Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.

Characterization of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-gated channels in the plasma membrane of rat olfactory neurons. (1/1045)

It is generally accepted that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) plays a role in olfactory transduction. However, the precise mode of action of InsP3 remains controversial. We have characterized the conductances activated by the addition of 10 microM InsP3 to excised patches of soma plasma membrane from rat olfactory neurons. InsP3 induced current fluctuations in 25 of 121 inside-out patches. These conductances could be classified into two groups according to the polarity of the current at a holding potential of +40 to +60 mV (with Ringer's in the pipette and pseudointracellular solution in the bath). Conductances mediating outward currents could be further divided into large- (64 +/- 4 pS, n = 4) and small- (16 +/- 1.7 pS, n = 11) conductance channels. Both small- and large-conductance channels were nonspecific cation channels. The large-conductance channel displayed bursting behavior at +40 mV, with flickering increasing at negative holding potentials to the point where single-channel currents were no longer discernible. The small-conductance channel did not display flickering behavior. The conductance mediating inward currents at +40 to +60 mV reversed at +73 +/- 4 mV (n = 4). The current traces displayed considerable fluctuations, and single-channel currents could not be discerned. The current fluctuations returned to baseline after removal of InsP3. The power density spectrum for the excess noise generated by InsP3 followed a 1/f dependence consistent with conductance fluctuations in the channel mediating this current, although other mechanisms are not excluded. These experiments demonstrate the presence of plasma membrane InsP3-gated channels of different ionic specificity in olfactory receptor cells.  (+info)

Coherent oscillations in membrane potential synchronize impulse bursts in central olfactory neurons of the crayfish. (2/1045)

Lateral protocerebral interneurons (LPIs) in the central olfactory pathway of the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii reside within the lateral protocerebrum and receive direct input from projection neurons of the olfactory midbrain. The LPIs exhibit periodic (0.5 Hz) changes in membrane potential that are imposed on them synaptically. Acute surgical experiments indicate that the synaptic activity originates from a group of oscillatory neurons lying within the lateral protocerebrum. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from many LPI pairs indicate that this periodic synaptic input is synchronous and coherent among the population of approximately 200 LPIs on each side of the brain. In many LPIs, specific odors applied to antennules in isolated head preparations generate long-lasting excitatory postsynaptic potentials and impulse bursts. The impulse bursts are generated only near the peaks of the ongoing depolarizations, approximately 1 s after stimulus application, and so the periodic baseline activity is instrumental in timing burst generation. Simultaneous recordings from pairs of LPIs show that, when impulse bursts occur in both cells after an odorant stimulus, they are synchronized by the common periodic depolarizations. We conclude that the common, periodic activity in LPIs can synchronize impulse bursts in subsets of these neurons, possibly generating powerful long-lasting postsynaptic effects in downstream target neurons.  (+info)

Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (3/1045)

The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.  (+info)

A spatial map of olfactory receptor expression in the Drosophila antenna. (4/1045)

Insects provide an attractive system for the study of olfactory sensory perception. We have identified a novel family of seven transmembrane domain proteins, encoded by 100 to 200 genes, that is likely to represent the family of Drosophila odorant receptors. Members of this gene family are expressed in topographically defined subpopulations of olfactory sensory neurons in either the antenna or the maxillary palp. Sensory neurons express different complements of receptor genes, such that individual neurons are functionally distinct. The isolation of candidate odorant receptor genes along with a genetic analysis of olfactory-driven behavior in insects may ultimately afford a system to understand the mechanistic link between odor recognition and behavior.  (+info)

Functional identification and reconstitution of an odorant receptor in single olfactory neurons. (5/1045)

The olfactory system is remarkable in its capacity to discriminate a wide range of odorants through a series of transduction events initiated in olfactory receptor neurons. Each olfactory neuron is expected to express only a single odorant receptor gene that belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family. The ligand-receptor interaction, however, has not been clearly characterized. This study demonstrates the functional identification of olfactory receptor(s) for specific odorant(s) from single olfactory neurons by a combination of Ca2+-imaging and reverse transcription-coupled PCR analysis. First, a candidate odorant receptor was cloned from a single tissue-printed olfactory neuron that displayed odorant-induced Ca2+ increase. Next, recombinant adenovirus-mediated expression of the isolated receptor gene was established in the olfactory epithelium by using green fluorescent protein as a marker. The infected neurons elicited external Ca2+ entry when exposed to the odorant that originally was used to identify the receptor gene. Experiments performed to determine ligand specificity revealed that the odorant receptor recognized specific structural motifs within odorant molecules. The odorant receptor-mediated signal transduction appears to be reconstituted by this two-step approach: the receptor screening for given odorant(s) from single neurons and the functional expression of the receptor via recombinant adenovirus. The present approach should enable us to examine not only ligand specificity of an odorant receptor but also receptor specificity and diversity for a particular odorant of interest.  (+info)

