phosphorothioate linkages exhibits high target RNA binding ... Amido-bridged nucleic acids with small hydrophobic residues enhance hepatic tropism of antisense oligonucleotides in vivo. Org ... Antisense oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acid improve potency but cause significant hepatotoxicity in animals. ...
Methods: Custom oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays were designed using the Agilent Technologies platform to give high-resolution ... Standard array-comparative genomic hybridization experiments, including a simultaneous blind analysis of a set of clinical ... 1400 fluorescence in situ hybridization-verified BAC/PAC clones covering more than 140 regions implicated in genetic diseases, ... based arrays used clinically in comparative genomic hybridization experiments to detect constitutional copy number changes in ...
230 Pages Report][Single User License:: US $5650] Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market categories the global market by Product ( ... Other Research Applications (nucleic acid hybridization methods and isothermal amplification methods) *Diagnostics * ... Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market, by Product & Type. *Synthesized Oligonucleotides *By Product *Oligonucleotide-based Drugs * ... DNA & Antisense Oligonucleotide-based Therapies *RNAi Oligonucleotide-based Therapies *CpG Oligonucleotide-based Therapies ...
1994)]; "Oligonucleotide Synthesis" (M. J. Gait ed. 1984); "Nucleic Acid Hybridization" [B. D. Hames & S. J. Higgins eds. (1985 ... The mAb806 antibody, including its generation, particular activities, amino acid and nucleic acid sequence, antigen binding ... and which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as ... Acid-labile linker molecules. US5401828 *. 15 Dic 1992. 28 Mar 1995. The Johns Hopkins University. Structural alterations of ...
Nucleic Acid Detection System products in the SelectScience products and suppliers directory ... Your adjustable tool, even for low concentration nucleic acid and protein... Read more... ... Read reviews and compare manufacturers of Oligonucleotides > ... After hybridization to nucleic acid target... Read more.... ...
TINA modified oligonucleotides increase the analytical sensitivity in buffer of increasing ionic strength.Competitive annealing ... Nucleic Acid Hybridization. *Oligonucleotide Probes/chemistry. *Organophosphorus Compounds/chemistry. *Polymerase Chain ... Increasing the analytical sensitivity by oligonucleotides modified with para- and ortho-twisted intercalating nucleic acids-- ... Increasing the analytical sensitivity by oligonucleotides modified with para- and ortho-twisted intercalating nucleic acids-- ...
Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction. Nucleic Acids Res. 31:3406-3415. ... The average nucleic acid identities ranged from 31 to 70% (Table 1). The maximum nucleic acid sequence identities were ,88% for ... Optimization of oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays. Nucleic Acids Res. 30:e51. [Online.]. ... Assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of oligonucleotide (50mer) microarrays. Nucleic Acids Res. 28:4552-4557. ...
UNAFold: Software for nucleic acid folding and hybridization. In Bioinformatics, Vol. 2: Structure, Function and Applications, ... Nucleic Acids Res. 38:e180. Brown, D.M. 1993. A brief history of oligonucleotide synthesis. In Methods in Molecular Biology, ... Nucleic Acids Res. 38:2522‐2540.. Letsinger, R.L. and Mahadevan, V. 1965. Oligonucleotide synthesis on a polymer support. J. Am ... A microfluidic oligonucleotide synthesizer. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:2514‐2521.. Leproust, E.M., Peck, B.J., Spirin, K., McCuen, H ...
This class of probes should find applications in a variety of areas wherever high specificity of nucleic acid hybridization is ... Double-stranded probes were used in real-time nucleic acid amplifications as either probes or as primers. In addition to its ... The probes on their own are quenched, but they become fluorescent upon displacement hybridization with the target. These probes ... We have developed a new class of probes for homogeneous nucleic acid detection based on the proposed displacement hybridization ...
Oligonucleotide microarray has provided a powerful platform for nucleic acid analysis (19, 20, 21, 22). Hybridization of ... 3.5.1 Hybridization. *1.. To prepare the hybridization sample, 6.8 µL of the amplicon was added to 8.2 µL of the hybridization ... Direct fluorescence analysis of genetic polymorphisms by hybridization with oligonucleotide arrays on glass supports. Nucleic. ... Direct fluorescence analysis of genetic polymorphisms by hybridization with oligonucleotide arrays on glass supports. Nucleic. ...
Antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, and other oligonucleotide and nucleic acid based biotherapeutics can be quantified with ... of two complementary strands of nucleic acids, known as nucleic acid hybridization.[citation needed] In the context of ... complementary oligonucleotide capture and detection probes. Generally, in the case of nucleic acid hybridization, monovalent ... In the sandwich hybridization ELISA assay format, the antigen ligand and antibodies in ELISA are replaced with a nucleic acid ...
Identification of allele specific nucleic acid sequences by hybridization with crosslinkable oligonucleotide probes. ... Since it is short-lived, a reaction of this species with nucleic acid ("NA") is believed to only be possible if nucleic acid is ... "Monoadduct forming photochemical reagents for labeling nucleic acids for hybridization", Nuc. Acids Res. 17:4293-4308. ... While able to intercalate between the base pairs of double-stranded nucleic acids and form covalent adducts to nucleic acid ...
... or oligonucleotides: a perspective for micro array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Nucleic Acids Res. 34, 445- ... Comparative genome hybridization arrays. Comparative genome hybridization compares the relative CN of a test DNA with respect ... Redon, R., Fitzgerald, T., and Carter, N. P. (2009). Comparative genomic hybridization: DNA labeling, hybridization and ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has increased this resolution, enabling the detection of sub-microscopic CNVs that ...
  • Recently, we have established an in-tube in situ hybridization method named mRNA quantification after fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS-mQ), in which a specific RNA in a particular cell type is stained with a florescent dye, allowing the stained cells to be selected by FACS without suffering excessive RNA degradation. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Several approaches, such as microarray hybridization, have become extremely popular tools for specialists in biochemistry and biomedicine, while the potential of many other advantageous techniques seems to be underestimated. (indigo.ca)
  • Each line connects samples from two tissues in one microarray hybridization reaction, and four different colors represent four replicates of each tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although it is not a complicated matter to synthesize phosphodiester oligonucleotides, their use is limited as they are rapidly degraded by the intracellular endonucleases and exonucleases, usually via 3′→5′ activity ( 4 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, the degradation products of phosphodiester oligonucleotides, dNMP 2 mononucleotides, may be cytotoxic and also exert antiproliferative effects ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleotide phosphodiester oligonucleotides should therefore not be used in antisense experiments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this review, we introduce our recently-developed simplified genetic code in order to discuss why the genetic code likely evolved from a simpler form encoding fewer than 20 amino acids. (rsc.org)