Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.
Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chemical substances excreted by humans that elicit behavior or physiological responses from other humans. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A form of non-allergic rhinitis that is characterized by nasal congestion and posterior pharyngeal drainage.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, two non-allelic types of gamma-globin - A gamma and G gamma are encoded in the beta-globin gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. Two gamma-globin chains combine with two ZETA-GLOBIN chains to form the embryonic hemoglobin Portland. Fetal HEMOGLOBIN F is formed from two gamma-globin chains combined with two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.
Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Male odorant receptors consist of olfactory sensilla. These sensilla are small sensory organs that may protrude or lie under ... "A male-specific odorant receptor conserved through the evolution of sex pheromones in Ostrinia moth species". International ... Steinbrecht, Rudolf Alexander (2007). "Structure and Function of Insect Olfactory Sensilla". Ciba Foundation Symposium 200 - ...
Olfactory receptor 1A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1A2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Immunoprecipitation of RNA transcripts of murine olfactory cells have identified an enriched pool of odorant receptors ... "Molecular profiling of activated olfactory neurons identifies odorant receptors for odors in vivo". Nature Neuroscience. 18 (10 ... Vernet-Maury E, Polak EH, Demael A (July 1984). "Structure-activity relationship of stress-inducing odorants in the rat". ... that localize to the dorsal portion of the olfactory epithelium which can mediate fear behaviour. Rosen JB, Asok A, Chakraborty ...
The odorants are detected by myriad receptors on the olfactory epithelium. These receptors respond to a variety of dimensions ... Odor receptors that respond to a dimension within a molecular receptive range are aggregated by glomeruli in the olfactory bulb ... This input then reaches the olfactory cortex. Here, Hebbian learning networks allow for recall with partial or weak stimuli, ... Here, the multi-dimensional nature of odorant stimuli is reduced to two dimensions. This input undergoes edge enhancement, ...
Olfactory receptor 1G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1G1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... October 2002). "Porcine odorant-binding protein selectively binds to a human olfactory receptor". Chemical Senses. 27 (8): 691- ... Sanz G, Schlegel C, Pernollet JC, Briand L (January 2005). "Comparison of odorant specificity of two human olfactory receptors ...
Olfactory receptor 5P3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR5P3 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The OR5P3 receptor is associated with examples of ligands includes: 1-octanol celery ketone (-)-carvone Olfactory receptor ...
It has recently been identified as an agonist of human trace amine-associated receptor 5. Odorant Olfactory receptor Trace ... "Human trace amine-associated receptor TAAR5 can be activated by trimethylamine". PLoS ONE. 8 (2): e54950. doi:10.1371/journal. ... amine Trace amine-associated receptor "N,N-Dimethylethylamine". Toxnet. Hazardous Substance Data Bank. Retrieved 4 May 2014. ...
Stocker RF (2006) Olfactory coding: Connecting odorant receptor expression and behavior in the Drosophila larva (Dispatch). ... Stocker, Reinhard F. (2006-01-10). "Olfactory Coding: Connecting Odorant Receptor Expression and Behavior in the Drosophila ... These studies were instrumental to map the wiring of olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptor genes to ... mapping of olfactory sensilla by fine structure, odor specificity, odorant receptor expression and central connectivity. Micros ...
"A Synthetic Sandalwood Odorant Induces Wound-Healing Processes in Human Keratinocytes via the Olfactory Receptor OR2AT4". ... Sandalore, and the similar brahmanol, have been identified as agonists of the cutaneous olfactory receptor OR2AT4, and found to ... Sandalore is a synthetic sandalwood odorant with odor in some ways similar to sandalwood and consequently used in perfumes, ... Natural sandalwood oil and other synthetic sandalwood odorants did not have the same effect. Daniela Busse, Philipp Kudella, ...
In the olfactory system, odorant molecules in the mucus bind to G-protein receptors on olfactory cells. The G-protein activates ... A receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into an electrical signal. Receptors are broadly split into two main ... Hair cells are then able to convert this movement (mechanical energy) into electrical signals (graded receptor potentials) ... L (2002). "G Proteins and Olfactory Signal Transduction". Annual Review of Physiology. 64 (1): 189-222. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
Olfaction occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity. Glomeruli aggregate ... In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory epithelium is made up ... mucus that lines the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory ... Humans have about 10 cm2 (1.6 sq in) of olfactory epithelium, whereas some dogs have 170 cm2 (26 sq in). A dog's olfactory ...
Another specific role AQP4 plays is to help odorant molecules bind to target receptors and binding proteins within olfactory ... Furthermore, AQP4 also plays a role in the supportive cells of sensory organs, such as the retina, inner ear, and olfactory ...
Olfactory receptor 4N5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR4N5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... OR4N5 olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily N, member 5". Malnic B, Godfrey PA, Buck LB (2004). "The human olfactory receptor ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
Olfactory receptor 1D4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1D4 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... Jul 1994). "Olfactory receptor gene cluster on human chromosome 17: possible duplication of an ancestral receptor repertoire". ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... olfactory receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. Cellular component. • ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
... available to the olfactory receptors. A single odorant is usually recognized by many receptors. Different odorants are ... The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is a small patch of tissue at the back ... When odorants are mixed, a habitual odorant is blocked. This depends on the strength of the odorants in the mixture, which can ... The olfactory bulb acts as a relay station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. Olfactory information is ...
When odorants enter the nasal cavity, they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. These receptors ... From the olfactory bulb, mitral/tufted cells send axons via the lateral olfactory tract (the cranial nerve I) to the olfactory ... At the glomerular layer, axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with dendrites from intrinsic olfactory bulb ... Keller, A; Zhuang, H; Chi, Q; Vosshall, LB; Matsunami, H (2007-09-27). "Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters ...
... occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity.[3] Glomeruli ... When an odorant is detected by receptors, they in a sense break the odorant down, and then the brain puts the odorant back ... each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor.[64] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key- ... Receptor neuron[edit]. The binding of the ligand (odor molecule or odorant) to the receptor leads to an action potential in the ...
2014), "Odor and Pheromone Molecules, Receptors, and Behavioral Responses: Odorant Dynamics and Kinetics (Chapter 2.5.2)", The ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal Epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor cells ... Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory ...
Olfactory receptor molecules are very similar to G-protein-linked receptors and belong to the odorant receptor gene family.[12] ... Odorant[edit]. An odorant is a physiochemical molecule that binds to a specific receptor protein.[1] In mammals, each olfactory ... Expression in olfactory receptor neurons has been confirmed for a limited subset of the huge number of odorant receptor genes.[ ... of odorant receptors results in the diversity for olfactory receptor neurons and this allows the capacity of olfactory systems ...
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) express odorant receptors. The axons of OSNs expressing the same odorant receptors converge ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ...
... and FPRs are seven transmembrane receptors which are not closely related to odorant receptors expressed in the main olfactory ... The receptor neurons possess apical microvilli, to which are localized the sensory receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors which ... The receptors are distinct from each other and from the large family of receptors in the main olfactory system.[7] Stimuli ... As with other olfactory systems, chemical messages are detected by their binding to G protein-coupled receptors. The neurons in ...
The odorant-protein complex binds to a receptor protein within the cell membrane of an olfactory dendrite. These receptors are ... Olfactory system Olfactory (I) Olfactory cortex Olfactory perception, Gustatory perception (taste or flavor)[19] Smell ( ... Receptors[edit]. Main article: Sensory receptor. Sensory receptors are the cells or structures that detect sensations. Stimuli ... Functional receptor types[edit]. A third classification of receptors is by how the receptor transduces stimuli into membrane ...
... occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity.[2] Glomeruli ... Human olfactory system. 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor ... When an odorant is detected by receptors, they in a sense break the odorant down, and then the brain puts the odorant back ... each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor.[51] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key- ...
Receptors of the olfactory epithelium bind odorants (olfactory receptors) and pheromones (vomeronasal receptors) ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... Of class A GPCRs, over half of these are predicted to encode olfactory receptors, while the remaining receptors are liganded by ... is a receptor that can bind with stimulative signal molecules, while inhibitory hormone receptor (Ri) is a receptor that can ...
As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory ... 2003). "Vomeronasal organ detects odorants in absence of signaling through main olfactory epithelium". Nat Neurosci. 6 (5): 519 ... Therefore, the olfactory bulb plays this role for the olfactory system. Accessory olfactory bulb[edit]. The accessory olfactory ... The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. The main olfactory ...
A human olfactory receptor, OR2T11, has been identified which, in the presence of copper, is highly responsive to the gas ... Most gas odorants utilized currently contain mixtures of mercaptans and sulfides, with t-butyl mercaptan as the main odor ... Copper has been shown to be required by a specific mouse olfactory receptor, MOR244-3, which is highly responsive to MTMT as ... Thiols are used as odorants to assist in the detection of natural gas (which in pure form is odorless), and the "smell of ...
Mathias Ditzen; Maurizio Pellegrino; Leslie B. Vosshall (2008). "Insect Odorant Receptors Are Molecular Targets of the Insect ... Olfactory receptor. *Oct-1-en-3-one, the ketone analog that gives blood on skin its typical metallic, mushroom-like smell[10] ... octenol odorant receptors.[2][3] 1-Octen-3-ol is a secondary alcohol derived from 1-octene. It exists in the form of two ...
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[101] ...
