A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Animals that have no spinal column.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.
The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.
Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
High molecular weight (1,500,000 to 3,000,000) hemoglobins found in the plasma of many polychete and oligochete annelid worms and various mollusks. They bind one mole of oxygen per heme and function as oxygen carriers.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Neurological condition characterized by disturbances in VISUAL PERCEPTION, most often of BODY SCHEMA, TIME PERCEPTION and HALLUCINATIONS. It is associated with MIGRAINE, infections (e.g., INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS), FEVER, EPILEPSY, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Fucaceae. It is found in temperate, marine intertidal areas along rocky coasts and is a source of ALGINATES. Some species of Fucus are referred to as KELP.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.

Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates. (1/377)

1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.  (+info)

Whirling disease: host specificity and interaction between the actinosporean stage of Myxobolus cerebralis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. (2/377)

Scanning electron microscopic studies were conducted on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the first 60 min after their exposure to the triactinomyxon spores of Myxobolus cerebralis. The results demonstrated that as early as 1 min post exposure the whole process, from the attachment of the triactinomyxon spores to the complete penetration of their sporoplasm germs, had occurred. The triactinomyxon spores sought out the secretory openings of mucous cells of the epidermis, the respiratory epithelium and the buccal cavity of trout and used them as portals of entry. Exposure experiments of the triactinomyxon spores of M. cerebralis to non-salmonid fish, such as goldfish Carassius auratus, carp Cyprinus carpio, nose Chondrostoma nasus, medaka Oryzias latipes, guppy Poecilia reticulata and also the amphibian tadpole Rana pipiens as well as to rainbow trout fry indicated a specificity for salmonids. Attempts to activate the triactinomyxon spores by exposure to mucus prepared from cyprinid and salmonid fish showed no significant differences from those conducted in tap water. The results suggest that the simultaneous presence of both mechano- and chemotactic stimuli was required for finding the salmonid fish host.  (+info)

Rapid induction of functional and morphological continuity between severed ends of mammalian or earthworm myelinated axons. (3/377)

The inability to rapidly restore the loss of function that results from severance (cutting or crushing) of PNS and CNS axons is a severe clinical problem. As a novel strategy to help alleviate this problem, we have developed in vitro procedures using Ca2+-free solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG solutions), which within minutes induce functional and morphological continuity (PEG-induced fusion) between the cut or crushed ends of myelinated sciatic or spinal axons in rats. Using a PEG-based hydrogel that binds to connective tissue to provide mechanical strength at the lesion site and is nontoxic to nerve tissues in earthworms and mammals, we have also developed in vivo procedures that permanently maintain earthworm myelinated medial giant axons whose functional and morphological integrity has been restored by PEG-induced fusion after axonal severance. In all these in vitro or in vivo procedures, the success of PEG-induced fusion of sciatic or spinal axons and myelinated medial giant axons is measured by the restored conduction of action potentials through the lesion site, the presence of intact axonal profiles in electron micrographs taken at the lesion site, and/or the intra-axonal diffusion of fluorescent dyes across the lesion site. These and other data suggest that the application of polymeric fusiogens (such as our PEG solutions), possibly combined with a tissue adherent (such as our PEG hydrogels), could lead to in vivo treatments that rapidly and permanently repair cut or crushed axons in the PNS and CNS of adult mammals, including humans.  (+info)

Comparison of precursor structures of the GGNG peptides derived from the earthworm Eisenia foetida and the leech Hirudo nipponia. (4/377)

Earthworm and leech cDNAs encoding the GGNG peptides, a family of myotropic peptides, were cloned and examined in this study. Both of the predicted precursor proteins are of polyprotein structure and contain several putative peptides distinct from the GGNG peptides. However, the precursors show organizations distinct from each other and no sequence similarity except for the GGNG peptides.  (+info)

Cytoskeletal mechanisms of ooplasmic segregation in annelid eggs. (5/377)

Annelid embryos are comprised of yolk-deficient animal and yolk-filled vegetal blastomeres. This "unipolar" organization along the animal-vegetal axis (in terms of ooplasmic distribution) is generated via selective segregation of yolk-free, clear cytoplasm to the animal blastomeres. The pathway that leads to the unipolar organization is different between polychaetes and clitellates (i.e., oligochaetes and hirudinidans). In polychaetes, the clear cytoplasm domain, which is established through ooplasmic segregation at the animal side of the egg, is simply cut up by unequal equatorial cleavage. In clitellates, localization of clear cytoplasm to animal blastomeres is preceded by unification of the initially separated polar domains of clear cytoplasm, which result from bipolar ooplasmic segregation. In this article, I have reviewed recent studies on cytoskeletal mechanisms for ooplasmic localization during early annelid development. Annelid eggs accomplish ooplasmic rearrangements through various combinations of three cytoskeletal mechanisms, which are mediated by actin microfilaments, microtubules and mitotic asters, respectively. One of the unique features of annelid eggs isthat a homologous process is driven by distinct cytoskeletal elements. Annelid eggs may provide an intriguing system to investigate not only mechanical aspects of ooplasmic segregation but also evolutionary divergence of cytoskeletal mechanisms that operate in a homologous process.  (+info)

Microscopic viscosity and rotational diffusion of proteins in a macromolecular environment. (6/377)

The Stokes-Einstein-Debye equation is currently used to obtain information on protein size or on local viscosity from the measurement of the rotational correlation time. However, the implicit assumptions of a continuous and homogeneous solvent do not hold either in vivo, because of the high density of macromolecules, or in vitro, where viscosity is adjusted by adding viscous cosolvents of various size. To quantify the consequence of nonhomogeneity, we have measured the rotational Brownian motion of three globular proteins with molecular mass from 66 to 4000 kD in presence of 1.5 to 2000 kD dextrans as viscous cosolvents. Our results indicate that the linear viscosity dependence of the Stokes-Einstein relation must be replaced by a power law to describe the rotational Brownian motion of proteins in a macromolecular environment. The exponent of the power law expresses the fact that the protein experiences only a fraction of the hydrodynamic interactions of macromolecular cosolvents. An explicit expression of the exponent in terms of protein size and cosolvent's mass is obtained, permitting definition of a microscopic viscosity. Experimental data suggest that a similar effective microviscosity should be introduced in Kramers' equation describing protein reaction rates.  (+info)

Biochemical characteristics of Eiseniapore, a pore-forming protein in the coelomic fluid of earthworms. (7/377)

The cytolytic protein Eiseniapore (38 kDa) from coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida functionally requires sphingomyelin as revealed by using mammalian erythrocytes and phospholipid vesicles. The effects of ions, glycoproteins and phospholipids were investigated for the two-step Eiseniapore action mode, binding and pore formation in different assays. Eiseniapore lysis is activated by thiol groups but inhibited by metal ions. Eiseniapore binding to target membranes is inhibited by Eiseniapore-regulating factor, vitronectin, heparin and lysophosphatidylcholine. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were found to be not necessary for membrane binding or lytic activity. Sphingomyelin was essential for Eiseniapore-induced leakage of liposomes. We describe a cytolytic protein/toxin in Eiseniapore which differs from the established classification; it can be activated by thiol groups and is inhibited by sphingomyelin. Electron microscopy of erythrocyte membranes confirmed ring-shaped structures (pores) with a central channel with outer (10 nm) and inner (3 nm) diameters as shown previously [Lange, S., Nussler, F., Kauschke, E., Lutsch, G., Cooper, E.L. & Herrmann, A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20 884-20 892] using artificial membranes. Functional evidence of pore formation by Eiseniapore was revealed as protection of lysis by carbohydrates occurred at an effective diameter above 3 nm. From these results, we suggest a plausible explanation for the mechanism by which components of the earthworm's immune system destroy non-self components.  (+info)

Earthworm egg capsules as vectors for the environmental introduction of biodegradative bacteria. (8/377)

