Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Modified oligonucleotides in which one of the oxygens of the phosphate group is replaced with a sulfur atom.
Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.
A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A naturally occurring furocoumarin, found in PSORALEA. After photoactivation with UV radiation, it binds DNA via single and double-stranded cross-linking.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
DNA or RNA bound to a substrate thereby having fixed positions.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A technique which uses synthetic oligonucleotides to direct the cell's inherent DNA repair system to correct a mutation at a specific site in an episome or chromosome.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Salts and derivatives of undecylenic acid.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pigmenting photosensitizing agent obtained from several plants, mainly Psoralea corylifolia. It is administered either topically or orally in conjunction with ultraviolet light in the treatment of vitiligo.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

Evidence on the conformation of HeLa-cell 5.8S ribosomal ribonucleic acid from the reaction of specific cytidine residues with sodium bisulphite. (1/6278)

The reaction of HeLa-cell 5.8S rRNA with NaHSO3 under conditions in which exposed cytidine residues are deaminated to uridine was studied. It was possible to estimate the reactivities of most of the 46 cytidine residues in the nucleotide sequence by comparing 'fingerprints' of the bisulphite-treated RNA with those of untreated RNA. The findings were consistent with the main features of the secondary-structure model for mammalian 5.85S rRNA proposed by Nazar, Sitz, & Busch [J. Biol. Chem (1975) 250, 8591--8597]. Five out of six regions that are depicted in the model as single-stranded loops contain cytidine residues that are reactive towards bisulphite at 25 degrees C (the other loop contains no cytidine). The cytidine residue nearest to the 3'-terminus is also reactive. Several cytidines residues that are internally located within proposed double-helical regions show little or no reactivity towards bisulphite, but the cytidine residues of several C.G pairs at the ends of helical regions show some reactivity, and one of the proposed loops appears to contain six nucleotides, rather than the minimum of four suggested by the primary structure. Two cytidine residues that are thought to be 'looped out' by small helix imperfections also show some reactivity.  (+info)

Long-range oxidative damage to DNA: effects of distance and sequence. (2/6278)

INTRODUCTION: Oxidative damage to DNA in vivo can lead to mutations and cancer. DNA damage and repair studies have not yet revealed whether permanent oxidative lesions are generated by charges migrating over long distances. Both photoexcited *Rh(III) and ground-state Ru(III) intercalators were previously shown to oxidize guanine bases from a remote site in oligonucleotide duplexes by DNA-mediated electron transfer. Here we examine much longer charge-transport distances and explore the sensitivity of the reaction to intervening sequences. RESULTS: Oxidative damage was examined in a series of DNA duplexes containing a pendant intercalating photooxidant. These studies revealed a shallow dependence on distance and no dependence on the phasing orientation of the oxidant relative to the site of damage, 5'-GG-3'. The intervening DNA sequence has a significant effect on the yield of guanine oxidation, however. Oxidation through multiple 5'-TA-3' steps is substantially diminished compared to through other base steps. We observed intraduplex guanine oxidation by tethered *Rh(III) and Ru(III) over a distance of 200 A. The distribution of oxidized guanine varied as a function of temperature between 5 and 35 degrees C, with an increase in the proportion of long-range damage (> 100 A) occurring at higher temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: Guanines are oxidized as a result of DNA-mediated charge transport over significant distances (e.g. 200 A). Although long-range charge transfer is dependent on distance, it appears to be modulated by intervening sequence and sequence-dependent dynamics. These discoveries hold important implications with respect to DNA damage in vivo.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (3/6278)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

The Jun kinase 2 isoform is preferentially required for epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of human A549 lung carcinoma cells. (4/6278)

We have previously found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediates growth through the Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. As observed here, EGF treatment also greatly enhances the tumorigenicity of A549 cells, suggesting an important role for JNK in cancer cell growth (F. Bost, R. McKay, N. Dean, and D. Mercola, J. Biol. Chem. 272:33422-33429, 1997). Several isoforms families of JNK, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, have been isolated; they arise from alternative splicing of three different genes and have distinct substrate binding properties. Here we have used specific phosphorothioate oligonucleotides targeted against the two major isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, to discriminate their roles in EGF-induced transformation. Multiple antisense sequences have been screened, and two high-affinity and specific candidates have been identified. Antisense JNK1 eliminated steady-state mRNA and JNK1 protein expression with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <0.1 microM but did not alter JNK2 mRNA or protein levels. Conversely, antisense JNK2 specifically eliminated JNK2 steady-state mRNA and protein expression with an EC50 of 0.1 microM. Antisense JNK1 and antisense JNK2 inhibited by 40 and 70%, respectively, EGF-induced total JNK activity, whereas sense and scrambled-sequence control oligonucleotides had no effect. The elimination of mRNA, protein, and JNK activities lasted 48 and 72 h following a single Lipofectin treatment with antisense JNK1 and JNK2, respectively, indicating sufficient duration for examining the impact of specific elimination on the phenotype. Direct proliferation assays demonstrated that antisense JNK2 inhibited EGF-induced doubling of growth as well as the combination of active antisense oligonucleotides did. EGF treatment also induced colony formation in soft agar. This effect was completely inhibited by antisense JNK2 and combined-antisense treatment but not altered by antisense JNK1 alone. These results show that EGF doubles the proliferation (growth in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in athymic mice) of A549 lung carcinoma cells and that the JNK2 isoform but not JNK1 is utilized for mediating the effects of EGF. This study represents the first demonstration of a cellular phenotype regulated by a JNK isoform family, JNK2.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of cell type-specific expression of the TATA-less A subunit gene for human coagulation factor XIII. (5/6278)

To study the mechanism of gene regulation for coagulation factor XIII A subunit (FXIIIA), we characterized its 5'-flanking region using a monocytoid (U937), a megakaryocytoid (MEG-01), and other cells. Our results confirmed that U937 and MEG-01 contained FXIIIA mRNA. A tentative transcription start site was determined to be 76 bases upstream from the first exon/intron boundary. Reporter gene assays revealed that a 5'-fragment (-2331 to +75) was sufficient to support basal expression in U937 and MEG-01 but not in the other cells. Deletion analysis confined a minimal promoter sequence from -114 to +75. DNase footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and reporter gene assays demonstrated that promoter elements for a myeloid-enriched transcription factor (MZF-1-like protein) and two ubiquitous transcription factors (NF-1 and SP-1) in this region were important for the basal FXIII expression. It was also revealed that an upstream region (-806 to -290) had enhancer activity in MEG-01 but silencer activity in U937. DNA sequences for binding of myeloid-enriched factors (GATA-1 and Ets-1) were recognized in this region, and the GATA-1 element was found to be responsible for the enhancer activity. These transcription factors play a major role in the cell type-specific expression of FXIIIA, which differs from other transglutaminases.  (+info)

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (6/6278)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Hairpin-shaped DNA duplexes with disulfide bonds in sugar-phosphate backbone as potential DNA reagents for crosslinking with proteins. (7/6278)

Convenient approaches were described to incorporate -OP(=O)O(-)-SS-O(-)(O=)PO- bridges in hairpin-shaped DNA duplexes instead of regular phosphodiester linkages: (i) H2O2- or 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide-mediated coupling of 3'- and 5'-thiophosphorylated oligonucleotides on complementary template and (ii) more selective template-guided autoligation of a preactivated oligonucleotide derivative with an oligomer carrying a terminal thiophosphoryl group. Dithiothreitol was found to cleave completely modified internucleotide linkage releasing starting oligonucleotides. The presence of complementary template as an intrinsic element of the molecule protects the hairpin DNA analog from spontaneous exchange of disulfide-linked oligomer fragments and makes it a good candidate for auto-crosslinking with cysteine-containing proteins.  (+info)

The use of terminal blocking groups for the specific joining of oligonucleotides in RNA ligase reactions containing equimolar concentrations of acceptor and donor molecules. (8/6278)

Under the conditions that RNA ligase converts the tetranucleotide, pA-A2-A, to larger polynucleotides, no such polymerization can be detected with the derivative, pA-A2-A(MeOEt), that possesses a terminal 2'-0-(alpha-methoxyethyl) group. The protection against self condensation offered by the methoxyethyl group in this system allows the specific joining of donor and acceptor oligonucleotides in reaction mixtures containing equimolar concentrations of the two species. Thus, the enzyme, together with ATP, converts equimolar quantities of A-A2-A and pA-A2-A(MeOEt) to A-A6-A(MeOEt) in 55% yield, while a similar reaction with A-A2-A and pU-U2-U(MeOEt) results in a 40% yield of A-A3-U3-U(MeOEt). The intermediate in these ligations is a disubstituted pyrophosphate composed of the donor molecule and the adenylate moiety deriving from ATP. In the case of the intermediate arising from the blocked adenosine tetranucleotide, the assigned structure, A5'pp5'A-A2-A(MeOEt), has been confirmed by chemical synthesis. The pyrophosphate derivative is able to participate in joining reactions in the absence of ATP. These observations constitute an efficient approach to the synthesis of larger polynucleotides from a specific series of oligonucleotide blocks since (i), the methoxyethyl group can be easily introduced into each oligonucleotide using the single addition reaction catalyzed by polynucleotide phosphorylase in the presence of a 2'-0-(alpha-methoxyethyl)nucleoside 5'-diphosphate, and (ii), the blocking group may be readily removed under mild conditions after each successive ligation reaction. Two other octanucleotides, I-I2-A-U3-U and U-U2-C-I3-A, have also been synthesized by this method, and these molecules correspond (with I substituting for G) to sequences appearing near the 3' terminus of the 6S RNA transcribed from phage lambda DNA. The terminal 3'-phosphate group serves equally well as a blocking group for specific ligation reactions in that the ligase converts equimolar amounts of A-A2-A and pA-A2-Ap to A-A6-Ap in 50% yield.  (+info)

Market Scenario:. The global market of oligonucleotide synthesis is growing at a rapid pace. The global oligonucleotide synthesis market is growing at the CAGR of around 10.3% for the forecasted period. The major factors that are influencing the market for oligonucleotide synthesis are increasing advancement in field of healthcare, increasing demand for innovation in the field of life science and medical academics, increasing investment by the government for the development of genomic technologies, increasing demand for oligonucleotide synthesis technologies by the public and private research firms. Furthermore increasing application of oligonucleotide synthesis in diagnostic, genetic testing, research, therapeutics, gene synthesis, library preparation, drug target screening, and others is further influencing the growth of the oligonucleotide synthesis market globally.. Key Players for Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market:. Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc (U.S), GE Healthcare (U.S.), Agilent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates using a heterobifunctional crosslinker. AU - Williams, Berea A R. AU - Chaput, John C.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) are molecular chimeras composed of a nucleic acid moiety covalently attached to a polypeptide moiety. POCs have been used in numerous applications from therapeutics to nanotechnology, and most recently as combinatorial agents in the assembly of bivalent protein affinity reagents. This unit describes the synthesis and purification of POC molecules using the heterobifunctional crosslinking reagent succinimidyl-4-(N- maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC), which enables amine-modified oligonucleotides to become covalently linked to cysteine-modified polypeptides. This solution-based protocol consists of a two-step synthesis followed by a single purification step.. AB - Peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) are molecular chimeras composed of a nucleic acid moiety ...