To achieve this, a detailed atomic structure of both the odorant... ... Providing a rationale that associates a chemical structure of an odorant to its induced perception has been sought for a long ... Molecular Modelling of Odorant/Olfactory Receptor Complexes. In: Crasto C. (eds) Olfactory Receptors. Methods in Molecular ... To achieve this, a detailed atomic structure of both the odorant and the olfactory receptor must be known. State-of-the-art ...
Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell.. Kurahashi T1, Menini A. ... Adaptation to odorants begins at the level of sensory receptor cells, presumably through modulation of their transduction ... However, it is still unknown whether these putative mechanisms work in the intact olfactory receptor cell. Here we investigate ... involving the receptor, G protein and adenylyl cyclase). Odorant- and cAMP-induced responses showed the same adaptation in a ...
Odorant Receptor Polymorphisms and Natural Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Stephanie M. Rollmann, ... Odorant Receptor Polymorphisms and Natural Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Stephanie M. Rollmann, ... Odorant Receptor Polymorphisms and Natural Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Stephanie M. Rollmann, ... Odorant Receptor Polymorphisms and Natural Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster ...
Odorant Receptor Expression Defines Functional Units in the Mouse Olfactory System. Thomas Bozza, Paul Feinstein, Chen Zheng, ... Odorant Receptor Expression Defines Functional Units in the Mouse Olfactory System. Thomas Bozza, Paul Feinstein, Chen Zheng, ... Odorant Receptor Expression Defines Functional Units in the Mouse Olfactory System Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Odorant Receptor Expression Defines Functional Units in the Mouse Olfactory System. Thomas Bozza, Paul Feinstein, Chen Zheng ...
Odorant receptor localization to olfactory cilia is mediated by ODR-4, a novel membrane-associated protein.. Dwyer ND1, Troemel ... 4 and odr-8 are required for localization of a subset of seven transmembrane domain odorant receptors to the cilia of olfactory ... where it acts cell-autonomously to facilitate odorant receptor folding or localization. ... Seven transmembrane domain receptors can be localized to different parts of the plasma membrane or to different intracellular ...
These neurons expressed olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their ... Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by ... class of perfume compounds was analyzed for its ability to activate endogenous olfactory receptors in olfactory receptor ... were selected to study the activation profile of endogenous olfactory receptors when exposed to compounds from the same odorant ...
... background odor on behavior and coding of temporal parameters of pheromone pulse trains in the pheromone olfactory receptor ... Linalool decreased the intensity and shortened the response of receptor neurons to pulses. High contrast (,10 dB) in firing ... at high pulse rates the concentration of the odorant did not return to base level during inter-pulse intervals. ... used by male moths to find a female appears as a train of discontinuous pulses separated by gaps among a complex odorant ...
If individual olfactory neurons express only a subset of the odorant receptor repertoire, then the nature of a given odorant ... Discrimination among the vast array of odors requires that the brain discern which of the numerous odorant receptors have been ... Coding of olfactory information: topography of odorant receptor expression in the catfish olfactory epithelium Cell. 1993 Mar ... If individual olfactory neurons express only a subset of the odorant receptor repertoire, then the nature of a given odorant ...
Oka Y, Nakamura A, Watanabe H, Touhara K (2004b) An odorant derivative as an antagonist for an olfactory receptor. Chem Senses ... Oka Y, Omura M, Kataoka H, Touhara K (2004a) Olfactory receptor antagonism between odorants. EMBO J 23: 120-126. ... Structural Basis for a Broad But Selective Ligand Spectrum of a Mouse Olfactory Receptor: Mapping the Odorant-Binding Site. ... Man O, Gilad Y, Lancet D (2004) Prediction of the odorant binding site of olfactory receptor proteins by human-mouse ...
protein_class:Odorant/olfactory and gustatory receptors AND is_premium:yes. Search. Fields ». ... G-protein coupled receptors. Mapped to UniProt SWISS-PROT. Nuclear receptors. Plasma proteins. Potential drug targets. ...
protein_class:Odorant/olfactory and gustatory receptors AND if_reliability:Supportive. Search. Fields ». ... G-protein coupled receptors. Mapped to UniProt SWISS-PROT. Nuclear receptors. Plasma proteins. Potential drug targets. ...
Olfactory receptor neurons use gain control and complementary kinetics to encode intermittent odorant stimuli. ... Much is known about olfactory responses to pulses and steps, but it remains unclear how olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) ... that Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the co-receptor Orco scale their gain inversely with mean odor ... Instead, a feedback mechanism adjusts receptor sensitivity based on the activity of the receptor-Orco complex, according to ...
... we loaded receptor neurons with calcium-sensitive dye and imaged odorant-evoked responses from their axon terminals. ... Fluorescence increases reflected activation of receptor neuron populations converging onto i … ... To visualize odorant representations by receptor neuron input to the mouse olfactory bulb, ... To visualize odorant representations by receptor neuron input to the mouse olfactory bulb, we loaded receptor neurons with ...
computer modeling; G-protein-coupled receptor; ligand binding; mutation; odorant; olfactory receptor. ... Structural Basis for a Broad But Selective Ligand Spectrum of a Mouse Olfactory Receptor: Mapping the Odorant-Binding Site ... Structural Basis for a Broad But Selective Ligand Spectrum of a Mouse Olfactory Receptor: Mapping the Odorant-Binding Site. ... The olfactory receptor (OR) superfamily provides a basis for the remarkable ability to recognize and discriminate a large ...
Axon guidance of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by odorant receptors and the beta2 adrenergic receptor. Cell 117: 833-846. ... Cis-Regulatory Mechanisms for Robust Olfactory Sensory Neuron Class-restricted Odorant Receptor Gene Expression in Download PDF ... In the olfactory system, the identity of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is a result of the expression of a single odorant ... In the olfactory system, the identity of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is a result of the expression of a single odorant ...
Olfactory discrimination is achieved through chemical specificity of odorant receptors (OR) and their stereotypic olfactory ... Regulation of Odorant Receptor Gene Expression in Olfactory Sensory Neurons. *Gong, Qizhi (PI) ... aims to understand the regulatory mechanism that controls the identity of olfactory sensory neurons in their odorant receptor ... Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) chooses to express only one OR and converges its axon according to its OR identity to a ...
... inhibit odorant activation of ORs and we previously showed that an airborne Orco antagonist could inhibit insect olfactory ... In addition to variable odorant specificity subunits, all insect odorant receptors (ORs) contain a conserved odorant receptor ... Results were used for training machine learning models to rank probable activity of a library of 1280 odorant molecules. ... Novel Orco antagonist 2-tert-butyl-6-methylphenol (BMP) inhibited odorant responses in electroantennogram and single sensillum ...
... including multiple odorant binding proteins (AgOBPs) and olfactory receptors (AgORs). The receptors AgOR1 and AgOR2, as well as ... Antennal expression pattern of two olfactory receptors and an odorant binding protein implicated in host odor detection by the ... In this study, we have explored the expression of these olfactory proteins, as well as the ubiquitous odorant receptor ... Keywords: olfaction, odorant receptor proteins, odorant binding proteins, mRNA expression, sexual dimorphism ...
Our cDNA collection confirms olfactory function of over one-third of the intact mouse olfactory receptors. Most of these genes ... We therefore screened a mouse olfactory epithelium cDNA library to obtain olfactory receptor expressed sequence tags, providing ... Most atypical transcripts encode nonfunctional olfactory receptors, but can occasionally increase receptor diversity. ... we find that transcript levels in the olfactory epithelium can differ between olfactory receptors by up to 300-fold. ...
Odorant receptors and olfactory-like signaling mechanisms in mammalian sperm. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 250(1-2): ... Mixture and odorant processing in the olfactory systems of Insects: a comparative perspective. Journal of Comparative ... Olfactory receptor-mediated chemotaxis in human sperm: key role of particulate adenylate cyclase. Journal of Biological ... Olfactory modulation by dopamine in the context of aversive learning. Journal of Neurophysiology 108: 539-550. pdf [cover ...
G-protein coupled receptors. Predicted membrane proteins. Mixed. OR2AE1. Olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily AE, member 1. ... G-protein coupled receptors. Predicted membrane proteins. Not detected. OR13C9. Olfactory receptor, family 13, subfamily C, ... G-protein coupled receptors. Predicted membrane proteins. Not detected. OR13D1. Olfactory receptor, family 13, subfamily D, ... G-protein coupled receptors. Predicted membrane proteins. Not detected. OR13F1. Olfactory receptor, family 13, subfamily F, ...
Li J, Ishii T, Feinstein P, Mombaerts P (2004) Odorant receptor gene choice is reset by nuclear transfer from mouse olfactory ... Bozza T, Feinstein P, Zheng C, Mombaerts P (2002) Odorant receptor expression defines functional units in the mouse olfactory ... Lhx2 Determines Odorant Receptor Expression Frequency in Mature Olfactory Sensory Neurons. Guangfan Zhang, William B. Titlow, ... Lhx2 Determines Odorant Receptor Expression Frequency in Mature Olfactory Sensory Neurons. Guangfan Zhang, William B. Titlow, ...
Mapping and function of odorant receptors in the human olfactory system Bozza, Thomas Gottfried, Jay A. Northwestern University ... Mapping and function of odorant receptors in the human olfactory system. Bozza, Thomas; Gottfried, Jay A. / Northwestern ... Mapping and function of odorant receptors in the human olfactory system. Bozza, Thomas; Gottfried, Jay A. / Northwestern ... Mapping and function of odorant receptors in the human olfactory system. Bozza, Thomas; Gottfried, Jay A. / Northwestern ...
