Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Visceral Afferents: The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Palinuridae: A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Santalum: A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Nucleotides, CyclicCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, Pheromone: Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Salamandra: A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Necturus: A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDrosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 2: Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Mice, Inbred C57BLIon Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.POU Domain Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.BenzaldehydesAstacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Ubiquitin Thiolesterase: A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Sensory System Agents: Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Receptors, Ionotropic Glutamate: A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
... that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell. The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons, transmit ... The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons, transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system ... The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the ... The olfactory nerves consist of a collection of many sensory nerve fibers that extend from the olfactory epithelium to the ...
Specialized sensory receptor cells called mechanoreceptors often encapsulate afferent fibers to help tune the afferent fibers ... The sensory neurons involved in smell are called olfactory receptor neurons. These receptor neurons contain receptors, called ... Illustration of Free Nerve Endings Neuroscience portal Sensory nerves Afferent nerve Pseudounipolar neuron Efferent nerve ... Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into ...
Free nerve ending. *Nociceptor. *Olfactory receptor neuron. *Photoreceptor cell. *Hair cell. *Taste bud ... The general somatic afferent fibers (GSA, or somatic sensory fibers) afferent fibers arise from cells in the spinal ganglia and ... General somatic afferent fibers. Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve.. 1. Somatic efferent.. 2. Somatic afferent ... Afferent nerve. References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 849 of the 20th edition of ...
However, the olfactory sensory neurons to which olfactory bulb neurons are connected are also distributed across the receptor ... The tongue contains taste receptors, as well as mechanoreceptors. Afferents from taste receptors and mechanoreceptors of the ... Nevertheless, taste ganglion cells must distribute peripheral fibers to particular receptor cell types and disseminate impulses ... This explains the response specificity of some individual taste nerve, particularly because sweet, amino acid, and bitter ...
... be caused by death of olfactory receptor neurons in the nose or by brain injury in which there is damage to the olfactory nerve ... Damage to the spinal cord or other major nerve fiber may lead to a termination of both afferent and efferent signals to varying ... Optic nerve diseases such as optic neuritis or retrobulbar neuritis lead to dysfunction in the afferent nerve pathway once the ... which consists of ineffective afferent neurons with fully functioning efferent neurons; essentially, motor movement without ...
... olfactory receptor neurons MeSH A08.800.550.700.120.600 --- paraganglia, nonchromaffin MeSH A08.800.550.700.120.600.050 --- ... parasympathetic fibers, postganglionic MeSH A08.663.542.512 --- nerve fibers, myelinated MeSH A08.663.542.512.560 --- myelin ... visceral afferents MeSH A08.612.220.860 --- visual pathways MeSH A08.612.380.239 --- extrapyramidal tracts MeSH A08.612.380.730 ... oculomotor nerve MeSH A08.800.800.120.640 --- olfactory nerve MeSH A08.800.800.120.680 --- optic nerve MeSH A08.800.800.120. ...
... specialized G protein coupled receptors. Both divisions of receptor cells release neurotransmitters to afferent fibers causing ... Depending on the type of stimulus, a neuron can be either excitatory or inhibitory. Nerves in the peripheral nervous system ... The olfactory epithelium, which contains olfactory receptor cells, covers the inferior surface of the cribiform plate, the ... A muscle fiber and the motor neuron to which it is connected. The spot at which the motor neuron attaches to the muscle fiber ...
These receptor neurons then synapse at the olfactory cranial nerve (CN I), which sends the information to the olfactory bulbs ... Perceptions of taste is generated by the following sensory afferents: gustatory, olfactory, and somatosensory fibers. Taste ... An olfactory sensation is called an odor. For a molecule to trigger olfactory receptor neurons, it must have specific ... Warm and cold sensitive nerve fibers differ in structure and function. The cold-sensitive and warm-sensitive nerve fibers are ...
... the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory sensory neurons. ... The retina in these more complex animals sends fibers (the optic nerve) to the lateral geniculate nucleus, to the primary and ... information from special senses is carried in special somatic afferents and special visceral afferents. In contrast, the other ... In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory epithelium is made up ...
Afferent nerve fiber/. Sensory neuron. *GSA. *GVA. *SSA. *SVA. *fibers *Ia or Aα ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Olfactory receptor neurons.. *NIF Search - Olfactory receptor neuron via the ...