Oligonucleotides are short nucleic acid polymers used in research, genetic testing and forensics. Oligonucleotides are usually made up of 13 to 25 nucleotides and are designed to hybridize specifically to DNA or RNA sequences. Solid-phase clinical synthesis is used to manufacture these small bits of nucleic acid for use in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, library construction and artificial gene synthesis.. Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of relatively short fragments of nucleic acids with defined chemical structure/sequence.In the enzymatic process of DNA synthesis, deoxy-ribonucleotide-5-tri-phosphates are used as substrates during polymerization. In addition, this process requires a primer and a template.. Full Research Report On Global Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market Analysis available @ https://www.millioninsights.com/industry-reports/oligonucleotide-synthesis-market. The most frequently used oligonucleotide synthesis strategy is based upon ...
Oligonucleotides are short nucleic acid polymers used in research, genetic testing and forensics. Oligonucleotides are usually made up of 13 to 25 nucleotides and are designed to hybridize specifically to DNA or RNA sequences. Solid-phase clinical synthesis is used to manufacture these small bits of nucleic acid for use in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, library construction and artificial gene synthesis.. Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of relatively short fragments of nucleic acids with defined chemical structure/sequence.In the enzymatic process of DNA synthesis, deoxy-ribonucleotide-5-tri-phosphates are used as substrates during polymerization. In addition, this process requires a primer and a template.. Full Research Report On Global Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market Analysis available @ https://www.millioninsights.com/industry-reports/oligonucleotide-synthesis-market. The most frequently used oligonucleotide synthesis strategy is based upon ...
According to the new market research report The Report Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market by Product & Services (Equipment, Reagent, Primer, Probe, Custom Oligos), End-User (Research, Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology), Application (Diagnostics, PCR, QPCR, Gene Synthesis, NGS, DNA, RNAi) - Global Forecast to 2019 provides a detailed overview of the major drivers, restraints, challenges, opportunities, current market trends, and strategies impacting the oligonucleotide synthesis market along with the estimates and forecasts of the revenue and competitive analysis.. This report studies the oligonucleotide synthesis market by products and services, applications, end users, and geography.. Oligonucleotide synthesis has a vast number of applications in nucleic acid array-based technologies, library preparations, next-generation sequencing methods, genomics, nucleic acid-based detection, cell cultures, diagnostics, therapeutics, human identity testing, cloning and genetic engineering, and synthetic ...
Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third
Sales, means the sales volume of Oligonucleotide Synthesis Revenue, means the sales value of Oligonucleotide Synthesis This report studies Oligonucleotide Synthesis in China market, focuses on the top players in China market, with capacity, production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering Agilent Technologies Biosearch Technologies, Inc Eurofins Genomics
TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor-mediated hepatic uptake of M6P-BSA-conjugated triplex-forming oligonucleotides in rats. AU - Ye, Zhaoyang. AU - Cheng, Kun. AU - Guntaka, Ramareddy V.. AU - Mahato, Ram I.. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - Excessive production of extracellular matrix, predominantly type I collagen, results in liver fibrosis. Earlier we synthesized mannose 6-phosphate-bovine serum albumin (M6P-BSA) and conjugated to the type I collagen specific triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) for its enhanced delivery to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which is the principal liver fibrogenic cell. In this report, we demonstrate a time-dependent cellular uptake of M6P-BSA- 33P-TFO by HSC-T6 cells. Both cellular uptake and nuclear deposition of MoP-BSA-33P-TFO were significantly higher than those of 33P-TFO, leading to enhanced inhibition of type I collagen transcription. Following systemic administration into rats, hepatic accumulation of MoP-BSA-33P-TFO increased from 55% to 68% with the number of ...
Transfection of cells with gene-specific, single-stranded oligonucleotides can induce the targeted exchange of one or two nucleotides in the targeted gene. To characterize the features of the DNA-repair mechanisms involved, we examined the maximal distance for the simultaneous exchange of two nucleotides by a single-stranded oligonucleotide. The chosen experimental system was the correction of a hprt- point mutation in a hamster cell line, the generation of an additional nucleotide exchange at a variable distance from the first exchange position and the investigation of the rate of simultaneous nucleotide exchanges. The smaller the distance between the two exchange positions, the higher was the probability of a simultaneous exchange. The detected simultaneous nucleotide exchanges were found to cluster in a region of about fourteen nucleotides upstream and downstream from the first exchange position. We suggest that the mechanism involved in the repair of the targeted DNA strand utilizes only a short
Cumulative evidence supports a role for aberrant Stat3 activation in transformation and tumor progression. We previously demonstrated increased Stat3 activation in head and neck carcinogenesis, where Stat3 contributes to the loss of growth control by an antiapoptotic mechanism (5). Targeting Stat3 with antisense oligonucleotides or dominant-negative mutants resulted in apoptosis and modulation of Stat3 regulated genes in several cancer-derived cell lines including multiple myeloma, melanoma, mycosis fungoides, and SCCHN (5, 38-40). The present study provides evidence that Stat3 activation can be targeted as an antitumor strategy. We used a novel decoy oligonucleotide approach to show selective abrogation of activated Stat3 accompanied by inhibition of tumor cell growth and abrogation of Stat3-mediated target gene expression. The lack of inhibitory effects on normal oral keratinocytes suggests that a Stat3 decoy strategy may selectively block the growth of cancer cells with relatively little ...
Global Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market: Focus on Products, Applications, End Users, Region/Country Data (17 Region/Countries), and Competitive Landscape - Analysis and Forecast, 2019-2029. Key questions answered in this report: How much revenue was generated by the global oligonucleotide synthesis market in 2018 and how is it expected to perfor
Oligonucleotides can be used to site specifically substitute a single nucleotide of transfected target genes in both Anopheles...
Arrayit Oligonucleotide Microarray modified primer and two-color fluorescent probe oligonucleotide synthesis including 200 nmole synthesis scale sufficient to genotype 10,000 samples and quality control by mass spectroscopy. Each synthesis includes two primers and two probes (4 oligonucleotides total). Quantity pricing is available for large projects.
Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides (RNA or DNA), typically with twenty or fewer bases. Automated synthesizers allow the synthesis of oligonucleotides up to 160 to 200 bases. The length of a synthesized base is usually denoted by mer (from Greek meros part). For example, a fragment of 25 bases would be called a 25-mer. Oligonucleotides are often used as probes for detecting complementary DNA or RNA because they bind readily to their complements. Examples of procedures that use oligonucleotides are DNA microarrays, Southern blots, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and the synthesis of artificial genes. Oligonucleotides composed of DNA (deoxyoligonucleotides) are often used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a procedure that can be employed to amplify almost any piece of DNA. In this instance, the oligonucleotide is often referred to as a primer, or a short piece of DNA that binds to its complementary target sequence. This generates a place for a polymerase to ...
Geometric Approaches to Gibbs Energy Landscapes and DNA Oligonucleotide Design: 10.4018/ijnmc.2011070104: DNA codeword design has been a fundamental problem since the early days of DNA computing. The problem calls for finding large sets of single DNA strands that
Small interfering (si) RNAs and antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs; here for simplicity reasons, both referred to as oligonucleotides) are small synthetic RNA or DNA molecules with a sequence complementary to a (pre)mRNA. Although the basic mechanisms of action between siRNAs and ASO are distinct, a sequence-specific interaction of the both oligonucleotides with the target (pre)mRNA alters the targets fate, which includes highly effective sequence-specific blockade of translation and consequently depletion of the corresponding protein. For a number of years, these oligonucleotides have been used as a tool in biological research to study gene function in vitro. More recently, safe and specific delivery of these oligonucleotides to the liver of mammals has been achieved and optimized. This not only allowed their use for in vivo gene studies in physiology and disease, but also opened the opportunity for the development of a new generation of RNA-specific drugs for therapeutic purposes. In 2013, the ...
Oligonucleotide synthesis market segmented global market by product(Synthesized Oligonucleotides, Custom Oligonucleotides), application(Research, Therapeutics, Diagnostics), end users & region.
The present invention relates to a method for detecting gene polymorphism by PCR, using, as a primer, an oligonucleotide, wherein the third nucleotide from the 3′-end thereof is a 2′-O,4′-C-ethylene nucleotide (ENA) unit, the other oligonucleotides are natural oligonucleotides, the 3′-end position thereof is a nucleotide complementary to the nucleotide of the reference sequence of a polymorphic sequence of a target gene, and the other positions are nucleotides complementary to the nucleotide sequence of the target gene, or an oligonucleotide, wherein the 3′-end of the nucleotide sequence thereof is a polymorphic position, the second nucleotide from the 3′-end thereof is a nucleotide having a base that is not complementary to a gene to be detected, and the third nucleotide from the 3′-end thereof is a 2′-O,4′-C-ethylene nucleotide (ENA) unit; oligonucleotides used in detection of gene polymorphism; and a kit for detecting gene polymorphism, comprising the above oligonucleotides.
From BioPortfolio: The global oligonucleotide synthesis market is expected to reach $1,712.1 million by 2019 from $1,070.7 million in 2014, growing at a CAGR of 9.8% from 2014 to ...
Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market by Product & Services (Primer, Probe, Custom, Predesigned, Reagent Equipment), Application (Research, PCR, Gene, DNA, NGS, Diagnostic, RNAI), End user (Academic, Pharmaceutical, - Market research report and industry analysis - 10520121
Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By End Use, By Product (Column-based, Array-based, Services), By Application (PCR Primer, FISH), And Segment Forecasts, - Market research report and industry analysis - 12015003
This invention relates to a support for oligonucleotide synthesis and more particularly to a necleoside-linker/polymer support composite having the general formula P--S wherein P is a polymer support which bears oxirane, aziridine or episulfide groups or which contains good leaving groups for nucleophilic displacement; and S is a nucleoside-linker having the general formula W--(CH.sub.2).sub.a --X--(CH.sub.2).sub.b --Y--(CH.sub.2).sub.c --Z wherein W and Z each independently comprise a nucleophile; X and Y which, independently may or may not be present, comprise groups of high hydrophilicity; and a, b, c are integers from 0 to 9, wherein a plus b plus c exceeds 6.
Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market by Product & Services (Primer, Probe, Custom, Predesigned, Reagent Equipment), Application (Research, PCR, Gene, DNA, NGS,...
Find all books from Piet Herdewijn (Editor) - Oligonucleotide Synthesis: Methods and Applications. At find-more-books.com you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and immediately PURCHASE your selection at the best price. 1617374415
Asia Pacific Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market expected to reach US$ 872.98 Mn in 2027 from US$ 334.26 Mn in 2018 the market is estimated to grow with a CAGR of 14.7% from 2019-2027 and segmented into Product, Application and End User.
The efficient incorporation of reporter groups into oligonucleotides at specific sites has been facilitated by the synthesis of a novel modified thymidine monomer with an FMOC-protected hydroxyl group on a linker. The primary hydroxyl group can be deprotected during or after solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and reacted with any reporter phosphoramidite.. Full text not available from this repository.. ...
The present invention is directed to methods and materials for RNA-mediated gene assembly from oligonucleotide sequences. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotides used for gene assembly are provided in an array format. An RNA polymerase promoter is appended to surface-bound oligonucleotides and a plurality of RNA copies of each oligonucleotide are then produced with an RNA polymerase. These RNA molecules self-assemble into a desired full-length RNA transcript by hybridization and ligation. The resulting RNA transcript may then be converted into double strand DNA useful in a variety of applications including protein expression.
