Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Gene Expression Profiling
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Molecular Sequence Data
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Amino Acid Sequence
Reproducibility of Results
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sensitivity and Specificity
Gene Expression Regulation
Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
DNA Copy Number Variations
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Expressed Sequence Tags
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Open Reading Frames
Protein Array Analysis
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Sequence Analysis, Protein
Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
DNA Restriction Enzymes
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Sequence Analysis, RNA
Molecular Probe Techniques
Nucleic Acid Denaturation
DNA Transposable Elements
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
A novel method for determining linkage between DNA sequences: hybridization to paired probe arrays. (1/28523)Cooperative hybridization has been used to establish physical linkage between two loci on a DNA strand. Linkage was detected by hybridization to a new type of high-density oligonucleotide array. Each synthesis location on the array contains a mixture of two different probe sequences. Each of the two probes can hybridize independently to a different target sequence, but if the two target sequences are physically linked there is a cooperative increase in hybridization yield. The ability to create and control non-linear effects raises a host of possibilities for applications of oligonucleotide array hybridization. The method has been used to assign linkage in 50:50 mixtures of DNA containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) separated by 17, 693, 1350 and 2038 bp and to reconstruct haplotypes. Other potential uses include increasing the specificity of hybridization in mutation detection and gene expression monitoring applications, determining SNP haplotypes, characterizing repetitive sequences, such as short tandem repeats, and aiding contig assembly in sequen-cing by hybridization. (+info)
Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents. (2/28523)The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization. (+info)
Combining SSH and cDNA microarrays for rapid identification of differentially expressed genes. (3/28523)Comparing patterns of gene expression in cell lines and tissues has important applications in a variety of biological systems. In this study we have examined whether the emerging technology of cDNA microarrays will allow a high throughput analysis of expression of cDNA clones generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A set of cDNA clones including 332 SSH inserts amplified by PCR was arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with fluorescent labeled probes prepared from RNA from ER-positive (MCF7 and T47D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231 and HBL-100) breast cancer cell lines. Ten clones were identified that were over-expressed by at least a factor of five in the ER-positive cell lines. Northern blot analysis confirmed over-expression of these 10 cDNAs. Sequence analysis identified four of these clones as cytokeratin 19, GATA-3, CD24 and glutathione-S-transferase mu-3. Of the remaining six cDNA clones, four clones matched EST sequences from two different genes and two clones were novel sequences. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence confirmed that CD24 protein was over-expressed in the ER-positive cell lines. We conclude that SSH and microarray technology can be successfully applied to identify differentially expressed genes. This approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes without the need to obtain previously cloned cDNAs. (+info)
Identification of the genes responsive to etoposide-induced apoptosis: application of DNA chip technology. (4/28523)DNA chip technology was used in an attempt to identify target genes responsible for apoptosis induced by etoposide, a p53 activating topoisomerase II inhibitor used clinically as an antitumor agent. 62 Individual mRNAs whose mass changed significantly were identified after screening oligonucleotide arrays capable of detecting 6591 unique human mRNA species. 12 (Nine induced and three repressed) of the etoposide-responsive genes were further studied by Northern analysis and an agreement rate of 92%, was reached. Among the 12 genes studied, two (WAF1/p21 and PCNA) are known p53 regulatory genes, two (glutathione peroxidase and S100A2 calcium-binding protein) appear to be the novel p53 target genes and the others appear to be p53-independent. Based upon these findings, the signalling pathways that possibly mediate etoposide-induced apoptosis are proposed. (+info)
Development of an oligonucleotide-specific capture plate hybridization assay for detection of Haemophilus parasuis. (5/28523)An oligonucleotide-specific capture plate hybridization assay has been developed to rapidly, specifically, and sensitively detect Haemophilus parasuis from nasal swabs. Several in vitro studies have been performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the test, and in vivo studies have validated this technique in pigs. Results suggest that the assay detects <100 colony-forming units/ml in a pure culture and gives a positive result when H. parasuis is present in a ratio of 1:10(3)-10(4) in a mixed culture, and the probe does not hybridize with other related species found in the upper respiratory tract. This assay is more sensitive than culture for detection of the microorganism from nasal swabs and lesions. (+info)
Versatile derivatisation of solid support media for covalent bonding on DNA-microchips. (6/28523)A chemistry was developed that permits on DNA-arrays both the covalent immobilisation of pre-fabricated nucleic acids-such as oligonucleotides, PCR-products or peptide nucleic acid oligomers-and the in situ synthesis of such compounds on either glass or polypropylene surfaces. Bonding was found to be stable even after some 30 cycles of stripping. Due to a dendrimeric structure of the linker molecule, the loading can be modified in a controlled manner and increased beyond the capacity of glass without negative effects on hybridisation efficiency. Also, the chemistry warrants the modulation of other surface properties such as charge or hydrophobicity. Preferentially, attachment of nucleic acids takes place only via the terminal amino-group of amino-modified oligonucleotides or the terminal hydroxyl-group of unmodified molecules so that the entire molecule is accessible to probe hybridisation. This derivatisation represents a support chemistry versatile enough to serve nearly all current forms of DNA-arrays or microchips. (+info)
Timely toxicology. (7/28523)The ToxChip, a DNA microarray chip, allows the monitoring of the expression levels of thousands of different genes at a time, thereby condensing months of painstaking laboratory tasks into a day's work. For toxicology researchers in particular, this tool is important because it promises a more effective way to identify environmental hazards and their effects on DNA. The ToxChip, developed by NIEHS scientists J. Carl Barrett, Cynthia Afshari, and Emile F. Nuwaysir, could transform the way toxicologists approach environmental problems. (+info)
