Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.
Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chemical substances excreted by humans that elicit behavior or physiological responses from other humans. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A form of non-allergic rhinitis that is characterized by nasal congestion and posterior pharyngeal drainage.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, two non-allelic types of gamma-globin - A gamma and G gamma are encoded in the beta-globin gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. Two gamma-globin chains combine with two ZETA-GLOBIN chains to form the embryonic hemoglobin Portland. Fetal HEMOGLOBIN F is formed from two gamma-globin chains combined with two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.
Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Male odorant receptors consist of olfactory sensilla. These sensilla are small sensory organs that may protrude or lie under ... "A male-specific odorant receptor conserved through the evolution of sex pheromones in Ostrinia moth species". International ... Steinbrecht, Rudolf Alexander (2007). "Structure and Function of Insect Olfactory Sensilla". Ciba Foundation Symposium 200 - ...
Kurahashi, Takashi; Menini, Anna (February 1997). "Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell". Nature. 385 ... "Computational model of the cAMP-mediated sensory response and calcium-dependent adaptation in vertebrate olfactory receptor ... Olfactory neurons utilize a feedback system from the levels of Ca2+ions to activate its adaptation to prolonged smells. Due to ... Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms ...
Olfactory receptor 1A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1A2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Immunoprecipitation of RNA transcripts of murine olfactory cells have identified an enriched pool of odorant receptors ... "Molecular profiling of activated olfactory neurons identifies odorant receptors for odors in vivo". Nature Neuroscience. 18 (10 ... Vernet-Maury E, Polak EH, Demael A (July 1984). "Structure-activity relationship of stress-inducing odorants in the rat". ... that localize to the dorsal portion of the olfactory epithelium which can mediate fear behaviour. Rosen JB, Asok A, Chakraborty ...
Olfactory receptor 1A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1A1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
The odorants are detected by myriad receptors on the olfactory epithelium. These receptors respond to a variety of dimensions ... Odor receptors that respond to a dimension within a molecular receptive range are aggregated by glomeruli in the olfactory bulb ... This input then reaches the olfactory cortex. Here, Hebbian learning networks allow for recall with partial or weak stimuli, ... Here, the multi-dimensional nature of odorant stimuli is reduced to two dimensions. This input undergoes edge enhancement, ...
Olfactory receptor 56A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR56A4 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 51M1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51M1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 5P3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR5P3 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The OR5P3 receptor is associated with examples of ligands includes: 1-octanol celery ketone (-)-carvone Olfactory receptor ...
Olfactory receptor 1D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1D2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 10G4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10G4 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Odorant Olfactory receptor Trace amine Trace amine-associated receptor "N,N-Dimethylethylamine". Toxnet. Hazardous Substance ...
Stocker RF (2006) Olfactory coding: Connecting odorant receptor expression and behavior in the Drosophila larva (Dispatch). ... Stocker, Reinhard F. (2006-01-10). "Olfactory Coding: Connecting Odorant Receptor Expression and Behavior in the Drosophila ... These studies were instrumental to map the wiring of olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptor genes to ... mapping of olfactory sensilla by fine structure, odor specificity, odorant receptor expression and central connectivity. Micros ...
"A Synthetic Sandalwood Odorant Induces Wound-Healing Processes in Human Keratinocytes via the Olfactory Receptor OR2AT4". ... Sandalore, and the similar brahmanol, have been identified as agonists of the cutaneous olfactory receptor OR2AT4, and found to ... Sandalore is a synthetic sandalwood odorant with odor in some ways similar to sandalwood and consequently used in perfumes, ... Natural sandalwood oil and other synthetic sandalwood odorants did not have the same effect. Daniela Busse, Philipp Kudella, ...
In the olfactory system, odorant molecules in the mucus bind to G-protein receptors on olfactory cells. The G-protein activates ... A receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into an electrical signal. Receptors are broadly split into two main ... In physiology, transduction is the translation of arriving stimulus into an action potential by a sensory receptor. It begins ... Hair cells are then able to convert this movement (mechanical energy) into electrical signals (graded receptor potentials) ...
Olfactory receptor 52D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR52D1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 2T11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR2T11 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitters and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfaction occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity. Glomeruli aggregate ... In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory epithelium is made up ... mucus that lines the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory ... Humans have about 10 cm2 (1.6 sq in) of olfactory epithelium, whereas some dogs have 170 cm2 (26 sq in). A dog's olfactory ...
Olfactory receptor 1G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1G1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... October 2002). "Porcine odorant-binding protein selectively binds to a human olfactory receptor". Chemical Senses. 27 (8): 691- ... Sanz G, Schlegel C, Pernollet JC, Briand L (January 2005). "Comparison of odorant specificity of two human olfactory receptors ...
Another specific role AQP4 plays is to help odorant molecules bind to target receptors and binding proteins within olfactory ... Furthermore, AQP4 also plays a role in the supportive cells of sensory organs, such as the retina, inner ear, and olfactory ...
Olfactory receptor 6B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR6B1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 8A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR8A1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 7C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR7C2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 7G2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR7G2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 10R2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10R2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 7A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR7A5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 1S2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1S2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 52E5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR52E5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 4N5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR4N5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... OR4N5 olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily N, member 5". Malnic B, Godfrey PA, Buck LB (2004). "The human olfactory receptor ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
Olfactory receptor 1Q1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1Q1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
1994a) Olfactory neurones expressing distinct odorant receptor subtypes are spatially segregated in the nasal neuroepithelium. ... Olfactory Neurons Expressing Closely Linked and Homologous Odorant Receptor Genes Tend to Project Their Axons to Neighboring ... Olfactory Neurons Expressing Closely Linked and Homologous Odorant Receptor Genes Tend to Project Their Axons to Neighboring ... Olfactory Neurons Expressing Closely Linked and Homologous Odorant Receptor Genes Tend to Project Their Axons to Neighboring ...
odorant binds Odorant Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNGT1 (Homo sapiens) * odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [plasma ... odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [plasma membrane] (Bos taurus) odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [ ... odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [plasma membrane] (Danio rerio) odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [ ... odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [plasma membrane] (Sus scrofa) odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [ ...
When present, odorant binding proteins induce an allosteric modulation of OR activity. Since no 3D structure of an OR has been ... The study of odorant binding modes and affinities may infer best-bet OR ligands, to be subsequently checked experimentally. The ... A conventional olfactory signal transduction cascade is observed in OSNs, but individual ORs can also mediate different ... OR gene structure and selection of a given gene for expression in an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) are tackled. The ...
We then tested these models by recording in vivo receptor neuron responses to a new set of odorants and successfully predicted ... We mimicked olfactory coding by modeling responses of primary olfactory neurons to small molecules using a large set of ... The chemical meaning of molecular descriptors helps understand structure-response relationships for olfactory receptors and ... demonstrating the applicability of our approach for the analysis of olfactory receptor activation data. The molecular ...
Structured Odorant Response Patterns across a Complete Olfactory Receptor Neuron Population. *Guangwei Si, ... Odorant molecules are detected through the combinatorial activation of ensembles of olfactory sensory neurons. By capitalizing ... The combinatorial olfactory code conveys odor stimulus features in an entangled manner. Si et al. uncover structure and ... separated representations of odor features and shine light on the mechanism of molecular recognition by olfactory receptors. ...
Olfactory discrimination is achieved through the action of olfactory neurons with diverse chemical specificities. In C. elegans ... odr-7 null mutants fail to respond to all odorants detected by the AWA neurons, while a missense mutation in odr-7 causes a ... The C. elegans gene odr-7 encodes an olfactory-specific member of the nuclear receptor superfamily Cell. 1994 Dec 16;79(6):971- ... Olfactory discrimination is achieved through the action of olfactory neurons with diverse chemical specificities. In C. elegans ...
Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are chemoreceptors expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory ... Olfactory Receptor Database Human Olfactory Receptor Data Exploratorium (HORDE) Olfactory+Receptor+Protein at the US National ... Since the number of combinations and permutations of olfactory receptors is very large, the olfactory receptor system is ... A third class of olfactory receptors known as vomeronasal receptors has also been identified; vomeronasal receptors putatively ...
In the mouse olfactory system, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses a single type of odorant receptor (OR) out of ... N2 - In the mouse olfactory system, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses a single type of odorant receptor (OR) out of ... AB - In the mouse olfactory system, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses a single type of odorant receptor (OR) out of ... abstract = "In the mouse olfactory system, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses a single type of odorant receptor (OR ...
The cilia express the olfactory receptors that interact with odorants. The family of odor receptor proteins are G-protein ... Odorants diffuse into the mucous and are transported to the olfactory receptor. [7] Important determinants of an odors ... Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via ... The olfactory bulb cells contacted by the olfactory receptor cells include the mitral and tufted cells, arranged in specialized ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception ... olfactory receptor 5I1. Names. olfactory receptor OR11-159. olfactory receptor-like protein OLF1. ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
Insect specific olfactory receptors are not an adaptation to a terrestrial insect lifestyle, but evolved later in insect ... and odorant/tuning receptor-dependent activation of the insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) PLOS ONE 8:e70218. ... Members of one of these receptor families, the olfactory receptors, form a complex with another protein, the olfactory ... we manually tBLASTn searched for olfactory receptors (ORs), antennal ionotropic receptors (IRs), and gustatory receptors (CSPs ...
G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) enable us to detect innumerous odorants. They are also ectopically expressed in ... Extracellular loop 2 of G protein-coupled olfactory receptors is critical for odorant recognition. Journal of Biological ... The CX3CL1 intracellular domain exhibits neuroprotection via insulin receptor/insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. ... One protein that appears to contribute to α-synuclein pathology is the innate immune pathogen recognition receptor, toll-like ...
The cilia express the olfactory receptors that interact with odorants. The family of odor receptor proteins are G-protein ... Odorants diffuse into the mucous and are transported to the olfactory receptor. [7] Important determinants of an odors ... Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via ... The olfactory bulb cells contacted by the olfactory receptor cells include the mitral and tufted cells, arranged in specialized ...
"Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell". Nature. 385 (6618): 725-729. doi:10.1038/385725a0. ISSN 0028- ... "Computational model of the cAMP-mediated sensory response and calcium-dependent adaptation in vertebrate olfactory receptor ... Olfactory neurons utilize a feedback system from the levels of Ca2+ions to activate its adaptation to prolonged smells. Due to ... Main article: Olfactory fatigue. Perceptual adaptation is a phenomenon that occurs for all of the senses, including smell and ...
... is endogenously produced upon receptor activation. We characterized the effects of receptor activation on metabolism using a ... is endogenously produced upon receptor activation. We characterized the effects of receptor activation on metabolism using a ... These findings reveal a new role for OR51E2 and establish this G-protein coupled receptor as a novel therapeutic target in the ... These findings reveal a new role for OR51E2 and establish this G-protein coupled receptor as a novel therapeutic target in the ...