Methods for preparing oligonucleotide analogs which have improved nuclease resistance and improved cellular uptake are provided. In preferred embodiments, the methods involve reductive coupling of 3-
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Descriptive info: Homepage.. Welcome to BioSpring.. BioSpring , The Oligo Company.. Expertise in oligonucleotide synthesis.. Flexibility by open source oligonucleotide production system.. Synthesis of oligonucleotides.. Standard analyses of oligonucleotides.. Additional analyses of oligonucleotides.. Superstructures: Biological significance and structure.. siRNA, RNAi.. Interfering RNA.. Hybridisation of siRNA molecules.. Quality and delivery time.. Phosphonoacetates.. Antisense molecules.. RNase H activity.. Transport into the cells.. Advantages of phosphonoacetates.. Scales and Modifications.. Unmodified oligonucleotides.. Phosphorothioates.. RNA.. Modified RNA.. Methylphosphonates.. Phosphonoacetate oligonucleotides (PACE).. RNAi, siRNA miRNA.. 5 modifications.. 3 modifications.. Internal modifications.. Dual labeled probes.. Additional services.. Delivery.. Qualification and validation.. BioSpring GMP Manufacturing movie.. Oligonucleotides for diagnostic applications.. Certificate ISO ...
Oligonucleotides are single-stranded and short RNA or DNA molecule that have a wide range of applications in research forensics and genetic testing. Oligon
Because oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleic acid bases, their association in solution with complementary strands (hybridization) is often seen to conform to a simple two-state model. However, experimental evidence suggests that, despite their short length, oligonucleotides may hybridize through multiple states involving intermediates. We investigate whether these apparently contradictory scenarios are possible by imposing different levels of sequence specificity on a lattice model of oligonucleotides in solution, which we introduced in Part I [J. C. Araque et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 165103 (2011)]. We find that both multiple-intermediate (weakly cooperative) and two-state (strongly cooperative) transitions are possible and that these are directly linked to the level of sequence specificity. Sequences with low specificity hybridize (base-by-base) by way of multiple stable intermediates with increasing number of paired bases. Such intermediate states are weakly cooperative because the ...
The over-expression of human mdr1 (multidrug resistant) gene leads to intensive efflux of cytotoxic anticancer drugs out of malignant cells and aggressive tumor behavior. Rational mdr1 gene targeting by TFO-s within the promoter region represents a perspe
Applications requiring long oligonucleotides (,50 bases) e.g., microarray applications, cloning and/or gene synthesis, have increased the need for instrumentation that can accurately characterize these molecules. The method of choice for these oligonucleotides is ESI-MS. The target molecules are ionized into multiple charge states producing a waveform that can be de-convoluted into parent peaks. As only the charge state will vary for the ions, oligonucleotides with high molecular weights can be analyzed using this method. Additionally, the inherently milder ionization conditions make this analytical technique a great tool for the analysis of labile compounds such as common quenchers, e.g., dabcyl, BHQs, used in dual-labeled fluorogenic probes. The ESI-MS systems have mass resolution of approximately 0.03%, i.e., resolution of +/- 3 Da on a 10 kDa oligonucleotide.. ...
2′-O-modified ribosyl nucleosides and modified oligonucleotides containing such nucleotides are disclosed. Oligonucleotides are disclosed that have increased binding affinity as shown by molecular modeling experiments. The 2′-O-modified nucleosides of the invention include ring structures that position the sugar moiety of the nucleosides preferentially in 3′ endo geometries.
Despite the many methodological options available for mutation detection, the choice is limited, by the necessity to ensure the highest sensitivity of detection for all types of changes while keeping costs and time of analysis within a reasonable limit. The present study extends to large and complex genes, like BRCA1, the applications of the FAMA method using large PCR amplicons (up to 1.4 kb). A key feature of this diagnostic strategy is the robust and economical two-step procedure for strand-specific labeling of PCR products using chimeric oligonucleotides and universal fluorescent primers (Fig. 1)⇓ . This labeling method is cost-effective, because it requires only one set of universal fluorescent primers, and allows reproducible amplification of all exons and splice sites of BRCA1 using homogeneous PCR conditions.. In the blind-test screening for changes in exon 11 (Table 2)⇓ different kinds of mutations and polymorphisms (various microdeletions/insertions involving 1 to 11 nucleotides as ...
A theory and graphical presentation for the analysis of helix structure and deformations in oligonucleotides is presented. The parameters persistence and flexibility as defined in the configurational statistics of polymers of infinite length are reformulated at the oligonucleotide level in an extension of J. A. Schellmans method [(1974) Biopolymers, Vol. 17, pp. 217-226], and used as a basis for a systematic Persistence Analysis of the helix deformation properties for all possible subsequences in the structure. The basis for the analysis is a set of link vectors referenced to individual base pairs, and is limited to sequences exhibiting only perturbed rod-like behavior, i.e., below the threshold for supercoiling. The present application of the method is concerned with a physical model for the angular component of bending, so the link vectors are defined as the unit components of a global helix axis obtained by the procedure Curves of R. Lavery and H. Sklenar [(1988) J. Biomol. Struct. ...
Methods and Results: Microarray analysis revealed subsets of miRNAs that were upregulated or downregulated in cardiac ventricles from mice at 1 and 10 days of age (P1 and P10). Interestingly, miR-195 (a member of the miR-15 family) was the most highly upregulated miRNA during this period, with expression levels almost 6-fold higher in P10 ventricles relative to P1. Precocious overexpression of miR-195 in the embryonic heart was associated with ventricular hypoplasia and ventricular septal defects in β-myosin heavy chain-miR-195 transgenic mice. Using global gene profiling and argonaute-2 immunoprecipitation approaches, we showed that miR-195 regulates the expression of a number of cell cycle genes, including checkpoint kinase 1 (Chek1), which we identified as a highly conserved direct target of miR-195. Finally, we demonstrated that knockdown of the miR-15 family in neonatal mice with locked nucleic acid-modified anti-miRNAs was associated with an increased number of mitotic cardiomyocytes and ...
LONDON - In the past year, the value of the worlds oligonucleotide pool exceeded USD 1.29 billion. It is expected to go beyond USD 2.32 billion, registering an 8.5% CAGR over 2017-2022. Robust growth is attributed to such factors as increasing Big PharmaCos investments in oligonucleotide drug development, constantly widening application area of oligonucleotides and also rising involvement of CMOs in therapeutic oligonucleotides manufacturing, amid others.. Still, there are certain barriers to the further growth in the oligonucleotide pool market, for instance, inaccuracy issues associated with specific oligonucleotides and complexity in the manufacturing technology.. At present, North America captures the major share of the global oligonucleotide pool market; as of 2016, the regions share was slightly over 42%.. Some of the prominent global market players include Creative Biogene, CustomArray, Agilent Technologies, TriLink BioTechnologies, MYcroarray, Integrated DNA Technologies, Twist ...
User:Gabriel Wu,Gabriel Wu]] 00:58, 9 February 2013 (EST): From people who do this kind of work, they tell me that assembling a 3 Kb plasmid takes about 3 full days of lab work. The cost of Gibson master mix from NEB is $154.00 for 10 reactions ($15 for one reaction). The cost of Phusion master mix is $170 for 100 reactions ($8 for 4 PCR reactions). Plates, media, and competent cells add a marginal cost (I would estimate generously no more than $20). Finally, oligoucleotides are about $15 a piece. This assembly would probably take about 8 long oligonucleotides ($160). Then finally, think about how much you make and add your 3 day cost. I estimate generously at about $300 for three days work. Add it all up, you get about $503. A two-fold difference at I think reasonably generous estimates. It becomes a question if whether your time is beter spent in other places and how quickly do you need the part ...
Gabriel Wu 00:58, 9 February 2013 (EST): From people who do this kind of work, they tell me that assembling a 3 Kb plasmid takes about 3 full days of lab work. The cost of Gibson master mix from NEB is $154.00 for 10 reactions ($15 for one reaction). The cost of Phusion master mix is $170 for 100 reactions ($8 for 4 PCR reactions). Plates, media, and competent cells add a marginal cost (I would estimate generously no more than $20). Finally, oligoucleotides are about $15 a piece. This assembly would probably take about 8 long oligonucleotides ($160). Then finally, think about how much you make and add your 3 day cost. I estimate generously at about $300 for three days work. Add it all up, you get about $503. A two-fold difference at I think reasonably generous estimates. It becomes a question if whether your time is beter spent in other places and how quickly do you need the part ...
Inhibitors of STAT signaling have become increasingly important because of the role of STATs in the pathogenesis of human diseases (15, 18, 44, 45). While significant progress has been made in using antisense or decoy oligonucleotides (46) and dominant-negative mutants (27, 38, 42, 47) to elucidate STAT signaling and biological effects, these STAT inhibitory modalities do not easily lend themselves to clinical applications. Another approach has been to use small-molecule inhibitors of the upstream tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate and activate STATs (15, 36, 48). However, because other signaling pathways are also activated downstream of tyrosine kinases, non-Stat3-related biological effects might ensue from inhibition of these kinases. In an effort to develop Stat3-specific small-molecule inhibitors, we previously showed that a Stat3 SH2 domain-binding phosphopeptide, PY*LKTK, and its truncated tripeptide derivatives, PY*L and AY*L, disrupt Stat3 activity (21), thus providing leads for ...
Fast and reliable custom oligonucleotide synthesis service at competitive price. Bioneer is one of the worlds largest suppliers of synthetic oligonucleotides. Every Bioneer oligo is purified free-of-charge utilizing our unique Bio-RP cartridge purification technology and quality checked by MALDI-TOF.
We signed the Oligonucleotides Therapeutics Discovery Collaboration Agreement with Nissan Chemical Co., Ltd.. We aim to create new oligonucleotide therapeutics based on a new oligonucleotide therapeutics structure by combining the two companies oligonucleotide therapeutics drug discovery platform technologies.. Please click here for details.. ...
All current genetic testing methods require synthetic oligonucleotide primers and probes. At ATDBio we make high quality custom qPCR and LAMP primers and probes, working with our customers to help them develop simpler, faster and more accurate diagnostic methods. Were using our specialist nucleic acid expertise to accelerate the global response to the pandemic, helping to get the world back up and running quickly and safely. Weve already made oligos for millions of tests, and were scaling up even further. ...
Oligonucleotide synthesis is essentially the synthesis of nucleic acid fragments that results in defined chemical structures with purities of different sizes. When you´re looking for the most effective modified product for your oligo synthesis, you´re going to want to narrow down the companies that you´re going to work with by high quality services that they offer. Here are some key components that you´re going to want to keep in mind when shopping around.. Quality. Quality is obviously the main concern that you´re going to have because the only way that you can validate what they claim is through user reviews or testimonials. You´re not going to have a physical sample that you get to take an in-depth look at, rather an assortment of pictures put together by the company.. Be sure that the company is specific in their details to ensure that you get exactly what you want. For example, if they´re offering single stranded or double-stranded DNA, be sure that they give you the exact number of ...
Oligonucleotides having approximately 8 to 18 nucleotide units and a 3-tail which includes asteroid structure attached to the 3-end through the A ring of the steroid skeleton and which form substantially stable duplexes at physiological temperature, have selective cytotoxic activity against certain tumor cell lines.
AccuPrep® PCR Purification Kit is designed for the purification of up to 10 ug of DNA fragment from PCR and other enzymatic products within 5 minutes. The size range for effective purification is 100 bp ~10 kb, thus common 20 ~ 40 mer oligonucleotides are removed. The recovery yield exceeds 70~90%. Elution volume can be as little as 30 uL when concentrated product is needed ...
Author: Baumann, U.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1986-09; Title: A Specific binding of hairpin oligonucleotides to homo-oligonucleotides by triplet recognition.
Berry & Associates Inc. offers nucleosides, fluorescent markers, and other tools for biomedical research. Berry also manufactures nucleoside phosphoramidites, available through Glen Research Corporation, for oligonucleotide synthesis.
Oligonucleotide targeting[edit]. SERS can be used to target specific DNA and RNA sequences using a combination of gold and ...