Earthworm egg capsules (cocoons) may acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are produced. We found that Ralstonia eutropha (pJP4) can be recovered from Eisenia fetida cocoons formed in soil inoculated with this bacterium. Plasmid pJP4 contains the genes necessary for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation. In this study we determined that the presence of R. eutropha (pJP4) within the developing earthworm cocoon can influence the degradation and toxicity of 2,4-D and 2,4-DCP, respectively. The addition of cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) at either low or high densities (10(2) or 10(5) CFU per cocoon, respectively) initiated degradation of 2,4-D in nonsterile soil microcosms. Loss of 2,4-D was observed within the first week of incubation, and respiking the soil with 2,4-D showed depletion within 24 h. Microbial analysis of the soil revealed the presence of approximately 10(4) CFU R. eutropha (pJP4) g-1 of soil. The toxicity of 2,4-DCP to developing earthworms was tested by using cocoons with or without R. eutropha (pJP4). Results showed that cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) were able to tolerate higher levels of 2,4-DCP. Our results indicate that the biodegradation of 2, 4-DCP by R. eutropha (pJP4) within the cocoons may be the mechanism contributing to toxicity reduction. These results suggest that the microbiota may influence the survival of developing earthworms exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition, cocoons can be used as inoculants for the introduction into the environment of beneficial bacteria, such as strains with biodegradative capabilities.  (+info)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an intestine-inhabiting bacterium associated with many severe disease outbreaks worldwide. It may enter the soil environment with the excreta of infected animals (e.g., horses, cattle, chickens) and humans. Earthworms can protect themselves against invading pathogens because of their efficient innate defense system. Identification of differential proteomic responses to E. coli O157:H7 may provide a better understanding of the survival mechanisms of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that lives in E. coli O157:H7-polluted environments. Whole earthworm extracts, collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after E. coli O157:H7 stress, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative image analysis. In total, 124 proteins demonstrated significant regulation at least at one time point, and 52 proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and database searching. Compared with control samples, 11 ...
As an earthworm grows, selection might favor a thinner body in order to reduce strain hardening during burrow formation (Piearce, 1983). Many soils, including loose granular soils and consolidated clays, exhibit this phenomenon, in which the modulus of compression or stiffness of the soil increases with increasing strain (Chen, 1975; Yong et al., 2012; Holtz et al., 2010). As an earthworm grows in cross-section, it must displace more soil radially, with a resulting increase in the stiffness of the soil surrounding the burrow. Small worms (including the hatchlings of burrowing earthworm species) are often found near the soil surface and have been hypothesized to squeeze through existing cracks and pores as crevice burrowers (Arthur, 1965; Gerard, 1967). If small worms can indeed exploit these small crevices, they may avoid displacing the soil and thereby avoid the strain hardening effect. As a burrower grows and exceeds the size of the crevices, there could be a selective advantage in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotonin-induced nitric oxide production in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. AU - Kitamura, Yoshiichiro. AU - Naganoma, Yuichi. AU - Horita, Haruhito. AU - Ogawa, Hiroto. AU - Oka, Kotaro. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Effect of serotonin on nitric oxide (NO) production in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was investigated by a bio-imaging and an electrochemical technique. In the bio-imaging, the spatial pattern of NO production in VNC was visualized using an NO-specific fluorescent dye, diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2 DA). Application of serotonin (100 μM) increased NO production in VNC by about 65% (P,0.05), compared with basal NO production. The increase was mainly from the nitergic neurons in the ventral side of VNC. In the electrochemical technique, real-time basal and serotonin-induced NO production was estimated with an NO-specific electrode. On the ventral surface of VNC, the estimated basal NO production was stable ...
The biochemical responses of the earthworms, Eisenia fetida, exposed to a series of Cd concentrations (0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg Cd2+ kg−1 soil) for up to 8 weeks were investigated, aiming to evaluate the sublethal effects of Cd with long exposure and to explore the potential for applying these responses as biomarkers to indicate the Cd-contaminated soil. The following biochemical parameters were determined: cytochrome P450 (CYP) contents and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST). Cadmium concentrations in all earthworms were apparently accumulated in 4 weeks, and showed minor changes in weeks 6-8 compared to the first 4 weeks. CYP presented a significant elevation in 2-4 weeks and a decline in 6-8 weeks in each treated group. The activities of SOD and CAT showed an obvious increase with exposure of 6-8 weeks while their levels were not affected in 4 weeks in each treated group. GST activity revealed significant activation ...
Prev 544850/XRefStm 2159>> 0000504229 00000 n Adults are killed by freezing. In Lumbricus terrestris, the number and content of material of specific cerebral neurosecretory cells increase with approaching maturation. That is, each individual worm contains both male and female reproductive organs. In some areas where it is an introduced species, some people consider it to be a significant pest for out-competing native worms. F)�H�?4qJ�. Earthworms are intriguing creatures that play a discreet, yet vital role in the natural cycle of life. 0000009415 00000 n It is dark colored with the posterior end more pale colored and capable of flattening. 0000087134 00000 n 0000003229 00000 n They will then drop the cocoons off in the soil. The common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) copulates for more than three hours at a time. For example, they start as fertilized eggs in cocoons. The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, ...
The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843) is a terrestrial pollution sentinel. Enzyme activity and transcription of phase II detoxification superfamily glutathione transferases (GST) is known to respond in earthworms after soil toxin exposure, suggesting GST as a candidate molecular-based pollution biomarker. This study combined sub-proteomics, bioinformatics and biochemical assay to characterise the L. rubellus GST complement as pre-requisite to initialise assessment of the applicability of GST as a biomarker. L. rubellus possesses a range of GSTs related to known classes, with evidence of tissue-specific synthesis. Two affinity-purified GSTs dominating GST protein synthesis (Sigma and Pi class) were cloned, expressed and characterised for enzyme activity with various substrates. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) following SDS-PAGE were superior in retaining subunit stability relative to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glial cells in the central nervous system of earthworm, Eisenia fetida. AU - Csoknya, Mária. AU - Dénes, Viktória. AU - Wilhelm, Márta. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Glial elements in the central nervous system of Eisenia fetida were studied at light-and electron microscopic level. Cells were characterized with the aid of toluidine blue, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), S100 staining. We identified neurilemmal-, subneurilemmal-, supporting-nutrifying-and myelinsheath forming glial cells. Both neuronal and non-neuronal elements are S100-immunoreactive in the CNS. Among glial cells neurilemmal and subneurilemmal cells are S100-immunopositive. With the antibody against the S100 protein one band is visible at 15 kDa. GFA P-immunopositive supporting-nutrifying glial cells are localized around neurons and they often appear as cells with many vacuoles. GFA P-positive cell bodies of elongated neurilemmal glial cells are also visible. Western blot analysis shows a single ...
Vermicomposting is an effective and environmentally friendly approach for eliminating soil organic contamination. Atrazine is one of the most commonly applied triazinic herbicides and frequently detected in agricultural soils. This study investigated the roles and mechanisms of two earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia foetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus) in microbial degradation of atrazine. Both earthworms accelerated atrazine degradation performance from 39.0% in sterile soils to 94.9%-95.7%, via neutralizing soil pH, consuming soil humus, altering bacterial community structure, enriching indigenous atrazine degraders and excreting the intestinal atrazine-degrading bacteria. Rhodoplanes and Kaistobacter were identified as soil indigenous degraders for atrazine mineralization and stimulated by both earthworm species. A. robustus excreted the intestinal Cupriavidus and Pseudomonas, whereas Flavobacterium was released by E. foetida. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The life cycle of Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei, and its possibility for using as environmental health indicator, November 2000, Kyorin University, Tokyo, Japan. 1.0 1.1 1.2 However, little information is available on the environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of Bi. E. fetida cultured in T3 were preclitelated in week 3 and mature individuals of the species start to appear on the 4 th week. ... Life Cycle of Red Wiggler Worms or Eisenia Foetida and Stages. In nature, you would almost never find a red wiggler worm heading deep underground. All specimens were cultured in the laboratory under controlled conditions and growth, maturation, cocoon production, hatching success, and the number of hatchlings were compared. Abstract. regenerative process; (2) A relatively short regenerative cycle. From the point of view of their life history, epigeic earthworms are typical â r-strategistsâ or fast developers in the slow-fast continuum. Unlike your everyday night crawlers, they live well in ...
Measurements were made of some physicochemical changes effected in activated sludge by the earthworm Eisenia foetida following conversion of the sludge into wormcasts. Mineralization was accelerated 1.3-fold and 2% of the minerals were assimilated. The rate at which heavy metals were concentrated during sludge catabolism was also accelerated. Castings stabilized within 2 weeks, as indexed by respirometry. Nucleic acids, which can be used as an index of microbial biomass, were present at a greater concentration in the wormcasts than in the sludge, while the phenolic content, which may potentially serve as an index of humification, was less concentrated. Other changes included a reduction in pH and an increase in oxidation-reduction potential and cation exchange capacity. The major general effect of E. foetida on the physicochemical properties of activated sludge is to convert a material which has a relatively small surface/volume ratio into numerous particles with an overall large S/V ratio, thus ...