Olfactory receptor OR51E2 of 320 aas and 7 TMSs. This olfactory receptor (Jovancevic et al. 2017) is activated by the odorant, ... and there appears to be an expansion in the gene copt number of olfactory receptors (Neuhaus et al. 2009). Its activity is ... and there appears to be an expansion in the gene copt number of olfactory receptors (Low et al. 2022).. ...
Oh, E. H. et al. Coupling of olfactory receptor and ion channel for rapid and sensitive visualization of odorant response. Acta ... In contrast to sight or taste composed of a rather limited kinds of receptors, there are about 400 different kinds of receptors ... Inkjet coating of receptor materials onto MSS. STNPs, SiO2-C16TA+, PMMA, and a series of Tenax TA were deposited onto the ... Each receptor material was dissolved or dispersed in selected solvents as presented in Table S4. For the preparation of STNPs ...
Cadmium exposure differentially alters odorant-driven behaviors and expression of olfactory receptors in juvenile coho salmon ( ...
Modifying octanal produces hard-to-get information about olfactory receptors. *. Podcast. Furanocoumarin. 2018-11-02T11:47:00Z ... Twists of orange odorant reveal smell secrets. 2020-08-10T08:11:00Z ...
Wicher, D.; Miazzi, F.: Functional properties of insect olfactory receptors: ionotropic receptors and odorant receptors. Cell ... Mukunda, L.; Miazzi, F.; Kaltofen, S.; Hansson, B. S.; Wicher, D.: Calmodulin modulates insect odorant receptor function. Cell ... Wicher, D.; Miazzi, F.: Insect odorant receptors: Function and regulation. In: Insect Pheromone Biochemistry and Molecular ... Low Ca2+ levels in the culture media support the heterologous expression of insect odorant receptor proteins in HEK cells. ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from Olr1315 olfactory receptor 1315 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00. ... Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
Odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system. 2012. Brian K. Kobilka and Robert J. Lefkowitz. G-protein ... It took a long time until transmitter receptors were awarded, but in 2012 Robert Lefkowitz and Brian Kobilka were awarded the N ... Earlier Richard Axel and Linda Buck, surprisingly, discovered that the olfactory neurons express around 1,000 (!) GPCRs, ... Chemistry) for their work on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), that are the targets for some 40% of all prescribed drugs. ...
Graphene Bioelectronic Nose for the Detection of Odorants with Human Olfactory Receptor 2AG1. Chemosensors, 9(7), 174. https:// ... Graphene Bioelectronic Nose for the Detection of Odorants with Human Olfactory Receptor 2AG1. Chemosensors, 9(7), 174. https:// ...
Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs/V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide ... or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal ... receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. While various ... Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs / V2Rs) ...
Computational Approaches for Decoding Select Odorant-Olfactory Receptor Interactions Using Mini-Virtual Screening.. PLoS One. ... A Functional Agonist of Insect Olfactory Receptors: Behavior, Physiology and Structure.. Front Cell Neurosci. 13:134.*PubMed ... Topology prediction of insect olfactory receptors.. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 55:194-203.*PubMed ... Identification of Complete Repertoire of Apis florea Odorant Receptors Reveals Complex Orthologous Relationships with Apis ...
... but several olfactory receptors, such as OR-I7 and mOR-EG, have been reported to be antagonized by odorants which are ... but fail to activate the receptor due to their shorter chain lengths. The strength of antagonism for this receptor appeared to ... Chapter 1 studies the structural requirements for activation of the OR-I7 aldehyde receptor. Octanal is an agonist of the OR-I7 ... Chapter 2 focuses on antagonism of the rodent OR-I7 aldehyde receptor. Besides 2.2, the response of octanal can be antagonized ...
The olfactory receptors have loose specificity, binding to multiple odorant molecules. In addition, multiple receptors sense ... Reportedly several hundred thousand odorant molecules are sensed by a much smaller number of olfactory receptors (approximately ... In addition, lectin specificity is generally lower than the specificity of enzymes and signal molecule receptors. Although ... Moreover, weak binding force seems to be favorable for the quick recovery of receptor binding. ...
Olfactory receptor neurons that express a single common odorant receptor project to one glomerulus in the OB. The glomeruli ... Zhou FW, Dong HW, Ennis M. Activation of β-noradrenergic receptors enhances rhythmic bursting in mouse olfactory bulb external ... Dong HW, Ennis M. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Suppresses Excitability of Mouse Main Olfactory Bulb ... as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors, modulate the olfactory bulb network at cellular, synaptic, network and behavioral ...
J:88213 Young JM, et al., Odorant receptor expressed sequence tags demonstrate olfactory expression of over 400 genes, ... J:289678 Olender T, et al., A unified nomenclature for vertebrate olfactory receptors. BMC Evol Biol. 2020 Apr 15;20(1):42 ...
The CP method provides a novel perspective that reveals interesting traits in the evolution of olfactory receptors. It is ... suggesting relevance to water-soluble odorants. We estimate the origins of CPs according to the tree of life and track the ... Common peptides shed light on evolution of Olfactory Receptors BMC Evol Biol. 2009 May 5;9:91. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-91. ... Background: Olfactory Receptors (ORs) form the largest multigene family in vertebrates. Their evolution and their expansion in ...
  • In situ hybridization has demonstrated that the three genes are expressed in the same zone, at the most dorsolateral and ventromedial portions of the olfactory epithelium, and are rarely expressed simultaneously in individual neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In vertebrates, the olfactory receptors are located in both the cilia and synapses of the olfactory sensory neurons and in the epithelium of the human airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the olfactory neurons, the epithelium is composed of supporting cells, Bowman glands and ducts unique to the olfactory epithelium, and basal cells that allow for the regeneration of the epithelium, including the olfactory sensory neurons. (medscape.com)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest family of GPCRs present in the olfactory epithelium but are also found in various ectopic or non-olfactory locations such as prostate, heart, placenta, embryo, erythroid cells, spleen, kidney, gut, tongue, and carotid body ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs/V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vomeronasal sensory neurons expressing members of the V1R family of G protein-coupled receptors are located in the more apical part of the vomeronasal sensory epithelium. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using autoradiography, the olfactory epithelium of smolting masu salmon was found to become enriched in thyroid hormone receptors as compared with that of parr [35]. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • Araneda RC, Peterlin Z, Zhang X, Chesler A, Firestein S (2004) A pharmacological profile of the aldehyde receptor repertoire in rat olfactory epithelium. (yale.edu)
  • The olfactory receptors lie in the nasal epithelium in the superior portion of the nasal cavity which is activated by odorant stimuli. (solutionpharmacy.in)
  • The nasal epithelium constitutes the uppermost part of the respiratory system and harbors respiratory epithelium and sensory olfactory epithelium, both of which differ in cell types and function. (biologists.com)
  • Humans only have a small proportion of olfactory epithelium whereas in mouse half of the nasal epithelium is made up of olfactory epithelium. (biologists.com)
  • The olfactory epithelium is the primary smell sensing tissue that contains olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing receptors to detect odorant molecules. (biologists.com)
  • The OSNs receive structural support by sustentacular cells in the olfactory epithelium that also maintain salt/water balance and clear toxic agents. (biologists.com)
  • The olfactory epithelium also harbors a specialized basal stem cell population that renews OSNs and sustentacular cells throughout life. (biologists.com)
  • Do cells in olfactory epithelium express proteins for CoV2 entry which makes them prone to direct infections? (biologists.com)
  • In light of how the virus infects human cells, whether anosmia is the primary result of olfactory epithelium cells under attack is investigated in this manuscript. (biologists.com)
  • This specialized tissue consists of pseudostratified columnar olfactory epithelium located on the superior concha, the roof of the nasal chamber, and the upper portion of the nasal septum. (blogspot.com)
  • The receptor cells are bipolar neurons with cilia at their dendritic endings in the olfactory epithelium. (blogspot.com)
  • These are sensory cells which are present in the olfactory epithelium, the tissue of the nasal cavity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It consists of 12 million or so nerve cells, called olfactory sensory neurons, which nestle within lining cells (the olfactory epithelium). (msensory.com)
  • The NYC researchers experimented with hamsters and patches of olfactory epithelium from the noses of 23 people who had died of COVID. (msensory.com)
  • The cause of COVID anosmia turns out to be viral triggering of immune cells that move to the olfactory epithelium, where they pump out cytokines (like interferon) that signal the nearby olfactory sensory neurons. (msensory.com)
  • Odorants are volatile chemical compounds that are carried by inhaled air to the Regio olfactoria (olfactory epithelium) located at the roof of the two nasal cavities of the human nose. (wine4soul.com)
  • The olfactory region consists of CILIA (Tiny, hair-like structures) projecting down out of the olfactory epithelium into a layer of mucous which is about 60 microns thick. (wine4soul.com)
  • The mucous layer is produced by special glands which are present in the olfactory epithelium. (wine4soul.com)
  • Characterization of rat glutathione transferases in olfactory epithelium and mucus. (canceropole-est.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium is continuously exposed to exogenous chemicals, including odorants. (canceropole-est.org)
  • The sense of smell: Receptors of the olfactory epithelium bind odorants (olfactory receptants) and pheromones (vomeronasal receptors). (remixeducation.in)
  • A recently discovered large family of genes, in nasal cavity epithelium, controls protein olfactory receptors which recognise thousands of incoming odorant molecules. (cme30.eu)
  • Odorants (odor molecules) enter the nose and dissolve in the olfactory epithelium, the mucosa at the back of the nasal cavity (as illustrated in [link] ). (edu.vn)
  • The olfactory epithelium is a collection of specialized olfactory receptors in the back of the nasal cavity that spans an area about 5 cm 2 in humans. (edu.vn)
  • The overall size of the olfactory epithelium also differs between species, with that of bloodhounds, for example, being many times larger than that of humans. (edu.vn)
  • Each neuron has a single dendrite buried in the olfactory epithelium, and extending from this dendrite are 5 to 20 receptor-laden, hair-like cilia that trap odorant molecules. (edu.vn)
  • In the human olfactory system, (a) bipolar olfactory neurons extend from (b) the olfactory epithelium, where olfactory receptors are located, to the olfactory bulb. (edu.vn)
  • Before the onset of metamorphosis, the main olfactory system of Xenopus consists of a sensory epithelium in the PC, which connects to the glomerular clusters in the vMOB. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Meaning that the offspring of conditioned mice score higher in an odour potentiated startle test (more about that below), avoid the odour at a lower concentration in an aversion test and have more neurons expressing that odorant receptor in their olfactory epithelium and bulb, counted by betagalactosidase staining in transgenic mice expressing M71, the product of Olfr151 , coupled to LacZ. (onunicornsandgenes.blog)
  • The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium , which is a small patch of tissue at the back of the nasal cavity . (thtsearch.com)
  • In today's study we evaluated the function of both transporters Pgp and MRP1 involved with multidrug resistance within the olfactory epithelium and likened two pet types. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • Coronal pieces of 100 and 150 m width were ready from olfactory epithelium of newborn mice and rats at postnatal day time 0 to 2. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • OBPs are small soluble polypeptides, which are thought to act as a carrier for odorants and carries odorant from the environment to the nasal epithelium in vertebrates and sensillar lymph in insects [ 5 , 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The olfactory epithelium is in form of petal rosettes each composed of lamellae and a rephe, and bear olfactory receptor neurons, supporting cells and cells with kinocillia. (deepdyve.com)
  • The olfactory epithelium (OE) develops or by constrictions of the muscles around the capsules. (deepdyve.com)
  • Experimental studies have suggested that the virus causes damage to cells of the olfactory epithelium , which is the part of the nose responsible for the ability to smell. (shape.com)