Another study being done is on rats in which the olfactory bulb is removed has resulted in neurons in the primary olfactory ... the interruption or elimination of sensory nerve impulses by injuring or damaging sensory nerve fibers) because injury to the ... receive input from wide variety of afferent systems). Transneuronal degeneration of lower motor neurons is not present after ... Loss of sensory receptors in the cochlea, vestibules, and retina result in ganglion degeneration and transneuronal degeneration ...
Afferent nerve fibers are excited or inhibited depending on whether the hair cells they arise from are deflected in the ... Sense Sensory ecology Sensory-motor coupling Sensory neuron Sensory neuroscience Sensory organs of gastropods Sensory receptor ... There is evidence that they can "discriminate between two populations of their own species". Sharks have keen olfactory senses ... The receptors of the electrical sense are modified hair cells of the lateral line system. Fish and some aquatic amphibians ...
... nerve fibers, and pain-temperature information by unmyelinated (slow-conducting) fibers. The primary sensory receptors for ... The trigeminal nerve carries general somatic afferent fibers (GSA), which innervate the skin of the face via ophthalmic (V1), ... Each pathway consists of three bundles of nerve fibers connected in series: The secondary neurons in each pathway decussate ( ... bypassing the olfactory system. The onion skin distribution differs from the dermatome distribution of the peripheral branches ...
... so that odorant molecules in the air bubbles are wafted over the olfactory receptors. The speed of the bubbles is compared to ... corpuscle in the dermis just below the column and a series of free nerve endings that originate from myelinated fibers in the ... which contains about 17,000 receptors. Each Eimer's organ is supplied by a number of primary afferents, thus the star is ... This speed is at the limit of the speed of neurons. These moles are also able to smell underwater, accomplished by exhaling air ...
The fibers transmitting signals to the brain are called afferent (or sensory) fibers. Nerves can be afferent, efferent or mixed ... Gray matter consists of the cell bodies of the neurons, while white matter consists of the fibers (axons) which connect neurons ... Olfactory pathways are routed to the olfactory bulb, then to various parts of the olfactory system. Taste is routed through the ... and the mechanosensory neuropils which receive information from touch receptors on the head and antennae. The antennal lobes of ...
Neurons form elaborate networks through which nerve impulses-action potentials-travel. Each neuron has as many as 15,000 ... Descending NE fibers modulate afferent pain signals. ... The locus ceruleus (LC), which is located on the floor of the fourth ... NMDA receptors, kainate receptors, AMPARs. Small: Amino acids. Gamma-aminobutyric acid. GABA. GABAB receptors. GABAA receptors ... Neurons from the VTA innervate the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, orbital and ...
The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... Both cold and hot receptors are segregated by distinct subpopulations of sensory nerve fibers, which shows us that the ... is conveyed by firing patterns of receptors. These impulses are transmitted to the brain through afferent neurons. ... are integral to receiving stimuli in gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the ...
... trigeminal nerve - polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve - monomodal pathways). These ... The nerve fibers in these pathways act in the spinal cord to block the transmission of some pain signals to the brain. Sleep ... They excite the REM-off monoaminergic neurons during wakefulness and the PT cholinergic neurons during REM sleep. They are ... and projections of efferent or afferent nerves. Moving caudally from the rostral midbrain, at the site of the rostral pons and ...
He acknowledged that he found the nerve fibers to be very intricate, but stated that he could find no evidence for either axons ... A neuron affects other neurons by releasing a neurotransmitter that binds to chemical receptors. The effect upon the ... Afferent neurons convey information from tissues and organs into the central nervous system and are also called sensory neurons ... the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. A neuron is a specialized type of cell found in the bodies of all eumetozoans. Only sponges ...
Neurons send excitatory fibers to neurons in the thalamus and also send collaterals to the thalamic reticular nucleus that ... Quite to the left of the figure a sensory nerve fiber is shown. Cell body layers are labeled on the left, and fiber layers are ... Olfactory information, however, passes through the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex (piriform cortex). The majority of ... This migration of GABAergic neurons is particularly important since GABA receptors are excitatory during development. This ...
Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from most other neurons in that they die and regenerate on a regular basis. The ... which is carried along one or more afferent neurons towards a specific area (cortex) of the brain. Just as different nerves are ... which detect mechanical motion of the fibers within a range of about 20 to 20,000 hertz,[28] with substantial variation between ... Olfactory system Olfactory (I) Olfactory cortex Olfactory perception, Gustatory perception (taste or flavor)[19] Smell ( ...