Mapping and function of odorant receptors in the human olfactory system. *Kath, William L (Co-Investigator) ... in the human olfactory epithelium, (2) characterize the odor response profiles of human odorant receptors when expressed in ... mouse olfactory sensory neurons, and (3) define the spatial distribution of receptor-specific projections of human olfactory ... Bozza) and human olfactory neurobiology (Dr. Gottfried) to comprehensively characterize the human peripheral olfactory system ...
... neurotransmitter receptor activity, olfactory receptor activity, chemical synaptic transmission, G protein-coupled receptor ... G protein-coupled receptor activity, G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity, ... signaling pathway, G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger ... Odorant receptorImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ...
In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory ... We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene ... When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same ... large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors ...
Odorant suppression of delayed rectifier potassium current in newt olfactory receptor cells. Neuroscience Letters. 1999 Jul 2; ... Effects of odorants on a delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in newt olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were investigated ... Odorant suppression of delayed rectifier potassium current in newt olfactory receptor cells. In: Neuroscience Letters. 1999 ; ... abstract = "Effects of odorants on a delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in newt olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were ...
A computational method that can screen thousands of chemicals and predict which odorants will interact with specific odorant ... receptors in flies may ultimately aid the development of more effective insect repellents. ... Analysis of odorant structure. Since the structure of receptor protein complexes is not known, we analyzed receptor-odor ... These are made up of molecules called odorants, each of which activates a specific subset of odorant receptors in the nose. ...
Structured odorant response patterns across a complete olfactory receptor neuron population. Neuron 101, 950-962.e7 (2019).. ... Spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse olfactory sensory neurons with defined odorant receptors. J. Neurophysiol. 110 ... There are numerous different odorant molecules in nature but only a relatively small number of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs ... Receptor cell responses to odorants: Similarities and differences among odorants. Brain Res. 292, 283-296 (1984).. ...
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) express odorant receptors. The axons of OSNs expressing the same odorant receptors converge ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ...
  • Breer H (1994) Odor recognition and second messenger signalling in olfactory receptor neurons. (springer.com)
  • Odorant receptors (ORs) mediate the interaction of odorous compounds with olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and influence the guidance of OSN axons to synaptic targets in the olfactory bulb (OB). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we applied calcium imaging to characterize the odorant response properties of single neurons from gene-targeted mice in which the green fluorescent protein is coexpressed with a particular OR. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that the odorants acetophenone and benzaldehyde are agonists for the M71 OR and that M71-expressing neurons are functionally similar in their response properties across concentration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chemical properties of odorants are represented as spatiotemporal patterns of activity across olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the olfactory epithelium. (jneurosci.org)
  • Olfactory glomeruli are spherical regions of neuropil in which olfactory afferents synapse with the dendrites of output and intrinsic neurons of the OB. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results reveal consistent odorant response profiles in neurons expressing a defined OR. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show here that the C. elegans genes odr-4 and odr-8 are required for localization of a subset of seven transmembrane domain odorant receptors to the cilia of olfactory neurons. (nih.gov)
  • odr-4 encodes a novel membrane protein that is expressed exclusively on intracellular membranes of chemosensory neurons, where it acts cell-autonomously to facilitate odorant receptor folding or localization. (nih.gov)
  • Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by monitoring fluxes in the internal calcium concentration. (ovid.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons were identified that were specifically stimulated by sandalwood compounds. (ovid.com)
  • These neurons expressed olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their molecular structures. (ovid.com)
  • This is the first study in which an important class of perfume compounds was analyzed for its ability to activate endogenous olfactory receptors in olfactory receptor neurons. (ovid.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Olfactory receptor neurons" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • If individual olfactory neurons express only a subset of the odorant receptor repertoire, then the nature of a given odorant can be discerned by identifying which cells have been activated. (nih.gov)
  • We performed in situ hybridization experiments demonstrating that individual olfactory neurons express different complements of odorant receptors and are therefore functionally distinct. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, a topographic map, defining either the positions of specific neurons in the epithelium or the positions of their projections, may be employed to determine the quality of an olfactory stimulus. (nih.gov)
  • Neurons expressing specific receptors appear to be randomly distributed within the olfactory epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • These data are consistent with a model in which randomly dispersed olfactory neurons with common receptor specificities project to common glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • To visualize odorant representations by receptor neuron input to the mouse olfactory bulb, we loaded receptor neurons with calcium-sensitive dye and imaged odorant-evoked responses from their axon terminals. (nih.gov)
  • Third, the dynamic range of input to a glomerulus was greater than that reported for individual receptor neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Much is known about olfactory responses to pulses and steps, but it remains unclear how olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) detect the intensity and timing of natural stimuli, where the absence of scale in the signal makes detection a formidable olfactory task. (elifesciences.org)
  • 2017) that Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the co-receptor Orco scale their gain inversely with mean odor intensity according to Weber-Fechner's law. (elifesciences.org)
  • Neurons that share an expressed receptor make a functional class. (prolekare.cz)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This study aims to understand the regulatory mechanism that controls the identity of olfactory sensory neurons in their odorant receptor choice and their expression of adhesion molecules for axon targeting. (elsevier.com)
  • In female mosquitoes, AgOR1-expressing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) were almost exclusively segregated in segments 3 to 9, whereas AgOR2-expressing ORNs were distributed over flagellomeres 2 to 13. (ijbs.com)
  • Insect ORs are embedded in the plasma membranes of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the antennae and maxillary palps 14 . (nature.com)
  • Disorders in the sense of smell are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, with early accumulation of neuropathological lesions in the peripheral olfactory system including sensory neurons of the nasal mucosa and their projections to the olfactory bulb. (grantome.com)
  • Specific experiments will (1) measure the expression and determine the structure of chemosensory genes including olfactory receptors (ORs) and trace amine- associated receptors (TAARs) in the human olfactory epithelium, (2) characterize the odor response profiles of human odorant receptors when expressed in mouse olfactory sensory neurons, and (3) define the spatial distribution of receptor-specific projections of human olfactory sensory neurons from the epithelium to the olfactory bulb. (grantome.com)
  • Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This precise detection and coding of odors by the peripheral olfactory neurons are subsequently processed, transformed and integrated in the central nervous system to generate specific behavioral responses that are critical for survival such as finding food, finding mates, avoiding predators etc ( van der Goes van Naters and Carlson, 2006 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • For neurons without basal activity, we find that the optimal coding matrix is "sparse"-a fraction of ligand-receptor sensitivities are zero and the nonzero sensitivities follow a broad distribution matching the odor mixture statistics. (pnas.org)
  • There are numerous different odorant molecules in nature but only a relatively small number of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in brains. (pnas.org)
  • Plan of olfactory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) express odorant receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] In vertebrates , ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs) mediate olfactory chemo-sensation in OR neurons. (nature.com)
  • Interestingly, both O/E2 and O/E3 knockout mice as well as O/E2/O/E3 double heterozygous animals share a common phenotype: olfactory neurons (ORN) fail to project to dorsal olfactory bulb. (biologists.org)
  • The sensory neurons of the mammalian olfactory system are remarkable in their ability to undergo continuous replacement throughout the lifespan of the animal ( Mackay-Sim and Kittel, 1991 ). (biologists.org)
  • Subsequently, mature ORN proteins including those essential for transducing odorant signals are induced as immature ORNs differentiate into functional neurons. (biologists.org)
  • In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to several odors. (biologists.org)
  • For example in vertebrates, presynaptic Ca 2+ stores relying on either the ryanodine receptor (RyR) or the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) have been reported to participate in synaptic transmission, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and in basket cell-Purkinje cell synapses. (biologists.org)
  • In Drosophila , olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), with their cell bodies and dendrites located in the antennae, detect odors and transmit olfactory information to the antennal lobes. (biologists.org)
  • The axon terminals of the ORNs make synaptic contact with dendrites of a few uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs), which propagate olfactory information to higher brain centers, such as the mushroom bodies. (biologists.org)
  • This relatively simple model system allows us to correlate expression of signal transduction molecules with specific subsets of olfactory neurons so we can understand chemical information processing by the brain. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (for example, compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the olfactory receptors are located in both the cilia and synapses of the olfactory sensory neurons and in the epithelium of the human airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both modalities have many features in common, starting with signal detection by highly specialized primary sensory neurons-rod and cone photoreceptors (PR) for vision, and olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) for the smell. (frontiersin.org)
  • The sensory neurons that initiate olfaction and vision are olfactory sensory neurons (OSN), also referred to as olfactory receptor neurons (ORN), and photoreceptors (PR). (frontiersin.org)
  • Anatomy of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) and photoreceptors (PR). (frontiersin.org)
  • The large number of receptor genes, their restricted expression in subsets of olfactory neurons, and their high degree of sequence divergence raise questions about their relationship to OBPs. (genetics.org)
  • Odorant response properties of convergent olfactory receptor neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A proposed relationship between increases in the number of olfactory receptor neurons, convergence ratio and sensitivity in the developing rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Stimulation of odorant receptors in olfactory neurons can result in an immediate and a delayed increase in intracellular cAMP. (sciencemag.org)