Antisense oligonucleotides[edit]. Gene silencing can be achieved by introducing into cells a short "antisense oligonucleotide" ... If the antisense oligonucleotide contains a stretch of DNA or a DNA mimic (phosphorothioate DNA, 2′F-ANA, or others) it can ... Steric blocking antisense mechanisms often use oligonucleotides that are heavily modified. Since there is no need for RNase H ... has approved the phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides fomivirsen (Vitravene) and mipomersen (Kynamro)[5] for human ...
Oligonucleotide synthesis[edit]. Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of sequences of nucleic acids. The process ...
Allele-specific oligonucleotide[edit]. Main article: Allele-specific oligonucleotide. Allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) is ... attached to a solid support such as a microscope slide where each spot contains one or more single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide ...
Oligonucleotides. 13 (6): 479-89. doi:10.1089/154545703322860799. PMID 15025914. Herdewijn P, Marlière P (June 2009). "Toward ...
Triplex-Forming Oligonucleotide Target Sequence Search Tool: A Searching Tool to find Polypurine and Polypyrimidine stretches ... PPRHs could be used as gene silencing tools acting by different mechanisms than triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), ... Polypurine reverse-Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs) are non-modified oligonucleotides containing two polypurine domains, in a mirror ... antisense oligonucleotides or siRNAs. Upon binding to their targets, PPRHs can decrease the mRNA and protein levels of the ...
Ding X, Yang J, Wang S (Mar-Apr 2011). "Antisense oligonucleotides targeting abhydrolase domain containing 2 block human ... hepatitis B virus propagation". Oligonucleotides. 21 (2): 77-84. doi:10.1089/oli.2011.0280. PMID 21466387. Yamanoi, Koji; ...
Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFO) are one potential method to achieve therapeutic gene modulation. TFOs are approximately ... January 2003). "Triplex-forming oligonucleotides as modulators of gene expression". Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 35 (1): 22-31. doi ... There are three major categories of agents that act as transcriptional gene modulators: triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs ... Simon, P.; Cannata, F.; Concordet, JP.; Giovannangeli, C. (August 2008). "Targeting DNA with triplex-forming oligonucleotides ...
Morpholino oligonucleotidesEdit. Main article: Morpholino. Morpholino oligos are used in both X. laevis and X. tropicalis to ... DNA oligonucleotides complementary to specific mRNA molecules are often chemically modified to improve their stability in vivo ... The expression of genes can be reduced by a variety of means, for example by using antisense oligonucleotides targeting ... Dagle, J. M.; Weeks, D. L. (2001-12-01). "Oligonucleotide-based strategies to reduce gene expression". Differentiation; ...
... is a form of treatment that uses antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to target messenger RNA (mRNA). ASOs are ... In 2019, a report was published detailing the development of milasen, an antisense oligonucleotide drug for Batten disease, ... As of 2020 more than 50 antisense oligonucleotides were in clinical trials, including over 25 in advanced clinical trials ( ... Over the following years, an antisense oligonucleotide later named nusinersen was developed by Ionis Pharmaceuticals under a ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affinity, and transduces the signal through a G-protein-activated second messenger system. Knockout studies in mice suggested that this protein inhibits embryonic oligodendrocyte precursor migration in developing spinal cord. This gene, IL8RB, a gene encoding another high affinity IL8 receptor, and IL8RBP, a pseudogene of IL8RB, form a gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q33-q36.[5] Stimulation of CXCR1 in neutrophils by its primary ligand, Interleukin 8, leads to neutrophil chemotaxis and activation.[6] ...
Antisense oligonucleotides: IONIS-GCCRRx (ISIS-426115). See also. Receptor/signaling modulators. Glucocorticoids and ...
Growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) (developmental code name SKF-110679), also known as growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide, is one of several synthetic met-enkephalin analogues that include unnatural D-amino acids, were developed for their growth hormone-releasing activity and are called growth hormone secretagogues. They lack opioid activity but are potent stimulators of growth hormone (GH) release. These secretagogues are distinct from growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) in that they share no sequence relation and derive their function through activation of a completely different receptor. This receptor was originally called the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), but due to subsequent discoveries, the hormone ghrelin is now considered the receptor's natural endogenous ligand, and it has been renamed as the ghrelin receptor. Therefore, these GHSR agonists act as synthetic ghrelin mimetics. It has been discovered that when GHRP-6 and insulin are administered ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following exposure to IL-24.[9][10] The gene for IL-24 is located on chromosome 1 in humans.[11] ...
As of November 2009[update], Phase III clinical trials for plaque psoriasis[5][6] and a Phase II trial for multiple sclerosis[7] have been completed, and a Phase II trial for Crohn's disease is underway.[8] Briakinumab was compared to etanercept and placebo in several double-blind trials. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was reduced significantly better than under the comparator treatments. 81-82% of patients under briakinumab, 40-56% under etanercept, and 7% under placebo reached PASI reduction of at least 75%.[9] No head-to-head studies against ustekinumab, the other IL-12/23 inhibitor, are available. On January 15, 2011, Abbott announced the withdrawal of its application to the US FDA and European regulators for briakinumab. Following feedback from regulatory authorities indicating the need for further analysis, including the potential for additional studies, Abbott withdrew its applications and was evaluating next steps including possible resubmission at a later date. This compound ...
Off-label prescription of HGH is controversial and may be illegal.[46] Claims for GH as an anti-aging treatment date back to 1990 when the New England Journal of Medicine published a study wherein GH was used to treat 12 men over 60.[47] At the conclusion of the study, all the men showed statistically significant increases in lean body mass and bone mineral density, while the control group did not. The authors of the study noted that these improvements were the opposite of the changes that would normally occur over a 10- to 20-year aging period. Despite the fact the authors at no time claimed that GH had reversed the aging process itself, their results were misinterpreted as indicating that GH is an effective anti-aging agent.[48][49][50] This has led to organizations such as the controversial American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine promoting the use of this hormone as an "anti-aging agent".[51] A Stanford University School of Medicine meta-analysis of clinical studies on the subject published ...
Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RL2 gene.[5][6][7][8] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family. An experiment with transient gene expression demonstrated that this receptor was incapable of binding to interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta with high affinity. This gene and four other interleukin 1 receptor family genes, including interleukin 1 receptor, type I (IL1R1), interleukin 1 receptor, type II (IL1R2), interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), and interleukin 18 receptor 1 (IL18R1), form a cytokine receptor gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q12.[8] ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GHR gene.[5] GHR orthologs [6] have been identified in most mammals.. This gene encodes a protein that is a transmembrane receptor for growth hormone. Binding of growth hormone to the receptor leads to receptor dimerization (the receptor may however also exist as a pre-assembled non-functional dimer [7]) and the activation of an intra- and intercellular signal transduction pathway leading to growth. A common alternate allele of this gene, called GHRd3, lacks exon three and has been well-characterized. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Laron syndrome, also known as the growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS), a disorder characterized by short stature (proportional dwarfism). Other splice variants, including one encoding a soluble form of the protein (GHRtr), have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized.[5] Laron mice (that is mice genetically engineered to carry defective Ghr), have a ...
As of January 2007[update], there were 5 NIH-listed research studies involving CNTO 1275 on a multinational basis, including 3 Phase II and 2 Phase III trials. Three studies were focused on patients with psoriasis, one on psoriatic arthritis, and one on multiple sclerosis. On December 4, 2007, a Biologic License Application (BLA) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was filed by Centocor and Janssen-Cilag International (collaborator) has submitted a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) to the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). On November 21, 2008, the European Medicines Agency's (EMEA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion for ustekinumab for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in adult patients who failed to respond to other systemic therapies.[10] ...
Antisense oligonucleotides: IONIS-GCCRRx (ISIS-426115). See also. Receptor/signaling modulators. Glucocorticoids and ...
Xie MH, Aggarwal S, Ho WH, Foster J, Zhang Z, Stinson J, Wood WI, Goddard AD, Gurney AL (2000). "Interleukin (IL)-22, a novel human cytokine that signals through the interferon receptor-related proteins CRF2-4 and IL-22R". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (40): 31335-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005304200. PMID 10875937 ...
... (INN) (developmental code names MK-677, MK-0677, L-163,191; former tentative brand name Oratrope) is a potent, long-acting, orally-active, selective, and non-peptide agonist of the ghrelin receptor and a growth hormone secretagogue, mimicking the growth hormone (GH)-stimulating action of the endogenous hormone ghrelin.[3][4][5][6][7] It has been shown to increase the secretion of several hormones including GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and produces sustained increases in the plasma levels of these hormones without affecting cortisol levels.[8] Ibutamoren has been shown to sustain activation of the GH-IGF-1 axis and to increase lean body mass with no change in total fat mass or visceral fat. It is under investigation as a potential treatment for reduced levels of these hormones, such as in children or elderly adults with growth hormone deficiency,[3][9][10][11] and human studies have shown it to increase both muscle mass and bone mineral density,[12][13] making it a ...
It is well-characterized that activating the growth hormone secretagogue receptor with ghrelin induces an orexigenic state, or general feeling of hunger.[6] However, ghrelin may also play a role in behavioral reinforcement. Studies in animal models, found that food intake increased when ghrelin was specifically administered to just the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a brain area that uses dopamine signaling to reinforce behavior.[8] In fact, the more ghrelin administered, the more food the rodent consumed.[8] This is called a dose-dependent effect. Building on this, it was found that there are growth hormone secretagogue receptors in the VTA and that ghrelin acts on the VTA through these receptors.[8] Current studies, furthermore, suggest that the VTA may contain dimers of GHS-R1a and dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2). If these two receptors do indeed form dimers, this would somehow link ghrelin signaling to dopaminergic signaling.[8] ...
GHRH binding to GHRHR results in increased GH production mainly by the cAMP-dependent pathway,[5] but also by the phospholipase C pathway (IP3/DAG pathway),[1] and other minor pathways.[1]. The cAMP-dependent pathway is initiated by the binding of GHRH to its receptor, causing receptor conformation that activates Gs alpha subunit of the closely associated G-Protein complex on the intracellular side. This results in stimulation of membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase and increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP binds to and activates the regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), allowing the free catalytic subunits to translocate to the nucleus and phosphorylate the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Phosphorylated CREB, together with its coactivators, p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) enhances the transcription of GH by binding to CREs cAMP-response elements in the promoter region of the GH gene. It also increases transcription of the ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[8]. ...
... is a participant in regulating the complex process of energy homeostasis which adjusts both energy input - by adjusting hunger signals - and energy output - by adjusting the proportion of energy going to ATP production, fat storage, glycogen storage, and short-term heat loss. The net result of these processes is reflected in body weight, and is under continuous monitoring and adjustment based on metabolic signals and needs. At any given moment in time, it may be in equilibrium or disequilibrium. Gastric-brain communication is an essential part of energy homeostasis, and several communication pathways are probable, including the gastric intracellular mTOR/S6K1 pathway mediating the interaction among ghrelin, nesfatin and endocannabinoid gastric systems,[31] and both afferent and efferent vagal signals. Ghrelin and synthetic ghrelin mimetics (growth hormone secretagogues) increase body weight and fat mass[32][33][34] by triggering receptors in the arcuate nucleus[35][36] that include the ...
Oligonucleotide Synthesis. See also Oligonucleotide synthesis. Carbohydrate Synthesis. See also Carbohydrate synthesis. Small ...