Brinkhurst, R. O. and S. R. Gelder (1991) Annelida: Oligochaeta and Branchiobdellida, In Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (T. H. Thorp and A. P. Covich, Eds.), Academic Press, New York.. ● Drewes, C. D. (1999) Helical swimming and body reversal behaviors in Lumbriculus variegatus (Family Lumbriculidae). Hydrobiologia 406:263-269.. ● Drewes, C. D. and R. O. Brinkhurst (1990) Giant fibers and rapid escape reflexes in newly hatched aquatic oligochaetes, Lumbriculus variegatus (Family Lumbriculida). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 17:91-95.. ● Drewes, C. D. (1997) Sublethal effects of environmental toxicants on oligochaete escape reflexes. American Zoologist. 37:346-353.. ● Drewes, C. and K. Cain (1999) As the worm turns: Locomotion in a freshwater oligochaete worm. American Biology Teacher 61:438-442.. ● Drewes, C. D. and C. R. Fourtner (1989) Hindsight and rapid escape in a freshwater oligochaete. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) ...
The liver is continuously exposed to a variety of xenobiotics. Several xenobiotics are identified which act as hepatotoxicants. Hence, finding protective agents for ameliorating xenobiotics-included liver injury has a great value. Eisenia foetida, a kind of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Soil macropores and compaction control the leaching potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7. AU - Artz, Rebekka. AU - Townend, John Andrew. AU - Brown, K.. AU - Towers, W.. AU - Killham, Kenneth Stuart. PY - 2005/2. Y1 - 2005/2. N2 - The influence of soil structure in controlling leaching of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through soil was investigated under controlled conditions using both intact and repacked soil cores. Leaching rates of E. coli O157:H7 decreased with increasing dry bulk density and were significantly increased by the presence of earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) burrows in repacked cores. For intact cores, the percentage of E. coli O157:H7 that leached through replicate cores within 72 h varied from 0.01% to 24%. In contrast, the dry bulk densities of intact cores varied only slightly and were not significantly correlated with leaching. Differences in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 cells in the leachates were not related to variability in the flow volumes, which were ...
Extra resources for Atlas of Animal Anatomy and Histology. Example text. 13, bottom left and right). It has morphologically different divisions on the basis of the epithelial lining. The tubule is accompanied by a capillary network for reabsorption necessary materials from urine. Ciliated distal part of the tubule perforates the body wall to open onto the surface (Fig. 13, bottom right). 42 4 Dissection of the Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) Lumen of the heart Lumen of the midgut Epithelium Septum Septum LM LM CM Blood vessels Coelom CM CC ChC Blood vessels Typhlosole Septum Coelom Blood vessels Cilia Nephridium (distal part) Coelom LM ChC CM GG Nephridium (proximal part) MG Cuticle Fig. Carefully tease away the tissues to expose the arches of the pseudohearts. Then find the dorsal blood vessel. Look for smaller blood vessels that branch from the dorsal blood vessel. The dorsal blood vessel appears as a dark brownish-red vessel running along the intestine. The ventral blood vessel is opposite ...
The nightcrawler (Lumbricus terrestris), also known as the lob worm or the common earthworm in Britain and the dew worm in Canada, is a species of earthworm that is classified within the Annelida phylum. It is native to Europe, but has been introduced into other areas around the world. Although the species is not as abundant as other worms in its range, it is a widely known species in gardens of temperate habitats, where it moves about on the surface of the soil.. The nightcrawler can reach an average body length between 7.8 and 9.8 inches and is typically red in color. It burrows under the soil in temporary homes, resurfacing to reproduce and feed, which is an unusual trait for earthworms. This worm will pull leaves into its burrow and wait for them to decay before consuming them. It also consumes feces and dead insects. The average lifespan of this species is unknown, but it is thought to live about eight years in the wild.. The nightcrawler is thought to be a pest in some areas of its ...
The chronic soil toxicity of Dowfax 2A1 was assessed in an 8 -week study with the earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The results from this toxicity study indicated that there is low concern for toxicity to soil organisms from Dow fax 2A1 as effects on earthworm reproduction (juvenile production) were only noted at 1000 mg/kg soil dw; thus the NOEC for Dowfax 2A1 was 566 mg/kg dw in the chronic earthworm toxicity study. This result indicates no need for further toxicity testing in the terrestrial environment. ...
CACING LUMBRICUS RUBELLUS PDF - Pemanfaatan Cacing Tanah (Lumbricus rubellus) untuk Mereduksi Sampah. yeny dhokhikah. Uploaded by. Yeny Dhokhikah. PEM IiFA^TAN CACTNG,lANlJt(t . Budidaya
The Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.7C: Endpoint specific guidance (November 2014), section R. 7.11.6.3, Table R.7.11-2, page 145, specifies the information needed to waive the terrestrial studies based on soil hazard categories. The log Pow of the registered substance is ,3. Therefore, accumulation and persistence of the registered substance in soil and organisms is very unlikely. Based on these characteristics, the registered substance is not expected to cause adverse effects on terrestrial organisms and consequently terrestrial toxicity tests are not needed. Nevertheless, in the Klimisch 1 GLP study from Straube (2016) the chronic toxicity of Butanedioic acid, sulfo-, 1,4-diisodecyl ester, sodium salt on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and growth in artificial soil was determined in an 56 day test according to OECD 222. The test was performed with Control, 1.3, 13, 26, 52 and 104 mg a.i./kg soil dry weight. The biological results are ...
This study was undertaken to assess the toxicity of ammonia/ammonium to key species within the vermifiltration process. The key species, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, was subjected to a series of tests in solid phase mesocosms and full‐scale units. The solid phase tests showed a relatively low toxicity to ammonium with ammonium chloride having an LC50 for ammonium of 1.49 g/kg. Ammonium sulfate did not show an effect on mortality at 2 g/kg ammonium. The full‐scale units showed that ammonia hydroxide can change the pH and concentration of ammonia in wastewater and while it caused some mortality to the worms its overall affect on system functioning was minimal with no significant difference in terms of worm survival found between treatments. The affect on nitrifying bacteria was also minimal with no linear trend shown with ammonia concentration.. ...
Earthworms are classified into three main ecophysiological categories: (1) leaf litter- or compost-dwelling worms that are nonburrowing, live at soil-litter interface and eat decomposing organic matter (called Epigeic) e.g. Eisenia fetida; (2) topsoil- or subsoil-dwelling worms that feed (on soil), burrow and cast within soil, creating horizontal burrows in upper 10-30 cm of soil (called Endogeics); and (3) worms that construct permanent deep vertical burrows which they use to visit the surface to obtain plant material for food, such as leaves (called Anecic (meaning reaching up)), e.g. Lumbricus terrestris.[41]. Earthworm populations depend on both physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as temperature, moisture, pH, salts, aeration, and texture, as well as available food, and the ability of the species to reproduce and disperse. One of the most important environmental factors is pH, but earthworms vary in their preferences. Most favor neutral to slightly acidic soils. Lumbricus ...
Researchers looked at two species of earthworms: vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa). Vertically burrowing earthworms typically feed above ground at night and then burrow close to the surface during the day. Soil dwelling earthworms live and feed in the soil, rather than at the surface. Vertically burrowing earthworms engage in what is known as casting, which is when they ingest soil and extract nutrients from plant litter and other organic matter, emerge from their burrows, and deposit their waste on the surface in small mounds. Researchers found that after the application of glyphosate, the casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms essentially ceased. Cast mound mass also decreased by 46%. In contrast, casting activity of this species remained constant when there was no application of glyphosate. In the second species, the soil dwelling earthworms, reproduction decreased by 56% after glyphosate ...
By the method of artificial soil pollution, an exposure experiment with different concentrations of pyrene (0, 60, 120, 240, 480, 960 microg x kg(-1)) was conducted to determine the cytochrome P450 and MDA contents and the glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in earthworm gut after exposure for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. The results indicated that within the range of test pyrene concentrations, all the biochemical indices tested differed in their sensitivity to pyrene toxicity, among which, P450 content and GST and SOD activities were most sensitive, followed by POD and CAT activities, while MDA content did not show any obvious response. Exposure duration had stronger effects than exposure dosage. In diagnosing the ecotoxicity of soil pollutant, it could be necessary to use a combined multi-time and multi-index diagnostic method to enhance the sensitivity and effectiveness of the indices adopted ...
In the present experiment plant seeds were buried quickly by L. terrestris (within 48 h) regardless of size, species or functional group, which is surprising. In previous studies, L. terrestris fed selectively on plant seeds of a certain size, shape and surface texture (McRill 1974, Grant 1983); selective feeding on leaf litter by L. terrestris also varies with these parameters (Satchel & Lowe 1967). We did not distinguish between seeds that were ingested and those that were pulled into the burrow and buried. As L. terrestris is unable to feed on particles with a diameter ,2 mm (Shumway & Koide 1994; Tiunov & Scheu 1999), some seeds, such as those of V. cracca and T. pratensis, were too large for the earthworms to swallow.. Seed germination and seedling recruitment were generally reduced in the presence of L. terrestris, irrespective of plant species and seed size. However, plant species with small seeds were affected more strongly, presumably due to digestion or damage during passage through ...
Lumbrokinase Fibrenase III 30 capsules Lumbrokinase is an enzyme derived from earthworms Lumbricus rubellus . Research has shown that lumbrokinase may support healthy coagulation of blood within normal levels and enhance fibrinolytic activity, i.e. similar to nattokinase.Lumbrokinase (LK) consists of a group of proteolytic enzymes including plasminogen activator and plasmin extracted from a specific species of earthworm. The plasminogen activator (e-PA) in LK is similar to tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) from other sources, which makes it possible to show the thrombolytic activity only in the presence of fibrin. Therefore, LK has the advantage of not causing excessive bleeding. The activity of LK is much higher than most traditional Chinese products that are available in the United States. Four phases of clinical studies have been done on LK at the Beijing Xuanwu Hospital (the top hospital in nerve & internal medicine in China). LK has been widely used in over 100 hospitals in Beijing since 1995. In