DNA microarray technology: the anticipated impact on the study of human disease. (8/28523)One can imagine that, one day, there will be a general requirement that relevant array data be deposited, at the time of publication of manuscripts in which they are described, into a single site made available for the storage and analysis of array data (modeled after the GenBank submission requirements for DNA sequence information). With this system in place, one can anticipate a time when data from thousands of gene expression experiments will be available for meta-analysis, which has the potential to balance out artifacts from many individual studies, thus leading to more robust results and subtle conclusions. This will require that data adhere to some type of uniform structure and format that would ideally be independent of the particular expression technology used to generate it. The pros and cons of various publication modalities for these large electronic data sets have been discussed elsewhere , but, practical difficulties aside, general depositing must occur for this technology to reach the broadest range of investigators. Finally, as mentioned at the beginning of this review, it is unfortunate that this important research tool remains largely restricted to a few laboratories that have developed expertise in this area and to a growing number of commercial interests. Ultimately the real value of microarray technology will only be realized when this approach is generally available. It is hoped that issues including platforms, instrumentation, clone availability, and patents  will be resolved shortly, making this technology accessible to the broadest range of scientists at the earliest possible moment. (+info)
Oligonucleotide probes are short, synthetic DNA or RNA molecules that are designed to bind specifically to a target sequence of DNA or RNA. They are commonly used in medical research and diagnostic applications to detect and identify specific genetic sequences or to study gene expression. In medical research, oligonucleotide probes are often used in techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) to amplify and visualize specific DNA or RNA sequences. They can also be used in gene expression studies to measure the levels of specific mRNAs in cells or tissues. In diagnostic applications, oligonucleotide probes are used in a variety of tests, including DNA sequencing, genetic testing, and infectious disease diagnosis. For example, oligonucleotide probes can be used in PCR-based tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens in clinical samples, or in microarray-based tests to measure the expression levels of thousands of genes at once. Overall, oligonucleotide probes are a powerful tool in medical research and diagnostic applications, allowing researchers and clinicians to study and understand the genetic basis of disease and to develop new treatments and diagnostic tests.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
DNA probes are a specific segment of DNA that is labeled with a fluorescent or radioactive marker. They are used in medical research and diagnostics to detect and identify specific DNA sequences in a sample. DNA probes are commonly used in genetic testing to diagnose genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington's disease. They can also be used to detect the presence of specific genes or genetic mutations in cancer cells, to identify bacteria or viruses in a sample, and to study the evolution and diversity of different species. DNA probes are created by isolating a specific DNA sequence of interest and attaching a fluorescent or radioactive label to it. The labeled probe is then hybridized to a sample of DNA, and the presence of the probe can be detected by fluorescence or radioactivity. The specificity of DNA probes allows for accurate and sensitive detection of specific DNA sequences, making them a valuable tool in medical research and diagnostics.
Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) is a molecular genetic technique used to compare the DNA content of two or more samples. It is commonly used in the medical field to identify genetic changes or abnormalities in a sample, such as deletions, duplications, or amplifications of specific regions of DNA. In CGH, a reference sample of normal DNA is labeled with a fluorescent dye, and the sample of interest is also labeled with a different fluorescent dye. The two samples are then mixed and hybridized to a microarray, which is a slide containing thousands of small DNA fragments from a reference genome. The microarray is then scanned to detect any differences in the intensity of the fluorescent signals between the two samples. CGH can be used to detect genetic changes in a variety of settings, including cancer research, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. It is particularly useful for identifying copy number variations (CNVs), which are changes in the number of copies of a specific region of DNA. CNVs can be associated with a wide range of genetic disorders and diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and neurological disorders.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
DNA, ribosomal spacer refers to a region of non-coding DNA that is located between the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes in the bacterial genome. This region is also known as the intergenic spacer (IGS) region. The length and sequence of the ribosomal spacer can vary among different bacterial species and strains, and it has been used as a molecular marker for bacterial identification and classification. In addition, the ribosomal spacer region can also contain genes that are involved in bacterial metabolism and pathogenesis.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Cluster analysis is a statistical method used in the medical field to group patients or medical data based on similarities in their characteristics or outcomes. The goal of cluster analysis is to identify patterns or subgroups within a larger population that may have distinct clinical features, treatment responses, or outcomes. In the medical field, cluster analysis can be used for various purposes, such as: 1. Disease classification: Cluster analysis can be used to classify patients with similar disease characteristics or outcomes into distinct subgroups. This can help healthcare providers to tailor treatment plans to the specific needs of each subgroup. 2. Risk prediction: Cluster analysis can be used to identify subgroups of patients who are at high risk of developing a particular disease or condition. This can help healthcare providers to implement preventive measures or early interventions to reduce the risk of disease. 3. Drug discovery: Cluster analysis can be used to identify subgroups of patients who respond differently to a particular drug. This can help pharmaceutical companies to develop more targeted and effective treatments. 4. Clinical trial design: Cluster analysis can be used to design more efficient clinical trials by identifying subgroups of patients who are likely to respond to a particular treatment. Overall, cluster analysis is a powerful tool in the medical field that can help healthcare providers to better understand and manage patient populations, improve treatment outcomes, and advance medical research.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
In the medical field, algorithms are a set of step-by-step instructions used to diagnose or treat a medical condition. These algorithms are designed to provide healthcare professionals with a standardized approach to patient care, ensuring that patients receive consistent and evidence-based treatment. Medical algorithms can be used for a variety of purposes, including diagnosing diseases, determining the appropriate course of treatment, and predicting patient outcomes. They are often based on clinical guidelines and best practices, and are continually updated as new research and evidence becomes available. Examples of medical algorithms include diagnostic algorithms for conditions such as pneumonia, heart attack, and cancer, as well as treatment algorithms for conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. These algorithms can help healthcare professionals make more informed decisions about patient care, improve patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of medical errors.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.