  • The sustentacular cells are one of the major non neuronal cellular constituents of the olfactory epithelium (OE). (aopwiki.org)
  • The sustentacular cells provide mechanical strength to the olfactory epithelium, generate the olfactory binding protein, and support the other cells with nutrients (Choi and Goldstein, 2018). (aopwiki.org)
  • Olfactory receptors work at the interface between the chemical world of volatile molecules and the perception of scent in the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We mimicked olfactory coding by modeling responses of primary olfactory neurons to small molecules using a large set of physicochemical molecular descriptors and artificial neural networks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have developed a model that uses a distinct set of physicochemical parameters to describe the structure of odor molecules and predict their activity at Drosophila receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Odorant molecules are detected through the combinatorial activation of ensembles of olfactory sensory neurons. (cell.com)
  • odr-7 may regulate the expression of olfactory signaling molecules that define a single type of olfactory neuron. (nih.gov)
  • Rather than binding specific ligands, olfactory receptors display affinity for a range of odor molecules, and conversely a single odorant molecule may bind to a number of olfactory receptors with varying affinities, which depend on physio-chemical properties of molecules like their molecular volumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a highly conserved sequence in roughly three quarters of all ORs that is a tripodal metal ion binding site, and Suslick has proposed that the ORs are in fact metalloproteins (mostly likely with zinc, copper and possibly manganese ions) that serve as a Lewis acid site for binding of many odorant molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only could the flies distinguish between the deuterated and non-deuterated forms of an odorant, they could generalise the property of "deuteratedness" to other novel molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such isotope effects are exceedingly common, and so it is well known that deuterium substitution will indeed change the binding constants of molecules to protein receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. (nih.gov)
  • To stimulate the olfactory receptors, airborne molecules must pass through the nasal cavity with relatively turbulent air currents and contact the receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Insects detect volatile molecules using olfactory (OR) or ionotropic receptors (IR) and in some cases gustatory receptors (GRs). (elifesciences.org)
  • According to this idea, olfactory receptors evolved because these ancestors needed to be able to detect odor molecules floating in the air rather than dissolved in water. (elifesciences.org)
  • The sensitivity and chemical range of animal olfactory systems is remarkable, enabling animals to detect and discriminate between thousands of different odor molecules. (elifesciences.org)
  • The olfactory system is a highly-specialised chemical recognition system that, like the immune system, is capable of discriminating with tremendous sensitivity between numerous foreign molecules in the environment. (embl.de)
  • With 300 million olfactory receptors , the dog can smell every molecule in a scent source, even the tiniest molecules. (anifirm.com)
  • This study presents the first evidence of the OR pathway being functional in lice and identifies PhumOR2 as a sensitive receptor of natural repellents that could be used to develop novel efficient molecules to control these insects. (keele.ac.uk)
  • The molecules that are smelled or tasted alter the membrane potential of the receptors through ligand-receptor-mediated second messenger mechanisms that result in ion channel openings in the ciliary membrane. (blogspot.com)
  • 6) Additional functions of odorants as chemical signals: How specific odorant molecules can regulate gene expression and cellular functions. (epfl.ch)
  • Multifaceted functions of taste- and olfactory receptors and their activating molecules will be discussed requiring the active participation of the students. (epfl.ch)
  • Each cilium is festooned with proteins that function as olfactory receptors - they bind "odorant" molecules from food. (msensory.com)
  • When the odorant molecules dissolve in the mucus coating the receptor proteins on the fringe of cilia emanating from the nose neurons, the nerve cells signal the brain, winding through tiny openings in a bone. (msensory.com)
  • How, for example, do the myriad of molecules stimulating olfactory receptors become identified as chicken soup? (msensory.com)
  • Transcribing a gene into messenger RNA (mRNA) and translating the mRNA into the receptor proteins that bind the food molecules changes with circumstance. (msensory.com)
  • The mucous lipids (fats) assist in transporting the odorant molecules, as only volatile materials that are soluble in the mucous can interact with the smell receptors and initiate the signals that our brain interprets as smell. (wine4soul.com)
  • In the first step of the sensory pathway odorant molecules bind to ORs in the olfactory. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • We think this is explained by acidified water affecting how odorant molecules bind to olfactory receptors in the fish's nose, reducing how well they can distinguish these important stimuli. (smcyinternationalfamily.org)
  • These scents arise from small, volatile molecules called odorants. (harvard.edu)
  • A fundamental question in olfaction, then, is how the olfactory receptor repertoire in the nose can detect such a vast array of molecules, while at the same time preserving the availability of some receptors to detect new smells that may be added to the environment. (harvard.edu)
  • constructed a theoretical model describing how competitive interactions between odorant molecules can be used as a mechanism to help the brain parse complex odor environments. (harvard.edu)
  • In the first step, odor molecules compete for the same binding site of an olfactory receptor. (harvard.edu)
  • In effect, the competition between odorant molecules for the same receptors provides an indirect gain control mechanism that maximally preserves the information carrying capacity of the receptor neuron ensemble. (harvard.edu)
  • Therefore, characterization of the molecular interactions between odorant molecules and ORs is a key step in the elucidation of the general properties of the olfactory system and in the development of applications, i.e., design of new odorants, search for blockers, etc. (chemcom.be)
  • The olfactory receptor proteins are receptors on the surface of certain cells that can bind with specific molecules. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Most odor receptors can bind to multiple different molecules, and how well the molecules bind gives rise to the strength with which you perceive an odor. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • The odor receptor identified for the soapy taste of cilantro binds to several of the molecules that give cilantro its characteristic smell. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Taste, also called gustation , and smell, also called olfaction , are the most interconnected senses in that both involve molecules of the stimulus entering the body and bonding to receptors. (edu.vn)
  • An olfactory receptor , which is a dendrite of a specialized neuron, responds when it binds certain molecules inhaled from the environment by sending impulses directly to the olfactory bulb of the brain. (edu.vn)
  • Odorous molecules bind to receptor proteins extending from cilia and act as a chemical stimulus, initiating electric signals that travel along the olfactory nerve's axons to the brain. (thtsearch.com)
  • Odor sensation usually depends on the concentration (number of molecules) available to the olfactory receptors. (thtsearch.com)
  • Detection of volatile odorants by olfactory neurons is thought to result from direct activation of seven-transmembrane odorant receptors by odor molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, the pheromone-binding protein is an inactive, extracellular ligand converted by pheromone molecules into an activator of pheromone-sensitive neurons and reveals a distinct paradigm for detection of odorants. (elsevier.com)
  • Since odorants are molecules, perhaps a molecular--a genetic--method of open-ended variation would serve as well as it does in our 'adaptive' immune system. (blogspot.com)
  • An OR gene codes for a protein that sits in the surface of olfactory neurons, hanging out in the nasal passage, in contact with the air we breathe, and the odorant molecules it carries. (blogspot.com)
  • Olfaction is an important process to establish behavioural response and involves the binding of small, hydrophobic, volatile molecules to receptors of the nasal neuroepithelia [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We aim to isolate molecules that modulate human sweet receptor function. (fapesp.br)
  • These cells protect olfactory neurons , i.e. the information messengers in the naval cavity that are activated when airborne molecules bind to their receptors . (shape.com)
  • The MLN8237 supplier odor molecules initially bind to so-called odorant binding proteins (OBPs, Vogt and Riddiford, 1981). (cret-signal.com)
  • As an example, there are unique receptors in the olfactory bulb, which signal the recognition of toxic molecules in the air. (effective-mind-control.com)
  • Receptors in the body monitor a massive range of air and liquid molecules, light patterns, sound waves and critical bodily events. (effective-mind-control.com)
  • We have characterized two separate odorant receptor (OR) gene clusters to examine how olfactory neurons expressing closely linked and homologous OR genes project their axons to the olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, we have found that olfactory neurons expressing MOR28, MOR10, or MOR83 project their axons to very close but distinct subsets of glomeruli on the medial and lateral sides of the olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • These lines of study will shed light on the molecular basis of topographical projection of olfactory neurons to the olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, OSNs expressing the same OR converge their axons to a specific set of glomeruli on the olfactory bulb. (elsevier.com)
  • VSNs project single unbranched axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). (frontiersin.org)
  • Synaptic Integration and Information Processing in the Olfactory Bulb. (uthsc.edu)
  • We are investigating how neuronal membrane properties and extrinsic/intrinsic neurotransmitter systems modulate information processing and output from the olfactory bulb circuit using molecular biological, functional imaging and neurophysiological approaches in vivo and in vitro. (uthsc.edu)
  • A major focus of our work is to understand how norepinephrine and dopamine transmitter systems, as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors, modulate the olfactory bulb network at cellular, synaptic, network and behavioral levels. (uthsc.edu)
  • Integration in the Olfactory Bulb (OB)-Piriform Cortex (PC) Circuit. (uthsc.edu)
  • Dong HW, Ennis M. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Suppresses Excitability of Mouse Main Olfactory Bulb External Tufted and Mitral Cells. (uthsc.edu)
  • Zhou FW, Dong HW, Ennis M. Activation of β-noradrenergic receptors enhances rhythmic bursting in mouse olfactory bulb external tufted cells. (uthsc.edu)
  • Bendahmane M, Ogg MC, Ennis M, Fletcher ML. Increased olfactory bulb acetylcholine bi-directionally modulates glomerular odor sensitivity. (uthsc.edu)
  • de Almeida L, Reiner SJ, Ennis M, Linster C. Computational modeling suggests distinct, location-specific function of norepinephrine in olfactory bulb and piriform cortex. (uthsc.edu)
  • Dong HW, Ennis M. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors enhances persistent sodium current and rhythmic bursting in main olfactory bulb external tufted cells. (uthsc.edu)
  • Escanilla O, Alperin S, Youssef M, Ennis M, Linster C. Noradrenergic but not cholinergic modulation of olfactory bulb during processing of near threshold concentration stimuli. (uthsc.edu)
  • The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. (peerj.com)
  • In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. (peerj.com)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. (peerj.com)
  • Chalansonnet M, Chaput MA (1998) Olfactory bulb output cell temporal response patterns to increasing odor concentrations in freely breathing rats. (yale.edu)
  • Cleland TA, Sethupathy P (2006) Non-topographical contrast enhancement in the olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • Friedrich RW, Korsching SI (1997) Combinatorial and chemotopic odorant coding in the zebrafish olfactory bulb visualized by optical imaging. (yale.edu)
  • Guthrie KM, Gall CM (1995) Functional mapping of odor-activated neurons in the olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • Harrison TA, Scott JW (1986) Olfactory bulb responses to odor stimulation: analysis of response pattern and intensity relationships. (yale.edu)
  • Johnson BA, Leon M (2000) Modular representations of odorants in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb and the effects of stimulus concentration. (yale.edu)
  • Johnson BA, Woo CC, Hingco EE, Pham KL, Leon M (1999) Multidimensional chemotopic responses to n-aliphatic acid odorants in the rat olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • Leon M, Johnson BA (2003) Olfactory coding in the mammalian olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • The olfactory impulse is conducted through the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb in the frontal cerebral cortex. (solutionpharmacy.in)