HIV infection leads to a progressive reduction in the number of T cells expressing CD4. Medical professionals refer to the CD4 count to decide when to begin treatment during HIV infection, although recent medical guidelines have changed to recommend treatment at all CD4 counts as soon as HIV is diagnosed. A CD4 count measures the number of T cells expressing CD4. While CD4 counts are not a direct HIV test-e.g. they do not check the presence of viral DNA, or specific antibodies against HIV-they are used to assess the immune system of a patient.[citation needed] National Institutes of Health guidelines recommend treatment of any HIV-positive individuals, regardless of CD4 count[17] Normal blood values are usually expressed as the number of cells per microliter (μL, or equivalently, cubic millimeter, mm3) of blood, with normal values for CD4 cells being 500-1200 cells/mm3.[18] Patients often undergo treatments when the CD4 counts reach a level of 350 cells per microliter in Europe but usually ...
Oligonucleotides 18(3), 257-268. Fahmy, R. et al (2006) Suppression of vascular permeability and inflammation by targeting of ... Oligonucleotides 16, 297-312. Goodchild, A. et al (2007) Cytotoxic G-rich oligode-oxynucleotides: putative protein targets and ... Kim, M.-G. et al (2015) Biomimetic DNA nanoballs for oligonucleotide delivery. Biomaterials 62, 155-163. Marquardt, K. et al ( ...
The incorporation of BNAs into oligonucleotides allows the production of modified synthetic oligonucleotides with equal or ... and good aqueous solubility of the resulting oligonucleotides when compared to regular DNA or RNA oligonucleotides. New BNA ... The same group, also in 2012, reported that the 2',4'-BNANC[NMe] analog when used in antisense oligonucleotides showed ... BNA nucleotides can be incorporated into DNA or RNA oligonucleotides at any desired position. Such oligomers are synthesized ...
Using the P-S mutation was shown to decrease the Tm of the oligonucleotide, which leads to a lower target affinity. A final ... Anti-miRNA Oligonucleotides (also known as AMOs) have many uses in cellular mechanics. These synthetically designed molecules ... However, by creating sequences of anti-miRNA Oligonucleotides to bind to all of these implicit miRNAs, there was increased cell ... During anti-miRNA oligonucleotide design, necessary modifications to optimize binding affinity, improve nuclease resistance, ...
The length of the oligonucleotide is usually denoted by "-mer" (from Greek meros, "part"). For example, an oligonucleotide of ... Fluorescent modifications on 5 and 3 end of oligonucleotides was reported to evaluate the oligonucleotides structures, ... DNA microarrays are a useful analytical application of oligonucleotides. Compared to standard cDNA microarrays, oligonucleotide ... which is useful in oligonucleotide synthesis. PS backbone modifications to oligonucleotides protects them against unwanted ...
Oligonucleotides News and Research. RSS Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides (RNA or DNA), typically with twenty ... Automated synthesizers allow the synthesis of oligonucleotides up to 160 to 200 bases. Further Reading. *Oligonucleotide - What ... New class of antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics tested in humans A first-in-human study with a new class of antisense ... PureTech Health collaborates with Roche to advance oral administration of antisense oligonucleotides PureTech Health plc, a ...
This invention relates to the use of antisense and sense oligonucleotides (oligos) targeting the RNAs of ERV-9 LTR as a ... This invention relates to the use of antisense and sense oligonucleotides (oligos) targeting the RNAs of ERV-9 LTR as a ...
A method for synthesizing oligonucleotides by solid-phase methodology wherein the linkage between the oligonucleotide and the ... oligonucleotide loading. .about.80 .about.80. per mg (pmol). oligonucleotide loading. 184 0.02. per bead (fmol). values ... In yet another aspect the invention provides a support-bound oligonucleotide wherein the oligonucleotide is bound to the ... A method for synthesizing oligonucleotides by solid-phase methodology wherein the linkage between the oligonucleotide and the ...
OEM by QIAGEN provides premium-quality oligonucleotides manufactured in accordance with GMP guidelines. Our oligos can enable ... Oligonucleotide categories. Unmodified oligonucleotides. Modified oligonucleotides. • Primers. • Probes. • SCORPIONS. • Locked ... We manufacture premium quality oligonucleotides for molecular and in-vitro diagnostics applications. Our oligonucleotides are ... Tailored oligonucleotides for SARS-CoV-2 detection. OEM by QIAGEN provides customized primers and probes. We tailor ...
Oligonucleotide Separation Technology (OST) columns contain second-generation hybrid-silica BEH Technology particles ... Home , Products , Chromatography Consumables & Columns , Columns , Bioseparations Columns & Consumables , Oligonucleotides ... Oligonucleotide Separation Technology (OST) columns contain second-generation hybrid-silica BEH Technology™ particles ... The separation of detritylated synthetic oligonucleotide samples is based on the well-established method of ion-pair, reversed- ...
One of these emerging realms is the science behind Oligonucleotides.. Oligonucleotides are short (20-25 bases typically) DNA or ... In nature, oligonucleotides are usually found as small RNA molecules that function in the regulation of gene expression (e.g. ... In the human body the application of Antisense Oligonucleotides (AO) show great promise in disease states such as Duchenne ... front and center to learn from pharma professionals in our industry on how these plants are set up to produce oligonucleotides. ...
Antisense Oligonucleotides. Class Summary. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) designed to treat SMA caused by mutations in ...
SOAP: short oligonucleotide alignment program.. Li R1, Li Y, Kristiansen K, Wang J. ... We have developed a program SOAP for efficient gapped and ungapped alignment of short oligonucleotides onto reference sequences ...
Promega Transcription Factor Consensus Oligonucleotides. These oligonucleotides contain consensus DNA-binding sites for ...
... of an oligonucleotide is its most critically important value. The most reliable and accurate determination of melting ... The melting temperature (Tm) of an oligonucleotide is the temperature at which 50% of the oligonucleotide is duplexed with its ... If you intend to use such short oligonucleotides for membrane hybridization experiments, we encourage you to add +7 manually to ... Figure 1. Example of experimental determination of oligonucleotide Tm. Measurements are made in a thermostatted cell in a UV- ...
These oligonucleotides contain consensus DNA-binding sites for individual transcription factors and have 5´ OH blunt ends, ... NF-κB Consensus Oligonucleotide. NF-κB transcription factor consensus oligonucleotide. Component of Gel Shift Assay System. ... AP1 Consensus Oligonucleotide. AP1 transcription factor consensus oligonucleotide. Component of Gel Shift Assay System. ... AP2 Consensus Oligonucleotide. AP2 transcription factor consensus oligonucleotide. Component of Gel Shift Assay System. ...
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Obtain superior separations and LC/MS characterization data for synthetic oligonucleotides, from routine mass and sequence ... Oligonucleotide Analysis. Summary. Oligonucleotides are polymeric sequences of nucleotides (RNA, DNA, and their analogs) that ... Oligonucleotides. Oligonucleotides developed as therapeutics can take a variety of forms - from antisense olignucleotides (ASOs ... Oligonucleotides are produced through an automated solid-phase synthesis process. Typical lengths range from 20 to 80 ...
In accordance with preferred embodiments, oligonucleotides and oligonucleotide analogs are provided which are specifically ... The oligonucleotide comprises nucleotide units sufficient in identity and number to effect said specific hybridization. In ... In additional preferred embodiments, the oligonucleotides are specifically hybridizable with RNA sequences involved in splicing ... other preferred embodiments, the oligonucleotides are specifically hybridizable with a transcription initiation site, a ...
Over- and under-representation of short oligonucleotides in DNA sequences Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Over- and under-representation of short oligonucleotides in DNA sequences. C Burge, A M Campbell, and S Karlin ... encompassing a broad phylogenetic range to discern tendencies and anomalies in the occurrences of these short oligonucleotides ...
... which involves several rounds of alternating steps of partitioning of candidate oligonucleotides and their PCR amplification. ... Calcium-dependent oligonucleotide antagonists against L-selectin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 5883-5887 (1996). ... Non-SELEX: selection of aptamers without intermediate amplification of candidate oligonucleotides. *Maxim V Berezovski1. ,2. ... selection of aptamers without intermediate amplification of candidate oligonucleotides. Nat Protoc 1, 1359-1369 (2006) doi: ...
DNA analysis and diagnostics on oligonucleotide microchips. G Yershov, V Barsky, A Belgovskiy, E Kirillov, E Kreindlin, I ... DNA analysis and diagnostics on oligonucleotide microchips. G Yershov, V Barsky, A Belgovskiy, E Kirillov, E Kreindlin, I ... DNA analysis and diagnostics on oligonucleotide microchips. G Yershov, V Barsky, A Belgovskiy, E Kirillov, E Kreindlin, I ... RET Oligonucleotide Microarray for the Detection of RET Mutations in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 Syndromes ...
Synthetic anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs, or anti-miRs) are a form of steric-blocking antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) ... Synthetic anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs, or anti-miRs) are a form of steric-blocking antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) ... Non-nucleotide Modification of Anti-miRNA Oligonucleotides Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1517:51-69. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6563-2_3 ... Chemical modification of synthetic AMOs enhance potency by protecting the oligonucleotide from nuclease degradation and by ...
SEPON - SEPON designs gene-specific oligonucleotides for microarray experiments and is able to use EST input from organisms in ...
Oligonucleotides are disclosed that have increased binding affinity as shown by molecular modeling experiments. The 2′-O- ... O-modified ribosyl nucleosides and modified oligonucleotides containing such nucleotides are disclosed. ... oligonucleotides incorporating such nucleotides and methods of using such oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotides of the ... Oligonucleotides are now accepted as therapeutic agents with great promise. Oligonucleotides are known to hybridize to single- ...
Gephyrin antisense oligonucleotides prevent glycine receptor clustering in spinal neurons.. Kirsch J1, Wolters I, Triller A, ... Here we report that treatment of rat spinal neurons in culture with gephyrin antisense oligonucleotides prevents the formation ...
The therapeutic application of oligonucleotides is based on the selective formation of hybrids between antisense ... oligonucleotides and complimentary nucleic acids, such as messenger RNAs. Such hybrids inhibit gene expression by blocking ... This technology relates to the synthesis of oligonucleotides, and intermediates useful in its synthesis. ... Successful inhibition of gene expression requires the antisense oligonucleotide to be nuclease resistant so that it can be ...
Here, in an iterative process, a pool of single stranded oligonucleotides is contacted with a target structure (e.g. a protein ... high-affinity oligonucleotides are then isolated, amplified and again put into contact with the target until, eventually, an ... has proven to be a powerful tool for idenfying functional oligonucleotides which bind to selected targets. ... ideal oligonucleotide has been obtained. An International and a European patent application are pending. On behalf of ...
Centre for Human Genetics shows that the Genevac EZ-2 evaporator is an ideal tool for concentrating SNP and oligonucleotides in ...
... by oligonucleotides (dark red bars) that block aberrant 5′ or 3′ cryptic splice sites (. a. ). Similarly, oligonucleotides ... This Perspective describes a promising approach to RNA repair based on the use of antisense oligonucleotides to modulate ... Modification of splicing by antisense oligonucleotides. Aberrant splicing in thalassemic β-globin pre-mRNA or in certain splice ...
Telomere-specific oligonucleotides that reduce telomerase activity and disrupt telomere architecture are also in development as ... These studies may help design novel therapeutic approaches to overcome the challenges of oligonucleotide therapy in a clinical ... This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of current oligonucleotide-based anticancer therapies that target ... Schrank Z, Khan N, Osude C, Singh S, Miller RJ, Merrick C, Mabel A, Kuckovic A, Puri N. Oligonucleotides Targeting Telomeres ...
Two different antisense oligonucleotide-based (ASO-based) therapies are currently in clinical use to treat neuromuscular ...