  • As humans age, the number of olfactory neurons steadily decreases. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to the olfactory neurons, the epithelium is composed of supporting cells, Bowman glands and ducts unique to the olfactory epithelium, and basal cells that allow for the regeneration of the epithelium, including the olfactory sensory neurons. (medscape.com)
  • The signal involves odorant binding factors, olfactory receptor neurons and surrounding cells in the nasal mucosa, the olfactory nerve, the olfactory bulb, and connections to the limbic region of the brain. (google.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are embedded in the nasal epithelium, which contains olfactory receptors embedded in plasma membrane that bind odorants. (google.com)
  • Since there are many olfactory sensory neurons in our nose, we can sense the odour [ 1 ] and distinguish thousands of odours successfully. (hindawi.com)
  • In this way, it can be more reliable to activate neurons of following olfactory cortex [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Two groups have defined roles for Notch signaling in responses to olfactory stimulation in Drosophila and in promoting synaptic plasticity in mouse hippocampal neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • They found that prolonged odorant exposure activated Notch in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). (sciencemag.org)
  • This superfamily is composed of pheromone binding proteins (PBP), which are male-specific and associate with pheromone-sensitive neurons and general-odorant binding proteins (GOBP). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Vogt RG, Prestwich GD, Lerner MR. Odorant-binding-protein subfamilies associate with distinct classes of olfactory receptor neurons in insects. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor project their axons to the same glomerulus. (stanford.edu)
  • Projection neurons (PNs) send dendrites to individual glomeruli, and relay olfactory information via their axons to high olfactory centers. (stanford.edu)
  • We present a model illustrating that these processes can underlie both how OSNs come to exhibit high sensitivity to odorant stimuli without necessitating increased ligand-receptor binding affinities or specificities and how a population of convergent OSNs could exhibit a broader concentration sensitivity than its individual constituent neurons, even given a population expressing identical odorant receptors. (mit.edu)
  • Axon guidance of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by odorant receptors and the beta2 adrenergic receptor. (jax.org)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons that express the mutated locus co-express both GFP and taulacZ by virtue of IRES-mediated co-translation. (jax.org)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons. (jax.org)
  • Several complex mosquito behaviours such as host seeking, feeding, mating or oviposition rely on olfactory stimuli that target a range of sensory neurons localized mainly on specialized head appendages such as antennae, maxillary palps and the mouthparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are continuously replaced by mitotic division of the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium. (wikibooks.org)
  • Elementary response of olfactory receptor neurons to odorants. (jhu.edu)
  • Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter NKCC1 is necessary for the excitatory Cl- response of mouse olfactory receptor neurons. (jhu.edu)
  • Functional integration of "undead" neurons in the olfactory system. (mpg.de)
  • Neurons, or nerve cells, serve as primary receptors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, there are secondary receptors, which simply transmit signals between neurons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We found that population ratio of receptor neurons specific to components in antenna are correlated with compositions ratio of the corresponding components in the moth. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Volatile odorants are sensed by two bilaterally symmetric olfactory sensory appendages, the third segment of the antenna and the maxillary palps, which respectively contain approximately 1200 and 120 olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each. (springer.com)
  • In photoreceptors and olfactory neurons, CNG channels play an essential role in transducing sensory stimuli into electrical and chemical responses. (els.net)
  • Subunit stoichiometry of CNG channels in photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. (els.net)
  • Animals possessing only a single pair of functional olfactory sensory neurons - one on each side of the head - were generated and showed robust chemotaxis. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • We therefore screened a mouse olfactory epithelium cDNA library to obtain olfactory receptor expressed sequence tags, providing evidence of olfactory function for many additional olfactory receptors, as well as identifying gene structure and putative promoter regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using real-time PCR to confirm expression level differences suggested by our screen, we find that transcript levels in the olfactory epithelium can differ between olfactory receptors by up to 300-fold. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The choice is random, except that each OR gene is available for expression only in a defined region of the olfactory epithelium called a zone. (eneuro.org)
  • The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • An odorant will dissolve into the mucus of the olfactory epithelium and then bind to an OR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebf ( O/E1 ) mutant animals showed defects in B-cell lineage and brain regions where it is the only O/E family member expressed, but the olfactory epithelium appeared unaffected and olfactory marker expression was grossly normal in these animals. (biologists.org)
  • The O/E mRNAs are also observed in sensory structures including the olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organ (VNO), retina, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and some cranial nerve ganglia. (biologists.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium and VNO continue to express O/E proteins into adulthood, consistent with the continual neuronal differentiation in these tissues and an independent role for the O/E proteins in regulating mature ORN gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • Smells (odorants) are sensed by the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal cavity and first processed by the olfactory bulb. (smartdraw.com)
  • (A) OSN are defined by the expression of a unique odorant receptor, OSN expressing the same receptor (red, green, blue, or orange) are dispersed throughout the olfactory epithelium (OE) but the axons of these OSN converge to synapse in the same glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). (frontiersin.org)
  • report that phosphorylation of a transcription factor called the cAMP-responsive binding protein (CREB) occurred in the olfactory epithelium of mice when they were exposed to various odorants. (sciencemag.org)
  • Physiological experiments have demonstrated odorant sensitivities down to the picomolar range in preparations from the sensory epithelium. (mit.edu)
  • In vertebrates the main olfactory system detects odorants that are inhaled through the nose where they come to contact with the olfactory epithelium, which contains the olfactory receptors. (wikibooks.org)
  • Similar to other sensory modalities, olfactory information must be transmitted from peripheral olfactory structures, like the olfactory epithelium, to more central structures, meaning the olfactory bulb and cortex. (wikibooks.org)
  • What type of epithelium is the olfactory epithelium? (brainscape.com)
  • What is the function of sustentacular cells in the olfactory epithelium? (brainscape.com)
  • What types of cells are present in the olfactory epithelium? (brainscape.com)
  • The odorant-sensitive tips of the receptors protrude into the nasal cavity from the free surface of the epithelium. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Fluorescence increases reflected activation of receptor neuron populations converging onto individual glomeruli. (nih.gov)
  • In the olfactory system, the identity of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is a result of the expression of a single odorant receptor (OR) from a large receptor gene repertoire in the genome. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here, we identify clusters of transcription factor binding motifs to be the smallest unit that drive expression in a single olfactory sensory neuron class. (prolekare.cz)
  • The high regulatory demands placed on the nervous system are typified by the olfactory sensory system, in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses only one olfactory receptor (OR) gene from its genomic repertoire of one hundred to one thousand ORs [ 4 - 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) chooses to express only one OR and converges its axon according to its OR identity to a stereotypic glomerulus. (elsevier.com)
  • Our finding that different olfactory receptors have different expression levels is intriguing given the one-neuron, one-gene expression regime of olfactory receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A developmental program of epigenetic repression prepares each mammalian olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) to strongly express one allele from just one of hundreds of odorant receptor (OR) genes, but what completes this process of OR gene choice by driving the expression of this allele is incompletely understood. (eneuro.org)
  • 1000 different subtypes of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), each defined by the expression of a single odorant receptor (OR) gene. (eneuro.org)
  • In a process called OR gene choice, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) selects one allele of one OR gene for high-level expression ( Rodriguez, 2013 ). (eneuro.org)
  • Thus, the one receptor-one neuron rule is essential for establishing the discrete sensory map of olfactory neuronal connections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory receptor neuron has a fast working negative feedback response upon depolarization . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is well known that, in mammalian ORNs, only one OR isoform is expressed in one neuron and projections from ORNs expressing the same ORs converge exclusively on one or two glomeruli in the olfactory bulb 5 , 6 . (nature.com)
  • Each olfactory receptor neuron has 8-20 cilia that are whip-like extensions (they mark the beginning of sensory transduction). (smartdraw.com)
  • Once the odorant has bound to the odor receptor, the receptor undergoes structural changes and it binds and activates the olfactory-type G protein on the inside of the olfactory receptor neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cAMP opens cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels which allow calcium and sodium ions to enter into the cell, depolarizing the olfactory receptor neuron and beginning an action potential which carries the information to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • An electric signal is triggered in the olfactory receptor neuron and sent to the brain via nerve processes. (nobelprize.org)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell is a primary sensory bipolar neuron. (medscape.com)
  • To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) subtypes across mammalian evolution, we applied RNA sequencing of whole olfactory mucosa samples from mouse, rat, dog, marmoset, macaque, and human. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron can express a specific odorant receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of these genes were previously annotated as olfactory receptors based solely on sequence similarity.Our finding that different olfactory receptors have different expression levels is intriguing given the one-neuron, one-gene expression regime of olfactory receptors.We provide 5' untranslated region sequences and candidate promoter regions for more than 300 olfactory receptors, valuable resources for computational regulatory motif searches and for designing olfactory receptor microarrays and other experimental probes. (nih.gov)
  • We employ a computational model to demonstrate how olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) sensitivity can be tuned by modulation of receptor-effector coupling and/or by other mechanisms regulating spare receptor capacity, thus resolving this conundrum. (mit.edu)
  • Olfactory cells are what type of neuron? (brainscape.com)
  • Secondary receptors induce a response in an adjoining neuron, thus sending the signal down the line toward the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sensory neuron responsible for detection of odorants. (xenbase.org)