Superseded by EOL Annelida Patch: https://opendata.eol.org/dataset/eol-annelida-patch. Taxonomic hierarchies & species lists for Crassiclitellata, Haplotaxidae, Moniligastridae, Syngenodrilidae, Tiguassuidae to complement Catalogue of Life coverage. Compiled from multiple sources:. Bantaowong, U., Chanabun, R., Tongkerd, P., Sutcharit, C., James, S.W., Panha, S., 2011. New earthworm species of the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 from Thailand (Clitellata, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae). Zookeys, 90: 35-62.. Bantaowong, U., Chanabun, R., James, S.W., Panha, S., 2016. Seven new species of the earthworm genus Metaphire Sims and Easton, 1972 from Thailand (Clitellata: Megascolecidae). Zootaxa, 4117(1): 063-084.. Blakemore, R.J., 2007. Checklist and phylogeny of Exxidae (Oligochaeta). European Journal of Soil Biology, 43: S9-S13.. Blakemore, R.J., 2008. A Series of Searchable Texts on Earthworm Biodiversity, Ecology and Systematics from Various Regions of the World - 3rd Edition (2008) December, 2008, ...
New methods are needed for research into non-model organisms, to monitor the effects of toxic disruption at both the molecular and functional organism level. We exposed earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister) to sub-lethal levels of copper (10-480 mg/kg soil) for 70 days as a real-world situation, and monitored both molecular (cDNA transcript microarrays and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling: metabolomics) and ecological/functional endpoints (reproduction rate and weight change, which have direct relevance to population-level impacts). Both of the molecular endpoints, metabolomics and transcriptomics, were highly sensitive, with clear copper-induced differences even at levels below those that caused a reduction in reproductive parameters. The microarray and metabolomic data provided evidence that the copper exposure led to a disruption of energy metabolism: transcripts of enzymes from oxidative phosphorylation were significantly over-represented, and increases in transcripts of
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Block, Edward Michael, Spermatogenesis in Limnodrilus Hoffmeisteri (Clap); A Morphological and Environmental Study of the Development of Two Sperm Types (1979). Dissertations. 2686 ...
Earthworm population dynamics and diversity were evaluated in long-term farming systems experiments at the West Virginia University Organic Research Farm from 2000-2007. Farming systems included vegetable and field crop rotations, with versus without annual compost amendments. Field crop rotations with livestock included three years of clover-grassland. Earthworms were monitored by hand-sorting soil samples. Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus were the most common species observed. Cultivation adversely affected earthworm populations in all systems, while compost amendments either had no effect or increased earthworm populations. The population structure shifted toward younger age classes and lower biomass. Inclusion of clover-grassland in the rotation for pasture and hay production for sheep had no significant effects on populations in the field crop systems. ...
Effects ofEtidronicacidhydrate(Batch no.A3495) on mortality, biomass and the reproductive potential of the earthworm species Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Lumbricidae) were determined according to the Guidelines DIN ISO 11268-2 (1998), OECD 222 (2004) and BBA (1994). The study was conducted under static conditions over 8 weeks with the test item concentrations 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg test item/kg soil dry weight, which were mixed into artificial soil containing 10 % peat and a control using untreated artificial soil. 80 test organisms were inserted into 8 control replicates and 40 test organisms were divided into 4 replicates for each treatment (10 earthworms per replicate). They had an individual body weight between 0.32 and 0.54 g at experimental starting. After 28 days of exposure in soil, no evident earthworm mortalities (, 10%) as well as no evident pathological symptoms or changes in the behaviour of adult earthworms were observed in all treatments. Moreover, no statistically ...
Beneath the soil surface, in the dark, rich topsoil layer, youll find the endogeic class of earthworms. Endogeic earthworms generally move parallel to the surface, leaving horizontal burrows and eating organic material found only beneath the ground, like dead plant roots. As they spend their entire lives underground and out of the sun, they lack pigment and are usually pink, gray or white. Scientists know the least about the behavior and life cycle of endogeic worms.. The deep-dwelling anecic class is the most familiar types of earthworms. Their burrows are strong enough that they tend to be permanent and can reach several feet beneath the surface. They too feed on leaf litter, but anecic worms pull whole leaves down into their burrows where they feed at their leisure. In a single night, Lumbricus terrestris -- the common European earthworm, known in the U.S. as the night crawler -- can travel as far as 62 feet (19 meters) along the soil surface in search of food [source: Werner].. Earthworms ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Gaoxin Zhou, Donghui Liu, Ruixue Ma, Jindong Li, Mingjing Sun, Zhiqiang Zhou, Peng Wang].
Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide and used as a test chemical to assess its toxicity for male reproductive organ of Eisenia foetida. Worms exposed to high dose ..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Species-specific earthworm population responses in relation to flooding dynamics in a Dutch floodplain soil. AU - Zorn, M.I.. AU - van Gestel, C.A.M.. AU - Eijsackers, H.J.P.. N1 - 000230086100001. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Earthworms dominate the animal biomass in moist floodplain soils. They are known to survive long periods in aerated water, but little is known about earthworm population dynamics in floodplain systems with changing inundation frequencies. This study determined earthworm population dynamics in a floodplain system, in relation to frequency and duration of flooding events. From October 2000 to May 2003 earthworms were hand sorted in the `Afferdensche en Deestsche Waarden¿, a floodplain on the south bank of the river Rhine, near Druten, The Netherlands. Earthworm numbers and biomasses per age class (adult, subadult, juvenile) were recorded. Numbers and biomasses tend to decrease during flooding. Lumbricus terrestris was found in high numbers (,10/m2) only at the ...
Ečimović S, Velki M, Vuković R, Štolfa Čamagajevac I, Petek A, Bošnjaković R, Grgić M, Engelmann P, Bodó K, Filipović-Marijić V, Ivanković D, Erk M, Mijošek T, Lončarić Z. Acute toxicity of selenate and selenite and their impacts on oxidative status, efflux pump activity, cellular and genetic parameters in earthworm Eisenia andrei. Chemosphere. 212 (2018); 307- ...
Despite the fundamental role that soil invertebrates (e.g. earthworms) play in soil ecosystems, the magnitude of their spatial genetic variation is still largely unknown and only a few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of these organisms. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of seven populations of a common endogeic earthworm (Aporrectodea icterica) sampled in northern France to explore how historical species range changes, microevolutionary processes and human activities interact in shaping genetic variation at a regional scale. Because combining markers with distinct modes of inheritance can provide extra, complementary information on gene flow, we compared the patterns of genetic structure revealed using nuclear (7 microsatellite loci) and mitochondrial markers (COI). Both types of markers indicated low genetic polymorphism compared to other earthworm species, a result that can be attributed to ancient bottlenecks, for instance due to species isolation in southern
oligochaete: Any worm of the subclass Oligochaeta (class Clitellata, phylum Annelida). About 3,500 living species are known, the most familiar of which is the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris....
The influence of bioavailability, acclimatisation and adaptation on the toxicity of zinc and cadmium in Enchytraeus albidus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) ...
Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta, Annelida) are often considered to be typical forestliving organisms, but they are regularly found in agroecosystems of the temperate regions of the world. Although less known than their larger relatives, the earthworms, these saprophagous organisms play similar roles in agricultural soils (but at a smaller scale), e.g., influencing soil structure and organic matter dynamics via microbial communities, and having a central place in soil food webs. Their diversity is rarely studied or often underestimated due to difficulties in distinguishing the species. New genetic techniques reveal that even in anthropogenically highly influenced soils, more than ten species per site can be found. Because of their close contact with the soil pore water, a high ingestion rate and a thin cuticle, they often react very sensitively to a broad range of pesticides. Firstly we provide a short overview of the diversity and abundance of enchytraeid communities in agroecosystems. Afterwards, we explore
Import Permits. Earthworms: Earthworms are soil dwelling segmented round worms most often used as fish bait in the United States. Dendrobaena veneta is currently the only earthworm species that is authorized by a plant pest permit for importation into the United States. Detailed guidance and policy for importing earthworms are provided at the link above.. Insects. Crickets: Crickets feed on a wide range of living and dead plant material and plant products. There are no permits required for the interstate movement of Acheta domesticus, an industry staple, within the continental United States. APHIS authorizes the importation from Canada, under permit. We also require a certificate signed by a Canadian Federal or Provincial official certifying that he/she has visited the facility and verified that it is producing this species. However, a virus, brought into the North America from Europe decimated Acheta domesticus production in both Canada and the United States. At first, some producers switched ...
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Current understanding of earthworm invasions in North America is founded on studies of European species belonging to a single family (Lumbricidae); the ecological effects of taxa from other regions ar
Find the fascicles article Phylogeny of the Megascolecidae and Crassiclitellata (Annelida, Oligochaeta): combined versus artitioned analysis using nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (12S, 16S) rDNA on the website of Scientific Publications of the Muséum national dHistoire naturelle, Paris