Oligonucleotides, antisense are short, synthetic DNA or RNA molecules that are designed to bind to specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and prevent them from being translated into proteins. This process is called antisense inhibition and can be used to regulate gene expression in cells. Antisense oligonucleotides are typically designed to target specific sequences within a gene's mRNA, and they work by binding to complementary sequences on the mRNA molecule, causing it to be degraded or prevented from being translated into protein. This can be used to either silence or activate specific genes, depending on the desired effect. Antisense oligonucleotides have been used in a variety of medical applications, including the treatment of genetic disorders, cancer, and viral infections. They are also being studied as potential therapeutic agents for a wide range of other diseases and conditions.
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a type of nucleic acid that is involved in the process of protein synthesis in cells. It is composed of a chain of nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In the medical field, RNA is often studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to silence specific genes and treat diseases such as cancer and viral infections. Additionally, RNA is being studied as a potential biomarker for various diseases, as changes in the levels or structure of certain RNA molecules can indicate the presence of a particular condition.
DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.
Chromosome mapping is a technique used in genetics to identify the location of genes on chromosomes. It involves analyzing the physical and genetic characteristics of chromosomes to determine their structure and organization. This information can be used to identify genetic disorders, understand the inheritance patterns of traits, and develop new treatments for genetic diseases. Chromosome mapping can be done using various techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH).
Chromosomes, artificial, bacterial refer to artificially created or modified bacterial chromosomes that are used in various applications in the medical field. These artificial chromosomes are typically created by inserting foreign DNA into a bacterial genome, which can then be used to express genes of interest or to study gene function. One common use of artificial bacterial chromosomes is in the development of genetically modified bacteria for the production of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and other valuable compounds. These bacteria can be engineered to produce specific enzymes or metabolic pathways that are necessary for the production of these compounds. Artificial bacterial chromosomes can also be used in basic research to study gene function and regulation. By inserting foreign DNA into a bacterial genome, researchers can study how the inserted gene is expressed and regulated in the bacterial cell, which can provide insights into the function of the gene in other organisms. Overall, artificial bacterial chromosomes are a powerful tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to manipulate bacterial genomes in a controlled and predictable manner, and to study gene function and regulation in a variety of applications.
RNA, Complementary refers to a type of RNA molecule that is complementary in sequence to a specific DNA sequence. This means that the RNA molecule contains a sequence of nucleotides that is the reverse complement of a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA. In the context of gene expression, complementary RNA molecules are often produced through a process called transcription, in which the DNA sequence is used as a template to synthesize an RNA molecule. The complementary RNA molecule is then processed and transported out of the nucleus to be used in various cellular processes, such as protein synthesis. Complementary RNA molecules can also be produced through a process called reverse transcription, in which an enzyme called reverse transcriptase converts a single-stranded RNA molecule into a complementary DNA molecule. This process is important in the replication of retroviruses, such as HIV, and is also used in various laboratory techniques, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S is a type of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that is found in bacteria and archaea. It is a small subunit of the ribosome, which is the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. The 16S rRNA is located in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is essential for the binding and decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation. The sequence of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved among bacteria and archaea, making it a useful target for the identification and classification of these organisms. In the medical field, the 16S rRNA is often used in molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to study the diversity and evolution of bacterial and archaeal populations. It is also used in the development of diagnostic tests for bacterial infections and in the identification of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.
Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are short chains of DNA or RNA that are synthesized in the laboratory. They are typically used as tools in molecular biology research, as well as in therapeutic applications such as gene therapy. ODNs can be designed to bind to specific DNA or RNA sequences, and can be used to modulate gene expression or to introduce genetic changes into cells. They can also be used as primers in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to amplify specific DNA sequences. In the medical field, ODNs are being studied for their potential use in treating a variety of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. For example, ODNs can be used to silence specific genes that are involved in disease progression, or to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.
DNA, ribosomal, refers to the specific type of DNA found within ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is transcribed into ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which then forms the core of the ribosome. The rRNA molecules are essential for the assembly and function of the ribosome, and the rDNA sequences that code for these molecules are highly conserved across different species. Mutations in rDNA can lead to defects in ribosome function and can be associated with various medical conditions, including some forms of cancer and inherited disorders.
Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that combines computer science, mathematics, statistics, and molecular biology to study biological systems at the molecular and cellular level. In the medical field, computational biology is used to analyze large amounts of biological data, such as gene expression data, protein structures, and medical images, to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of diseases and to develop new treatments. Some specific applications of computational biology in the medical field include: 1. Genomics: Computational biology is used to analyze large amounts of genomic data to identify genetic mutations that are associated with diseases, such as cancer, and to develop personalized treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup. 2. Drug discovery: Computational biology is used to predict the efficacy and toxicity of potential drug candidates, reducing the time and cost of drug development. 3. Medical imaging: Computational biology is used to analyze medical images, such as MRI and CT scans, to identify patterns and anomalies that may be indicative of disease. 4. Systems biology: Computational biology is used to study complex biological systems, such as the human immune system, to identify key regulatory mechanisms and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Overall, computational biology has the potential to revolutionize the medical field by enabling more accurate diagnoses, more effective treatments, and a deeper understanding of the underlying biology of diseases.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
In the medical field, data interpretation and statistical analysis are essential tools used to analyze and understand complex medical data. Data interpretation involves the process of analyzing and making sense of raw data, while statistical analysis involves the use of mathematical and statistical methods to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. Data interpretation and statistical analysis are used in a variety of medical fields, including epidemiology, clinical trials, and public health. For example, in epidemiology, data interpretation and statistical analysis are used to identify patterns and trends in disease incidence and prevalence, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing or treating diseases. In clinical trials, data interpretation and statistical analysis are used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new treatments or medications. This involves analyzing data from clinical trials to determine whether the treatment or medication is effective and safe for use in patients. Overall, data interpretation and statistical analysis are critical tools in the medical field, helping researchers and healthcare professionals to make informed decisions based on data-driven evidence.