  • The molecular mechanism by which a neuron forms a synapse and regulates subsynaptic membrane differentiation has been hypothesized to involve reciprocal interactions between the agrin receptor complex [agrin/muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK)] and neuregulin signaling pathways. (physiology.org)
  • The complexity of the system was further reduced by genetically engineering larvae with a single olfactory neuron in either the right or left side of the head. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • These results imply a high degree of complexity in odorant representations at the level of olfactory bulb input. (nih.gov)
  • We propose a combination of next-generation sequencing, mouse genetics, immunohistochemistry, and physiology to characterize the expression and function of human olfactory receptor genes, and to define the topography of receptor-specific projections to the human olfactory bulb. (grantome.com)
  • The axons of OSNs expressing the same odorant receptors converge onto the same glomerulus at the olfactory bulb, allowing for the organization of olfactory information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb . (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal compartment of OSN narrows to a long, unmyelinated axon that exits the OE to synapse in the olfactory bulb (OB). (frontiersin.org)
  • Postnatal construction of neural circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have undertaken a quantitative analysis of the mouse olfactory bulb to address several major questions concerning the development of neural circuitry in the postnatal mammalian brain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Autoradiographic study of histogenesis in the mouse olfactory bulb. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Olfactory bulb plays an important part in signal encoding of olfactory system. (hindawi.com)
  • Then we set up a dynamical model of MC and GC in the olfactory bulb. (hindawi.com)
  • These receptors pass the odour information to olfactory bulb. (hindawi.com)
  • Then the information will be the information will be transmitted to the entorhinal cortex of the brain by olfactory bulb, resulting in the sense of smell. (hindawi.com)
  • As the first transfer station of the olfactory system, olfactory bulb plays an important role in processing olfactory information. (hindawi.com)
  • When nerve signals coming from the depths of nasal get to the olfactory bulb, it will generate corresponding spatial and temporal coding [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many scholars are discussing how the information processed by olfactory bulb is transferred synchronously to the entorhinal cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • In the olfactory bulb, there is an interaction between excitatory MCs and inhibitory GCs. (hindawi.com)
  • The receptor responses initiate signals to the olfactory bulb in so-called 'zone-to-zone' projection ( Simoes de Souza & Antunes 2007 ), when a pattern of receptor response maps directly onto corresponding locations in the bulb, whence information defining the scent is communicated as a combinatorial code to the brain. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We are also investigating how the glomerular map in the mouse olfactory bulb is represented in olfactory cortex using virus-mediated trans-synaptic tracing. (stanford.edu)
  • These GFP/LacZ targeted mutant mice are useful in studies to identify olfactory sensory neuronal development and topography in glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. (jax.org)
  • Due to phylogeny, olfactory sensory activity is transferred directly from the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex, without a thalamic relay. (wikibooks.org)
  • Neural integration and analysis of olfactory stimuli may not involve topographic organization beyond the olfactory bulb, meaning that spatial or frequency axis are not needed to project the signal. (wikibooks.org)
  • The olfactory system provides mammals with the ability to perceive a large number of structurally diverse odorous molecules, often at minute concentrations, and to discriminate subtle differences in molecular structure. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mammalian olfactory system can discriminate between volatile molecules with subtle differences in their molecular structures. (ovid.com)
  • One important class of molecules in the fragrance industry are sandalwood odorants. (ovid.com)
  • Sandalwood oil and four synthetic sandalwood molecules were selected to study the activation profile of endogenous olfactory receptors when exposed to compounds from the same odorant family. (ovid.com)
  • Results were used for training machine learning models to rank probable activity of a library of 1280 odorant molecules. (nature.com)
  • 1000 and therefore comprise the largest family of mammalian genes, are G-protein-coupled receptors that evolved to transduce the binding of odorant molecules into intracellular signals ( DeMaria and Ngai, 2010 ). (eneuro.org)
  • These are made up of molecules called odorants, each of which activates a specific subset of odorant receptors in the nose. (elifesciences.org)
  • Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. (genecards.org)
  • The mucous lipids assist in transporting the odorant molecules. (smartdraw.com)
  • Rather than binding specific ligands, olfactory receptors display affinity for a range of odor molecules, and conversely a single odorant molecule may bind to a number of olfactory receptors with varying affinities, which depend on physio-chemical properties of molecules like their molecular volumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a highly conserved sequence in roughly three quarters of all ORs that is a tripodal metal ion binding site, and Suslick has proposed that the ORs are in fact metalloproteins (mostly likely with zinc, copper and possibly manganese ions) that serve as a Lewis acid site for binding of many odorant molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only could the flies distinguish between the deuterated and non-deuterated forms of an odorant, they could generalise the property of "deuteratedness" to other novel molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such isotope effects are exceedingly common, and so it is well known that deuterium substitution will indeed change the binding constants of molecules to protein receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subtle differences in the protein chains explain why the receptors are triggered by different odorant molecules. (nobelprize.org)
  • External molecules bind to chemoreceptors located in the plasma membrane, the subsequent receptor activation transduces the external signal across the plasma membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • To stimulate the olfactory receptors, airborne molecules must pass through the nasal cavity with relatively turbulent air currents and contact the receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Their studies led them to focus on a receptor known as IL-13Rα2, which was thought to be a so-called "decoy receptor" that binds molecules but does not induce cellular signaling or activate a biologic response. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The unique shape of T cells creates what has been termed a "close-contact zone" for triggering molecules called T cell receptors. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Scientists have known for a long time that T cell receptor molecules sit on the surface of the cells to recognize enemies and trigger a hostile response. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The olfactory system sensitively discerns scents from many small molecules as the brain analyses signals from nasal receptors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Scent molecules must reach nasal receptors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • If two molecules smell different, somehow they must access or actuate receptors differently, however ignorant we may be of receptor structure or atomic-scale mechanisms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • While the brain works with inputs from a number of receptors, it can only distinguish between scent molecules if the receptors are themselves selective to some degree. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For example, if shape were the only olfactant characteristic recognized by the receptors and if the olfactant molecules were rigid, then left- and right-handed forms should always smell different unless receptors were always present in pairs of opposite chirality. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Such situations appear to describe many cases of large drug molecules interacting with receptors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Both taste and smell receptors are chemoreceptors that are stimulated by molecules soluted respectively in mucus or saliva. (wikibooks.org)
  • A single olfactory receptor specifically binds a set of odorant molecules. (medigraphic.com)
  • These proteins bind to odorant molecules in the nasal cavity. (brainscape.com)
  • used a technique that allowed precise control of the exposure time and number of odiferous molecules used to activate G protein olfactory receptors along with long-term measurement of a cell's response to determine the effects of a single odorant molecule. (physiology.org)
  • Man O, Gilad Y, Lancet D (2004) Prediction of the odorant binding site of olfactory receptor proteins by human-mouse comparisons. (springer.com)
  • Other cilia-signaling proteins, including ion channels, a G alpha protein, and even other receptor types, are localized via an odr-4/odr-8-independent pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Odor-detection in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae involves large families of diverse proteins, including multiple odorant binding proteins (AgOBPs) and olfactory receptors (AgORs). (ijbs.com)
  • In this study, we have explored the expression of these olfactory proteins, as well as the ubiquitous odorant receptor heteromerization partner AgOR7, in the thirteen flagellomeres (segments) of female and male antenna. (ijbs.com)
  • Molecular features underlying the chemoreception of odorant binding proteins and olfactory receptors. (univ-cotedazur.fr)
  • The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. (genecards.org)
  • The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. (genecards.org)
  • The primary sequences of thousands of olfactory receptors are known from the genomes of more than a dozen organisms: they are seven-helix transmembrane proteins, but there are (as of May 2016) no known structures of any OR. (wikipedia.org)
  • All odorant receptors are related proteins and differ only in some amino acid residues (indicated in green, blue and red). (nobelprize.org)
  • The Drosophila olfactory genes OS-E and OS-F are members of a family of genes that encode insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). (genetics.org)
  • OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants through the aqueous fluid within olfactory sensilla to the underlying receptor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • These studies highlight potential regions of functional significance in the OS-E and OS-F proteins, which may include a region required for interaction with receptor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • INSECT odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small, soluble proteins found in the aqueous lymph that fills the olfactory sensilla on the antenna ( P elosi and M aida 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • Receptor function and sensitivity are usually regulated by interaction with accessory proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The intracellular signal transduction machinery couples the olfactory receptors to heterotrimeric G-proteins. (google.com)
  • The aqueous solubility of hydrophobic odorants is thought to be greatly enhanced via odorant binding proteins which exist in the extracellular fluid surrounding the odorant receptors [ PMID: 2010751 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The bar at the top represents an alignment of all olfactory receptor proteins, with transmembrane (TM) regions shaded gray and intracellular (IC) and extracellular (EC) loops in white. (nih.gov)
  • other mechanisms for cellular regulation of spare receptor capacity are also highly plausible (e.g., quantitative regulation of the relative expression levels of receptor and effector proteins). (mit.edu)
  • Chemosensory genes were described: overall, 77 odorant binding proteins (OBP), 82 odorant receptors (OR), 60 ionotropic receptors (IR) and 30 gustatory receptors (GR) were identified by comparative genomics and transcriptomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They secrete odorant binding proteins. (brainscape.com)
  • Here, we report the analysis of odorant response properties from genetically identified OSNs that express particular OR genes and that send convergent axonal projections to defined glomeruli. (jneurosci.org)