Carbon nanotube field emitter arrays having an electron beam focusing structure. Jun Hee Choi, F.; Zoulkarneev, Andrei R.; Yong Wan Jin, Andrei R.; Young Jun Park, Andrei R.; Deuk Seok Chung, Andrei R.; Byung Kwon Song, Andrei R.; In Taek Han, Andrei R.; Hang Woo Lee, Andrei R.; Sang Hyun Park; Ho Suk Kang, Andrei R.; Ha Jong Kim, Andrei R.; Jung Woo Kim, Andrei R.; Jae Eun Jung, Andrei R.; Jong Min Kim; Hong Gu Baek, Andrei R.; Se Gi Yu, Andrei R. // Applied Physics Letters;2/9/2004, Vol. 84 Issue 6, p1022 An electron beam focusing structure was incorporated into the gated field emitter arrays where the emitters were screen-printed carbon nanotubes. The focusing structure was comprised of 8-μm-thick bulky SiO[sub x] focus gate insulator and Cr focus gate, and exhibited negligible leakage... ...
The ecological relevance of the neutral red retention assay as a biomarker in an indigenous earthworm population (Microchaetus sp.) exposed to the fungicide copper oxychloride was investigated. Changes in earthworm biomass and numbers were monitored and related to changes in neutral red retention times of coelomocytes as well as changes in copper concentrations in the soil and earthworm body tissues. Results indicated that Microchaetus sp. responded sensitively to the copper oxychloride by showing an initial decrease in biomass 2 months after spraying started. This was followed by a significant decrease in worm numbers after 3 months. The neutral red retention times of earthworm coelomocytes decreased significantly within the first month of treatment and correspond to a significant increase in soil copper concentrations, but not with an immediate increase in body burdens of copper. More than a year after spraying had stopped the worm biomass and numbers were still significantly lower in the ...
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The rate of cocoon production of adult earthworm, Eisenia fetida kept in the 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 PSR (percent substrate Ratio) media prepared from partly decomposed Nelumbo nucifera waste with soil for 30 days were determined. The worms kept in 50, 75, and 100 PSR media for 30 days showed a gradual increase in their body weight up to 22 days thereafter, a gradual decline until the termination of this study. However, the worms kept in the same media 50, 75 and 100 PSR after 30 days showed an increased value in their body weight over their respective initial weight. On the contrary, all the worms kept in 0 and 25 PSR media showed a gradual decrease in their body weight until the termination of this study. The worms kept in soil alone for 30 days though showed, only 4 cocoons were laid during the course of study due to less organic matters in the medium. The worms in their PSR media for 30 days produced relatively more cocoons. Though than control, the worms in 75 PSR Nelumbo nucifera medium is
Guzaev, Andrei P; Vvedenskiy, Vladimir Y.; Gogoi, K. Solid support and Phosphoramidite building blocks for oligonucleotide conjugates. US 10, 781, 175. ​. Guzaev, Andrei P; Vvedenskiy, Vladimir Y. Phosphoramidite building blocks for sugar-conjugated oligonucleotides. US 10,669,301. ​. Guzaev, Andrei P; Vvedenskiy, Vladimir Y. Phosphoramidite building blocks for sugar-conjugated oligonucleotides. US 10,087,208. ​. Guzaev, Andrei P. Sulfur transfer reagents for oligonucleotide synthesis. US 8,552,175. ​. Ravikumar, Vasulinga; Manoharan, Muthiah; Guzaev, Andrei P.; Wang, Zhiwei; Kumar, Raju Krishna. Supports for oligomer synthesis. US 8,541,599. ​. Ravikumar, Vasulinga; Manoharan, Muthiah; Guzaev, Andrei P.; Wang, Zhiwei; Kumar, Raju Krishna. Supports for oligomer synthesis. US 8,153,725. Guzaev, Andrei P. Sulfur transfer reagents for oligonucleotide synthesis. US 7,723,528. Ravikumar, Vasulinga; Manoharan, Muthiah; Guzaev, Andrei P.; Wang, Zhiwei; Kumar, Raju Krishna. Preparation of ...
Because of Eustrongylides species complex life cycle with various host species, preventing infection and controlling outbreaks is difficult. Outbreaks of this disease are closely linked to agricultural runoff and urban development[9] Eutrophication of water bodies supports high population levels of oligochaete worms, which causes increased numbers of infected fish that eat the worms, and then the birds who eat the fish.[10] One way to prevent Eustrongylidosis is to control oligochaete populations. Outbreaks of this parasite are closely linked to high numbers of oligochaete worms in the areas waterways. This is because the worms are essential for Eustrongylides species to reproduce. Oligochaete populations can be controlled by monitoring nutrient levels in the water, because high nutrient levels support oligochaete populations.[10] They can also be controlled by decreasing the level of oxygen in the water. Encouraging responsible farming practices in order to reduce chemical run-off will help ...
Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration ...
One experimental study is available investigating the toxicological effects of the test item (CAS 16260-09-6) to earthworms (ECT, 2017). The study was performed according to OECD guideline 222 under GLP conditions. Adult Eisenia andrei (4 x 10 animals per concentration, the fresh weight was between 250 and 600 mg) were exposed for 28 days in an artificial soil to the nominal concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg test item/kg artificial soil dry weight. The artificial soil comprised 5% sphagnum peat, 20% kaolin clay, 74-75% Quartz sand and 0.3 - 1% calcium carbonate. No morphological and behavioral effects were observed. Related to weight alterations and symptoms, the no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) was ≥ 1000 mg test item/kg dry weight soil, the lowest-observed-effect-concentration (LOEC) , 1000 mg test item/kg dry weight soil for all parameters after 28 days for mortality and biomass. No mortality was recorded resulting in a EC50 (28 d) of , 1000 mg test item/kg dry weight ...
Abstract: Earthworms are the most ancient invertebrate animals on earth which can be used as a good source of pharmaceutical compounds. A study was carried out to find out the distribution of microorganisms in the gut of earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. Significant number of microbial populations in the gut of earthworm was observed and it was gradually increased from the initial day to final day of composting. Pigmented colonies of bacteria from earthworm gut were selectively isolated, the pigment was extracted from the culture broth and a presumptive test was carried out for the confirmation of prodigiosin. The pigment component was separated using thin layer chromatography and the structural elucidation of the compound was performed using U.V. spectroscopy. The inhibitory effect of prodigiosin on bacterial pathogens was studied and the results confirmed the antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. The anticancer activity of the prodigiosin pigment was evaluated under in vitro ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of a genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens with the soil feeding earthworm Octalasion cyaneum (Lumbricidae). AU - Clegg, C.D.. AU - Anderson, J.M.. AU - Lappin-Scott, H.M.. AU - van Elsas, J.D.. AU - Jolly, J.M.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. M3 - Article. VL - 27. SP - 1423. EP - 1429. JO - Soil Biology and Biochemistry. JF - Soil Biology and Biochemistry. SN - 0038-0717. ER - ...
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Worms with segmented bodies make up the phylum Annelida. This program explores the 3 classes of annelids: Polychaeta (feeding, locomotion, and larval stages); Oligochaeta (lifestyles, feeding adaptations, and anatomy of freshwater oligochaetes and earthworms); and Hirudinea (leeches, crayfish, and w...
Whirling disease is an infectious disease, caused by the myxosporean parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. It is primarily a salmonid (salmon and trout) disease and is characterized by erratic circular swimming movements (hence the common name for this disease). The parasite primarily infects the cartilaginous- and boney tissues of the head, vertebral column, and fins. The characteristic whirling swimming pattern is due to constriction of the spinal cord, brain, and brainstem. Vertebral malformation is also associated with constriction of the spinal nerves that normally regulate skin pigmentation and infected fish also often exhibit skin darkening of the tail and tail fin. To complete its lifecycle it requires a freshwater oligochaete worm (Tubifex tubifex) as intermediate host. This worm is widely distributed within fresh water bodies throughout the world.. Host response to M. cerebralis infection varies greatly among the different genera and species with some considered extremely sensitive (e.g. ...
The following is a partial list of published research supported by ATCL analyses.. Bioaccumulation of legacy and emerging contaminants from spiked water and. sediments in Lumbriculus variegatus. Dang VD, Kroll, KJ, Supowit, SD,. Halden, RU, Denslow, ND (2016) Arch Environ Toxicol Chem, published online 1. Feb 2016, 10 p.. Lower omega-3 fatty acids are associated with the presence of anti-cyclic. citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in a population at risk for future. rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study. Gan RW, Young KA,. Zerbe GO, Demoruelle MK, Weisman MH, Buckner JH, Gregersen PK, Mikuls. TR, ODell JR, Keating RM, Clare-Salzler MJ, Deane KD, Holers VM, Norris JM.. Rheumatology. (2015) Sep;53: 10 p.. Dietary exposure of 17-alpha ethinylestradiol modulates physiological endpoints. and gene signaling pathways in female largemouth bass (Micropterus. salmoides). Colli-Dula RC, Martyniuk CJ, Kroll KJ, Prucha MS, Kozuch M,. Barber DS, Denslow ND. Aquatic Tox. (2014) ...
The ETP Reserve, located at the Ventania Mountain System, is the only reserve protecting the natural highland grasslands in the Argentinian pampas. These ancient mountains form a very particular outcrop in the pampas plain, containing many endemic species, including several land snails. This reserve is the object of academic concern due to the recognized effect of the introduced wild-horse population and the increasing area that is invaded by exotic woody plants. The effects on the natural vegetation and bird community dynamics have been already studied in this area, but invertebrates have been almost entirely neglected up to date. Land snails and earthworms are two taxa that can be suitably studied by our working team, according to their previous training, and the conservation interest in the diet of endangered species (a threatened endemic lizard (Prystidactylus casuhatiensis), whose protection is intended by the park, feeds mainly on the endemic snail (Plagiodontes magnus), thus, to achieve ...
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Selected Publications (See full list in GoogleScholar). Ponnudurai, R. P., M. Kleiner, L. Sayavedra, J. M. Petersen, M. Moche, A. Otto et al. (2017). Metabolic and physiological interdependencies in the Bathymodiolus azoricus symbiosis. The ISME Journal 11: 463-477. doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.124. Wippler, J., M. Kleiner, C. Lott, A. Gruhl, P. Abraham, R. Giannone et al. (2016). Transcriptomic and proteomic insights into innate immunity and adaptations to a symbiotic lifestyle in the gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis. BMC Genomics 17(1): 942. doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-3293-y. Yu, Y.-T. N., M. Kleiner and G. J. Velicer (2016). Spontaneous reversions of an evolutionary trait loss reveal regulators of a sRNA that controls multicellular development in the myxobacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 198(23): 3142-3151. doi: 10.1128/JB.00389-16. Petersen, J. M., A. Kemper, H. Gruber-Vodicka, U. Cardini, M. van der Geest, M. Kleiner et al. (2016). Chemosynthetic sulphur-oxidizing symbionts of marine ...