Thus GABAergic afferents to the mesolimbic dopamine neurons (primary substrate of opiate reward), the mesolimbic dopamine ... dopamine acts on D1-like receptors or D2-like receptors to either stimulate (D1-like) or inhibit (D2-like) the production of ... Stimulation there activates fibers that form the ascending pathways; the ascending pathways include the mesolimbic dopamine ... First, rewards have basic sensory components (visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory) ... Second, rewards ...
... there is no evidence to date that suggests there are nerve and axon connections between any existing sensory receptor cells ... This hypothesis has been questioned because of the existence of the afferent loop of the reflex, the fact that it does not ... Likewise, there is no evidence for any accessory olfactory bulb in adult human beings, and the key genes involved in VNO ... In a morphological study of 100 Japanese cadavers, it was found that 86% of fibers identified were solid and bundled in the ...
Neurons form elaborate networks through which nerve impulses-action potentials-travel. Each neuron has as many as 15,000 ... Descending NE fibers modulate afferent pain signals. ... The locus ceruleus (LC), which is located on the floor of the fourth ... which may be located on the presynaptic neuron or postsynaptic neuron, or both. Typically, neurotransmitter receptors are ... Neurons from the VTA innervate the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, orbital and ...
... and a different set of nerve fibers carry it to the brain. Foods like chili peppers activate nerve fibers directly; the ... Sensory receptors are modified ends of sensory neurons; modified to deal with specific types of stimulus, thus there are many ... Both the lesser palatine and the zygomatic are maxillary nerves (from the trigeminal nerve). The special visceral afferents of ... detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose; texture, detected through a variety of mechanoreceptors, muscle nerves, etc ...
Free nerve ending. *Nociceptor. *Olfactory receptor neuron. *Photoreceptor cell. *Hair cell. *Taste bud ... Afferent nerve fiber/. Sensory neuron. *GSA. *GVA. *SSA. *SVA. *fibers *Ia or Aα ... the olfactory fibers and 2) the non-olfactory fibers.[5] ... The commissural fibers or transverse fibers are axons that ... In contrast to commissural fibers, association fibers connect regions within the same hemisphere of the brain, and projection ...
... that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell. The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons, transmit ... The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons, transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system ... The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the ... The olfactory nerves consist of a collection of many sensory nerve fibers that extend from the olfactory epithelium to the ...
... similar to that of olfactory receptor neurons. Any bud may contain any of the receptor cells necessary to identify each ... Afferent nerve branches making synaptic contact with receptor cells penetrate the base of the taste bud. Taste buds occupy ... A single nerve fiber innervates multiple taste papillae, and the nerve contact exerts trophic influences on the epithelium. ... As humans age, the number of olfactory neurons steadily decreases. In addition to the olfactory neurons, the epithelium is ...
Specialized sensory receptor cells called mechanoreceptors often encapsulate afferent fibers to help tune the afferent fibers ... The sensory neurons involved in smell are called olfactory receptor neurons. These receptor neurons contain receptors, called ... Illustration of Free Nerve Endings Neuroscience portal Sensory nerves Afferent nerve Pseudounipolar neuron Efferent nerve ... Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into ...
... the olfactory nerve is among the first of 12 cranial nerves situated in the head. It transmits sensory data to ... The olfactory receptor neurons contain afferent nerve fibers that transfer nerve impulses regarding odor or smell to the ... There is one odor receptor in each olfactory neuron.. Olfactory Nerve Location and Origin. This nerve is located in the head ... Peripheral olfactory processes that are receptors present in the olfactory mucosa.. Olfactory Nerve Anatomy. Olfactory System. ...
Live-cell mätning av luktämnet Receptor aktiveringen med en realtid cAMP-analys ... At the ultrastructural level, PKD2L1-immunoreactive cells form synapses onto afferent nerve fibers, another feature of Type III ... Feb, 2012 , Pubmed ID: 22328155 Odorant receptors (ORs) in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) mediate detection of volatile ... their sensory neurons show a common mechanism of receptor gene regulation: each neuron expresses a single receptor gene from a ...
... fine and UFPs may reach the brain through olfactory receptor neurons or the trigeminal nerve. Olfactory receptor neurons are ... LPSs might stimulate afferent nerves, act at circumventricular organs, or alter the permeability of the BBB. Circumventricular ... and anterograde transport in axons and dendrites such as the transport of inhaled NPs to the CNS via sensory nerve fibers that ... Nasally inhaled pollutants that reach the olfactory mucosa could enter the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons by pinocytosis, ...