  • The olfactory bulb neurons carry the impulse through the olfactory tract to the limbic system, thalamus, and primary olfactory area of the temporal cortex which is perceived as smell. (solutionpharmacy.in)
  • The OSN terminals end in the olfactory bulb in the brain where the smell signal is further processed. (biologists.com)
  • The olfactory bulb neurons that synapse with OSNs in the brain do not express Ace2. (biologists.com)
  • However, the vascular pericytes in the olfactory bulb that form the blood-brain barrier and trigger inflammatory responses are Ace2 positive. (biologists.com)
  • The axons of olfactory receptor cells are delicate and pass through small foramina of the cribriform plate at the base of the skull and synapse directly in the olfactory bulb. (blogspot.com)
  • They receive information from olfactory receptor neurons through synapses in the olfactory bulb, their axons project as the olfactory tract. (blogspot.com)
  • There they connect with other neurons in the olfactory bulb region. (msensory.com)
  • The olfactory bulb in the brain was also spared. (uzleuven.be)
  • olfactory bulb (MOB), producing a map Selleck GF120918 of similar to 1800 olfactory columns representing similar to 1000 odorant receptors. (jaksignals.com)
  • The wide array of fruity, vegetal, earthy, floral, herbal, mineral woody and other flavours perceived in wine are derived from aroma notes interpreted by the olfactory bulb. (wine4soul.com)
  • Only highly volatile materials are distributors of smell that affect the olfactory bulb our smell center. (wine4soul.com)
  • Doucette JR (1984) The glial cells in the nerve fiber layer of the rat olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • Johnson BA, Woo CC, Leon M (1998) Spatial coding of odorant features in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • Kauer JS, Senseman DM, Cohen LB (1987) Odor-elicited activity monitored simultaneously from 124 regions of the salamander olfactory bulb using a voltage-sensitive dye. (yale.edu)
  • Rubin BD, Katz LC (1999) Optical imaging of odorant representations in the mammalian olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • Enzyme BACE1 is required for accurate axon guidance of olfactory sensory neurons and normal glomerulus formation in the olfactory bulb. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • Map Formation in the Olfactory Bulb by Axon Guidance of. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • This is now the second report in the last few months that presents a computational model for the olfactory bulb, which is the biological supercomputer on your face that crushes gigtons of databytes per attosecond (slight exaggeration). (limbicsignal.com)
  • How in the world does that bulb, which compresses thousands of receptors, themselves receiving information from un-countable stimuli, into dozens of signals that go on to control the entire enormity of a mammalian body via its limbic system. (limbicsignal.com)
  • Immunized Tg2576 mice got much less -amyloid immunolabeling in the olfactory light bulb and entorhinal cortex considerably, yet demonstrated elevations in Thioflavin-S tagged plaques in the piriform cortex. (kinasechem.com)
  • Following the preliminary events of smell processing inside the olfactory light bulb (OB) [6], smell information moves into olfactory cortices, like the piriform cortex (PCX) wherein procedures critical for smell habituation and olfactory learning happen [7C12]. (kinasechem.com)
  • When an electrical signal reaches a threshold, the neuron fires, which sends a signal traveling along the axon to the olfactory bulb , a part of the limbic system of the brain. (thtsearch.com)
  • The olfactory bulb acts as a relay station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. (thtsearch.com)
  • Thomas Heinbockel presents groundbreaking evidence that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in regulating neuronal activity in the main olfactory bulb . (innovationnewsnetwork.com)
  • Pattern recognition by the mind identified by science with the discovery of how the olfactory bulb recognizes odors. (effective-mind-control.com)
  • Activity Dependent Modulation of Granule Cell Survival in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb at Puberty. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • These results may indicate an intriguing possibility that olfactory neurons expressing homologous OR genes within a cluster tend to converge their axons to proximal but distinct subsets of glomeruli. (jneurosci.org)
  • This chapter describes the main characteristics of olfactory receptor (OR) genes of vertebrates, including generation of this large multigenic family and pseudogenization. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The olfactory receptors form a multigene family consisting of around 800 genes in humans and 1400 genes in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. (nih.gov)
  • The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. (nih.gov)
  • The evolution of mammalian olfactory receptor genes. (nih.gov)
  • Organization and evolution of olfactory receptor genes on human chromosome 11. (nih.gov)
  • and the recently discovered formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-related sequence ( Fpr-rs ) family of putative chemoreceptor genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Odorant receptor expressed sequence tags demonstrate olfactory expression of over 400 genes, extensive alternate splicing and unequal expression levels. (jax.org)
  • Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti) retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. (peerj.com)
  • Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. (peerj.com)
  • In addition, understanding the 'birth-and-death' evolution of these genes is needed to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying ecological specialization, evolutionary divergence and speciation [2,3], and it may also reveal molecular targets that can be manipulated for insect control, such as pheromone receptors [4]. (researchsquare.com)
  • The authors further probed all CoV2 entry related genes in the sequencing data from the whole olfactory mucosa of primates and humans. (biologists.com)
  • Most of us don't have mutations in the genes for olfactory receptors. (msensory.com)
  • We have recently identified up- or down-regulation of the olfactory (OR) and taste (TASR) chemoreceptors in the human cortex in several neurodegenerative diseases, raising the possibility of a general deregulation of these genes in neuropsychiatric disorders. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The cloning of odorant receptor OR genes Buck and Axel 1991 Mombaerts. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • Dr Porteus said: "I wanted to examine if fish had any ability to compensate for this reduced sense of smell, but found that instead of increasing the expression of genes for smell receptors in their nose they did the opposite, exacerbating the problem. (smcyinternationalfamily.org)
  • Humans have around 400+ different olfactory receptor proteins coded for by our genes. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • A Genetic Variant near Olfactory Receptor Genes Influences Cilantro Preference. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Their description of olfactory genes occupying roughly 3% of our total gene pool was first published in 1991. (drlongstreth.com)
  • Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • encoding genes within the olfactory mucosa of rat and mouse was verified by RT-PCR with suitable pairs of species-specific primers. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • We have about 1,000 (yes, that's thousand , about 5% of our genome) different Olfactory Receptor (OR) genes in our genomes. (blogspot.com)
  • In the case of the OR genes, the developing olfactory neuron must first pick one of the many clusters to use, and then use only one OR gene from that cluster, and then inactivate the other genes in all other clusters, both copies, on all other chromosomes! (blogspot.com)
  • Because they are being duplicated rapidly and they mutate rapidly, the 2,000 OR genes provide a huge repertoire of potential responders, and their combinatorial signals, which provides the kind of open-ended cataloging of odorants--including mates, predators, food and prey. (blogspot.com)
  • 2) mice have around 1000 OR genes, however, only one OR gene allele is expressed per olfactory sensory neuron. (fapesp.br)
  • CDG lipase 1 nucleosomes molecule in a caspase-1-dependent transcript of dependent effectors, many as cross-links in the major diacylglycerol subunit, endoplasmic label, IRAK-4-deficient companies, point, receptor genes, and machinery. (erik-mill.de)
  • They were UGT2A1 and UGT2A2, genes within tissue inside the nose that are involved in the ability to smell and metabolize odorants (substances that give off an odor). (shape.com)
  • Crabtree, in 1978, had previously suggested that Cu(I) is "the most likely candidate for a metallo-receptor site in olfaction" for strong-smelling volatiles which are also good metal-coordinating ligands, such as thiols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via retronasal olfaction. (medscape.com)
  • The identity of receptors involved in olfaction in the evolutionarily more ancient apterygote insects (Archaeognatha, Zygentoma) and paleopteran insects (Odonata and Ephemeroptera) is thus completely unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • Modern cetaceans are known to have reduced the olfactory capabilities profoundly during their evolution, and living odontocetes have no nervous system structures that mediate olfaction ( Oelschläger, Ridgway & Knauth, 2010 ). (peerj.com)
  • Discrete Roles of the Ir76b Ionotropic Co-Receptor Impact Olfaction, Blood Feeding, and Mating in the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii . (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Smell (or Olfaction) allows humans and other living organisms with smell receptors, to identify their food, mating partner and warn against approaching enemies, it provides both sensual pleasure (the odor of the opposite sex, flowers and perfume) as well as warnings of danger from spoiled food, nearby predators and chemical hazards: toxins and poisons. (wine4soul.com)
  • During the past decade, the enzymes surrounding the olfactory receptors have been shown to make an important contribution to the process of olfaction. (canceropole-est.org)
  • Insects detect their hosts or mates primarily through olfaction, and olfactory receptors (ORs) are at the core of odorant detection. (slu.se)
  • However, there are, in addition to classical olfactory receptors, at least two other families of receptors involved in olfaction that are also widely found expressed on tissues in many different organs in addition to the nervous system and brain: the trace-amine associated and formyl peptide receptors. (drlongstreth.com)
  • Further, these outcomes offer mechanistic insights into olfactory dysfunction like a biomarker for Advertisement by yielding proof that focal reductions of the may be adequate to protect olfaction. (kinasechem.com)
  • Gordon Shepherd proposed that the retro-nasal route of olfaction (odorants introduced to the olfactory mucosa through the oral cavity often as food) was partially responsible for the development of human olfactory acuity. (thtsearch.com)
  • The first step in olfaction is the solubilization of the hydrophobic odorants in the hydrophilic nasal mucus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Odorant Binding Proteins (OBPs) play a vital role in the olfaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When present, odorant binding proteins induce an allosteric modulation of OR activity. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The primary sequences of thousands of olfactory receptors are known from the genomes of more than a dozen organisms: they are seven-helix transmembrane proteins, but there are very few solved structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detecting chemical cues can be a matter of life or death for insects, and many employ three families of receptor proteins to detect a broad range of odors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Low Ca 2+ levels in the culture media support the heterologous expression of insect odorant receptor proteins in HEK cells. (mpg.de)
  • This role in life's processes is played mainly by proteins and has been understood in terms of lock-and-key relationships, such as enzyme and substrate, signal molecule and receptor, and antigen and antibody. (gr.jp)
  • Olfactory transduction is believed to be initiated by the binding of odorants to specific receptor proteins in the cilia of olfactory receptor cells. (embl.de)
  • Olfactory receptors are integral membrane proteins that belong to the seven transmembrane (TM), rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor family. (embl.de)
  • Research centers on understanding the structure and mechanistic function of metalloenzymes, membrane bound receptors and transporters as well as investigations in blood coagulation and amyloid proteins and their corresponding human disease states. (illinois.edu)
  • Current efforts introduce single membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors and human and plant P450 isozymes, into controlled lipid rafts. (illinois.edu)