... oligonucleotide that is entrapped in the liposome and is selected from the group consisting of phosphodiester oligonucleotides ... An improved delivery system for antisense oligonucleotides involves a liposomal composition, comprising a liposome which ... Oligonucleotide derivatives. US6326487. 17 Jul 1997. 4 Dec 2001. Aventis Pharma Deutschland Gmbh. 3 modified oligonucleotide ... When the antisense oligonucleotide is a phosphodiester oligonucleotide, the preferred molar ratio of phospholipid to oligo is ...
  • This invention relates to the use of antisense and sense oligonucleotides (oligos) targeting the RNAs of ERV-9 LTR as a treatment for various cancers, including human breast, liver, prostate, and myeloid cancers and fibrosarcomas. (fda.gov)
  • The primary method we use to calculate T m is the nearest neighbors method 1,2 , and we use it for oligonucleotides with sequence lengths from 15 to 120 bases (upper length limit of our standard DNA oligos offering). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antisense oligonucleotides (oligos), complementary to specific regions of the target mRNA, have been used to inhibit the expression of endogenous genes. (google.com.au)
  • Invitrogen™ Custom DNA oligos are synthetic oligonucleotides made according to your specifications and can be used in a variety of applications, from PCR and sequencing to probes for gene detection. (thermofisher.com)
  • Among these segments, the synthesized oligonucleotides market segment is expected to register the highest growth rate during the forecast period, owing to the increasing number of applications of synthesized oligonucleotides in research, diagnostics and therapeutics, and a growing demand for custom oligos. (pitchengine.com)
  • Of these, oligonucleotide-based accounted for over 50% of the synthesized oligos market share in 2018. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The growth of this market is mainly driven by factors such as increasing R&D expenditure in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, increased use in clinical applications and molecular diagnostics, increasing government investments for the development of genomics and evolving significance of RNA-interference oligos in therapeutics and diagnostics are key factors driving market growth for oligonucleotide synthesis. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The rising demand for custom oligos also contributes to the growth of the synthesized oligonucleotides market. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Dye-labeled calibration oligos are 5' fluorescent 10-mers dT oligonucleotides used as a reference to calibrate real-time qPCR thermocyclers . (eurogentec.com)
  • Oligonucleotides are sometimes referred to as oligos. (wikidoc.org)
  • Osprey calculates optimal oligonucleotides for a range of tasks: sequence assembly (both contig walking and polishing, with Staden assembly augmented functionality), differential expression, and microarrays (cDNA and spotted oligos). (geneinfinity.org)
  • whereas, by service, the synthesized oligonucleotide segment is categorized into custom oligos and predesigned oligos. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The global oligonucleotide synthesis market is expected to reach $1,712.1 million by 2019 from $1,070.7 million in 2014, growing at a CAGR of 9.8% from 2014 to 2019.The global market is categorized on the basis of products and services, applications, end users, and geography. (pitchengine.com)
  • 230 Pages Report] The global oligonucleotide synthesis market is projected to reach USD 8.2 billion by 2024 from USD 4.3 billion in 2019, at a CAGR of 13.7% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The global oligonucleotide synthesis industry is segmented into North America, Europe, the Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • AsiaTIDES brings 300+ global oligonucleotide and peptide leaders across Asia, Europe and North America together to present case studies, best practices and to discuss current strategies and trends to accelerate promising molecules to market. (bachem.com)
  • The Global Oligonucleotide Synthesis Industry Analysis by BIS Research projects the market to grow at a significant CAGR of 11.02% during the forecast period from 2019 to 2029. (bccresearch.com)
  • North America is the leading contributor in the global oligonucleotide synthesis market and contributed approximately 41.5% to the global market value in 2018. (bccresearch.com)
  • The purpose of the study is to gain a holistic view of the global oligonucleotide synthesis market in terms of various factors influencing it, including regulatory reforms, and technological advancements. (bccresearch.com)
  • The global oligonucleotide synthesis market is dominated by North America, followed by Europe. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The global Oligonucleotide API market is segmented in detail to cover every aspect of the market and present a complete market intelligence approach to the reader. (bccresearch.com)
  • The global oligonucleotide synthesis market is expected to reach USD 1,918.6 Million by 2020 from USD 1,078.1 Million in 2015, at a CAGR of 10.1% during the forecast period. (pitchengine.com)
  • This report provides a detailed picture of the global oligonucleotide synthesis market. (yahoo.com)
  • In a new study researchers have developed a two-pronged approach for targeting Ebola virus infection using linked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs)designed to interfere both genes essential for translation of Ebola virus genes and to block production of an intracellular human protein needed for the virus to enter cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Synthetic anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs, or anti-miRs) are a form of steric-blocking antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that inhibit miRNA function through high-affinity binding and subsequent inactivation and/or degradation of the targeted miRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Oligonucleotide therapeutics have been in clinical development for over 30 years initially with DNA-based therapeutics such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and aptamers, followed later with RNA-based therapeutics (e.g. siRNAs, mRNA, miRNA). (intertek.com)
  • Here we explore methods for the peptide-mediated delivery of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and chemotherapeutics. (mit.edu)
  • There is great interest in therapeutic oligonucleotides (ONs), such as siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), for treating various diseases. (rsc.org)
  • Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting pathologic RNAs have shown promising therapeutic corrections for many genetic diseases including myotonic dystrophy (DM1). (jci.org)
  • Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are synthetic bioactive compounds used as therapeutic agents in clinical trials. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since lowering TTR levels increases renal clearance of RBP4, we determined whether decreasing TTR levels with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This basic property serves as a foundation for the use of oligonucleotides as probes for detecting specific sequences of DNA or RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) relies on hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes that can effectively discriminate between the wild-type and variant sequences. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are two types of selectivity that are critical for the rational design of highly specific oligonucleotides probes. (scirp.org)
  • Knorre, D.G. and Vlassov, V.V. (1991) Reactive oligonucleotide derivatives as gene-targeted biologically active com- pounds and affinity probes. (scirp.org)
  • 60-mer oligonucleotide probe length - This extended length delivers higher sensitivity compared to traditional shorter length probes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Probes arrayed on 1" x 3" glass slides - Oligonucleotide probes are arrayed on glass slides designed for optimal results in the Agilent Microarray Scanner. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Oligonucleotides are often used as probes for detecting complementary DNA or RNA because they bind readily to their complements . (wikidoc.org)
  • The oligonucleotide synthesis market segmentation (on the basis of product) is further segmented into primers, probes, large-scale synthesized oligonucleotides, intermediate-scale synthesized oligonucleotides, and linkers and adaptors. (bccresearch.com)
  • In the case of high density oligonucleotide array, the probes are assumed to have been normalized to produce an expression summary, represented here as ygi, for each gene on each array as in Li and Wong (2001) or Irizarry et al (2003). (psu.edu)
  • For such studies, DNA probes are provided as double stranded oligonucleotides designed with 5' OH blunt ends to facilitate labeling to high specific activity with polynucleotide kinase. (scbt.com)
  • We have recently demonstrated that some commercial DNA chip manufacturers have improved error rates, and that the issues of chemical complexity and low yields can be solved by using barcoded primers to accurately and efficiently amplify subpools of oligonucleotides. (currentprotocols.com)
  • as oligonucleotide therapeutic agents, primers for PCR method, and elements of DNA computers. (tcichemicals.com)
  • In general, oligonucleotide sequences are usually short (13-25 nucleotides long). (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring oligonucleotides are easily degraded by nucleases, an enzyme that cleaves nucleotides and is ample in every cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleoside organothiophosphate (PS) analogs of nucleotides give oligonucleotides some beneficial properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key beneficial properties that PS backbones gives nucleotides are diastereomer identification of each nucleotide and the ability to easily follow reactions involving the phosphorothioate nucleotides, which is useful in oligonucleotide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides (RNA or DNA), typically with twenty or fewer bases. (news-medical.net)
  • 2′-O-modified ribosyl nucleosides and modified oligonucleotides containing such nucleotides are disclosed. (google.com)
  • 9. An antisense oligonucleotide 5 to 50 nucleotides in length comprising a nucleotide sequence complementary to a portion of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:105. (google.com.au)
  • 15. A method of inhibiting the expression of human protein kinase C-α in vitro comprising contacting human cells with a therapeutically effective amount of an antisense oligonucleotide 5 to 50 nucleotides in length, said antisense oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence complementary to a portion of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 105. (google.com.au)
  • Oligonucleotides are chemically synthesized using nucleotides, called phosphoramidites , normal nucleotides that have protection groups: preventing amine, hydroxyl groups and phosphate groups interacting incorrectly. (wikidoc.org)
  • Affinity Plus DNA & RNA Oligonucleotides are custom, single-stranded and duplexed sequences that contain 1-20 LNA nucleotides. (idtdna.com)
  • If binding takes place this hybrid can be degraded by the enzyme RNase H. RNase H is an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA, and when used in an antisense oligonucleotide application results in 80-95% down-regulation of mRNA expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aberrant splicing in thalassemic β-globin pre-mRNA or in certain splice mutants in CFTR is prevented, and correct splicing is restored, by oligonucleotides (dark red bars) that block aberrant 5′ or 3′ cryptic splice sites ( a ). (jci.org)
  • When the antisense oligonucleotides bind to the target mRNA, a DNA-RNA hybrid is formed. (google.com.au)
  • Oligonucleotide therapeutics - the emerging medicine class - are harnessing the therapeutic benefit of targeting genetic material via antisense, mRNA, RNAi, saRNA and siRNA. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Compositions and methods are provided for the treatment and diagnosis of diseases associated with protein kinase C. Oligonucleotides are provided which are specifically hybridizable with a PKC gene or mRNA. (google.com.au)
  • Oligonucleotides specifically hybridizable with a particular PKC isozyme, set of isozymes or mRNA. (google.com.au)
  • Methods of treating conditions amenable to therapeutic intervention by modulating protein kinase C expression with an oligonucleotide specifically hybridizable with a PKC gene or mRNA are disclosed. (google.com.au)
  • However, the Sp linkage is, like the methylphosphonate linkage, sterically helix destabilizing, a property that tends to decrease the melting temperature (Tm) of the oligonucleotide/mRNA complexes relative to the natural phosphodiester oligomer ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Comparative analysis of antisense oligonucleotide sequences for targeted skipping of exon 51 during dystrophin pre-mRNA splicing in human muscle," Human Gene Therapy , vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 798-810, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Specific removal of the nonsense mutation from the mdx dystrophin mRNA using antisense oligonucleotides," Neuromuscular Disorders , vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 330-338, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Oligonucleotides binding to mRNA rely on a Watson-Crick base-paring mechanism. (bachem.com)
  • 1-3 Splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO), a type of therapeutic ON, can hybridize to targeted nuclear pre-mRNA and block access of other splicing factors to modulate alternative splicing and subsequent gene expression. (rsc.org)
  • As we head towards December, make plans to attend the 2018 ISPE Biomanufacturing Conference in Huntington Beach, I'll be front and center to learn from pharma professionals in our industry on how these plants are set up to produce oligonucleotides. (ispe.org)
  • 2018. "Oligonucleotides Targeting Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Hospitals contributed to the highest revenue generated among these segments within the oligonucleotide synthesis market in 2018. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Sigma-Aldrich Corporation (US) was one of the leading players in the oligonucleotide synthesis market in 2018. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Hospitals held the largest share of the market in 2018 due to the significant number of inpatient and outpatient visits in hospitals and the requirement of oligonucleotide drugs to cater to the demand of the patient pool suffering from diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease. (yahoo.com)