Cranial nerve I, the olfactory nerve, is composed of special visceral afferents (SVA). Chemo-sensory receptors in the olfactory ... Cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X are considered mixed cranial nerves due to the presence of afferent and efferent fibers with ... The central processes of these olfactory bulb neurons project through the olfactory trigone medially to the septal area and the ... Nerves. Afferent Cranial Nerves and Clinical Implications. Cranial nerves I, II, and VIII are considered purely afferent nerves ...
Olfactory receptor neuron, , , , , ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias ... Afferent nerve fiber/. Sensory nerve * GSA * GVA * SSA * SVA * fibers * Ia * Ib or Golgi ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron * Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a transduction cell within the olfactory ...
The receptor cells are innervated by afferent fibers that transmit information to the gustatory cortex through synapses in the ... Arrows indicate the tWGA-DsRed-labeled nerve fibers. (B) Locations of tWGA-DsRed-labeled neurons in the coronal sections of the ... tWGA-DsRed-labeled neurons were also observed in the amygdala (ACo, BLA), the olfactory cortex (Pir), and the primary ... subsets of both the type II cells and type III cells with obvious synapses onto afferent nerve fibers expressed mT1R3-GFP and ...
It is also released from C-fiber afferents in peripheral nerves that convey information about pain and temperature to the ... synaptic neuron. Over a scientific career that spanned six decades, literally up until the time of his death from complications ... NA released from synaptic terminals binds to adrenoreceptors, all types of which are "slow" (metabotropic) receptors coupled to ... and olfactory bulb. Decreased activity at particular central noradrenergic synapses has been linked to behavioral depression. ...
Free nerve ending. *Nociceptor. *Olfactory receptor neuron. *Photoreceptor cell. *Hair cell. *Taste bud ... The general somatic afferent fibers (GSA, or somatic sensory fibers) afferent fibers arise from cells in the spinal ganglia and ... General somatic afferent fibers. Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve.. 1. Somatic efferent.. 2. Somatic afferent ... Afferent nerve. References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 849 of the 20th edition of ...
... is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is ... is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is ... A cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has been described through VNs fibers, which is able to dampen peripheral inflammation ... A cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has been described through VNs fibers, which is able to dampen peripheral inflammation ...
First, there was an exceptional density of nerve fibers supplying the skin of the face and a vast network of branching nerve ... Trigeminal afferents and their organization. A large proportion of the neurons in the trigeminal ganglion responded to ... receptors of the epidermis, (2) receptors of the connective tissue with Schwann cell elaborations or myelination, (3) receptors ... Cb, cerebellum; gV, trigeminal ganglion; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; Sp, spinal cord; Tel, telencephalon. Scale bar, ...
Nerves that carry information from sensory receptors to the central nervous system only are called afferent nerves. Other ... afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons.. *Afferent neurons. Also known as sensory neurons, afferent neurons ... The olfactory nerve (I) carries scent information to the brain from the olfactory epithelium in the roof of the nasal cavity. ... It lines the inside of the dura mater and contains many thin fibers that connect it to the underlying pia mater. These fibers ...
This article describes the anatomy and function of the sensory cranial nerves, including many diagrams. Learn this topic now at ... These bipolar sensory receptor neurons each give off single dendrites at one end that terminate as olfactory knobs in the ... olfactory mucosa, and single unmyelinated special visceral afferent axonal fibers which transmit olfactory information to the ... The olfactory nerve, the optic nerve, the facial nerve, the vestibulocochlear nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, and the vagus ...
... nerve fibers of trigeminal origin, but are not associated with the olfactory, vomeronasal, or terminal nerves. The gustducin- ... while olfactory receptor neurons detect the variety of odorants that fill our environment. However, no such specialized sensory ... cells that reach the surface of the nasal epithelium and form synaptic contacts with trigeminal afferent nerve fibers. These ... the nerve fiber wraps around the gustducin-immunoreactive cell, sometimes enclosing it entirely (Fig. 3b). When the nerve fiber ...
This is in turn transmitted to the brain by afferent fibers of primary olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory neurons of ... The intimate contact of mainly chemical, but also physical, stimuli with receptors in the mucosa of the nose and mouth set up ... cranial nerves 1, 5, 7, 9, and 10. These peripheral inputs appear to make contact with dopamine and opioid neurotrans-mitters ... As interest has increased in fiber, manufacturers have isolated various types of fiber from a wide range of carbohydrate ...