  • Electrophoretic adjustments in olfactory program proteins was investigated in masu salmon during PST, and demonstrated that many protein spots made an appearance and disappeared during smolting [36]. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • In mammals, these proteins include two groups of membrane receptors, one of seven members including LDL-R, LRP-1, LRP-1B, LRP-2/megalin, LRP-8/ApoER2, VLDL-R, and MEGF7 and the second more distant group including SorLA/LR11 and the Wnt signaling receptors LRP-5 and LRP-6 [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pleiotropic odorant-binding proteins promote Aedes aegypti reproduction and flavivirus transmission. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • In 2019, researchers from the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia identified the nearly 400 human olfactory receptor proteins . (msensory.com)
  • G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. (remixeducation.in)
  • These receptor proteins, located in airway passages such as the nose, let your brain know that you are smelling something. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • The sensory receptors on the cilia are proteins, and it is the variations in their amino acid chains that make the receptors sensitive to different odorants. (edu.vn)
  • Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are believed to shuttle odorants from the environment to the underlying odorant receptors, for which they could potentially serve as odorant presenters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that uses Regularized Least Squares Classifier (RLSC) in conjunction with multiple physicochemical properties of amino acids to predict odorant-binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study suggests that RLSC is potentially useful for predicting the odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties irrespective of sequence similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our method predicts 92.8% of 56 odorant binding proteins non-homologous to any protein in the swissprot database and 97.1% of the 414 independent dataset proteins, suggesting the usefulness of RLSC method for facilitating the prediction of odorant binding proteins from sequence information. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insects OBPs include the general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs) and the pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs), which are completely different from their vertebrate counterpart both in sequence and three-dimensional folding [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • So far, SVM and other statistical learning methods have not been explored for predicting odorant binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • unite MoreLandscape ArchitectureGreen ArchitectureArchitecture DiagramsEnvironmental ArchitectureRoof GardensRooftop GardenUrban DesignGreen RoofsGreen IdeasForwardProfessional rise: This step of standardized proteins can be olfactory processes to materials and tyrosine. (erik-mill.de)
  • 2008, for their role in pheromone communication), these proteins are probably involved in transporting the odor ligands to the receptor sites, situated in the dendritic membrane of the OSNs. (cret-signal.com)
  • We then tested these models by recording in vivo receptor neuron responses to a new set of odorants and successfully predicted the responses of five out of seven receptor neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular descriptors that are best-suited for response prediction vary for different receptor neurons, implying that each receptor neuron detects a different aspect of chemical space. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that receptor responses themselves can be used as descriptors in a predictive model of neuron activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, it is possible to predict receptor neuron activation from chemical structure using machine-learning techniques, although this is still complicated by a lack of training data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OR gene structure and selection of a given gene for expression in an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) are tackled. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In the mouse olfactory system, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses a single type of odorant receptor (OR) out of approximately 1,000 in a monoallelic manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Once the odorant has bound to the odor receptor, the receptor undergoes structural changes and it binds and activates the olfactory-type G protein on the inside of the olfactory receptor neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cAMP opens cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels which allow calcium and sodium ions to enter into the cell, depolarizing the olfactory receptor neuron and beginning an action potential which carries the information to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we display, using electrophysiological and behavioral experiments, that one-year-aged lacustrine sockeye salmon (may regulate olfactory neuron signaling within the neuronal network required for chemotaxis [27]. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • By restoring the protein back into the olfactory neurons, we could give the cell the ability to regrow and extend cilia off the dendrite knob, which is what the olfactory neuron needs to detect odorants. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Griff ER, Greer CA, Margolis F, Ennis M, Shipley MT (2000) Ultrastructural characteristics and conduction velocity of olfactory receptor neuron axons in the olfactory marker protein-null mouse. (yale.edu)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron has only one type of receptor on its cilia, and the receptors are specialized to detect specific odorants, so the bipolar neurons themselves are specialized. (edu.vn)
  • When an odorant binds with a receptor that recognizes it, the sensory neuron associated with the receptor is stimulated. (edu.vn)
  • via Massachusetts Institute of Technology's McGovern Institute for Brain Research: Peter Y. Wang et al, Evolving the olfactory system with machine learning, Neuron (2021). (limbicsignal.com)
  • Given that the number of sensory receptors and antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli is limited relative to the number of odours that must be detectable, this ability implies that the olfactory system makes use of a combinatorial coding scheme whereby each sensory cell or AL projection neuron can participate in coding for several different odours. (who.int)
  • But as a future olfactory neuron develops, it picks one OR gene, from one cluster, and of that only from one of the two copies of that cluster, to express. (blogspot.com)
  • This is a remarkable feat and the very explicable outcome is that each olfactory neuron uses only one OR protein, and can detect only odorants that, wafting by, are recognized by that OR protein and trigger the neuron to send an "Aha! (blogspot.com)
  • In recent years, the precise role of the ion transporter NKCC1 in olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) chloride accumulation has been a controversial subject. (refine.bio)
  • Terrestrial mammals generally have a well-developed sense of smell that can discriminate millions of odors using hundreds or thousands of olfactory receptors (ORs) ( Nei, Niimura & Nozawa, 2008 ). (peerj.com)
  • Humans have more than 350 unique receptors, with which an almost infinite number of odors and odor mixtures can be identified. (phys.org)
  • The researcher responsible for choosing peanut butter, graduate student Jennifer Stamps, said that the nutty spread was an ideal pick because it is a "pure odorant," which means it is solely detected by the olfactory nerve (the collection of sensory receptors in your sinuses responsible for picking up on odors). (worldtruth.tv)
  • In general, a complete insensitivity to certain odors occurs within a minute after exposure to the odorant stimuli. (solutionpharmacy.in)
  • 3) Steps towards the localization and characterization of the putative ligand binding site of ORs and taste receptors: Molecular mechanisms for recognizing and discriminating an enormous number of odors and flavors. (epfl.ch)
  • The olfactory system recognized different combinations of firing for different odors. (sandersforcongress.org)
  • It was this combinatorial coding system, which enabled the olfactory system to recognize millions of odors. (sandersforcongress.org)
  • One theory to explain how a limited number of receptors can detect a nearly limitless number of odors is that each odor stimulates a distinct subset of receptor subtypes. (msensory.com)
  • The model they constructed builds on previous theoretical work by incorporating a two-step process through which odors bind to, and then activate, receptors in the nose. (harvard.edu)
  • provide new theoretical evidence that competition between odorants in complex olfactory environments allows the brain to encode an immense number of odors despite a relatively limited complement of receptors. (harvard.edu)
  • So far, only a small portion of these receptors have been mapped to specific odors. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Humans have about 350 olfactory receptor subtypes that work in various combinations to allow us to sense about 10,000 different odors. (edu.vn)
  • Compare that to mice, for example, which have about 1,300 olfactory receptor types, and therefore probably sense more odors. (edu.vn)
  • Humans have about 12 million olfactory receptors, distributed among hundreds of different receptor types that respond to different odors. (edu.vn)
  • The perception of odors, or sense of smell, is mediated by the olfactory nerve . (thtsearch.com)
  • Most odors consists of organic compounds , although some simple compounds not containing carbon, such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia , are also odorants. (thtsearch.com)
  • What was even more convincing was that when these researchers restored this odorant receptor (by putting back a functional gene into the flies), they could now detect yeast odors, and so died earlier even when on a calorifically restricted diet. (blogspot.com)
  • Orco (odorant receptor co-receptor) and IR receptors are the two classes of odors that humans produce that are detected by mosquitoes. (medscape.com)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are chemoreceptors expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (for example, compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sense of smell is mediated through stimulation of the olfactory receptor cells by volatile chemicals. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast to sight or taste composed of a rather limited kinds of receptors, there are about 400 different kinds of receptors known for the sense of smell with complex cross selectivity between them for human beings. (nature.com)
  • The detection of smell is initiated when an odorant binds and activates olfactory receptors (ORs) within the nose. (cuny.edu)
  • Here we are excited to introduce the world's first computer controlled digital device developed to stimulate olfactory receptor neurons with the aim of producing smell sensations purely using electrical pulses. (mixedrealitylab.org)
  • Therefore, discovering a method to produce smell sensations without us- ing chemical odorants is a necessity for digitizing the sense of smell. (mixedrealitylab.org)
  • Our concept is illustrated in the Figure 1, which is electrically stimulating the olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) and study whether this approach can produce or modify smell sensations. (mixedrealitylab.org)
  • During a medical experiment in 1973, electrical stimulation of olfactory receptors reported some smell sensations including almond, bitter almond, and vanilla [1]. (mixedrealitylab.org)
  • In a new study, co-authored by University at Albany distinguished professor of chemistry Eric Block, researchers have not only determined which of our olfactory receptors (ORs) is responsible for this nasty smell, but also the effects metals such as copper have on our sensitivity to the stench. (phys.org)
  • Obviously it is essential for everyone to be able to detect gas leaks by recognizing the smell of the sulfur odorant," Block said. (phys.org)
  • The olfactory nerve (I) is responsible for perception as well as adaptation of smell. (solutionpharmacy.in)
  • Adaptation to smell is decreasing the sensitivity of the olfactory receptors. (solutionpharmacy.in)
  • Using gene therapy in a mouse model of cilia dysfunction, we were able to rescue and restore olfactory function, or sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When loss of smell occurs, receptors the connect odorants are restrained on the cilia, resulting the loss of cilia, and the loss of sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In other words, on top of detecting the complex smells coming from the kitchen, your nose should ideally leave some receptors available to smell your own meal when it arrives. (harvard.edu)
  • Following the discovery of a family of olfactory receptors (ORs) by Buck and Axel in 1991, it has been established that the sense of smell begins with the molecular recognition of a chemical odorant by one or more ORs expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons. (chemcom.be)
  • And if a human or other animal does not have a receptor that recognizes a specific molecule, then that molecule has no smell. (edu.vn)
  • Twelve million seems like a large number of receptors, but compare that to other animals: rabbits have about 100 million, most dogs have about 1 billion, and bloodhounds-dogs selectively bred for their sense of smell-have about 4 billion. (edu.vn)
  • analysis moments and impaired smell habituation in comparison to NTg, olfactory behavior was maintained to NTg amounts LY341495 in m3.2-immunized Tg2576 mice. (kinasechem.com)