Tribulus terrestris seeds mature in Sept.【Common name】Caltrop, Puncturevine Caltrop, Puncture VineTribulus terrestris【Latin name】Tribulus terrestris【Annual/Perennial】Annual【Seeds NO.】19.4-32 g / 1000 Seeds【Habitat】Growing on barren hills, paddy side and in fields.【The herbal actual smell and taste】No bad smell, bitter, pungent taste.【Flower】light yellow【Blooming period】May to August,【Fruiting period】June to September【Moisture,soil, temperature】drought resistant 【Medicinal parts】roots, stem leaves, flowers and seeds. Chinese name: roots: Jiligen. Stem leaves: Jilimiao. Flowers: Jilihua. Fruits: Cijili.
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Are you the type who is very conscious about your body? Always at the gym and eating healthy foods but still having a hard time getting your body toned? Maybe, because you are lacking the energy to push your performance. Sometimes, a proper work out even if partnered with a healthy diet is not enough. You can use supplements like Tribulus Terrestris to help your body to bulk up.. Tribulus terrestris is a plant from Ayurveda that is full with very sharp vines wherein the roots, leaves and fruits are used by people to make supplement and medicines to treat several ailments. Tribulus terrestris is also called as devils weed because if you consume the fruit that is full of sharp vines, may cause your lungs to collapse.. This supplement increases testosterone levels, lean mass and provokes the circulation of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a gas that assists blood vessels to enlarge and bring oxygen to muscles that are working.. Work out junkies, body builders and athletes often look for supplements ...
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Source: Tribulus terrestris and Male Hormones by Dr. Edward Group Tribulus terrestris has played a vital role in Ayurvedic, Chinese, and European medicine for centuries. In Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, it has been applied as a remedy for urinary and reproductive problems and fatigue. Similarly in Europe, Tribulus terrestris has been used to address urinary and…
Types Oligochaeta: Earthworms and other terrestrial worms; chaetae (chitin bristles), no parapodia Polychaeta: Marine worms that are free or tube living; parapodia Hirudinea: Leeches and other flat annelids with no chaetae Albert Gordon Jacob Cole
Genre: Platformer Developer: Shiny Ent. Publisher: Playmates Players: 1 Released: 1994. Shiny Entertainments Earthworm Jim was one of several major 16-bit platform games released in 1994, perhaps the year for 2-D action titles. Only Donkey Kong Country received more attention. The games success was such that it spawned a variety of spinoffs (cartoons, action figures…), plus numerous sequels and updates.. I rented the Super NES version of the game soon after it was released, and received it as a Christmas gift in 1994. I sold it in 1995-1996, along with all of my systems and games. A few months ago, I bought a used Genesis, and soon after that I was fortunate enough to find a copy of Earthworm Jim for a few dollars. I immediately brought it home, and memories resurfaced as I put the cart in the Genesis for a first time. It easily lived up to my renewed expectations, and is an obligatory purchase for every self-respecting retro gamer.. As momentous as it seemed at the time, game players could ...
Jalonen, T., Marja-Leena, L., & Tiina, M. (2003). A model integrating the cerebellar granule neuron excitability and calcium signaling pathways. Proceedings of the CNS2003. (Himanen), M. G. (2003). Acid preservation of poultry by-products. In K. Hänninen, & V. Miikki (Eds.), Biojätteiden paineistettu anaerobinen biokonversio (pp. 140-157). Jyväskylän yliopiston Biologian laitoksen tiedonantoja, 79. Jyväskylän yliopisto. Haimi, J., & Siira-Pietikäinen, A. (2003). Activity and role of the enchytraeid worm Cognettia sphagnetorum (Vejd.) (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) in organic and mineral forest soil. Pedobiologia, 47, 303-310. Suhonen, J., Rajala, M., & Rätti, O. (2003). Age differences in the response of willow tits (Parus montanus) to conspecific alarm calls. Ethology, 109, 501-509. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0310.2003.00890.x Käpylä, J., Heino, J., M, Z. W., S., P., G., K. C., F., T. C., . . . D., G. (2003). Alpha11beta1 integrin recognizes the GFOGER sequence in interstitial collagens. . ...
ID A1WDT7_VEREI Unreviewed; 483 AA. AC A1WDT7; DT 06-FEB-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 06-FEB-2007, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 87. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000577, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00724181}; GN Name=dnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Veis_0001 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABM55794.1}; OS Verminephrobacter eiseniae (strain EF01-2). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Comamonadaceae; Verminephrobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=391735 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABM55794.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000374}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000374} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=EF01-2 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000374}; RA Copeland A., Lucas S., Lapidus A., Barry K., Detter J.C., RA Glavina del Rio T., Dalin E., Tice H., Pitluck S., Chertkov O., RA Brettin T., Bruce D., Han C., Tapia R., Gilna P., ...
17. Lysimachia terrestris (Linnaeus) Britton, Prelim. Cat. 34. 1888. Swamp candles, bog or bulblet loosestrife, lysimaque terrestre Viscum terrestre Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1023. 1753; Lysimachia bulbifera Curtis; L. racemosa Lamarck; L. stricta Aiton; L. terrestris var. ovata (E. L. Rand & Redfield) Fernald. Stems erect, simple or branched, 2.5-10 dm, glabrous; rhizomes thickened; elongate bulblets developing in distal axils in late season. Leaves usually opposite or subopposite (rarely alternate); petiole absent or 0.1-1 cm, eciliolate; blade elliptic-lanceolate to lanceolate, 3-10 × 0.5-2 cm, base cuneate, decurrent, margins entire, slightly revolute, eciliolate, apex acute to acuminate, surfaces punctate, glabrous; venation single-veined to obscurely pinnate. Inflorescences terminal, racemes, 10-30 cm. Pedicels 0.5-2 cm, glabrous. Flowers: sepals 5, calyx streaked with black resin canals, 2-6 mm, minutely stipitate-glandular on margins (or glabrous), lobes ovate to lanceolate, margins thin; ...
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Q 5. Describe briefly the Sexual Reproduction in Paramecium. Q 6. Discuss the various theories of Locomotion in Sarcodina. Q 7. Give a Detailed Account of Canal System In Poriferans. Add a Note on the Significance of Canal System. Q 8. Explain the Phenomenon of Polymorphism in Siphonophora. Q 9. Describe the structure of different coral reefs in detail. Q 10. Write Briefly about the Excretion and the Excretory structures in Oligochaeta. Q 11. Discuss the Adaptive Radiation in Polychaeta with respect to their nutrition. Q 12. Explain the life cycle, and pathogenicity of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trypanosona gambiense. Q 13. Write Short Notes on the Following ...
Earthworms need minimal optimal conditions to thrive. They thrive in moist, dark and an environment full of food. Finally, the earth is filled with the perfect fertilizer. Earthworms consume all types of stuff including newspapers dumped in your garage, melons, and other such organic discards. The worm is a unique organism that eats and breaks down the garbage it eats, into useful manure. It can be said that the worm is on an eating spree as it burrows through the earths crust throughout its lifetime. Studies show that the earthworm can consume twice its own weight. In the course of eating through the earth, the worm ingests minerals, and loads of organic matter each day. This means that it has an efficient digestive system to manage all that grinding, sieving and sifting of the massive volumes and varieties of food nutrients. Scientists have identified over 4400 species of earthworms so far. They are classified into three main categories. The categories are based on their eating habits and the ...
its amazing what tech can do these days….the angle of glass makes the triops look bigger….Iam a expert and i can tell you this is fake as they grow up to 2-4 inches depending on tank size (living environment), what breed and what you feed them too. Triops are they same as sea monkeys, aquasaurs etc. they are a brand name for brine shrimp-a group of crustaceans that undergo cryptobiosis-sold in hatching kits as novelty aquarium pets. they eat fish food or powered fish food par- boiled carrots lettuce and potato, blood worm and earthworm are an enjoyable snack when they get bigger. silver sand is good to put in the tank for burrowing as they lay eggs in sand or grit.. ...
Introduction. Cloning Cloning has been going on in the natural world for thousands of years. A clone is simply one living thing made from another, leading to two organisms with the same set of genes. In this sense, identical twins are clones because they have identical DNA. Sometimes, plants are self-pollinated, producing seeds and eventually more plants with the same genetic code. When earthworms are cut in half, they regenerate the missing parts of their bodies, leading to two worms with the same set of genes. Any organism that reproduces asexually produces a clone. However, the ability to intentionally create a clone in the animal kingdom by working on the cellular level is a very recent development. From sheep to monkeys, scientists have made great strides in the past few years in cloning mammals. The birth of these transgender animals provides a major stepping-stone for the cloning of humans (Rantala 26). Now groups say they are ready to clone a human being. Controversy over their plans run ...
Read a free sample or buy How-To Home Soil Tests: 10 DIY Tests for Texture, pH, Drainage, Earthworms & More by Leigh Tate. You can read this book with iBooks on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or Mac.
Links between the detritivore and the herbivore system: effects of earthworms and Collembola on plant growth and aphid development ...
The researchers fabricated a tightly coiled nickel-titanium wire and wound it around the mesh tube, mimicking the circular muscle fibers of the earthworm. They then fitted a small battery and circuit board within the tube, generating a current to heat the wire at certain segments along the body: As a segment reaches a certain temperature, the wire contracts around the body, squeezing the tube and propelling the robot forward. Kim and his colleagues developed algorithms to carefully control the wires heating and cooling, directing the worm to move in various patterns ...
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A specific type of bird known as a starling tends to gravitate towards sewage treatment facilities to feed on earthworms. Many of these earthworms have alr