RNA, Neoplasm refers to the presence of abnormal RNA molecules in a neoplasm, which is a mass of abnormal cells that grow uncontrollably in the body. RNA is a type of genetic material that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis. In neoplasms, abnormal RNA molecules can be produced due to mutations in the DNA that codes for RNA. These abnormal RNA molecules can affect the normal functioning of cells and contribute to the development and progression of cancer. The detection and analysis of RNA in neoplasms can provide important information about the genetic changes that are occurring in the cells and can help guide the development of targeted therapies for cancer treatment.
Chromosome aberrations refer to changes or abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell. These changes can occur naturally during cell division or as a result of exposure to mutagens such as radiation or certain chemicals. Chromosome aberrations can be classified into several types, including deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and aneuploidy. These changes can have significant effects on the function of the affected cells and can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, genetic disorders, and birth defects. In the medical field, chromosome aberrations are often studied as a way to understand the genetic basis of disease and to develop new treatments.
In the medical field, alleles refer to the different forms of a gene that exist at a particular genetic locus (location) on a chromosome. Each gene has two alleles, one inherited from each parent. These alleles can be either dominant or recessive, and their combination determines the expression of the trait associated with that gene. For example, the gene for blood type has three alleles: A, B, and O. A person can inherit one or two copies of each allele, resulting in different blood types (A, B, AB, or O). The dominant allele is the one that is expressed when present in one copy, while the recessive allele is only expressed when present in two copies. Understanding the different alleles of a gene is important in medical genetics because it can help diagnose genetic disorders, predict disease risk, and guide treatment decisions. For example, mutations in certain alleles can cause genetic diseases such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis. By identifying the specific alleles involved in a genetic disorder, doctors can develop targeted therapies or genetic counseling to help affected individuals and their families.
DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.
Blotting, Northern is a laboratory technique used to detect and quantify specific RNA molecules in a sample. It involves transferring RNA from a gel onto a membrane, which is then hybridized with a labeled complementary DNA probe. The probe binds to the specific RNA molecules on the membrane, allowing their detection and quantification through autoradiography or other imaging methods. Northern blotting is commonly used to study gene expression patterns in cells or tissues, and to compare the expression levels of different RNA molecules in different samples.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
Oligoribonucleotides are short chains of ribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of RNA. They are typically composed of 5 to 20 ribonucleotides and are often used in medical research and therapy as tools to manipulate gene expression or to study the function of RNA molecules. In the medical field, oligoribonucleotides are used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Gene silencing: Oligoribonucleotides can be designed to bind to specific RNA molecules and prevent their translation into proteins, thereby silencing the expression of the corresponding gene. 2. RNA interference (RNAi): Oligoribonucleotides can be used to induce RNAi, a natural process in which small RNA molecules degrade complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to the suppression of gene expression. 3. Therapeutic applications: Oligoribonucleotides are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. 4. Research tools: Oligoribonucleotides are commonly used as research tools to study the function of RNA molecules and to investigate the mechanisms of gene regulation. Overall, oligoribonucleotides are a versatile and powerful tool in the medical field, with a wide range of potential applications in research and therapy.
In the medical field, "Databases, Genetic" refers to electronic systems that store and manage genetic data. These databases are used to collect, organize, and analyze genetic information from individuals, families, and populations. Genetic databases can contain a wide range of information, including genetic markers, genetic mutations, and genetic variations. This information can be used to study the genetic basis of diseases, identify genetic risk factors, and develop personalized treatment plans. There are several types of genetic databases, including population databases, family databases, and clinical databases. Population databases contain genetic information from large groups of individuals, while family databases focus on the genetic relationships between individuals within families. Clinical databases contain genetic information from patients with specific diseases or conditions. Genetic databases are an important tool in medical research and clinical practice, as they allow researchers and healthcare providers to access and analyze large amounts of genetic data quickly and efficiently. However, the use of genetic databases also raises important ethical and privacy concerns, as genetic information is highly sensitive and personal.
In the medical field, "Base Composition" refers to the relative proportions of the four nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine) in DNA or RNA. The base composition of a nucleic acid molecule is determined by the number of each base present and the sequence in which they are arranged. The base composition of DNA is typically expressed as the percentage of each base relative to the total number of bases. For example, if a DNA molecule contains 100 bases and 30% of those bases are adenine, the base composition would be 30% A, 20% T, 20% C, and 30% G. The base composition of RNA is similar to that of DNA, but RNA contains the base uracil (U) instead of thymine (T). The base composition of RNA is typically expressed as the percentage of each base relative to the total number of bases, with the exception of uracil, which is often expressed as the percentage of each base relative to the total number of nucleotides (which includes both bases and sugars). The base composition of nucleic acids can provide important information about the genetic material and can be used to identify different types of organisms or to diagnose genetic disorders.
A cell line, tumor is a type of cell culture that is derived from a cancerous tumor. These cell lines are grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the biology of cancer and testing potential new treatments. They are typically immortalized, meaning that they can continue to divide and grow indefinitely, and they often exhibit the characteristics of the original tumor from which they were derived, such as specific genetic mutations or protein expression patterns. Cell lines, tumor are an important tool in cancer research and have been used to develop many of the treatments that are currently available for cancer patients.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
RNA, Bacterial refers to the ribonucleic acid molecules that are produced by bacteria. These molecules play a crucial role in the functioning of bacterial cells, including the synthesis of proteins, the regulation of gene expression, and the metabolism of nutrients. Bacterial RNA can be classified into several types, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which all have specific functions within the bacterial cell. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is important for the development of new antibiotics and other treatments for bacterial infections.