2005) NMDA receptors mediate olfactory learning and memory in Drosophila. Curr Biol 15:603-615. ... The immunohistochemical tests that showed abundant PACAP expression in afferent fibers of the lip to cerebral ganglion ... 2005) Modulation of NMDA receptors by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide in CA1 neurons requires G alpha q, protein ... Maturation of Spontaneous Firing Properties after Hearing Onset in Rat Auditory Nerve Fibers: Spontaneous Rates, Refractoriness ...
Semicircular receptors and macular receptors. Acoustic, visual, olfactory and gustatory sensitivity. Motor control. The ... Afferent, efferent and cortical circuits of the cerebellum. Cerebellum. Mirror neurons. Core units Voluntary movement. Motor ... Time constant and space of nerve fibers. Threshold, under- and supra-liminal current. Law of all or nothing. Action potential ... Tactile and articular receptors. Neuromuscular spindles: afferent and efferent innervation. Range circuit. Golgi tendon-like ...
It is the first CNS site for synaptic contact of the primary afferent fibers from the lungs as well. The afferent nerve fibers ... The olfactory receptors are known to turnover approximately every 40 days. New sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and ... including vagal pulmonary receptors, UA mechanoreceptors, other somatosensory receptors, and olfactory and gustatory receptors ... and synapse with second order sensory neurons in this nucleus. Thus the NTS neurons receive inputs from several receptor types ...
Sensory/Afferent Division. Consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors t/o the body. ... Sense organs like retina of eye & olfactory mucosa.. Psudounipolar neurons are found where?. In ganglia in PNS as sensory ... Sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses __ sensory receptors.. To. Motor (efferent) neurons carry messages __ CNS to ... nerve fibers in PNS. Vital to regen. of damaged peripheral nerve fibers. ...
1996) Olfactory nerve stimulation activates rat mitral cells via NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in vitro. NeuroReport 7:989-992. ... Stimulation of primary afferent axons triggers subthreshold oscillations. We tried to elucidate a functional role of ... or from excitatory centrifugal fibers. Regardless of the source of glutamate, the interactions between EPSPs and subthreshold ... Electrical membrane properties of mitral cells in response to olfactory nerve stimulation. A, Pharmacology of olfactory nerve ( ...
Stereological quantification of olfactory receptor neurons in mice. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the ... the brains were analyzed for changes in reactive outgrowth of the commissural-associational afferent fibers in the hippocampal ... Whether substance P and CGRP have a role in spinal nerve-injured neuropathic pain model was tested. A 53-year-old male ... Null mutation of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene leads to female sterility due to a failure of embryo implantation. A ...
... has led to the identification of key genes that are needed for the normal development or function of nociceptive neurons. Genes ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor, TRKA, are important for neuronal development and survival. DHN = dorsal horn neuron ... with a skin biopsy showing reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density. Large fibers are not affected, so deep-tendon reflexes ... Using olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) conditional Scn9a knockouts, Weiss et al. showed that the OSNs were still electrically ...
Unit 5: Nerve Tissue. Neurons, fibers, fascicles, & ganglia 81 Unit 5: Nerve Tissue Neurons, fibers, fascicles, & ganglia 82 ... spinal nerves spinal cord! Divisions of PNS:! 1. Sensory/Afferent Division!! -sensory receptors! CNS! A. Somatic afferent ... olfactory receptors)! 3. High metabolic rate: need O 2 and glucose! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 1 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 12 Lecture ... 1. Neurons transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons. 2. Nerves ...