Costello, M.; Bellan-Santini, D. (2004). Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1816. In: Horton, T.; Lowry, J.; De Broyer, C.; Bellan-Santini, D.; Coleman, C. O.; Corbari, L.; Daneliya, M.; Dauvin, J-C.; Fišer, C.; Gasca, R.; Grabowski, M.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Hendrycks, E.; Hughes, L.; Jaume, D.; Jazdzewski, K.; Kim, Y.-H.; King, R.; Krapp-Schickel, T.; LeCroy, S.; Lörz, A.-N.; Mamos, T.; Senna, A. R.; Serejo, C.; Sket, B.; Souza-Filho, J. F.; Tandberg, A.H.; Thomas, J.; Thurston, M.; Vader, W.; Väinölä, R.; Vonk, R.; White, K.; Zeidler, W. (2017). World Amphipoda Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=102007 on 2017-11- ...
The central nervous system of annelids typically includes serotonin immunoreactive (SIR) cells, which are putatively associated with motor neurons [17,26-31]. The distribution patterns of these cells vary among species and body regions, and have been suggested to be potentially useful taxonomic traits [17]. Our data on 12 species of naidid annelids show that SIR perikarya distribution patterns in the brain and ventral nerve cord can vary considerably across species and even within individuals, both along the antero-posterior body axis and potentially between developmental stages. Despite this variability, the positions of serotonin-positive perikarya in the ventral nerve cord ganglia show consistent enough patterns to suggest putative homologies both within naidids and between naidids and other clitellate groups.. We found that the number of paired serotonin immunoreactive (SIR) perikarya in the brain varies across naidids. While a single pair of SIR perikarya is the most common arrangement for ...
Then we move it close to Earths gravitational field, and because of the curvature of space, there is a probability of that electron jumping from the first level to the second. And now the mass will be different ...
On Sun, 03 Nov 1996 13:25:29 +0000, Andrei Popov ,andrei.popov at bbsrc.ac.uk, wrote: ,I cloned many a PCR fragment using this approach, and recently also ,5RACE products where the percentage of correct clones was exceptionally ,high. [deleted] , ,I find the tone of Dr. Aiyars comments simply unprofessional and rude. Unprofessional or otherwise, I have tried this cloning approach a few years ago and failed on every attempt. Therefore I did the following experiment to test what types of ends Klenow left in my hands. My standard Klenow conditions are 20oC for 20 minutes, 50 micromolar final nucleotide concentration. The plasmid being cloned into was pCDNA3. My intention was to clone my PCR products into the EcoRI site of this plasmid. The relevant portion of the polylinker is shown below. --gaattctgcagatatcccatcacactgg-- --cttaagacgtctatagggtagtgtgacc-- To test the ends I cut the plasmid with EcoRV then treated with shrimp alkaline phosphatase. The cut plasmid should look like: 5 ...
Epigenetics and Evolution: Transposons and the Stochastic Epigenetic Modification Model. Sergio Branciamore Andrei S. Rodin Grigoriy Gogoshin Arthur D. Riggs *Corresponding author: Sergio Branciamore, Andrei S. Rodin, Arthur D. Riggs [email protected];[email protected];[email protected] Genetics2015,2,148doi:10.3934/genet.2015.2.148. In addition to genetic variation, epigenetic variation and transposons can greatly affect the evolutionary fitnesses landscape and gene expression. Previously we proposed a mathematical treatment of a general epigenetic variation model that we called Stochastic Epigenetic Modification (SEM) model. In this study we follow up with a special case, the Transposon Silencing Model (TSM), with, once again, emphasis on quantitative treatment. We have investigated the evolutionary effects of epigenetic changes due to transposon (T) insertions; in particular, we have considered a typical gene locus A and postulated that (i) the expression level of gene A depends on the ...
Stephenson, J. (1930). The Oligochaeta. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Pp. 978. Media related to Oligochaeta at Wikimedia Commons. ... Oligochaeta (/ˌɒlɪɡəˈkiːtə, -ɡoʊ-/) is a subclass of animals in the phylum Annelida, which is made up of many types of aquatic ... With around 10,000 known species, the Oligochaeta make up about half of the phylum Annelida. These worms usually have few setae ... doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2004.00146.x. Michaelsen, W. (1900). Das Tierreich 10: Vermes, Oligochaeta. Friedländer & Sohn, Berlin ...
Afghanistan Oligochaeta ramosa - Indian Subcontinent Oligochaeta tomentosa - Caucasus, Iran formerly included Oligochaeta ... Oligochaeta is a genus of Asian plants in the thistle tribe within the sunflower family. Oligochaeta is native to central, ... Species Oligochaeta divaricata - Caucasus, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey Oligochaeta minima - Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, ... Oligochaeta (DC.) K. Koch 17: 42-43 in Latin Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de. 1838. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni ...
Subclassis: Oligochaeta Ordines: Haplotaxida - Lumbriculida - Moniligastrida References[modifica]. *Blakemore, R.J.; Cho, J.-L. ... An article link intended for Oligochaeta (Plantae) might accidentally refer you here. If so, you might want to go back and fix ... Aquatic microdrile Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata): New nominal taxa and combinations since 1984. Zootaxa 4282(3): 401-452. ... Schmelz, R.M. (ed.) 2012: Global diversity of earthworms and other Oligochaeta (Annelida): collected papers. Zootaxa, 3458: 1- ...
... T.C. Nxele, S. Lamani, G.J. Measey, A.J. Armstrong, J.D. Plisko, S ... Report upon the Oligochaeta in the South African Museum at Cape Town. Annals of the South African Museum 13: 43-62. Google ... Annelida: Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae). In : Csudi Cs. & Mahunka S. , eds, Pedozoologica Hungarica, Taxonomic, zoogeographic ... Earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) populations and late summer pasture renovation. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural ...
Oligochaeta, Annelida) are often considered to be typical forestliving organisms, but they are regularly found in ... Oligochaeta, Annelida) are often considered to be typical forestliving organisms, but they are regularly found in ... Born, H. (1993). Die Sukzession der Enchytraeen-Synusie (Annelida, Oligochaeta) eines Ruderalökosystems unter Natürlichen und ... Assis, O. (2015). Enchytraeids (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) as Indicators of Soil Management and Ecotoxicological Tests. ...
An Updated Multilocus Phylogeny of the Lumbricidae (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta) Earthworms Marcos Pérez-Losada1-3*, ... Pop AA, Wink M, Pop VV (2003) Use of 18S, 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase sequences in earthworm taxonomy (Oligochaeta, ... Novo M, Almodovar A, Diaz-Cosin DJ (2009) High genetic divergence of hormogastrid earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta) in the ... Perez-Losada M, Bloch R, Breinholt JW, Pfenninger M, Dominguez J (2012) Taxonomic assessment of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta) ...
Study on migration modes and correlative factors of Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) in source water Huang Ting-lin; ... Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) in source water. Water Supply 1 December 2010; 10 (6): 887-896. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws. ... Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) in source water. Water Supply 1 December 2010; 10 (6): 887-896. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws. ...
Oligochaeta) exposed to the fungicide copper oxychloride. Maboeta M.S. ; Reinecke S.A. ; Reinecke A.J. (2002) ... Linking lysosomal biomarker and population responses in a field population of Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta) exposed to ...
Jamieson B.G.M. (1982) The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Haplotaxis ornamentus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Haplotaxidae) ... The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Haplotaxis ornamentus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Haplotaxidae) and its phylogenetic ... The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Haplotaxis ornamentus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Haplotaxidae) and its phylogenetic ... although also plesiomorph for the Oligochaeta, have the autapomorphy elongate periaxial sheath (secondary tube), excepting the ...
In Oligochaeta (mainly family Naididae but also Lumbricidae, Erpobdellidae and Branchiobdellidae), we have equated the ... The wide spread of aneuploidy among Oligochaeta supports the punctuated equilibria model of evolution. ... Oligochaeta). Our observations, nevertheless, show that, among karyotyped haploid/diploid cells, the most frequent were haploid ... Annelida: Oligochaeta). Proceedings of the 6th International Oligochaeta Taxonomy Meeting (6th IOTM), Palmeira de Faro, ...
The test species Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) was used. E. crypticus cultures have been kept for many ... Effect of Cu-nanoparticles versus one Cu-salt: Analysis of stress biomarkers response in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta). ... Toxicokinetics of copper and cadmium in the soil model Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta) *Fátima C.F. Santos ...
Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc.. Branchiobdellida. Hirudinea - leeches. Class Echiura (previously a phylum). Sipuncula ( ...
Any worm of the subclass Oligochaeta (class Clitellata, phylum Annelida). About 3,500 living species are known, the most ... Oligochaete, any worm of the subclass Oligochaeta (class Clitellata, phylum Annelida). About 3,500 living species are known, ... any one of more than 1,800 species of terrestrial worms of the class Oligochaeta (phylum Annelida)-in particular, members of ...
Oligochaeta • Ordo: Haplotaxida • Familia: Lumbricidae • Genus: Eisenia J.E. Areschoug, 1876 ...
Class: Oligochaeta Subclass: Oligochaeta Order: Opisthopora Order: Haplotaxida. Suborder: Lumbricina Suborder: Lumbricina ... Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbian River Basin Assessment Area. In: Quigley, T. M. [ed] 2000. Interior ...
Partitioning beta diversity of aquatic oligochaeta in different environments of a neotropical floodplain . Flávio Henrique ... Partitioning beta diversity of aquatic oligochaeta in different environments of a neotropical floodplain - Descarga este ... Partitioning beta diversity of aquatic oligochaeta in different environments of a neotropical floodplain ... Alice Partitioning beta diversity of aquatic Oligochaeta in different environments of a Neotropical floodplain Acta Scientiarum ...
Oligochaeta (Earthworm). Earthworm Crawling. Earthworm crawling behavior share many kinematic and biomechanical features with ...
Identificación y caracterización de los microorganismos asociados a la pared intestinal de Onychochaeta borincana (Oligochaeta ... Identificación y caracterización de los microorganismos asociados a la pared intestinal de Onychochaeta borincana (Oligochaeta ...
NCO = total taxa excluding subtaxa of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta.. Figure 2.. Plot of data points along the first 2 nonmetric ... NCO = total taxa excluding subtaxa of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta. n = 45.. NCO abundance at NAZ sites during our study ... It constituted from 44.4 to 71.0% of the total abundance in the LRZ, and together with Oligochaeta, accounted for 86.2 to 96.5 ... In the NAZ and LRZ, only 2 taxa were not collected after nutrient addition began (Oligochaeta and Zaitzevia; Ceratopogonidae ...