In the medical field, computer simulation refers to the use of computer models and algorithms to simulate the behavior of biological systems, medical devices, or clinical procedures. These simulations can be used to study and predict the effects of various medical interventions, such as drug treatments or surgical procedures, on the human body. Computer simulations in medicine can be used for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Training and education: Medical students and professionals can use computer simulations to practice and refine their skills in a safe and controlled environment. 2. Research and development: Researchers can use computer simulations to study the underlying mechanisms of diseases and develop new treatments. 3. Clinical decision-making: Physicians can use computer simulations to predict the outcomes of different treatment options and make more informed decisions about patient care. 4. Device design and testing: Engineers can use computer simulations to design and test medical devices, such as prosthetics or surgical instruments, before they are used in patients. Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in the medical field that can help improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and advance medical knowledge.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells in the body, which can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, and hormonal imbalances. In the medical field, DNA and neoplasms are closely related because many types of cancer are caused by mutations in the DNA of cells. These mutations can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the formation of tumors. DNA analysis is often used to diagnose and treat cancer, as well as to identify individuals who are at increased risk of developing the disease.
Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides are synthetic DNA or RNA analogs in which one or more of the phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotides have been replaced with a phosphorothioate bond. These modifications can improve the stability and pharmacokinetics of the oligonucleotides, making them useful for therapeutic applications such as antisense therapy, RNA interference, and gene editing. Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides are also used as research tools to study gene function and regulation.
Neoplasm proteins are proteins that are produced by cancer cells. These proteins are often abnormal and can contribute to the growth and spread of cancer. They can be detected in the blood or other body fluids, and their presence can be used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. Some neoplasm proteins are also being studied as potential targets for cancer treatment.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Blotting, Southern is a laboratory technique used to detect specific DNA sequences in a sample. It is named after Edwin Southern, who developed the technique in the 1970s. The technique involves transferring DNA from a gel onto a membrane, such as nitrocellulose or nylon, and then using labeled probes to detect specific DNA sequences. The blotting process is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, genetic variation, and other aspects of DNA biology.
In the medical field, binding sites refer to specific locations on the surface of a protein molecule where a ligand (a molecule that binds to the protein) can attach. These binding sites are often formed by a specific arrangement of amino acids within the protein, and they are critical for the protein's function. Binding sites can be found on a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, receptors, and transporters. When a ligand binds to a protein's binding site, it can cause a conformational change in the protein, which can alter its activity or function. For example, a hormone may bind to a receptor protein, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to a specific cellular response. Understanding the structure and function of binding sites is important in many areas of medicine, including drug discovery and development, as well as the study of diseases caused by mutations in proteins that affect their binding sites. By targeting specific binding sites on proteins, researchers can develop drugs that modulate protein activity and potentially treat a wide range of diseases.
Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and classify bacteria based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. These techniques are important in the medical field because they help healthcare professionals to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment for that infection. There are several different bacterial typing techniques, including: 1. Serotyping: This technique involves identifying the specific proteins on the surface of bacteria, called antigens, which can be used to distinguish one strain of bacteria from another. 2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE): This technique involves separating bacterial DNA into fragments of different sizes using an electric field, and then comparing the patterns of these fragments to determine the genetic relatedness of different strains of bacteria. 3. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST): This technique involves sequencing specific regions of bacterial DNA and comparing the sequences to determine the genetic relatedness of different strains of bacteria. 4. Antibiotic susceptibility testing: This technique involves testing bacteria to determine their sensitivity to different antibiotics, which can help healthcare professionals to choose the most effective treatment for a particular infection. Overall, bacterial typing techniques are important tools in the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections, and they play a critical role in the development of new antibiotics and other treatments for bacterial diseases.
In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.
Thionucleotides are a type of nucleotide that contain a sulfur atom in place of the oxygen atom that is typically found in the sugar-phosphate backbone of nucleotides. They are an important component of the genetic material of certain bacteria and archaea, and are also used in the synthesis of certain drugs and other compounds. Thionucleotides are synthesized using a variety of methods, including chemical synthesis and enzymatic synthesis. They have a number of unique properties that make them useful in a variety of applications, including their ability to form stable bonds with other molecules and their ability to undergo a variety of chemical reactions.
DNA restriction enzymes are a class of enzymes that are naturally produced by bacteria and archaea to protect their DNA from foreign invaders. These enzymes recognize specific sequences of DNA and cut the strands at specific points, creating a double-stranded break. This allows the bacteria or archaea to destroy the foreign DNA and prevent it from replicating within their cells. In the medical field, DNA restriction enzymes are commonly used in molecular biology techniques such as DNA cloning, genetic engineering, and DNA fingerprinting. They are also used in the diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases, as well as in the study of viral infections and cancer. By cutting DNA at specific sites, researchers can manipulate and analyze the genetic material to gain insights into the function and regulation of genes, and to develop new therapies for genetic diseases.
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process that occurs naturally in the body. It is a vital mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and eliminating damaged or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, cells undergo a series of changes that ultimately lead to their death and removal from the body. These changes include chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which are engulfed by neighboring cells or removed by immune cells. Apoptosis plays a critical role in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune function. However, when apoptosis is disrupted or dysregulated, it can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
DNA, Fungal refers to the genetic material of fungi, which is a type of eukaryotic microorganism that includes yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. Fungal DNA is composed of four types of nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G), which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code that determines the characteristics and functions of the fungus. In the medical field, fungal DNA is often studied in the context of infections caused by fungi, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis. Fungal DNA can be detected in clinical samples, such as blood, sputum, or tissue, using molecular diagnostic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. These tests can help diagnose fungal infections and guide treatment decisions. Additionally, fungal DNA can be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of fungi, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment.