  • The spaces between the bodies and projections of the nerve cells of the cortex are filled with neuroglia and a vascular network (capillaries). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We follow the resulting degeneration and regeneration in the olfactory centers (antennal lobes and mushroom bodies) by measuring their size in reconstructed SLOTy images with respect to the untreated control side. (uni-hannover.de)
  • Mushroom bodies (MBs) are the centers for olfactory associative learning and elementary cognitive functions in the arthropod brain. (sdbonline.org)
  • In unipolar neurons, one very short process which divides into perphreal & central processes, extends from the cell body. (cram.com)
  • Therefore, regions of the visual field are retinotopically organized within the optic nerve and at their synapses in the LGN. (statpearls.com)
  • They do this by creating neural circuits , which are groups of neurons that are interconnected by synapses and which carry out specific functions whenever they are activated. (popoptiq.com)
  • WGA immunoreactivity was also found in the trigeminal ganglion, suggesting that T1r3-expressing cells make synapses with trigeminal neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A noradrenergic terminal has been shown to possess receptors for a wide range of substances, so-called heteroceptors (see Langer 1981, 1997) and although this may be useful for developing drugs to manipulate noradrenergic transmission it seems unlikely that in vivo all of the receptors could be innervated by appropriate specific synapses or reachable by their NT. (pili.org)
  • Saliva also is an important factor in maintaining acuity of taste receptor cells (Figure 9.1). (tmc.edu)
  • Taste receptor cells are spindle shaped, modified neuro-epithelial cells that extend from the base to the apex of the taste buds. (tmc.edu)
  • Action potentials in the taste receptor cells lead to an increase Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated membrane channels with the release of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. (tmc.edu)
  • Anatomical tracing of neural circuits originating from specific subsets of taste receptor cells may shed light on interactions between taste cells within the taste bud and taste cell-to nerve interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite these advances at the molecular level, the mechanisms of taste coding remain unclear: how does depolarization of a subset of taste receptor cells lead to discrimination between tastants of different quality? (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dendrites of a neuron are cellular extensions with many branches, and metaphorically this overall shape and structure is referred to as a dendritic tree. (wikidoc.org)
  • In neonates, this area is a dense neural sheet, but, in children and adults, the respiratory and olfactory tissues interdigitate. (medscape.com)
  • provided reconstructions which were essential for the understanding and correct interpretation of the developmental happenings of the neural connections within and beyond the olfactory system structures . (statpearls.com)
  • While some authors have reported the origin of the nerve from the olfactory placode, from where the olfactory cells also originate, others indicate that it comes from the neural crest . (statpearls.com)
  • Perhaps, it originates from a concatenation of migrating cells from varying embryological orders, among which the neural crest may contribute to the subset of GnRH-secreting neurons. (statpearls.com)
  • The induction of the expression of class 3 semaphorins in the neural scar and the persistent expression of their receptors, the neuropilins and plexins, by injured CNS neurons suggest that they contribute to the regenerative failure of CNS neurons. (springer.com)
  • Neuropilins are also expressed in the neural scar in a subpopulation of meningeal fibroblast and in neurons in the vicinity of the scar. (springer.com)
  • Nerve injury, axonal degeneration and neural regeneration: basic insights. (springer.com)
  • Since BDNF/TrkB signaling is involved in the neural innervation of taste buds, the effects of Na + deprivation on BDNF and its receptor TrkB expression in the rat taste buds were also examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The connections between neurons can form neural pathways, neural circuits , and larger networks that generate an organism's perception of the world and determine its behavior. (kiwix.org)
  • they are capable of coordinating (simultaneously inhibiting or exciting) spatially proximate groups of pyramidal neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • spiny neurons relatively close from the pyramidal neurons of the cortex due to the presence of spines with spine apparatus (acanthodendritic neurons), and make up 96% of the striatum. (statemaster.com)
  • We applied a genetic approach to visualize the neuronal circuitries of bitter and sweet-umami taste by using the taste receptor genes and the plant lectin WGA as molecular tools. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, the genetic approach using the WGA transgene, expressed under the control of specific promoter elements, is a powerful tool for tracing selective and functional neuronal circuitries originating from a specific type of neuron ( 15 , 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Bulbar oscillations might be an emergent network property arising from neuronal interactions and/or resulting from intrinsic oscillations in individual neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because intrinsic oscillations of membrane potential enable very precise temporal control of neuronal firing, we propose that these oscillations provide an effective means to synchronize mitral cell subpopulations during the processing of olfactory information. (jneurosci.org)
  • Small ovoid cells - monitor health of nearby neurons - phagocytize microorganisms or neuronal debris. (studystack.com)
  • Both OP6 and OP27 express general neuronal and ORN markers, neurotrophin receptors and after differentiation, express OMP. (ubc.ca)
  • The in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that MBD2 is important in regulating gene expression during olfactory neuronal development. (ubc.ca)
  • Damage to the cranial nerves, their tracts, or nuclei results in stereotypical dysfunctions. (statpearls.com)
  • Typical sensory system: the visual system , illustrated by the classic Gray's FIG. 722- This scheme shows the flow of information from the eyes to the central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts, to the visual cortex . (wikipedia.org)