Keywords: energy available; energy consumption; energy budget; Oligochaeta; nanomaterials energy available; energy consumption ...
Interactions among two strains of Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) and Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa). Host-parasite ... Interactions among two strains of Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) and Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa); 2006; Article ...
Oligochaeta, Nematoda, and Nemertea classes (together accounting for less than 1.5% of total fauna) were excluded from the ...
Oligochaeta), Masters thesis, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of biology, accessed 18 June 2021, ... Oligochaeta) [Masters thesis]. Osijek: Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of biology; 2020 [cited 2021 ... Oligochaeta)", Masters thesis, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of biology, Osijek, 2020. Available at ... Oligochaeta)." Masters thesis, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of biology, 2020. https://urn.nsk.hr/ ...
The Oligochaeta. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Credits. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the ... Earthworm is the common name for the larger terrestrial invertebrates of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass ... Stephenson (1930) devoted a chapter of his great monograph on the Oligochaeta to this topic, while G. E. Gates spent ten years ...
The giant gippsland Earthworm, (Megascolides australis), is one of Australias 1,000 native earthworm species. These Giant earthworms average at 100 cm long and 2 cm in diameter and can reach 3 m in length.[1] It is difficult to measure length, as the worms will stretch, so scientists use weight to estimate the size.[2] The average weight of a fresh adult worm is about 200 grams.[2] They have a dark purple head and a blue-gray body.. The worms are found in the Bass River Valley of South Gippsland, near Korumburra and Warragul.[2] They are only found in a small area, of about 100,000 hectares. They live in small pockets of blue-grey clay close to water. They live in burrows about 500mm deep, and can burrow as deep as 1.5m.[2]. The habitat the worms used to live in was tall eucalypt forests. Most of this has been cleared for farming, but the worms have continued to survive because they live deep underground. They have been listed a vulnerable species because of these changes.[2] The worms only lay ...
Other taxa (Turbellaria, Ostracoda, Oligochaeta, Gastrotricha) were found on most beaches but the numerical relationship ... Turbellaria and Oligochaeta which were present at all stations, while Ostracoda, Tardigrada, Gastrotricha and Copepoda nauplii ...
Interactions among two strains of Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) and Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa) ...
Global diversity of oligochaetous clitellates ("Oligochaeta"; Clitellata) in freshwater. Pages 117-127 ...
Siddall, M. E.; Burreson, E. M. (1996) Leeches (Oligochaeta?: Euhirudinea), their phylogeny and the evolution of life-history ...
  • Oligochaeta (/ˌɒlɪɡəˈkiːtə, -ɡoʊ-/) is a subclass of animals in the phylum Annelida, which is made up of many types of aquatic and terrestrial worms, including all of the various earthworms. (wikipedia.org)
  • With around 10,000 known species, the Oligochaeta make up about half of the phylum Annelida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schmelz, R.M. (ed.) 2012: Global diversity of earthworms and other Oligochaeta (Annelida): collected papers. (wikimedia.org)
  • Aquatic microdrile Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata): New nominal taxa and combinations since 1984. (wikimedia.org)
  • Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta, Annelida) are often considered to be typical forestliving organisms, but they are regularly found in agroecosystems of the temperate regions of the world. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pérez-Losada M, Breinholt JW, Aira M, Domínguez J (2015) An Updated Multilocus Phylogeny of the Lumbricidae (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta) Earthworms. (omicsonline.org)
  • Jamieson B.G.M. (1982) The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Haplotaxis ornamentus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Haplotaxidae) and its phylogenetic significance. (edu.au)
  • Oligochaete , any worm of the subclass Oligochaeta (class Clitellata, phylum Annelida). (britannica.com)
  • any one of more than 1,800 species of terrestrial worms of the class Oligochaeta (phylum Annelida)-in particular, members of the genus Lumbricus. (britannica.com)
  • Earthworm is the common name for the larger terrestrial invertebrates of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida (segmented worms). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Earthworms are classified in the phylum Annelida , class Oligochaeta, order Opisthopora. (infoplease.com)
  • 2004. Arhynchobdellida (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Hirudinida): Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution. (amnh.org)
  • Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta (earthworms, etc.) and Hirudinea (leeches). (amnh.org)
  • The position of Clitellata/Oligochaeta (includes earthworms and leeches) and Echiura is yet to be resolved. (tolweb.org)
  • Park, T.S. 2012: Six exotic terrestrial earthworms (Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea: Moniligastridae, Lumbricidae, Ocnerodrilidae & Megascolecidae) newly added to Korean species biodiversity list. (wikimedia.org)
  • English names of the megadrile earthworms (Oligochaeta) of KwaZulu-Natal. (wikimedia.org)
  • Checklist of the earthworms (Oligochaeta) of Kerala, a constituent of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India. (wikimedia.org)
  • Oligochaeta - earthworms , etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polychaeta, Oligochaeta (earthworms etc.) and Hirudinea (leeches). (tolweb.org)
  • The highest antimony concentrations were found in earthworms (Oligochaeta). (europa.eu)
  • In Oligochaeta (mainly family Naididae but also Lumbricidae, Erpobdellidae and Branchiobdellidae ), we have equated the variability of the chromosome count numbers with aneuploidy based on the results of our analyses and identified chromosome-like nondisjunctions as a major mechanism responsible for it. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Another author detected Robertsonian-like translocations producing aneuploidy in Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae, Oligochaeta). (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Oligochaeta is a genus of Asian plants in the thistle tribe within the sunflower family. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key to the genus Slavina (Oligochaeta: Naididae) with description of a new species from Costa Rica. (marinespecies.org)
  • Most authors accept the annelids as having three major classes: Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, and Hirudinea. (britannica.com)
  • Stephenson (1930) devoted a chapter of his great monograph on the Oligochaeta to this topic, while G. E. Gates spent ten years studying regeneration in a variety of species, but "because little interest was shown," Gates (1972) only published a few of his findings that, nevertheless, show it is theoretically possible to grow two whole worms from a bisected specimen in certain species. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • More than 5.000 species are described to Class Oligochaeta , and approximately 1650 aquatic species are recognized around the world. (bvsalud.org)
  • Were examined the bibliographical data on São Paulo aquatic Oligochaeta , including species catalogs and taxonomic and ecological literature . (bvsalud.org)
  • This amount of taxa corresponds to 4.5% of the aquatic Oligochaeta worldwide valid species, and about 87% of the Brazilian species. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is now recognized that Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, comprised of several thousand species, form a clade and should be referred to either as Oligochaeta (Siddall et al. (tolweb.org)
  • First records of Slavina (Oligochaeta: Naididae) in Australia and descriptions of a new species. (marinespecies.org)
  • On some new species of aquatic Oligochaeta from New Zealand. (marinespecies.org)
  • earthworm, terrestrial, cylindrical segmented worm of the class Oligochaeta. (infoplease.com)
  • The effect of some terrestrial oligochaeta on nitrogenase activity in the soil. (worldcat.org)
  • Kasač F. Utjecaj željezovih oksida nano veličine čestica na reprodukciju i biokemijske markere kod vrsta Enchytraeus crypticus i Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) [Master's thesis]. (nsk.hr)
  • Studies on the North American aquatic Oligochaeta II: Tubificidae. (marinespecies.org)
  • Thus, this paper aims to summarize all published data on aquatic Oligochaeta from State of São Paulo ( Brazil ), in order to establish a cheklist of microdrili from the State . (bvsalud.org)
  • Studies on the Aquatic Oligochaeta of Japan: Ⅵ. (marinespecies.org)
  • Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) in organic and mineral forest soil. (jyu.fi)
  • A Systematic Report, with Some Remarks on the Classification and Phylogeny of the Oligochaeta (With 1 Plate, 5 Tables and 25 Text-figures). (marinespecies.org)
  • 2008). Extreme environmental conditions and phylogenetic inheritance: systematics of Myopordon and Oligochaeta (Asteraceae, Cardueae-Centaureinae). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also well recognized that leeches are nested within what was Oligochaeta. (amnh.org)
  • Effects of cadmium on the population size of a benthic invertebrate Aeolosoma headleyi (Oligochaeta): Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2, 255-262. (europa.eu)
  • Tubificida sperm, although also plesiomorph for the Oligochaeta, have the autapomorphy elongate periaxial sheath (secondary tube), excepting the Phreodrilidae whose sperm show convergent resemblances to the Lumbricina. (edu.au)
  • Continuatio, [Oligochaeta: Lumbricina] Acad. (marinespecies.org)
  • The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma: Oligochaeta. (marinespecies.org)
  • Fauna von Oligochaeta limicola in Gouvernements Iwanowo-Wosnesensk und Wladimir. (marinespecies.org)
  • Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. (bvsalud.org)
  • The wide spread of aneuploidy among Oligochaeta supports the punctuated equilibria model of evolution. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • The layer just showed the oligochaeta, coleopteran (adult and maggot) and formicidae groups (Table 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. (embrapa.br)
  • Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856). (embrapa.br)
  • In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. (embrapa.br)
  • For DMA category member C12-14 DMA and supporting substances reliable chronic studies assessing sediment toxicity on representatives of two different sediment organism groups (Nematoda, Oligochaeta) are available. (europa.eu)
  • The macrobenthic community on the mudflat was characterized by a few dominant species ( Corophium , Heteromastus , Nereis , Oligochaeta), with spatial distributions related to sediment characteristics. (inbo.be)