  • Olfactory perception needs that smell information originating using the binding of odorants to olfactory receptor neurons in the nasal area be moved throughout multiple mind areas essential to smell digesting. (kinasechem.com)
  • My research team are investigating how the endocannabinoid system regulates our sense of smell and its relation to neural network activity in the olfactory pathway. (innovationnewsnetwork.com)
  • The aim of the present project is to analyze the following aspects relative to two different GPCR mediated sensorial modalities, smell and taste: 1) we will study the mechanisms of odorant signal transduction regulation in vivo. (fapesp.br)
  • So now, to rigorously prove this theory, these researchers found mutant flies where a specific odorant receptor , which enables these flies to smell, was non-functional. (blogspot.com)
  • The female Aedes aegypti mosquito relies on its ability to smell blood to live and reproduce, so its olfactory system has multiple redundancies that enable it to track scents on humans. (medscape.com)
  • Though the study didn't differentiate between loss of smell and loss of taste, the two are frequently intertwined because the olfactory neurons in the nose are responsible for both. (shape.com)
  • Both of them worked on how scents work on the body and they were honored for their discoveries that clarify how the olfactory (nose and smell) system works. (ringoaroma.com)
  • It is a specialized pseudostratified neuroepithelium containing the primary olfactory receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Several properties of the mouse primary olfactory pathway. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • Spatiotemporal odour coding is thought to be linked closely with the specific glomerular anatomy of the primary olfactory centre. (silverchair.com)
  • We followed a classic approach to derive Structure-Activity-Relationships (SARs) by calculating molecular descriptors and training Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), as it has been applied in other studies to characterize ligand affinity to specific receptors [ 10 - 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we suggest that quantifying the molecular properties relevant for activating olfactory receptors reveals how chemical space is encoded by the receptor repertoire of a specific organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A conventional olfactory signal transduction cascade is observed in OSNs, but individual ORs can also mediate different signaling pathways, through the involvement of other molecular partners and depending on the odorant ligand encountered. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The molecular identity of olfactory receptors was first unraveled in vertebrates ( Buck and Axel, 1991 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Despite the progress, molecular mechanisms governing LK peptide-receptor interactions remain to be elucidated. (jbc.org)
  • Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. (peerj.com)
  • Further intensive molecular biological studies will enhance our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of olfactory imprinting and homing in salmon. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • Further molecular and sensory biological techniques, which are in progress inside our laboratory, will clarify the neurobiological mechanisms of olfactory imprinting and homing in salmon. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • Smelling Sulfur: Copper and Silver Regulate the Response of Human Odorant Receptor OR2T11 to Low-Molecular-Weight Thiols, Journal of the American Chemical Society (2016). (phys.org)
  • Araneda RC, Kini AD, Firestein S (2000) The molecular receptive range of an odorant receptor. (yale.edu)
  • Gimelbrant, AA & McClintock, TS 1997, ' A Nuclear Matrix Attachment Region Is Highly Homologous to a Conserved Domain of Olfactory Receptors ', Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 61-63. (uky.edu)
  • Since 2006 she has directed the research group "Circuit Formation and Function in the olfactory system" at the Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine , Padua. (armeniseharvard.org)
  • 1) Introduction to the cellular and molecular architecture of the olfactory and gustatory chemosensory system. (epfl.ch)
  • An odorant must possess certain molecular properties in order to provide sensory properties. (wine4soul.com)
  • The olfactory cilia are the sites where molecular reception with the odorant occurs and sensory transmission starts. (wine4soul.com)
  • Finally, we test the degree to which the conditioned response generalizes to other odorants based on molecular features of the odorants (e.g. carbon chain length and the presence of a target functional group). (who.int)
  • A download das kind of molecular novel receptors can propose required in phagosomal gonads. (erik-mill.de)
  • Flemish doctors have taken tissue samples of deceased COVID-19 patients and have discovered that the virus infects the supporting cells of the olfactory mucosa, but not the nerve cells with the odorant receptors. (uzleuven.be)
  • Moran DT, Rowley JC, Jafek BW, Lovell MA (1982) The fine structure of the olfactory mucosa in man. (yale.edu)
  • Both transporters had been expressed both in newborn and adult olfactory mucosa of SB 525334 both types. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • Conclusions The results claim that both Pgp and MRP transporters are SB 525334 useful within the olfactory mucosa and in olfactory receptor neurons. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • 2019) report the generation of a new set of tools to manipulate the entire set of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neuropeptides, and their receptors-the "chemoconnectome"-in Drosophila . (cell.com)
  • The mouse receptor transporting protein RTP1S and the fly SNMP1 support the functional expression of the Drosophila odorant coreceptor Orco in mammalian culture cells. (mpg.de)
  • Odor-induced cAMP production in Drosophila melanogaster olfactory sensory neurons. (mpg.de)
  • Calmodulin affects sensitization of Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptors. (mpg.de)
  • Big tasks for small flies: signaling cascades may help insects to detect faint odor traces (invited article summary about: Miazzi F, Hansson BS, Wicher D (2016) Odor-induced cAMP production in Drosophila melanogaster olfactory sensory neurons. (mpg.de)
  • Functional properties of Drosophila melanogaster olfactory sensory neurons. (mpg.de)
  • Orphan nuclear receptor ftz-f1 (NR5A3) promotes egg chamber survival in the Drosophila ovary. (sdbonline.org)
  • The human odorant receptor OR10A6 is tuned to the pheromone of the commensal fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. (leibniz-lsb.de)
  • Drosophila melanogaster lipophorin receptors (LpRs), LpR1 and LpR2, are members of the LDLR family known to mediate lipid uptake in a range of organisms from Drosophila to humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dock and Pak regulate olfactory axon pathfinding in Drosophila. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • Genética de la variación poblacional en respuesta olfatoria de Drosophila melanogaster a diferentes compuestos químicos. (uniovi.es)
  • Here we evaluate odour discriminability in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by first conditioning individual flies to not respond to any of several odorants using a nonassociative conditioning protocol (habituation). (who.int)
  • In addition, it is feasible to perform electrophysiological recordings from identified Drosophila olfactory neurons in vivo . (biologists.com)
  • For the olfactory system, more than one cilia come from the olfactory sensory neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Olfactory Receptors (ORs) encode chemical stimuli in neuronal activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2019) uncover principles constraining the representation of the quality and intensity of olfactory stimuli. (cell.com)
  • Despite the complete rewiring, the vMOB retains its coarse functional organization and odorant-mediated behavior to waterborne stimuli is still present. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • This is the detection of stimuli by receptors in the nose. (thtsearch.com)
  • Rockefeller University researchers have now said, however, that the average person can distinguish between more than a trillion olfactory stimuli. (creation.com)
  • Cadmium exposure differentially alters odorant-driven behaviors and expression of olfactory receptors in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). (cdc.gov)
  • The study of odorant binding modes and affinities may infer best-bet OR ligands, to be subsequently checked experimentally. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • However, the odorant ligands that bind these ORs possess not been characterized as yet. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • The endocannabinoid system is comprised of its ligands, endocannabinoids and its receptors (CB1 and CB2). (innovationnewsnetwork.com)
  • Endocannabinoid receptors exist in all normal brains and have many essential brain functions when activated by their natural ligands, (such as motor behaviour, memory, and pain reception). (innovationnewsnetwork.com)
  • Activated olfactory receptors trigger nerve impulses which transmit information about odor to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Head anatomy with olfactory nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Afferent fibers Nerve fibers carrying information from the receptors to the brain. (skidmore.edu)
  • Posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction may be caused by a shearing injury of the olfactory nerve filaments, or by brain contusion and hemorrhage within the olfactory brain regions. (blogspot.com)
  • Interestingly, olfactory neurons are the only special sensory receptors that are the nerve itself. (blogspot.com)
  • Cranial nerve No. 1 the Olfactory nerve. (wine4soul.com)
  • Bliss TV, Rosenberg ME (1979) Activity-dependent changes in conduction velocity in the olfactory nerve of the tortoise. (yale.edu)
  • Daston MM, Adamek GD, Gesteland RC (1990) Ultrastructural organization of receptor cell axons in frog olfactory nerve. (yale.edu)
  • Eng DL, Kocsis JD (1987) Activity-dependent changes in extracellular potassium and excitability in turtle olfactory nerve. (yale.edu)
  • Marin-Padilla M, Amieva MR (1989) Early neurogenesis of the mouse olfactory nerve: Golgi and electron microscopic studies. (yale.edu)
  • Typical ants have clusters of nerve endings of each type of odorant receptor called glomeruli in their brains. (futurism.com)
  • Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. (lookformedical.com)
  • Olfactory Receptors (ORs) form the largest multigene family in vertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • Kay LM, Stopfer M (2006) Information processing in the olfactory systems of insects and vertebrates. (yale.edu)
  • Axonal bifurcations seem to be an ancestral feature in amphibians, and are possibly more common among vertebrates, forming an alternative odorant processing channel. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The classical olfactory system is evolutionarily conserved in multiple taxa from insects through to fish, reptiles and mammals, and is represented by the largest gene families in vertebrates. (drlongstreth.com)
  • By contrast, we restricted our study to modeling receptor responses, because these are more likely to be dominated by physicochemical properties of the odorants, assuming OR activation is the result of ligand-receptor binding through intermolecular interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ligand binding induces conformational changes in the ORs that regulate their level of activity depending on odorant dose. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Since no 3D structure of an OR has been yet resolved, modeling has to be performed using the closest G-protein-coupled receptor 3D structures available, to facilitate virtual ligand screening using the models. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Golebiowski, Ma and Matsunami showed that the mechanism of ligand recognition, although similar to other non-olfactory class A GPCRs, involves residues specific to olfactory receptors, notably in the sixth helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Katada S, Hirokawa T, Oka Y, Suwa M, Touhara K (2005) Structural basis for a broad but selective ligand spectrum of a mouse olfactory receptor: mapping the odorant-binding site. (yale.edu)
  • Receptor occupancy by an appropriate ligand leads to activation of G-protein which in turn acts on target enzyme like adenyl cyclase/phospholipase C or an ion channel (Fig. 2.5). (remixeducation.in)
  • It is known that, a ligand-receptor interaction lasts only for milliseconds. (remixeducation.in)
  • In OSNs an axon guidance receptor Nrp2 and its repulsive ligand Sema3F. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • This transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor acts with ligand binding to enhance binding of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) to the G protein with subsequent disassociation from the receptor followed by activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) system. (medscape.com)
  • Ligand induced activation of these receptors ultimately results in sensory perception. (fapesp.br)
  • first nucleus across precursor cells conducts suspected when the activation reviewed in the ligand-bound receptor synapses to the oxidative factor through a aldehyde of non-reducing important fusion. (evakoch.com)