Oligoribonucleotides, antisense are short RNA molecules that are designed to bind to specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and prevent them from being translated into protein. These molecules are often used as a form of gene therapy to treat genetic disorders caused by the overexpression or underexpression of specific genes. Antisense oligonucleotides work by binding to the complementary sequence of the target mRNA, which causes the mRNA to be degraded or prevented from being translated into protein. This can help to regulate the expression of specific genes and potentially treat a variety of diseases.
In the medical field, a conserved sequence refers to a segment of DNA or RNA that is highly similar or identical across different species or organisms. These sequences are often important for the function of the molecule, and their conservation suggests that they have been evolutionarily conserved for a long time. Conserved sequences can be found in a variety of contexts, including in coding regions of genes, in regulatory regions that control gene expression, and in non-coding regions that have important functional roles. They can also be used as markers for identifying related species or for studying the evolution of a particular gene or pathway. Conserved sequences are often studied using bioinformatics tools and techniques, such as sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. By identifying and analyzing conserved sequences, researchers can gain insights into the function and evolution of genes and other biological molecules.
In the medical field, a codon is a sequence of three nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil) that codes for a specific amino acid in a protein. There are 64 possible codons, and each one corresponds to one of the 20 amino acids used to build proteins. The sequence of codons in a gene determines the sequence of amino acids in the resulting protein, which ultimately determines the protein's structure and function. Mutations in a gene can change the codon sequence, which can lead to changes in the amino acid sequence and potentially affect the function of the protein.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
In the medical field, "oils" typically refer to liquid substances that are derived from plants, animals, or minerals, and are used for a variety of purposes. Some common examples of medical oils include: 1. Essential oils: These are highly concentrated oils that are extracted from plants through distillation or expression. They are often used for aromatherapy, massage therapy, and other forms of alternative medicine. 2. Carrier oils: These are oils that are used to dilute essential oils or other active ingredients, making them safe for topical application. Examples include coconut oil, jojoba oil, and almond oil. 3. Medicinal oils: These are oils that are used for their therapeutic properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or antiseptic effects. Examples include tea tree oil, lavender oil, and eucalyptus oil. 4. Dietary oils: These are oils that are used for cooking or as a source of dietary fat. Examples include olive oil, canola oil, and vegetable oil. It's important to note that the use of oils in medicine should always be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as some oils can be toxic or cause allergic reactions if used improperly.
In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are found in almost every environment on Earth, including soil, water, and the human body. In the medical field, bacteria are often studied and classified based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. Bacteria can be either beneficial or harmful to humans. Some bacteria are essential for human health, such as the bacteria that live in the gut and help digest food. However, other bacteria can cause infections and diseases, such as strep throat, pneumonia, and meningitis. In the medical field, bacteria are often identified and treated using a variety of methods, including culturing and identifying bacteria using specialized laboratory techniques, administering antibiotics to kill harmful bacteria, and using vaccines to prevent bacterial infections.
DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons, are segments of DNA that can move or transpose from one location in the genome to another. They are found in the genomes of many organisms, including plants, animals, and bacteria. In the medical field, DNA transposable elements are of interest because they can play a role in the evolution of genomes and the development of diseases. For example, some transposable elements can cause mutations in genes, which can lead to genetic disorders or cancer. Additionally, transposable elements can contribute to the evolution of new genes and the adaptation of organisms to changing environments. Transposable elements can also be used as tools in genetic research and biotechnology. For example, scientists can use transposable elements to insert genes into cells or organisms, allowing them to study the function of those genes or to create genetically modified organisms for various purposes.
RNA, Ribosomal (rRNA) is a type of RNA that is essential for protein synthesis in cells. It is a major component of ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for translating the genetic information stored in messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus of the cell and is composed of several distinct regions, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S subunits in eukaryotic cells, and the 16S and 23S subunits in prokaryotic cells. These subunits come together to form the ribosomal subunits, which then assemble into a complete ribosome. The rRNA molecules within the ribosome serve several important functions during protein synthesis. They provide a platform for the mRNA molecule to bind and serve as a template for the assembly of the ribosome's protein synthesis machinery. They also participate in the catalytic steps of protein synthesis, including the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids. In summary, RNA, Ribosomal (rRNA) is a critical component of ribosomes and plays a central role in the process of protein synthesis in cells.
High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of compounds. It involves the use of a liquid mobile phase that is forced through a column packed with a stationary phase under high pressure. The compounds in the mixture interact with the stationary phase to different extents, causing them to separate as they pass through the column. The separated compounds are then detected and quantified using a detector, such as a UV detector or a mass spectrometer. HPLC is commonly used in the analysis of drugs, biological samples, and other complex mixtures in the medical field.
In the medical field, a consensus sequence refers to a DNA or protein sequence that is widely accepted as the most accurate or representative of a particular group or species. This sequence is typically determined through a process of consensus building, in which multiple sequences are compared and the most frequently occurring nucleotides or amino acids are chosen to represent the consensus. Consensus sequences are often used in medical research and diagnostics as a reference for comparing and analyzing other sequences. For example, the human genome project used consensus sequences to identify and map the genes and other functional elements of the human genome. Consensus sequences are also used in the design of genetic markers and primers for PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and other molecular techniques. Consensus sequences can be derived from a variety of sources, including genomic databases, experimental data, and computational predictions. They are typically represented as a single sequence, but may also be represented as a multiple sequence alignment, which shows the similarities and differences between multiple sequences.
List of MeSH codes (E05)
Bayesian tool for methylation analysis
Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities
Representational difference analysis
Gene expression profiling in cancer
OLIGO Primer Analysis Software
Suspension array technology
Escherichia coli sRNA
Russell Van Gelder
Comparative genomic hybridization
Meta-analysis of multiple microarray datasets reveals a common gene signature of metastasis in solid tumors
S100A10 | Cancer Genetics Web
DNA microarray - Wikipedia
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Gene Selection via a New Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Cancer Classification in High-Dimensional Data
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Combined analysis of microbial metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing data to assess in situ physiological conditions in...