  • Examples of procedures that use oligonucleotides include DNA microarrays, Southern blots, ASO analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), PCR, and the synthesis of artificial genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The product of this method is an immobilized oligonucleotide which can be used in solid phase hybridization assays. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The oligonucleotide comprises nucleotide units sufficient in identity and number to effect said specific hybridization. (google.com)
  • We present a further development in the technology of sequencing by hybridization to oligonucleotide microchips (SHOM) and its application to diagnostics for genetic diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Commonly known as the OLA, the Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay is an analyte specific reagent (ASR) that is centered around the hybridization of a PCR primer with an exact match to a target sequence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first type is the real selectivity of hybridization (f a ) that is the ratio of association degrees of targets with an oligonucleotide probe upon the perfect and imperfect complex formation. (scirp.org)
  • This type of selectivity reflects the level of discrimination between matched and mismatched signals, which is determined both by experimental conditions and the thermodynamics of oligonucleotide hybridization. (scirp.org)
  • Kabilov, M. and Pyshnyi, D. (2011) Analytical consideration of the selectivity of oligonucleotide hybridization. (scirp.org)
  • Kofiadi, I.A. and Rebrikov, D.V. (2006) Methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms: Allele-specific PCR and hybridization with oligonucleotide probe. (scirp.org)
  • Purpose: The goal of this work was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based arrays used clinically in comparative genomic hybridization experiments to detect constitutional copy number changes in genomic DNA. (nature.com)
  • PureTech Health plc, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing novel medicines focused on the Brain-Immune-Gut Axis, today announced that it has entered into a multiyear collaboration with F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., to advance PureTech's milk-derived exosome platform technology for the oral administration of Roche's antisense oligonucleotide platform. (news-medical.net)
  • The maximum length of synthetic oligonucleotides hardly exceeds 200 nucleotide residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical modification of synthetic AMOs enhance potency by protecting the oligonucleotide from nuclease degradation and by increasing binding affinity to the target miRNA. (nih.gov)
  • The use of synthetic oligonucleotides (ONs, short DNA or RNA strands) in the treatment of genetic diseases is a rapidly growing field, and the most promising alternative to gene therapy or small molecules. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Achieve high-resolution analysis and purification of synthetic and modified oligonucleotides using Thermo Scientific Dionex DNAPac PA100 Oligonucleotide columns. (thermofisher.com)
  • Enjoy strong anion exchange for high-resolution analysis and purification of synthetic oligonucleotides using Thermo Scientific DNAPac PA200 Oligonucleotide columns. (thermofisher.com)
  • The most serious obstacle complicating the use of negatively charged synthetic oligonucleotides in antisense, antigene, and aptamer strategies [ 1 , 2 ] consists in the necessity to transport them through the cell membrane against potential gradient. (hindawi.com)
  • Dynavax designed AZD1419, an inhaled synthetic oligonucleotide containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs, to be a potent and specific agonist for TLR9. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Growth in the market is driven by rising demand for synthesized oligonucleotides due to the growing field of molecular diagnostics, increasing government investments to develop genomic technologies, rising venture capital investments, and increasing demand for synthetic genes. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • During anti-miRNA oligonucleotide design, necessary modifications to optimize binding affinity, improve nuclease resistance, and in vivo delivery must be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successful inhibition of gene expression requires the antisense oligonucleotide to be nuclease resistant so that it can be successfully transported through biological membranes and can hybridize selectively to a target complementary nucleic acid, thereby actively blocking protein translation. (fda.gov)
  • This new generation of modified nucleotide bases can be inserted in a chimeric antisense oligonucleotide that contains a block of BNA nucleobases which increase the target affinity and protect the internal block from nuclease degradation. (biosyn.com)
  • As BNA bases confer significant nuclease resistance, we suggest the placement of phosphorothioate modification of only at the DNA gap and leaving the BNA flank as phosphodiester linkages in chimeric BNA Gapmer antisense oligonucleotides. (biosyn.com)
  • The phosphorothioates are the most widely studied oligonucleotides, because of their nuclease stability (although they are by no means nuclease proof) and relative ease of synthesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chemical modification of PS-ASO therapeutics reduces cellular protein-binding and improves the therapeutic index ," published in Nature Biotechnology , is the 2019 recipient of the OTS Paper of the Year Award , recognizing the most impactful paper in the field of oligonucleotide therapeutics. (yahoo.com)
  • Starting 2019, Bachem is strategically diversifying its technology platform to include the manufacture of therapeutic oligonucleotides and nucleic-acid-based medicine. (bachem.com)
  • A recent market study published by Future Market Insights (FMI) on the Oligonucleotide API market including global industry analysis for 2015-2019 & opportunity assessment for 2020-2030, delivers a comprehensive assessment of the most important market dynamics. (bccresearch.com)
  • Understanding the miRNA sequences involved in these diseases can allow us to use anti miRNA Oligonucleotides to disrupt pathways that lead to the under/over expression of proteins of cells that can cause symptoms for these diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short oligonucleotide sequences also have weak intrinsic binding affinities, which contributes to their degradation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have developed a program SOAP for efficient gapped and ungapped alignment of short oligonucleotides onto reference sequences. (nih.gov)
  • In other preferred embodiments, the oligonucleotides are specifically hybridizable with a transcription initiation site, a translation initiation site, 5'-untranslated sequences, 3'-untranslated sequences, and intron/exon junction of influenza virus mRNAs. (google.com)
  • In additional preferred embodiments, the oligonucleotides are specifically hybridizable with RNA sequences involved in splicing of the viral RNA, or in viral packaging. (google.com)
  • Oligonucleotides are also provided which hybridize to certain viral RNA sequences important for RNA splicing or for viral packaging. (google.com)
  • Strand-symmetric relative abundance functionals for di-, tri-, and tetranucleotides are introduced and applied to sequences encompassing a broad phylogenetic range to discern tendencies and anomalies in the occurrences of these short oligonucleotides within and between genomic sequences. (pnas.org)
  • Aptamers are typically selected from libraries of random DNA (or RNA) sequences through systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), which involves several rounds of alternating steps of partitioning of candidate oligonucleotides and their PCR amplification. (nature.com)
  • N2 - PRIMEX can detect oligonucleotide sequences in whole genomes, allowing for mismatches. (muni.cz)
  • Affinity Plus DNA & RNA Oligonucleotides are LNA single- and double-stranded sequences. (idtdna.com)
  • Affinity Plus Oligonucleotides provide identical annealing properties as other manufacturers' LNA sequences (Figure 1). (idtdna.com)
  • Moreover, North America is estimated to register the highest CAGR during the forecast period primarily due to the increasing R&D activities and the growing number of oligonucleotide-based drugs/therapies being approved by the FDA. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • It is a leading supplier of custom DNA and RNA oligonucleotides for the life sciences research community in North America. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific is another leading player in the oligonucleotide synthesis market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Creating chemically stable short oligonucleotides was the earliest challenge in developing ASO therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human body the application of Antisense Oligonucleotides (AO) show great promise in disease states such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal Muscular Dystrophy (SMD). (ispe.org)
  • The significant number of inpatient and outpatient visits in hospitals coupled with the high requirement of oligonucleotide drugs to cater to the demand from the vast patient pool suffering from diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease, is driving the market growth in the segment. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • With the recent approvals of two antisense oligonucleotides for the treatment of the genetic diseases Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy, we explore here the potential of antisense oligonucleotides to knockdown the expression of pro-fibrotic proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • The field of oligonucleotide therapeutics research is ripe with the prospect of new discoveries. (springer.com)
  • The Young Investigator Award recognizes the outstanding achievements and contributions by a professional scientist in the field of oligonucleotide therapeutics who has recently received his or her doctoral degree. (yahoo.com)
  • and (e) reacting said second reaction intermediate with a nucleoside having a 5'-hydroxyl moiety, a nucleotide having a 5'-hydroxyl moiety or an oligonucleotide having a 5'-hydroxyl moiety in the presence of an activating agent to form an esterlinkage between an S-(alkaryl or aryl) alkyl phosphorothioate moiety of said second reaction intermediate and said 5'-hydroxyl moiety. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. The process of claim 1 further including reacting the product of step (e) with a nucleoside 3'-S-(alkaryl or aryl) phosphorothioate, a nucleotide 3'-S-(alkaryl or aryl) phosphorothioate or an oligonucleotide 3'-S-(alkaryl or aryl)phosphorothioate. (patentgenius.com)
  • Imanishi, T., "Synthesis and Property of Novel Conformationally Constrained Nucleoside and Oligonucleotide Analogs", The Sixteenth International Congress of Heterocyclic Chemistry, Aug. 10-15, 1997. (patentgenius.com)
  • Oligonucleotides are chemically synthesized using building blocks, protected phosphoramidites of natural or chemically modified nucleosides or, to a lesser extent, of non-nucleosidic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first chemically synthesized modified oligonucleotides were the methylphosphonates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, in an iterative process, a pool of single stranded oligonucleotides is contacted with a target structure (e.g. a protein), high-affinity oligonucleotides are then isolated, amplified and again put into contact with the target until, eventually, an ideal oligonucleotide has been obtained. (innovations-report.com)
  • Oligonucleotides are unmodified or chemically modified single-stranded DNA molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oligonucleotides are single-stranded and short RNA or DNA molecules with applications in research, forensics, and genetic testing. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A prospective outlook for the development of antisense oligonucleotides to target fibrosis is outlined. (mdpi.com)
  • Anti-miRNA Oligonucleotides (also known as AMOs) have many uses in cellular mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth of the synthesized oligonucleotides segment is attributed to the increasing number of applications of synthesized oligonucleotides in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The synthesized oligonucleotides segment is expected to dominate the market by accounting for the largest share in 2015, and it is also expected to experience the highest growth rate during the forecast period. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Synthesis of 2'-O,3'-C-Linked Bicyclic Nucleosides and Bicyclic Oligonucleotides", J. Chem. (patentgenius.com)
  • S. Obika, D. Nanbu, K. Morio and T. Imanishi, "Synthesis and Properties of Oligonucleotides Containing Novel Bicyclic Nucleosides with a Fixed N-Form Sugar Puckering" Summary of Poster No. 32 of the 7.sup.th Symposium on Antisense, Nov. 21, 1997,Chiba City, Japan. (patentgenius.com)
  • Oligonucleotide aptamers do not rely on Watson-Crick base-paring, but bind via their three-dimensional structure to, typically, peptides, and consist of short strands of DNA or RNA. (bachem.com)
  • Based on API Type, the market is segmented into antisense oligonucleotides API, Short Interfering RNA (siRNA) API, phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) API, MiRNA API, aptamers API, CpG Oligonucleotides API and Others (ON Conjugates (NP), ShRNA, etc. (bccresearch.com)
  • Conceptual simplicity, the possibility of rational design, relatively inexpensive cost, and developments in the sequencing of human genome have led to the use of short fragments of nucleic acid, commonly called oligonucleotides, either as therapeutic agents or as tools to study gene function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Towards the great challenges that nanotechnology arise, Nano-OligoMed has the ambition to establish and support a network of international collaboration, enabling a collaborative scientific team to effectively use a diversity of approaches and strategies to generate and test hybrid nanomaterials for the efficient and safe systemic delivery of oligonucleotide-based therapeutic agents. (europa.eu)
  • Methods for synthesizing oligonucleotides on solid supports are well established (7-14). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our oligonucleotides are produced using AIE-HPLC and RP-HPLC methods, resulting in a very high purity level. (qiagen.com)