  • We identified more than 1,200 odorant receptor cDNAs representing more than 400 genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of these genes were previously annotated as olfactory receptors based solely on sequence similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the assignment of most of these genes as olfactory receptors is based solely on similarity to one of a relatively small number of experimentally confirmed mouse olfactory receptors or, worse, on similarity to a gene that in turn was defined as an olfactory receptor solely by similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work will exploit advanced next-generation sequencing, novel trans vivo gene targeting, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, in vivo calcium imaging, and access to human biopsy and post-mortem tissue samples, to study the expression, function, and topographical mapping of human odorant receptor genes. (grantome.com)
  • Together these studies will advance our understanding of the functional organization of the human olfactory system, and will set the stage for clarifying how individual chemoreceptor genes influence odor perception. (grantome.com)
  • The olfactory receptors form a multigene family consisting of around 800 genes in humans and 1400 genes in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richard Axel and Linda Buck published their fundamental paper in 1991, in which they described the genes coding for a large family of odorant receptors. (nobelprize.org)
  • The recent discovery of a large family of olfactory receptor genes in Drosophila raises new questions about the function, diversity, regulation, and evolution of the OBP family. (genetics.org)
  • This bioassay has the potential to lead to the identification of genes that encode receptors capable of interacting with deterrent chemicals, which would enable understanding of predator detection of chemical defenses. (biologists.org)
  • although some genes encoding putative receptors are known ( Buck and Axel, 1991 ), their specific ligands remain largely unidentified. (biologists.org)
  • In line, EVTs are characterized by increased expression of the HDL-receptor SR-BI and reduced expression of the liver X-receptor (LXR) and its target genes. (stanford.edu)
  • Binding of ligand to the transmembrane receptor Notch triggers a series of secretase-mediated cleavage events that culminate in the generation of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which translocates to the nucleus to transcriptionally activate target genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is also interesting to note that the human genome has about 600 - 700 genes (~2% of the complete genome) specialized in characterizing the olfactory receptors, but only 350 are still used to build the olfactory system . (wikibooks.org)
  • To address the molecular basis of odor discrimination by the mammalian OR superfamily, we performed functional analysis on a series of site-directed mutants and performed ligand docking simulation studies to define the odorant-binding site of a mouse OR. (jneurosci.org)
  • Schymura D, Forstner M, Schultze A, Kröber T, Swevers L, Iatrou K, Krieger J. Antennal expression pattern of two olfactory receptors and an odorant binding protein implicated in host odor detection by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae . (ijbs.com)
  • Coding of information in the peripheral olfactory system depends on two fundamental factors: interaction of individual odors with subsets of the odorant receptor repertoire and mode of signaling that an individual receptor-odor interaction elicits, activation or inhibition. (elifesciences.org)
  • Such computational prediction of receptor-odor interactions has the potential to enable systems level analysis of olfactory receptor repertoires in organisms. (elifesciences.org)
  • Each volatile chemical in the environment is thought to interact with a specific subset of odorant receptors depending upon odor structure and binding sites on the receptor. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we investigate possible optimal olfactory coding strategies by maximizing mutual information between odor mixtures and ORNs' responses with respect to the bipartite odor-receptor interaction network (ORIN) characterized by sensitivities between all odorant-ORN pairs. (pnas.org)
  • For ORNs with a finite basal activity, we find that having inhibitory odor-receptor interactions increases the coding capacity and the fraction of inhibitory interactions increases with the ORN basal activity. (pnas.org)
  • Altogether, our results indicate that for long odor applications in Drosophila , the olfactory response depends on intracellular Ca 2+ stores within the axon terminals of the ORNs. (biologists.org)
  • The receptor and its activating odor molecule might constitute a new starting point for a melanoma therapy," says Hanns Hatt. (eurekalert.org)
  • The odorant must possess certain molecular properties-it must be water soluble and have high vapor pressure and low polarity-in order to interact with the olfactory receptors and produce signals that can be interpreted as odor. (smartdraw.com)
  • Activated olfactory receptors trigger nerve impulses which transmit information about odor to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm cells also express odor receptors, which are thought to be involved in chemotaxis to find the egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory sensitivity and odor structure-activity relationships for aliphatic ketones in CD-1 mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Olfactory fingerprints for major histocompatibility complex-determined body odors II: relationship among odor maps, genetics, odor composition, and behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These data are difficult to reconcile with certain contemporary hypotheses that convergent OSNs in mammals exhibit a homogeneous population of olfactory receptors and identical tuning for odor stimuli. (mit.edu)
  • The regulation of spare receptor capacity may play an important role in the olfactory system's ability to reliably detect low odor concentrations, discriminate odor intensities, and segregate this intensity information from representations of odor quality. (mit.edu)
  • Buck A, Axel R. Novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. (medigraphic.com)
  • They do so via G-protein linked odor-specific receptors. (brainscape.com)
  • These OSNs express a divergent family of seven transmembrane domain odorant receptors (ORs) with no homology to vertebrate ORs, which determine the odor specificity of a given OSN. (springer.com)
  • Olfactory mucosa lines the roof of the nasal cavity and superior turbinates (= nasal conchae ) and is structurally modified to detect odor-producing chemicals (= odorants). (getbodysmart.com)
  • OSNs expressing the same OR send convergent axonal projections to defined glomeruli in the OB and are thought to share the same odorant response properties. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our data provide evidence that ORs determine both odorant specificity and axonal convergence and thus direct functionally similar afferents to form particular glomeruli. (jneurosci.org)
  • The glomerular convergence of afferents that express a given OR strongly suggests that glomeruli integrate inputs from OSNs that share similar odorant response profiles ( Kauer, 1987 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Our data provide evidence that expression of a given OR is sufficient to direct the formation of glomeruli from functionally similar olfactory afferents. (jneurosci.org)
  • Finally, odorant activation slopes could differ across glomeruli, and for different odorants activating the same glomerulus. (nih.gov)
  • The EC 10-90 intensity tuning ranges (ITRs) of whole olfactory glomeruli and postsynaptic mitral cells are considerably broader than the commensurate ITRs of individual OSNs. (mit.edu)
  • Novel Orco antagonist 2- tert -butyl-6-methylphenol (BMP) inhibited odorant responses in electroantennogram and single sensillum recordings in adult Drosophila melanogaster and inhibited OR-mediated olfactory behavior in D. melanogaster larvae. (nature.com)
  • 240,000 potential volatiles for several Odorant receptors (Ors) in the Drosophila antenna. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, much of what we know about this process has come from studying the fruit fly, Drosophila , which detects odors using receptors located mainly on its antennae. (elifesciences.org)
  • have used a computational approach to study in depth the interactions between a subset of 24 odorant receptors in Drosophila antennae and 109 odorants. (elifesciences.org)
  • Odorant Receptor Mutants Reveal Peripheral Coding Mechanisms in Drosophila J. Neuroscience , 23: 9906-9912. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • T. Lieber, S. Kidd, G. Struhl, DSL-Notch signaling in the Drosophila brain in response to olfactory stimulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent advances in genomics and molecular neurobiology have provided an unprecedented level of detail into how the adult Drosophila olfactory system is organized. (springer.com)
  • This chapter will review the molecular biology, neuroanatomy and function of the peripheral olfactory system of Drosophila . (springer.com)
  • Using high-resolution computerized analysis of individual animal trajectories, we showed that Drosophila larvae advance up an odorant gradient by constantly aligning their direction of motion with that of the local odorant gradient. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • abstract = "Effects of odorants on a delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in newt olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were investigated using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Zozulya S, Echeverri F, Nguyen T (2001) The human olfactory receptor repertoire. (springer.com)
  • The current study reveals the molecular environment of the odorant-binding site, and it further advances the understanding of GPCR pharmacology. (jneurosci.org)
  • A molecular basis for the detection of odorants was provided by the discovery of the olfactory receptor (OR) superfamily, which is a large family of multigenes that encode rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) ( Buck and Axel, 1991 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite the critical contributions of these structures to olfactory perceptual processing, and their widespread involvement in neurodegenerative disorders, we have only a rudimentary understanding of the molecular and cellular components of the human peripheral olfactory system. (grantome.com)
  • Although it has been reported in invertebrates that almost all sensory systems (including olfactory) adapt to stimuli variations and display synaptic plasticity, similarly to mammals, the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and more particularly, the involvement of the internal Ca 2+ stores remain relatively unexplored. (biologists.org)
  • In the decade since the identification of molecular receptors for chemosensory stimuli, the field is increasingly moving toward questions of how sensory circuits are assembled during development and how they function in mediating chemosensory perception. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The receptors contain molecular patterns that mirror those found on the surfaces of bacteria, tumors, and other dangerous interlopers. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Finally, we are developing a molecular method to selectively record the activation of particular dopamine receptor subtypes in mice. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The molecular components underlying peripheral olfactory signalling encompass a range of intracellular and extracellular contexts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bond with one odorant molecule starts a molecular chain reaction, which transforms the chemical perception into an electrical signal. (wikibooks.org)
  • Investigating the effect of key mutations on the conformational dynamics of Toll-like receptor dimers through molecular dynamics simulations and protein structure networks. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Araneda RC, Kini AD, Firestein S. The molecular receptive range of an odorant receptor. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that disrupting the intracellular Ca 2+ stores in the ORNs has functional consequences since Ins P 3 R- or RyR-RNAi expressing flies were defective in olfactory behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Odorant-mediated activation of Notch required the ligand Delta (as determined by the use of flies bearing temperature-sensitive loss-of-function mutations in Delta), the activity of odorant receptors (as determined by expressing exogenous odorant receptors in different ORNs), and synaptic transmission (as determined through the use of flies that expressed tetanus toxin light chain). (sciencemag.org)
  • Each OSN has a single dendrite terminating in olfactory cilia that extend into the lumen of the nasal cavity. (jneurosci.org)
  • The odorant receptors are located on the olfactory receptor cells in the nasal cavity. (nobelprize.org)