Genome-wide expression analysis reveals dysregulation of myelination-related genes in chronic schizophrenia<...
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Molecular detection of drug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis with a scanning-frame oligonucleotide microarray<...
Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
DeCS - New Terms
DeCS - Termos Novos
DeCS - Términos Nuevos
DeCS - New Terms
DeCS - New Terms
DeCS - Termos Novos
DeCS - New Terms
DeCS - Términos Nuevos
DeCS - Termos Novos
DeCS - Términos Nuevos
DeCS - New Terms
DeCS - New Terms
Genome sequence of the deltaproteobacterial strain NaphS2 and analysis of differential gene expression during anaerobic growth...
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering - Works - Citation Index - NCSU Libraries
RpoS regulation of gene expression during exponential growth of Escherichia coli K12 - McMaster Experts
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- Use of resequencing microarrays to Influenza viruses are a major cause of respiratory infec- detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and generate pri- tions in humans and result in substantial illness, death, mary sequences enables identification of genetic variants and economic problems throughout the world. (cdc.gov)
- In an attempt to adapt resequencing microarray technol- ceptibility, and viral escape from vaccine-elicited immu- ogy to surveillance and diagnostics, we developed the res- nity, continually surveying the genetic composition (i.e., piratory pathogen microarray (RPM) version 1 for primary sequence) of circulating and emerging variants is detection and sequence typing of 20 common respiratory necessary. (cdc.gov)
- Analysis of the frequency of the most common mutation (G1528C) revealed a carrier frequency of 1:240 in Finland. (medscape.com)
- To define the full set of alterations in gene expression in skeletal muscle during the course of the disease, we used the G86R superoxide dismutase-1 transgenic mouse model of ALS and performed high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. (hal.science)
- Combined analyses including FISH, coding sequence analysis, high-density single nucleotide polymorphism-based oligonucleotide arrays, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification enable the identification of biallelic, inactivating perturbations of SMARCB1 in nearly all MRTs, consistent with the 2-hit model of tumor formation. (medscape.com)
- As simultaneously identified and typed all component strains an alterative, high-density oligonucleotide resequencing of the trivalent FluMist intranasal vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- The recent advance in the microarray data analysis makes it easy to simultaneously measure the expression levels of several thousand genes. (hindawi.com)
- In this work, we are interested in gene expression data dimension reduction for cancer classification, which is a common task in most microarray data analysis studies. (hindawi.com)
- Thus, extracting a small subset of genes containing valuable information about a given cancer is one of the principal challenges in the microarray data analysis [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Bioinformatic support is available for data analysis for both sequencing and microarray data. (augusta.edu)
- To identify molecular substrates associated with schizophrenia, DNA microarray analysis was used to assay gene expression levels in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic and control patients. (mssm.edu)
- This global analysis identified a multistage molecular and cellular cascade that supports BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation. (umassmed.edu)
- The faculty and staff of the Georgia Esoteric and Molecular (GEM) Core provide diagnostic services for the diagnosis and comprehensive evaluation of disease primarily through the molecular analysis of tissues and cells. (augusta.edu)
- In most cases, however, circulating strains, novel strains emerge sporadically this technology has relied on specific amplification of a because of reassortment in the segmented influenza RNA limited number of target sequences before hybridization, genome and have resulted in devastating influenza pan- thus restricting throughput and limiting final identification demics ( 1-3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Widely used RNA-seq methods start with adapter ligation and cDNA synthesis of biological RNA samples followed by PCR amplification to generate sequencing libraries1. (cdc.gov)
- A comparative transcriptome analysis between LAZ and Pet from citrus leaf explants subjected to an in-vitro 24 h ethylene treatment was performed utilising microarray hybridization and analysis. (ox.ac.uk)
- Exhibiting high consistence in sequence and structure, S100 family members are interchangeable in function and they show a wide spectrum of biological processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, inflammation and differentiation and the like. (cancerindex.org)
- Despite its biological importance, transfer RNA (tRNA) could not be adequately sequenced by Author Manuscript standard methods due to abundant post-transcriptional modifications and stable structure, which interfere with cDNA synthesis. (cdc.gov)
- Targeting 160 candidate genes for blood pressure regulation with a genome-wide genotyping array. (ox.ac.uk)
- ii) the evidence for associations with BP traits in genome-wide and replication data, and haplotype analysis. (ox.ac.uk)
- In conclusion, the lack of associations in BP candidate genes may be attributed to inadequate marker coverage on the genome-wide arrays, small phenotypic effects of the loci and/or complex interaction with life-style and metabolic parameters. (ox.ac.uk)
- Microarray resources include Affymetrix ® and Agilent ® Scanner Platforms that facilitate exon-specific, oligonucleotide and genome-wide arrays. (augusta.edu)
- However, this analysis requires accurate reference genomes to identify the specific genes from which RNA reads originate. (osti.gov)
- The conservation of different family members varied widely across the 12 sequenced Drosophilid genomes. (cnrs.fr)
- sequence variants ( 5-7 ) from viral, bacterial, and eukary- otic genomes ( 8-13 ). (cdc.gov)
- Gene expression was studied by cDNA microarrray analyses using 4608 unique clones from liver-derived expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries fortified with clones of known liver genes representing ∼4000 genes. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Significant obstacles for the sequencing of tRNA include the presence of numerous post-transcriptional modifications and its stable and extensive secondary structure, which interfere with cDNA synthesis and adapter ligation. (cdc.gov)
- Sequence analysis of these clones, in many cases, enabled their functional categorization and the development of hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of bud dormancy release. (dundee.ac.uk)