  • These two basic principles are fundamental to the peripheral olfactory system, and are regulated by the expressed OR protein itself. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results support a significant role of GSTs in the modulation of odorant availability for receptors in the peripheral olfactory process. (canceropole-est.org)
  • The peripheral olfactory system of insects shows a remarkable morphological diversity at all levels. (cret-signal.com)
  • In a recent but highly controversial interpretation, it has also been speculated that olfactory receptors might really sense various vibrational energy-levels of a molecule rather than structural motifs via quantum coherence mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our study provides a reference for further studies of olfactory mechanisms in Lepidoptera, a historically crucial insect order in olfactory research. (slu.se)
  • To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Recent research has started to clear up potential mechanisms of olfactory loss in Alzheimer's disease. (intechopen.com)
  • There becomes well translation for complex between antigen and odorant mechanisms of dispersion assembly. (erik-mill.de)
  • Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. (nih.gov)
  • 27 a key component of the olfactory signal transduction pathway 34. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • In spite of the sequence and structural difference, their general chemical properties indicate similar functions in olfactory transduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flight modulation can begin rapidly (within about 85 ms) after the onset of olfactory transduction. (biologists.com)
  • The nucleotide is many but transduction of SLC16A1 pressure shares production repair and germline o-methyltransferase in library and plant receptor outputs. (evakoch.com)
  • The olfactory system of mammals can recognize a large number of different odorants. (jneurosci.org)
  • We investigated the olfactory system of the primary wingless bristletail Lepismachilis y-signata (Archaeognatha), the firebrat Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma) and the neopteran leaf insect Phyllium siccifolium (Phasmatodea). (elifesciences.org)
  • In the most basal insects no evidence for any part of the olfactory receptor-based system was found. (elifesciences.org)
  • The protostome leucokinin (LK) signaling system, including LK peptides and their G protein-coupled receptors, has been characterized in several species. (jbc.org)
  • Fundamental information about hetero- and conspecifics, such as identity, social or reproductive state, is gathered by the olfactory system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chapter 3 looks at determinants of antagonism in the mammalian olfactory system as a whole. (cuny.edu)
  • Liu, Min Ting, "Olfactory Receptor Antagonism in the OR-I7 Aldehyde Receptor and the Mammalian Olfactory System" (2017). (cuny.edu)
  • The company has taken NOBEL Prize science related to discoveries of odorant receptors in the nose and the organization of the olfactory system, and has developed unique NOXO Wellness Products that are affordable and made from all natural ingredients. (prleap.com)
  • The research that won Buck the 2004 Nobel Prize , which she shared with olfactory researcher Richard Axel of Columbia University "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system," was unrelated to the research in the retracted papers. (the-scientist.com)
  • Richard was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for his pioneering work on the olfactory system. (royalsociety.org)
  • Jointly with Linda B. Buck for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system. (royalsociety.org)
  • Cleland TA, Johnson BA, Leon M, Linster C (2007) Relational representation in the olfactory system. (yale.edu)
  • Cleland TA, Linster C (2005) Computation in the olfactory system. (yale.edu)
  • The vertebrate orthologs of LpRs, ApoER2 and VLDL-R, function as receptors of a glycoprotein involved in development of the central nervous system, Reelin, which is not present in flies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified seven putative full-length ORs, in addition to the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco), and expressed four of them in the Xenopus laevis oocytes system. (keele.ac.uk)
  • But the olfactory system is interesting for other reasons. (armeniseharvard.org)
  • As for therapeutic applications, often the first symptoms of many neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson) are olfactory disorders, as if this sensory system were a "watchman" that serves as an alert when something is not working properly in the nervous system. (armeniseharvard.org)
  • Brief predator sound exposure elicits behavioral and neuronal long-term sensitization in the olfactory system of an insect. (slu.se)
  • Know the anatomic structures involved in the olfactory system. (blogspot.com)
  • Second-order neurons of the olfactory system. (blogspot.com)
  • How could scientists remain blind to the significance of the Nobel Prize awarded in 2004 to Lynda Buck for the discovery of the recognition processes in the olfactory system? (sandersforcongress.org)
  • Was it only the olfactory system, which used combinatorial coding? (sandersforcongress.org)
  • Could instant combinatorial recognition extended beyond the olfactory system? (sandersforcongress.org)
  • These results indicate that the interbulbar link through the AONpE integrates bilateral olfactory sensory maps and exchanges olfactory information, positioning it as a unique model system for studying interhemispheric connections. (jaksignals.com)
  • Thus, in G-protein-receptor coupled system, occupancy of only a fraction of receptor population is enough to produce maximal tissue response. (remixeducation.in)
  • The system has a wide variety of receptor population and produce diverse effects. (remixeducation.in)
  • Bokil H, Laaris N, Blinder K, Ennis M, Keller A (2001) Ephaptic interactions in the mammalian olfactory system. (yale.edu)
  • Neural map formation in the mouse olfactory system. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • Axon guidance in the olfactory system Mombaerts 2001 Odorants interact with. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • University of Exeter researcher Dr Cosima Porteus, who led the study, said: "Our study is the first to examine the impact of rising carbon dioxide in the ocean on the olfactory system of fish. (smcyinternationalfamily.org)
  • Near-future carbon dioxide levels impair the olfactory system of a marine fish is published in the journal Nature Climate Change . (smcyinternationalfamily.org)
  • General similarities of the olfactory system from insects to mammals make it tempting to extrapolate from one species to the other. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • However, the olfactory system is remarkably adaptive and diversified among animal lineages and species occupying different ecological niches. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • In my thesis, I examined adaptive features of the olfactory system of anurans across different distantly related species and in different developmental stages. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Unless there is some mysterious way for information from the central nervous system to travel to the testis, acetophenone must affect the spermatogenesis as well as the olfactory neurons. (onunicornsandgenes.blog)
  • Olfactory information is further processed and forwarded to the central nervous system (CNS), which controls emotions and behavior as well as basic thought processes. (thtsearch.com)
  • These data substantiate the claim that these features are relevant coding dimensions in the fruit fly olfactory system, as has been shown for other insect and vertebrate species. (who.int)
  • The study of this signalling system in the olfactory pathway is still in its infancy. (innovationnewsnetwork.com)
  • This is due to the way it bonds with receptors in the olfactory system, only slowly releasing to make way for a fresh charge of the molecule on the receptors. (escentric.com)
  • Such structures are not only related to memory and learning, but also to the olfactory system. (intechopen.com)
  • The deficit of the olfactory system in Alzheimer's disease, as early as its incipient stages, is currently a generally recognized fact. (intechopen.com)
  • These researchers observed that if they destroyed (literally fried) the olfactory system of worms with a laser, the worms also lived longer than normal and resembled worms that were on calorifically restricted diets. (blogspot.com)
  • MIM:612379), a soluble transcript characterized by damage-induced methemoglobin purines signaling in accessory receptor SSA, attached kinase, transcriptase, ephrin buds and system( Cantagrel et al. (evakoch.com)
  • Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling). (aopwiki.org)
  • Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck are the scientists who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 2004 for their research on the olfactory system. (ringoaroma.com)
  • In laboratory mice, female preference for airborne urinary scents from males (detected through the main olfactory system) is learnt through association with scents detected through the vomeronasal system during contact with the scent source. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Thus, by using a chemical that binds to copper in the mouse nose, so that copper wasn't available to the receptors, the authors showed that the mice couldn't detect the thiols. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could provide a starting point for new leukaemia therapies, as researchers from Bochum report in a current study.Olfactory receptors exist not only in the nose, but also in many other parts of the body, including the liver, the prostate and the intestines. (earthscape.org)
  • A human nose has only 6 million olfactory receptors . (anifirm.com)
  • While there are a nearly infinite number of these odorants, the number of receptor types in your nose responsible for detecting these odorants is significantly smaller. (harvard.edu)
  • We have an amazing olfactory capacity that has not been appreciated," said researcher Dr Leslie Vosshall, who also pointed out that the typical person's nose has 400 kinds of olfactory receptors. (creation.com)
  • Odorant receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose, taste receptors are expressed in the taste cells of the tongue, and pheromone receptors are expressed in the sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ. (fapesp.br)
  • Mutagenesis of the Orco Odorant Receptor Co-receptor Impairs Olfactory Function in the Malaria Vector Anopheles coluzzii . (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Clonal raider ants have to follow scent paths (and they have over 350 odorant receptors with which to do so), so the team targeted an olfactory gene first: orco. (futurism.com)
  • To discriminate a variety of odorants, the CNS must be able to determine which OSNs have been activated. (jneurosci.org)
  • In order to distinguish the response of each isomer, the cis and trans compounds were individually synthesized and tested on olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that co-express the OR-I7 receptor via calcium imaging. (cuny.edu)
  • Odorant receptors (ORs) in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) mediate detection of volatile odorants. (duke.edu)
  • Odorants are detected by ORs expressed in the cell membrance of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which project to the glomeruli of the olfactory bulbs (OBs). (peerj.com)
  • ACE2 immunohistochemistry on human olfactory mucosal biopsy samples revealed localization on sustentacular and basal cells but not on OSNs. (biologists.com)
  • NKCC1 is expressed in OSNs and is involved in chloride accumulation of dissociated neurons, but it had not been shown to play a role in mouse odorant sensation. (refine.bio)
  • The primary gene sequences for thousands of olfactory receptors are known for the genomes of more than a dozen organisms. (thtsearch.com)
  • Activation of different combinations of olfactory receptors by bacterial products such as B-phenylethylamine have been shown even to control expression of emotions such as fear and aggression. (drlongstreth.com)
  • The gene family of ORs consists of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and was first described for rats [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These receptors are members of the class A rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, as many as 1000 heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (or G protein)-coupled receptors are considered to be employed in olfactory discrimination ( Buck and Axel, 1991 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as important factors in tumor growth and metastasis ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Animais detect chemical cues that are present in the environment through a large family of receptors which belong to the G protein coupled receptors superfamily (GPCRs). (fapesp.br)
  • Functional properties of insect olfactory receptors: ionotropic receptors and odorant receptors. (mpg.de)
  • Optimization of insect odorant receptor trafficking and functional expression via transient transfection in HEK293 cells. (mpg.de)
  • For the OR-I7 receptor, the main difference between the structure of the agonist, octanal, and the antagonists is their chain lengths, whereas the agonist of the mOR-EG receptor, eugenol, differs from the antagonists by the functional group on the phenyl ring and the position of the double bond. (cuny.edu)
  • A study was devised to look at the extent of OR antagonism that can be stimulated by pairs of structurally similar odorants, differing only in their carbon chain length or their oxygen containing functional group. (cuny.edu)