  • Olfactory sensitivity is directly proportional to the area in the nasal cavity near the septum reserved to the olfactory mucous membrane, which is the region where the olfactory receptor cells are located. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although other G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) recognize biogenic ligands mainly with ionic or hydrogen bonding interactions, ORs recognize odorants mostly via hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions. (jneurosci.org)
  • The current paradigm of OR-odorant interactions is based on studies of a limited number of ORs that have been functionally matched with their cognate ligands. (jneurosci.org)
  • The interaction of olfactory (or odorant) receptors with their odorant ligands is the first step in a signal transduction pathway that results in the perception of smell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a computational approach, we first identify shared structural features from known ligands of individual receptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Crabtree, in 1978, had previously suggested that Cu(I) is "the most likely candidate for a metallo-receptor site in olfaction" for strong-smelling volatiles which are also good metal-coordinating ligands, such as thiols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repeated exposure to olfactory ligands (odorants) increased peripheral olfactory sensitivity in mice. (mendeley.com)
  • For two unrelated ligands, androstenone and isovaleric acid, induction of olfactory sensitivity was odorant-specific and occurred only in inbred strains that initially had low sensitivity to the exposure odorant. (mendeley.com)
  • Quantal analysis of responses to odorant ligands suggests that an activated receptor has a low probability of stimulating even a single G protein molecule. (physiology.org)
  • The olfactory signal transduction involves the activation of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP second messenger system which leads to the sequential opening of cAMP-gated channels and Ca2+-activated chloride ion channels. (nih.gov)
  • Here we investigate the nature of the adaptational mechanism in intact olfactory cells by using a combination of odorant stimulation and caged cAMP photolysis which produces current responses that bypass the early stages of signal transduction (involving the receptor, G protein and adenylyl cyclase). (nih.gov)
  • have been shown to play a role in olfactory signal transduction and adaptation. (biologists.org)
  • However, the contemporary model for olfactory signal transduction provides that odorants bind to olfactory receptors with relatively low specificity and consequently low affinity, making this detection of low-concentration odorants theoretically difficult to understand. (mit.edu)
  • Odorant receptor localization to olfactory cilia is mediated by ODR-4, a novel membrane-associated protein. (nih.gov)
  • The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors , a type of G protein-coupled receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • The apical, or dendritic, compartment of OSN ends with a dendritic knob from which approximately 5-20 long cilia extend into the mucosal coating to sample inhaled odorants ( Menco, 1980b ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Along the cilia are many binding sites for odorants. (getbodysmart.com)
  • A thin layer of watery mucus made by the supporting cells and Bowman's (olfactory) glands covers the receptor cilia and microvilli. (getbodysmart.com)
  • During inhalation, odorants are drawn into this fluid layer, where they dissolve and then bind to the cilia receptors. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Given that abnormalities in the sense of smell often emerge early in the course of many different neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, the work proposed here will lay a critical scientific foundation for understanding how the human olfactory system goes awry in such disorders. (grantome.com)
  • Predicted to be involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway and sensory perception of smell. (mcw.edu)
  • The sense of smell is mediated through stimulation of the olfactory receptor cells by volatile chemicals. (medscape.com)
  • Specialized cells are organized in the nose to bind various classes of odorants and transduce a signal to the brain to interpret the smell. (google.com)
  • Some of these receptors will be actuated, initiating signals to the brain where the signals are analysed and integrated and hence a particular smell is perceived. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Probably the oldest sensory system in the nature, the olfactory system concerns the sense of smell. (wikibooks.org)
  • While smell receptors are distance receptors that do not have any connection to the thalamus, receptors pass up the brainstem to the thalamus and project to the postcentral gyrus along with those for touch and pressure sensibility for the mouth. (wikibooks.org)
  • University of Pennsylvania smell identification test: a rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic. (medigraphic.com)
  • Olfactory evoked potentials and contingent negative variation simultaneously recorded for diagnosis of smell disorders. (medigraphic.com)
  • There will be no sense of smell because basal cells are responsible for replacing old olfactory cells. (brainscape.com)
  • Humans and most higher animals have two principal classes of chemoreceptors: taste (gustatory receptors), and smell (olfactory receptors). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Though our sense of smell assists us in distinguishing among tastes, the gustatory and olfactory receptors are different in many respects - not only in their locations but also in terms of their chemical and neurological makeup. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When a perfume is said to include Cashmere Wood, it means the typical smell of the odorant Cashmeran. (phys.org)
  • Discrimination among the vast array of odors requires that the brain discern which of the numerous odorant receptors have been activated. (nih.gov)
  • The receptors AgOR1 and AgOR2, as well as the binding protein AgOBP1, have been implicated in the recognition of human host odors. (ijbs.com)
  • Natural odors are typically mixtures of a few odorants from a large number of possible odorants, each with a broad distribution of concentrations. (pnas.org)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells express ORs which bind the same set of odors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (springer.com)
  • Most atypical transcripts encode nonfunctional olfactory receptors, but can occasionally increase receptor diversity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The uppermost two cDNAs encode potentially functional olfactory receptors. (nih.gov)
  • expanded view of the olfactory mucosa shows more detail about its layered composition. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Furthermore, we succeeded in rational receptor design, inserting point mutations in the odorant-binding site that resulted in predicted changes in ligand specificity and antagonist activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Olfactory discrimination is achieved through chemical specificity of odorant receptors (OR) and their stereotypic olfactory connections. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to variable odorant specificity subunits, all insect odorant receptors (ORs) contain a conserved odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) subunit which is an attractive target for repellent development. (nature.com)
  • In research proposed here, we will leverage our complementary strengths in mouse olfactory genetics (Dr. Bozza) and human olfactory neurobiology (Dr. Gottfried) to comprehensively characterize the human peripheral olfactory system with a research breadth and specificity not previously attempted. (grantome.com)
  • Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the outermost barrier of the body, the skin is exposed to multiple environmental factors, including temperature, humidity, mechanical stress, and chemical stimuli such as odorants that are often used in cosmetic articles. (elsevier.com)
  • Keratinocytes, the major cell type of the epidermal layer, express a variety of different sensory receptors that enable them to react to various environmental stimuli and process information in the skin. (elsevier.com)
  • The signal then goes forth to the olfactory cortex where it will be recognized and compared with known odorants (i.e. olfactory memory) involving also an emotional response to the olfactory stimuli. (wikibooks.org)
  • A receptor is a structure in the nervous system that receives specific stimuli and is affected in such a way that it sends particular messages to the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Primary receptors are those that directly convert stimuli to electronic signals, which they send to the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Odorant- and cAMP-induced responses showed the same adaptation in a Ca2+-dependent manner, indicating that adaptation occurs entirely downstream of the cyclase. (nih.gov)
  • Kinetics of the responses suggested that the responses to formoside and ectyoplasides A and B were receptor-mediated and capable of using the G αs signaling pathway in this system. (biologists.org)
  • ORs are members of a large subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). (elsevier.com)
  • OR52A1 (Olfactory Receptor Family 52 Subfamily A Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Orthologous to human OR5AK2 (olfactory receptor family 5 subfamily AK member 2). (jax.org)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs) represent the largest subfamily of the superfamily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • OR14A2 (Olfactory Receptor Family 14 Subfamily A Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Moreover, it remains unclear whether the wealth of information available about olfaction in model organisms applies to the anatomical, physiological, and functional properties of the human olfactory system. (grantome.com)
  • Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via retronasal olfaction. (medscape.com)
  • Zhao K, Scherer PW, Hajiloo SA, Dalton P. Effect of anatomy on human nasal airflow and odorant transport patterns: implications for olfaction. (medigraphic.com)
  • If a fitting odorant binds to the receptor, a reaction cascade is triggered similar to the one occurring in olfactory cells of the nose: the concentration of calcium ions increases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thus, by using a chemical that binds to copper in the mouse nose, so that copper wasn't available to the receptors, the authors showed that the mice couldn't detect the thiols. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of an odorant, OSN is basally polarized and when an odorant binds, the OSN depolarize. (frontiersin.org)
  • The peripheral olfactory system is unparalleled in its ability to detect and discriminate amongst an extremely large number of volatile compounds in the environment. (elifesciences.org)
  • Abrol R, Bray JK, Goddard WA III (2011) BiHelix: towards de novo structure prediction of an ensemble of G-protein coupled receptor conformations. (springer.com)
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. (abcam.com)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and transmembrane signaling receptor activity . (genecards.org)
  • These receptors are members of the class A rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • acids like glutemate, are going to be detected by G-protein coupled receptors. (coursera.org)
  • This may suggest gender-specific differences in the ability to detect distinct odorants, specifically human host-derived volatiles. (ijbs.com)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of odorant receptor, and each receptor can detect a limited number of odorant substances. (nobelprize.org)
  • This perspective discusses the physical limits of chemoreception and gives an overview on the receptor types developed during evolution to detect chemical signals from the outside world of an organism. (frontiersin.org)
  • The olfactory receptors of terrestrial animals exist in an aqueous environment, yet detect odorants that are primarily hydrophobic. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Conditional deletion experiments in mice demonstrate that Lhx2 is necessary for normal expression frequencies of nearly all ORs and all trace amine-associated receptors, irrespective of whether the deletion of Lhx2 is initiated in immature or mature OSNs. (eneuro.org)
  • The ability to discriminate odorants in the environment depends on OR-ligand interactions and signaling capacity within the OSNs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In our cultures, OSNs isolated from olfactory neuroepithelia (OE) of embryonic or neonatal mice were maintained on a confluent layer of cortical astrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that heterogeneity in spare receptor capacities within a convergent OSN population can increase the ITR (EC 10-90 ) of a convergent population of OSNs regardless of the presence or absence of a diversity of receptor expression within the population. (mit.edu)