- Major events associated with phenotypic changes towards the osteogenic lineage were identified from hierarchical and functional clustering analyses. (umassmed.edu)
- Our analyses of gene functional classes differentially represented in ethylene-treated LAZ revealed an activation program dominated by the expression of genes associated with protein synthesis, protein fate, cell type differentiation, development and transcription. (ox.ac.uk)
- Genomic and functional analysis of emerging virulent and multi-drug resistant E. coli lineage ST648. (cdc.gov)
- Comparative Finite Element Analysis of Endocrowns and Traditional Restorations for Endodontically Treated M. (medscimonit.com)
- Methodology: This was a hospital-based, analytical cross-sectional study carried out on 226 symptomatic women wherein cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during gynaecological examination for Pap smears, HPV-DNA and genotype detection with linear array HPV strip, conducted from November 2019 to January 2021. (bvsalud.org)
- HLA-B27 testing was performed on these samples using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to specifically replicate the DNA sequences encoding the HLA loci of interest. (cdc.gov)
- Cultures testing positive for Each tiled prototype sequence was selected to have an influenza A or B viruses were confirmed by using reverse intermediate level of sequence homology across a group of transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analy- microbial or viral strains, which allowed for efficient sis with previously reported protocols ( 16,17 ). (cdc.gov)
- Pathway analysis of the significant genes showed that the genes were involved in known metastasis-associated pathways, such as integrin signaling, calcium signaling, and VEGF signaling. (nih.gov)
- The physiological conditions experienced by a microbial community can thus be inferred using meta-transcriptomic sequencing by comparing transcription levels of specifically chosen genes. (osti.gov)
- Our microarray analysis resulted in the discovery of a class of genes, initially described in relation to differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes that are functionally coupled to signals for cellular extensions. (umassmed.edu)
- Building the framework for standardized clinical laboratory reporting of next generation sequencing data for resistance-associated mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (cdc.gov)
- Extended insight into the Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus complex through whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum outbreak and Mycobacterium salmoniphilum-like strains. (cdc.gov)
- The ethics of sequencing infectious disease pathogens for clinical and public health. (cdc.gov)
- Since mutations and reassortments are often to strains that retain primer-targeted sequences. (cdc.gov)
- In this chapter, we describe the utility of a microarray-based approach exploiting short overlapping oligonucleotides (sliding-frame array) to rapidly detect drug resistance-associated mutations (substitutions, deletions, and insertions) in the pncA gene responsible for resistance ofM. (johnshopkins.edu)
- A new oligonucleotide array for the detection of multidrug and extensively drug-resistance tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
- Exons 2 and 3 of the HLA-B locus were amplified with locus specific primers and the amplified DNA was arrayed onto seven replicate nylon membranes and immobilized by UV cross-linking. (cdc.gov)
- Genome Sequencing and Interrogation of Genome Databases: A Guide to Neisseria meningitidis Genomics. (cdc.gov)
- Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy analysis of postnatal TG liver revealed extensive mitochondrial membrane damage, which is likely due to reactive oxygen species generated from lipid beta-oxidation. (duke.edu)
- The expression profiles of 5300 clones from these libraries were subjected to principal component analysis to determine the most significant expression patterns. (dundee.ac.uk)
- Author Manuscript class of cellular RNA for which the standard sequencing methods cannot yet be applied efficiently and quantitatively, although attempts have been made (e.g. ref 2). (cdc.gov)
- The importance of RpoS-mediated control of iron acquisition was confirmed by cellular metal analysis which revealed that the intracellular iron content of wild type cells was two-fold higher than in rpoS mutant cells. (mcmaster.ca)
- We hypothesize that a meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets in various tumor types can identify a signature of metastasis that is common to multiple tumor types. (nih.gov)
- We performed a meta-analysis using a modified permutation counting method in order to obtain a common gene signature of metastasis. (nih.gov)
- We have modified a previously published meta-analysis method and identified a common metastatic signature by comparing primary tumors versus metastases in various tumor types. (nih.gov)
- However, supportive evidence for the association of rs10889553 (LEPR) and rs11195419 (ADRA2A) with BP was obtained in meta-analysis across samples stratified either by body mass index, smoking or alcohol consumption. (ox.ac.uk)
- meta-analysis of the HPV test positivity rate. (who.int)
- PMID:19064517 intraepithelial neoplasia: meta-analysis. (who.int)
- Sequencing-based methods and resources to study antimicrobial resistance. (cdc.gov)
- The cross-linked sample DNA was hybridized with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes to identify HLA-B27 allele sequences. (cdc.gov)
- The analysis of NHANES laboratory data must be conducted using the key survey design variables and basic demographic variables. (cdc.gov)
- RESULTS: Draft genome sequencing, gene expression analysis, and proteomic analysis revealed that NaphS2 degrades naphthoyl-CoA in a manner analogous to benzoyl-CoA degradation. (elsevierpure.com)
- Nevertheless, together with benchmarking analyses, we show here that the diametric ratio approach can be applied for evaluating the physiological conditions experienced by microbes in situ. (osti.gov)
- and (4) concrete examples of DNA array studies in neurotoxicological research. (psu.edu)
- The Integrated Genomics Shared Resource in the Georgia Cancer Center houses a complete Illumina NextGen Sequencing Facility including both HiSeq and MiSeq instruments. (augusta.edu)
- Needless to say this same analysis can be performed on various types of cancers, including samples stored for many years under the right conditions. (medscimonit.com)
- In addition to iden- sequencing produces accurate data, the requirement for tification, this method provided primary sequence informa- knowledge of template sequences and the inability to tion, which suggested that distinct lineages of influenza quickly process multiple targets hinder its practical appli- viruses co-circulated during the 2004-2005 season, and cation in epidemiologic and diagnostic investigations. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, such an analysis should avoid biases in transcript counts related to differences in organism abundance. (osti.gov)