  • Traditional methods for the identification of known polymorphisms are restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, oligonucleotide ligation assay , and minisequencing (38-41). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In Therapeutic Oligonucleotides: Methods and Protocols , a selection of established and emerging methods for the application of oligonucleotides as therapeutics are presented, all providing the tools needed to inspire great changes in the field. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and easily accessible, Therapeutic Oligonucleotides: Methods and Protocols serves as a timely resource for both professionals and novices pursuing research in this exciting and pioneering field. (springer.com)
  • Methods: Custom oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays were designed using the Agilent Technologies platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones that had already been validated for use in previous versions of clone arrays used in clinical practice. (nature.com)
  • However, most methods for using off‐chip DNA for gene synthesis have failed to scale due to the high error rates, low yields, and high chemical complexity of the chip‐synthesized oligonucleotides. (currentprotocols.com)
  • In nature, oligonucleotides are usually found as small RNA molecules that function in the regulation of gene expression (e.g. microRNA), or are degradation intermediates derived from the breakdown of larger nucleic acid molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • PS backbone modifications to oligonucleotides protects them against unwanted degradation by enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the degradation products of phosphodiester oligonucleotides, dNMP 2 mononucleotides, may be cytotoxic and also exert antiproliferative effects ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One subtype of DNA MicroArrays can be described as substrates (nylon, glass etc.) to which oligonucleotides have been bound at high density. (wikidoc.org)
  • Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligonucleotides are short (20-25 bases typically) DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, forensics and even treatments. (ispe.org)
  • Agilent Technologies has opened a 12,500 m 2 oligonucleotide production plant in Frederick, Colorado, to meet growing demand for the RNA and DNA molecules that biotech firms are developing as therapies for many diseases. (acs.org)
  • Antisense oligonucleotides are short, single strands of DNA or RNA molecules. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • AsiaTIDES is the premier event in Asia for accelerating promising oligonucleotide and peptide molecules from research to commercialization. (bachem.com)
  • Different classes of oligonucleotide therapeutics exist, referring to their mode of interaction with the target molecules. (bachem.com)
  • In accordance with preferred embodiments, oligonucleotides and oligonucleotide analogs are provided which are specifically hybridizable with viral RNAs. (google.com)
  • S. Obika, K. Morio, D. Nanbu and T. Imanishi, "Duplex and Triplex Formation of 2', 5'-Linked Oligonucleotide Analogs Having Restricted Sugar Puckering in S-Conformation", Summary of Poster No. 33 of the 7.sup.th Symposium on Antisense, Nov. 21,1997, Chiba City, Japan. (patentgenius.com)
  • Automated synthesizers allow the synthesis of oligonucleotides up to 160 to 200 bases. (news-medical.net)
  • This technology relates to the synthesis of oligonucleotides, and intermediates useful in its synthesis. (fda.gov)
  • The Bachem team is excited to meet with you, learn your needs for peptides and oligonucleotides and discuss how Bachem can meet your API custom manufacturing needs. (bachem.com)
  • Peptides and oligonucleotides are mostly produced by solid phase synthesis. (novasep.com)
  • As experts in chromatography systems and processes, we can help you optimize chromatography steps for the purification of your peptides and oligonucleotides. (novasep.com)
  • The therapeutic application of oligonucleotides is based on the selective formation of hybrids between antisense oligonucleotides and complimentary nucleic acids, such as messenger RNAs. (fda.gov)
  • Another modification that is useful for medical applications of oligonucleotides is 2' sugar modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • SEPON - SEPON designs gene-specific oligonucleotides for microarray experiments and is able to use EST input from organisms in which the genome is not annotated for genes. (bioinformatics.org)
  • This Perspective describes a promising approach to RNA repair based on the use of antisense oligonucleotides to modulate alternative splicing and engender the production of therapeutic gene products. (jci.org)
  • The main obstacles in using antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit gene expression are cellular instability, low cellular uptake, and poor intracellular delivery. (google.com.au)
  • Wave's lead oligonucleotide candidates are WVE-120101 and WVE-120102, which selectively target the mutant allele of the huntingtin (HTT) gene. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • Mutation in the gene coding for coagulation factor V and resistance to activated protein C: detection of the genetic mutation by oligonucleotide ligation assay using a semi-automated system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other chapters address quantitation of RNA therapeutics in cells, assaying gene knockdown, selecting the best target site and synthesis of various modified oligonucleotides. (springer.com)
  • SUMMARY In this paper we report exploratory analyses of high-density oligonucleotide array data from the Affymetrix GeneChip R system with the objective of improving upon currently used measures of gene expression. (psu.edu)
  • Bio-Synthesis's BNA gapmers chimeric antisense RNA oligonucleotide technology gives you the highest knock-down, lowest off-target effect to achieve efficient inhibition of coding and non coding long RNAs (lncRNAs). (biosyn.com)
  • Telomere-specific oligonucleotides that reduce telomerase activity and disrupt telomere architecture are also in development as novel anticancer therapeutics. (mdpi.com)
  • Yet, each of them contains 2-4 specific oligonucleotides. (springer.com)
  • One of the MHV-3-specific oligonucleotides was mapped in 30S poly(A)-containing RNA or 6-7 Kb from the 3-end and the other near the 5′-end of the genome. (springer.com)
  • IRDye 700 p53 Consensus Oligonucleotide for EMSA. (licor.com)
  • Although it is not a complicated matter to synthesize phosphodiester oligonucleotides, their use is limited as they are rapidly degraded by the intracellular endonucleases and exonucleases, usually via 3′→5′ activity ( 4 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleotide phosphodiester oligonucleotides should therefore not be used in antisense experiments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides: Selective killing of the intracellular parasite Leishmania amazonensis", Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • A process for preparing phosphorothioate oligonucleotides utilizes S-(alkaryl or aryl) phosphorothioate compounds as intermediates suitable for use in the solution phase. (patentgenius.com)
  • Modifying the 2' position sugar increases the effectiveness of oligonucleotides by enhancing the target binding capabilities of oligonucleotides, specifically in antisense oligonucleotides therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of current oligonucleotide-based anticancer therapies that target telomeres and telomerase. (mdpi.com)
  • Two different antisense oligonucleotide-based (ASO-based) therapies are currently in clinical use to treat neuromuscular diseases. (jci.org)
  • Therefore, antisense oligonucleotides can be useful tools in anticancer and antiviral therapies. (google.com.au)
  • Based on end user, the oligonucleotide synthesis market is segmented into academic research institutes, diagnostic laboratories, pharmaceutical & biotechnology companies, and hospitals. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • On the basis of products and services, the Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market is segmented into synthesized oligonucleotides, reagents, and equipment. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Based on product and services, the market is segmented into synthesized oligonucleotides, reagents, and equipment. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • In this report, the oligonucleotide synthesis market is segmented based on products and services, applications, end users, and regions. (pitchengine.com)
  • The unique chemistry is designed for analysis of oligonucleotides and double-stranded (ds) DNA/RNA fragments using LC-UV or LC-MS. The column chemistry provides excellent performance under a broad range of pH, temperature, and mobile phase compositions. (thermofisher.com)
  • IRDye 700 oligonucleotides are supplied as 25 µL of 50 nM (or 50 fmol/µL) double-stranded DNA. (licor.com)
  • The linkage between the oligonucleotide and the support is labile to the the final reagent used to remove blocking groups in the bases, and so this step in the process also removes the oligonucleotide from the solid support. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Oligonucleotides are small nucleic acid polymers, usually less than 20 bases in length. (selectscience.net)
  • These modifications give new properties to the oligonucleotides and make them a key element in antisense therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies may help design novel therapeutic approaches to overcome the challenges of oligonucleotide therapy in a clinical setting. (mdpi.com)
  • Consideration is given to the advantages antisense oligonucleotides would have as an anti-fibrotic therapy alongside factors that would need to be addressed to improve efficacy. (mdpi.com)
  • Antisense therapy with the use of antisense oligonucleotides (AON) ha. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Effective treatment of spinal muscular atrophy with antisense oligonucleotide therapy opens the door to treating other neurological disorders with this approach. (sciencemag.org)
  • The oligonucleotide comprises nucleotide units. (google.com)
  • 2. The oligonucleotide of claim 1 wherein at least one of the intersugar linkages between nucleotide units of the oligonucleotide is a phosphorothioate. (google.com.au)
  • 3. The oligonucleotide of claim 1 wherein at least one of the nucleotide units comprises a modification on the 2' position of the sugar. (google.com.au)
  • Are DNA adaptors or oligonucleotides included in the NEBNext® products? (neb.com)
  • FAQ: Are DNA adaptors or oligonucleotides included in the NEBNext® products? (neb.com)
  • A first-in-human study with a new class of antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics showed the ability to target the RNA-silencing drug to the liver, resulting in improved potency and safety at therapeutic doses. (news-medical.net)
  • BNA gapmer antisense RNA oligonucleotides offer greater potency and low toxicity than other modified nucleotide. (biosyn.com)
  • 7. The composition of claim 1 , where the p-ethoxy oligonucleotide consists essentially of a nucleic acid molecule having the sequence GAAGGGCTTCTGCGTC (SEQ ID NO:1). (google.com.au)
  • The cellular uptake of antisense oligonucleotides is low. (google.com.au)
  • To solve this problem, physical techniques such as calcium-phosphate precipitation, DEAE-dextran mediation, or electroporation have been used to increase the cellular uptake of oligonucleotides. (google.com.au)
  • Manoharan et al, "Chemical Modifications to Improve Uptake and Bioavailability of Antisense Oligonucleotides", Ann. (patentgenius.com)
  • Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) designed to treat SMA caused by mutations in chromosome 5q that lead to SMN protein deficiency may be considered for treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Functional analysis of 114 exon-internal AONs for targeted DMD exon skipping: indication for steric hindrance of SR protein binding sites," Oligonucleotides , vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 284-297, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • For this reason, it is a common oligonucleotide used in EMSA to assess protein binding in cancer and related research. (licor.com)
  • 1 and 2 ), and to numerous clinical trials of therapeutic oligonucleotides ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This chapter provides details about the Oligonucleotide API based on Marketing Status, and has been classified into marketed, clinical trials (Clinical Phases) based. (bccresearch.com)
  • At OEM by QIAGEN, we know that high-quality, pure oligonucleotides can make a difference, helping our customers' success in creating reliable commercial assays. (qiagen.com)
  • The collaboration is looking to develop and commercialise several antisense oligonucleotides to treat genetically-defined neurological diseases, including Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease -frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • The oligonucleotide synthesis market growth is majorly driven by factors such as increasing inline and strong pipeline of oligonucleotides, growing consolidation of the market, and increasing burden of cancer and chronic diseases. (bccresearch.com)
  • Therapeutic oligonucleotides (ONs), such as splice switching ONs (SSOs), provide opportunities for treating serious, life-threatening diseases. (rsc.org)
  • Within the field of RNA therapeutics, antisense oligonucleotide-based therapeutics are a potentially powerful means of treating intractable diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Antisense oligonucleotides are single strands of DNA or RNA that are complementary to a chosen sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligonucleotide is much cheaper than that of two strands to make a ds DNA. (bio.net)
  • Fluorescent modifications on 5' and 3' end of oligonucleotides was reported to evaluate the oligonucleotides structures, dynamics and interactions with respect to environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A wide range of chemical modifications are available for our oligonucleotides. (exiqon.com)
  • Many modifications can be directly introduced at the 5' end or at internal positions of the oligonucleotides using the phosphoramidites. (eurogentec.com)
  • We conduct integrated stability programs for oligonucleotides incorporating ICH storage and testing to cGMP. (intertek.com)
  • Although these oligonucleotides have excellent stability in biological systems ( 10 ), the absence of charge reduces their solubility. (aacrjournals.org)