  • Here, we present for the first time functional evidence for the role of odorant receptors (ORs) in this insect, with the objective to gain insight into the chemical ecology of this vector. (keele.ac.uk)
  • Functional identification and reconstitution of an odorant receptor in single olfactory neurons. (sengoku-lab.org)
  • Functional evolution of Lepidoptera olfactory receptors revealed by deorphanization of a moth repertoire. (slu.se)
  • Ma M, Shepherd GM (2000) Functional mosaic organization of mouse olfactory receptor neurons. (yale.edu)
  • Some ectopic olfactory receptors have been shown to have functional effects in the gut and kidney, highlighting the complexity of the systems engaged by odorants. (drlongstreth.com)
  • In neonates, this area is a dense neural sheet, but, in children and adults, the respiratory and olfactory tissues interdigitate. (medscape.com)
  • Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms to sense vital changes in their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some key players in several neural systems include Ca 2+ ions (see Calcium in biology ) that send negative feedback in second messenger pathways that allow the neural receptor cells to close or open channels in response to the changes of ion flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guerrieri F, Schubert M, Sandoz JC, Giurfa M (2005) Perceptual and neural olfactory similarity in honeybees. (yale.edu)
  • As the neural basis for olfactory impairments LY341495 in Advertisement remain unclear, latest work from Advertisement mouse models offers suggested a job for amyloid- (A) in disrupting regular olfactory network function and olfactory manners [23C26]. (kinasechem.com)
  • Dr. Bird studies this question using hair cells, the neural receptors for hearing and balance that are found within the inner ear. (ufl.edu)
  • Human β2-adrenergic receptor GPCR structure is similar to bovine rhodopsin in terms of relative orientation of the seven-transmembrane helices. (remixeducation.in)
  • A surprising effect occurs when the efficacy of an odor in activating different receptors is independent of how well it binds to these receptors: the number of receptors activated by a complex mixture is completely independent of how many components are present in the mixture. (harvard.edu)
  • When the odorant molecule binds to the receptor, it triggers actions within the cell, causing signals to be sent to the olfactory center in the brain. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • As humans age, the number of olfactory neurons steadily decreases. (medscape.com)
  • We are also investigating how sweet and fatty components of mother's milk produces profound opiate receptor-dependent analgesic and calming effects in newborn rats and humans. (uthsc.edu)
  • Researchers headed by Prof Dr Dr Dr Hanns Hatt from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have now demonstrated them in white blood cells in humans.Together with colleagues from the Essen University Hospital, the Bochum-based group identified the receptor OR2AT4 in a cultivated cell line, taken from patients suffering from chronic myelogenous leukaemia. (earthscape.org)
  • The olfactory region of each of the two nasal passages in humans is a small area of about 2.5 square centimeters containing in total approximately 50 million primary sensory receptor cells . (wine4soul.com)
  • In fact, in humans, there are only ~400 different types of receptors available to detect such complicated odor environments and transmit information to the brain. (harvard.edu)
  • Mice have over 1000 different olfactory receptors and humans about 400. (drlongstreth.com)
  • Any tearing or shearing of the axons during the trauma can result in olfactory dysfunction. (blogspot.com)
  • During development axons from olfactory neurons that express the same olfactory receptor converge to share the same glomeruli. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • Semaphorin 3A Is Required for Guidance of Olfactory Axons in. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • The Guidance of Olfactory Sensory Axons to Identifiable. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • As in mammals each glomerulus is innervated by olfactory axons expressing. (ordersildenafilcitrate.online)
  • The causes of these decrements appear multifactorial and likely include altered intranasal airflow patterns, cumulative damage to the olfactory receptor cells from viruses and other environmental insults, decrements in mucosal metabolizing enzymes, closure of the cribriform plate foramina through which olfactory receptor cells axons project to the brain, loss of selectivity of receptor cells to odorants, and altered neurotransmission, including that exacerbated in some age-related neurodegenerative diseases. (oxfordre.com)
  • In insects, olfactory receptors are located on the antennae and other chemosensory organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis of the body louse genome revealed a drastic reduction of the chemosensory gene repertoires when compared to other insects, suggesting specific olfactory adaptations to host specialization and permanent parasitic lifestyle. (keele.ac.uk)
  • 5) Taste and odorant receptors in non-chemosensory tissues: New therapeutic options for disease treatments. (epfl.ch)
  • Furthermore chemosensory receptors seem to be involved in additional body functions opening possibilities for novel medical therapies. (epfl.ch)
  • Behavioural and mood regulation: Receptors in the mammalian brain bind several neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. (remixeducation.in)
  • receptors such as histamine receptors bind inflammatory mediators and engage target cell types in the inflammatory response. (remixeducation.in)
  • Presentation of receptors and signaling cascades with specific emphasis on molecule detection and signal processing. (epfl.ch)
  • Then, in the second step, the bound molecule goes on to generate activity in olfactory receptor neurons at differing levels of efficacy. (harvard.edu)
  • It contains no odorants except the aroma-molecule, Iso E Super. (escentric.com)
  • Antennal Olfactory Physiology and Behavior of Males of the Ponerine Ant Harpegnathos saltator . (vanderbilt.edu)
  • While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behavior, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems. (drlongstreth.com)
  • In the wingless species that is more closely related to the flying insects there was evidence of the presence of multiple coreceptors but not the olfactory receptors themselves. (elifesciences.org)
  • We identify species-specific CPs and show that their relative abundance is high only in fish and frog, suggesting relevance to water-soluble odorants. (nih.gov)
  • In most neopteran insects (those insects possessing wings that bend over the abdomen), parallel fibers provide systems of dendrites that form a distal cap- or cup-like domain called the calyx that receives afferents from olfactory neuropils and, in many species, from the optic lobes and gustatory centers as well. (elifesciences.org)
  • Overall, these studies can help inform mosquito repellent choice by species, guide decisions on effective repellent blends, and could ultimately identify the olfactory neurons and receptors in mosquitoes that mediate repellency. (researchsquare.com)
  • Bacteria can make many if not most odorants and are responsible for recognition of species and relative relatedness as well as predator presence, among many other examples. (drlongstreth.com)
  • The di﫿erences among the species in olfactory organs are discussed in correlation with their distribution. (deepdyve.com)
  • We characterized the effects of receptor activation on metabolism using a prostate cancer cell line and demonstrated decreased intracellular anabolic signals and cell viability, induction of cell cycle arrest, and increased expression of neuronal markers. (frontiersin.org)
  • One substitution, LUSH D118A , produces a dominant-active LUSH protein that stimulates T1 neurons through the neuronal receptor components Or67d and SNMP in the complete absence of pheromone. (elsevier.com)
  • Several GPCRs, such as the 5HT1c serotonin receptor ( 2 ), the M1, M3, and M5 muscarinic receptors ( 3 ), and the α1B-ADR adrenergic receptor ( 4 ), can function as oncogenes when persistently activated. (frontiersin.org)
  • hence another common word for GPCRs is 7TM receptors. (remixeducation.in)
  • 3) sweet tastants are detected bya heterodimer of GPCRs, constituted by the T1R2 and T1R3 receptors. (fapesp.br)
  • Examining Peripheral Electrophysiological Responses of the Larval Antennal Sensory Cone of Anopheles coluzzii to Volatile Odorants. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Each olfactory receptor does not seem to detect a single odour. (embl.de)
  • Though odorless in its normal state, utility companies add sulfur-containing odorants - called mercaptans or thiols - to the gas so it's easy to detect a leak. (phys.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 employs the viral spike (S) protein to detect receptor protein ACE2 on target cells. (biologists.com)
  • Sperm cells also express odor receptors, which are thought to be involved in chemotaxis to find the egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesized analogues were tested for their ability to inhibit activation by octanal in OR-I7 receptors expressed in HEK293 cells using a cyclic AMP detection assay. (cuny.edu)
  • Human blood cells have olfactory receptors that respond to Sandalore. (earthscape.org)
  • The researchers identified the same receptor in white blood cells isolated from blood freshly obtained from patients suffering from acute myeloid leukaemia. (earthscape.org)
  • Viruses use a set of receptors and proteases to identify and infect host cells via membrane fusion. (biologists.com)
  • Deorphanization and characterization of human olfactory receptors in heterologous cells (Chem Biodivers. (chemcom.be)
  • In non-murine cells these receptors facilitate infection of both P-MLV and X-MLVretroviruses, while in mouse cells, XPR selectively permits infection by P-MLV only (2). (kinasechem.com)
  • There are millions of olfactory receptor neurons that act as sensory signaling cells. (thtsearch.com)
  • They participate in the superfamily of binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters), transmembrane ATP-driven export pushes, and include and the like two important associates of two subfamilies, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp, gene image tadpoles expressing both transporter systems in sustentacular cells and olfactory neurons [21]. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • The olfactory sustentacular cells are believed to be partly epithelial and partly glial (Liang, 2020). (aopwiki.org)
  • Although there is a striking evolutionary convergence towards a conserved organization of signaling pathways in vertebrate and invertebrate olfactory systems ( Hildebrand and Shepherd, 1997 ), the involved receptor gene families evolved independently. (elifesciences.org)
  • By using the special organization of the olfactory pathways, memories can be manipulated in a local manner on one side of the brain. (limbicsignal.com)
  • This implies that information gained through contact with a specific male's scent is essential to stimulate attraction, providing a new perspective on the cues and olfactory pathways involved in sex recognition and mate assessment in rodents. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Crustaceans share a common ancestor with insects, and since they do not have olfactory receptors it has been proposed that these receptors evolved when prehistoric insects moved from the sea to live on land. (elifesciences.org)
  • Previous research on insect olfactory receptors has focused on insects with wings. (elifesciences.org)
  • This indicates that the main olfactory receptors evolved independently of the coreceptor long after the migration of insects from water to land. (elifesciences.org)
  • suggest that olfactory receptors instead developed far later, around the time when vascular plants spread and insects developed the ability to fly. (elifesciences.org)
  • All data on insect olfactory receptors are based on studies investigating the neopteran insects (overview of insect order relationship is given in Figure 1 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Our phylogenetic analysis highlights a basic conservation of function within the receptor repertoire of Lepidoptera, across the expansive evolutionary radiation of different major clades. (slu.se)
  • As the number of components in an odor mixture is increased, this independency of the binding-activation process is crucial for preventing saturation of the limited repertoire of olfactory receptors. (harvard.edu)
  • Crucial role of copper in detection of metal-coordinating odorants. (duke.edu)
  • Products are based on olfactory perception altering technology. (prleap.com)
  • A genome-wide study on the perception of the odorants androstenone and galaxolide. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variation of an odorant receptor OR7D4 and sensory perception of cooked meat containing androstenone. (cdc.gov)
  • Odor perception between heterosexual partners: its association with depression, anxiety, and genetic variation in odorant receptor OR7D4. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been claimed that human olfactory receptors are capable of distinguishing between deuterated and undeuterated isotopomers of cyclopentadecanone by vibrational energy level sensing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Min Ting is primarily a synthetic organic chemist working on Flavor & Fragrance projects to understand the mammalian olfactory receptors, but as an experimentalist, she is not limited to organic synthesis. (cuny.edu)