  • Sandalore induces strong Ca 2+ signals in cultured human keratinocytes, which are mediated by OR2AT4, as demonstrated by receptor knockdown experiments using RNA interference. (elsevier.com)
  • Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. (genecards.org)
  • They have developed mosaic marking systems in flies and mice and used them to study how signals are transduced from cell surface receptors to the cytoskeleton, how neuronal processes are pruned, and how neural circuits are organized and built. (stanford.edu)
  • Does the olfactory system amplify incoming signals similarly to the visual system? (physiology.org)
  • Orco directed antagonists allosterically inhibit odorant activation of ORs and we previously showed that an airborne Orco antagonist could inhibit insect olfactory behavior. (nature.com)
  • The effect of olfactory exposure to non-insecticidal agrochemicals on bumblebee foraging behavior. (washington.edu)
  • Anatomical contributions to odorant sampling and representation in rodents: zoning in on sniffing behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2019. A Functional Agonist of Insect Olfactory Receptors: Behavior, Physiology and Structure. . (ncbs.res.in)
  • The mammalian olfactory system displays species-specific adaptations to different ecological niches. (sciencemag.org)
  • Finally, by defining the functional organization of olfactory pathways in neurologically intact individuals, this work will serve as a valuable starting point for investigating the impact of neurodegenerative disease on olfactory gene expression, circuit anatomy and sensory function. (grantome.com)
  • The goal of this Keystone Symposium is to bring together both pioneers and newcomers to the neurobiology of the chemical senses to discuss the development and function of neuronal circuits that underlie the perception of odorants, tastants, and pheromones. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • In addition, we set up simple olfactory network models, discussing the influence of ring-like and grid-like neuronal networks of GCs on the synchronization of two MCs. (hindawi.com)
  • Des outils génétiques puissants permettent d'isoler de nouveaux gènes et d'attribuer à des gènes connus de nouvelles fonctions dans la mise en place et le fonctionnement du réseau neuronal du nématode. (erudit.org)
  • Each OSN functions as a specialized sensor for the detection of diverse odorants in the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • where D is the diffusion coefficient of the chemoattractant, r the receptor radius (e.g., cell radius), c m the mean concentration and t the detection time ( Berg and Purcell, 1977 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To determine a molecule with a diffusion coefficient of 10 −5 cm 2 /s at a mean concentration of 1 μM with an accuracy of 1%, a cell with a radius of 1 μm requires a measuring time of 10 ms. For a single receptor with a radius of 1 nm a detection time of 17 s would be required. (frontiersin.org)
  • A high-throughput, computational system to predict if environmental contaminants can bind to human nuclear receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This could occur from a high level of receptor expression on cells allowing low concentrations of odorants to bind, by the repetitive binding of a ligand to a receptor, or by many cells expressing the same receptor. (physiology.org)
  • Seven transmembrane domain receptors can be localized to different parts of the plasma membrane or to different intracellular compartments in a receptor-specific and cell type-specific fashion. (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, activation of metabotropic receptor activates an intracellular signaling cascade which may include enzyme activation, second messenger production or activation of ion channels. (frontiersin.org)
  • In insects, olfactory receptors are located on the antennae and other chemosensory organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • olfactory repertoire we have used RNA-seq to reveal the transcriptome profiles of female antennae and maxillary palps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus there is a guarantee of transmitting signal and it lays a foundation for processing different olfactory information. (hindawi.com)
  • Tsukatani T, Reiter E, Miwa T, Costanzo R. Comparison of diagnostic findings using different olfactory test methods. (medigraphic.com)
  • A deeper knowledge of the olfactory repertoire of the tiger mosquito will help to better understand its biology and may pave the way to design new attractants/repellents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We manipulated the larval olfactory system to generate animals with an altered repertoire of odorant receptors. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • used this information to perform a computational (in silico) screen of more than 240,000 different odorant-like volatile compounds. (elifesciences.org)
  • In mice, the superfamily includes ∼1000 members, and they recognize overlapping sets of odorants with distinct affinities and specificities. (jneurosci.org)
  • The binding of overexpressed Chi3l1 and the receptor IL-13Rα2 began a cascade of subsequent reactions in the mice that resulted in lung disease, lung melanoma metastasis, and a host of other diseases. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Insects find food and mates by navigating odorant plumes that can be highly intermittent, with intensities and durations that vary rapidly over orders of magnitude. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mixture and odorant processing in the olfactory systems of Insects: a comparative perspective. (washington.edu)
  • While most chemoreceptors in mammals are metabotropic receptors, chemoreception in insects is ionotropic. (frontiersin.org)
  • They then tested their predictions for a subset of the receptors by performing experiments in living flies, and found that roughly 71% of predicted compounds did indeed activate or inhibit their receptors, compared to only 10% of a control sample. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we report the identification of a novel type of chemoreceptors in human keratinocytes, the olfactory receptors (ORs). (elsevier.com)
  • There are two major types of chemoreceptors, ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • We find that OSN subtypes, representative of all known mouse chemosensory receptor gene families, are present in all analyzed species. (sciencemag.org)
  • We argue that basal activities in sensory receptors in different organisms are due to the trade-off between the increase in coding capacity and the cost of maintaining the spontaneous basal activity. (pnas.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Olfactory Signaling Pathway . (genecards.org)
  • However, it is still unknown whether these putative mechanisms work in the intact olfactory receptor cell. (nih.gov)
  • To establish an in vitro system to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of odorant receptor expression and function, we first extensively validated our primary OSN culture system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the blocking mechanisms by odorants of I(K) in ORCs are different from those of I(Na) and I(Ca). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In a recent but highly controversial interpretation, it has also been speculated that olfactory receptors might really sense various vibrational energy-levels of a molecule rather than structural motifs via quantum coherence mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms of olfactory discrimination: converging evidence for common principles across phyla. (springer.com)
  • Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that the principal mechanism underlying odorant adaptation is actually a modulation of the cAMP-gated channel by Ca2+ feedback. (nih.gov)
  • however, the mechanism of odorant recognition by ORs was found to be more complex than this model. (jneurosci.org)
  • The newly detected receptor uses this mechanism to regulate enzyme activity and, consequently, cell growth and melanin production. (eurekalert.org)
  • Golebiowski, Ma and Matsunami showed that the mechanism of ligand recognition, although similar to other non-olfactory class A GPCRs, involves residues specific to olfactory receptors, notably in the sixth helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7 ] studied the encoding mechanism of locust olfactory system through space-time coding model. (hindawi.com)
  • These receptors are selective to some degree, though the mechanism for selectivity is still controversial. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Adaptation to odorants begins at the level of sensory receptor cells, presumably through modulation of their transduction machinery. (nih.gov)
  • Transduction and spike generation possessed complementary kinetic properties, that together preserved the timing of odorant encounters in ORN spiking, regardless of intensity. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this article we will first focus on the organs composing the olfactory system , then we will characterize them in order to understand their functionality and we will end explaining the transduction of the signal and the commercial application such as the eNose. (wikibooks.org)
  • In contrast to the amplification observed in phototransduction, signal amplification in olfactory transduction appears to be distinct. (physiology.org)
  • Following Buck & Axel (1991) , winners of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, it is generally agreed that certain types of receptor are tuned to certain odorant properties. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • They are coexpressed within two morphological types of olfactory sensilla that are located in the same region of the antenna, the ventrolateral region. (genetics.org)
  • The vertebrate olfactory system has evolved the ability to recognize and discriminate thousands of structurally diverse odorants. (jneurosci.org)
  • Results from this work may pave the way for future development of novel diagnostic interventions, and may offer a new mechanistic framework for elucidating why the human olfactory system is such a vulnerable target of neurodegeneration. (grantome.com)
  • The olfactory system has an important function as an environmental sensor. (nature.com)
  • We speculated that this might be conceptually analogous to olfactory perception, although, to our knowledge, there have been no studies examining the OR system in pancreatic β-cells. (nature.com)
  • The mammalian Olf1/EBF (O/E) family of repeated helix-loop-helix (rHLH) transcription factors has been implicated in olfactory system gene regulation, nervous system development and B-cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • In this paper, the current situation of synchronous oscillation in the network of olfactory system is firstly introduced. (hindawi.com)
  • Olfactory system is an important part in sensory nervous system. (hindawi.com)
  • On the concept of many-are-equal (MAE), Brody and Hopfield [ 6 ] further checked that olfactory system can identify odour by the synchronization of spikes of MCs. (hindawi.com)
  • Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck, 'for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system. (livescience.com)
  • The assembly of the fly olfactory system requires precise glomerular targeting of axons from each of the 50 ORN classes, as well as dendrites of each of the 50 PN classes. (stanford.edu)
  • The olfactory system is capable of detecting odorants at very low concentrations. (mit.edu)
  • The olfactory system is physiologically strongly related to the gustatory system, so that the two are often examined together. (wikibooks.org)
  • Developmental and sexual divergence in the olfactory system of the marine insect Clunio marinus . (mpg.de)
  • In the next few paragraphs, we briefly discuss what this means, first by considering the nervous system in general terms and then by looking at the physical and chemical receptors that transmit data through that system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Understanding how the adult olfactory system supports the perception of these odorous chemicals and translates them into appropriate attraction or avoidance behaviors is an important goal in contemporary sensory neuroscience. (springer.com)
  • Firestein S. How the olfactory system makes sense of scents. (springer.com)
  • Signal amplification could still be achieved in the olfactory system by increasing the probability of G protein activation. (physiology.org)
  • In this region there are between 1000 and 2000 glomerular cells which combine and interpret the potentials coming from different receptors. (wikibooks.org)
  • The olfactory receptor (OR) superfamily provides a basis for the remarkable ability to recognize and discriminate a large number of odorants. (jneurosci.org)