Effects of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate on a Na+-gated nonselective cation channel. (6/1045)

Olfactory receptor neurons in the lobster express a nonselective cation channel that is activated by intracellular Na+ and carries a substantial part of the depolarizing receptor current. Here, we show that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] applied to the intracellular face of cell-free patches activate the channel in the absence of Na+ and that antibodies against the respective phospholipids irreversibly inhibit the evoked activity. Further, we show that applying PI(4,5)P2 or PI(4)P in the presence of Na+ decreases the concentration of Na+ required to activate the channel from an EC50 of 74 to 22 mM for PI(4,5)P2 and to 29 mM for PI(4)P, respectively. Na+-gated channel activity was irreversibly inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P in patches never exposed to exogenous phosphatidylinositols, suggesting that endogenous inositol phospholipids are required for the activation of the channel by intracellular Na+. Our findings suggest that PI(4,5)P2 and/or PI(4)P may serve as intracellular signaling molecules in these primary sensory neurons and provide a general mechanism to explain how the sensitivity of Na+-gated channels to Na+ could be much greater in intact cells than in excised membrane patches.  (+info)

Small stress protein Hsp27 accumulation during dopamine-mediated differentiation of rat olfactory neurons counteracts apoptosis. (7/1045)

The small stress protein Hsp27 is expressed during mammalian neural development. We have analyzed the role of this protein in immortalized rat olfactory neuroblasts. In the presence of dopamine a fraction of these cells differentiate into neurons while the remaining cells undergo apoptosis. We report here that the dopamine induced differentiation and apoptosis are associated with a transient and specific accumulation of Hsp27. Moreover, transfection experiments have shown that Hsp27 overexpression drastically decreases the fraction of cells undergoing apoptosis. In contrast, reduction of the endogenous level of Hsp27 led to abortion of differentiation and, therefore, drastically increased the number of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, in the normal cell population we show that Hsp27 accumulation takes place only in differentiating cells that were not undergoing apoptosis. We therefore conclude that Hsp27 may represent a key protein that controls the decision of olfactory precursor cells to undergo either differentiation or cell death.  (+info)

Variable patterns of axonal projections of sensory neurons in the mouse vomeronasal system. (8/1045)

The vomeronasal system mediates pheromonal effects in mammals. We have employed gene targeting technology to introduce mutations in a putative pheromone receptor gene, VR2, in the germline of mice. By generating alleles differentially tagged with the histological markers taulacZ and tauGFP, we show that VR2 is monoallelically expressed in a given neuron. Axons of VR2-expressing neurons converge onto numerous glomeruli in the accessory olfactory bulb. The pattern of axonal projections is complex and variable. This wiring diagram is substantially different from that of the main olfactory system. The projection pattern is disrupted by deleting the coding region of VR2, but an unrelated seven-transmembrane protein, the odorant receptor M71, can partially substitute for VR2.  (+info)

Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons.[3] In vertebrates, ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium.[4] Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cells dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells express ORs which bind the same set of odors. The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.[5] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Re-classification of Drosophila melanogaster trichoid and intermediate sensilla using fluorescence-guided single sensillum recording. AU - Lin, Chun Chieh. AU - Potter, Christopher J.. PY - 2015/10/2. Y1 - 2015/10/2. N2 - Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons are found within specialized sensory hairs on antenna and maxillary palps. The linking of odorant-induced responses to olfactory neuron activities is often accomplished via Single Sensillum Recordings (SSR), in which an electrode inserted into a single sensory hair records the neuronal activities of all the neurons housed in that sensillum. The identification of the recorded sensillum requires matching the neuronal responses with known odor-response profiles. To record from specific sensilla, or to systematically screen all sensillar types, requires repetitive and semi-random SSR experiments. Here, we validate an approach in which the GAL4/UAS binary expression system is used for targeting specific sensilla for recordings. ...
Video articles in JoVE about olfactory receptor neurons include Whole Mount Immunolabeling of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Drosophila Antenna, Electrophysiological Recording from Drosophila Trichoid Sensilla in Response to Odorants of Low Volatility, Odorant-induced Responses Recorded from Olfactory Receptor Neurons using the Suction Pipette Technique, Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis, Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals, Perforated Patch-clamp Recording of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Intact Neuroepithelium: Functional Analysis of Neurons Expressing an Identified Odorant Receptor.
The ability of olfactory neurons to locate food sources underlies survival in most species of the animal kingdom. This ability of olfactory neurons to process environmental information is often modulated by the animals internal state such as hunger. The peripheral end of the olfactory circuit consists of first order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), that synapse onto the second order projection neurons (PNs), and regulatory local neurons (LNs) that innervate ORNs and PNs. While a considerable amount of information has been generated, in various animal systems, regarding sensory neuron responses to food odorants and modulation of these responses by hunger, much less is known about the extent of modulation that exists among individual sensory neurons and its impact on driving behavioral output. We hypothesized that starvation differentially alters the sensitivity of individual first-order Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs). To test this hypothesis, we exposed starved or non-starved third instar ...
The sensory neurons of the mammalian olfactory system are remarkable in their ability to undergo continuous replacement throughout the lifespan of the animal (Mackay-Sim and Kittel, 1991). This continual replenishment of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) recapitulates many aspects of embryonic neural development; neuroblast-like cells in the basal cell layer divide, differentiate into ORNs and migrate to an apical position in the neuroepithelium. Subsequently, mature ORN proteins including those essential for transducing odorant signals are induced as immature ORNs differentiate into functional neurons.. Analysis of the promoter regions of several ORN enriched genes revealed a conserved sequence, the Olf1 sites, that bound a factor present in olfactory nuclear extracts (Kudrycki et al., 1993; Wang et al., 1993). Studies in transgenic animals suggested that this site contributes to specific expression of an olfactory-specific gene in vivo (Kudrycki et al., 1998; Walters et al., 1996). A family of ...
Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit from ELISA Genie is a pre-coated immunoassay with a sensitivity of 0.094 ng/ml and a range of 0.156-10ng/ml and has been designed to measure Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit in serum, plasma & cell culture supernatant samples. The Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit accurately measures natural Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 levels quantified versus standard curves obtained and is based on antibodies raised against a recombinant Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 peptide.
cAMP-gated channels were studied in inside-out membrane patches excised from the apical cellular pole of isolated olfactory receptor cells of the rat. In the absence of divalent cations the dose-response curve of activation of patch current by cAMP had a KM of 4.0 microM at -50 mV and of 2.5 microM at +50 mV. However, addition of 0.2 or 0.5 mM Ca2+ shifted the KM of cAMP reversibly to the higher cAMP concentrations of 33 or 90 microM, respectively, at -50 mV. Among divalent cations, the relative potency for inducing cAMP affinity shifts was: Ca2+ , Sr2+ , Mn2+ , Ba2+ , Mg2+, of which Mg2+ (up to 3 mM) did not shift the KM at all. This potency sequence corresponds closely to that required for the activation of calmodulin. However, the Ca(2+)-sensitivity is lower than expected for a calmodulin-mediated action. Brief (60 s) transient exposure to 3 mM Mg2+, in the absence of other divalent cations, had a protective effect in that following washout of Mg2+, subsequent exposure to 0.2 mM Ca2+ no ...
Dr. Stuart Firestein is the Chair of Columbia Universitys Department of Biological Sciences. His colleagues and he study the vertebrate olfactory receptor neuron as a model for investigating general principles and mechanisms of signal transduction - the ways in which chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, hormones, and peptides with membrane receptors, exert their influence in the brain and nervous system. He hypothesizes that the olfactory neuron is uniquely suited for these studies since it is designed specifically for the detection and discrimination of a wide variety of small organic molecules, i.e. odors.. On Ignorance - Knowledge is a big subject, says Stuart Firestein, but ignorance is a bigger one. And it is ignorance-not knowledge-that is the true engine of science. Most of us have a false impression of science as a surefire, deliberate, step-by-step method for finding things out and getting things done. In fact, says Firestein, more often than not, science is like looking for a ...
In the mouse, each class of olfactory receptor neurons expressing a given odorant receptor has convergent axonal projections to two specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, thereby creating an odour map. However, it is unclear how this map is represented in the olfactory cortex. Here we combine rab …
Moths often use multi-component pheromones with fixed ratios to keep intraspecific communication and interspecific isolation. Unusually, the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata in North China use only Z11-16:Ald as the essential component of its sex pheromone to find mates. To understand how this species keeps behavioral isolation from other species sharing Z11-16:Ald as a major pheromone component, we study the olfactory coding of intra- and interspecific pheromonal messages in the males of M. separata. Firstly, we functionally characterized the long trichoid sensilla in male antennae by single sensillum recording. Two types of sensilla were classified: the A type sensilla responded to Z11-16:Ald and Z9-14:Ald, and the B type sensilla mainly to Z9-14:Ald, and also to Z11-16:Ac, Z11-16:OH, and Z9-16:Ald. Next, we examined the glomerulus responses in the antennal lobes to these compounds by using in vivo optical imaging. The results showed that among the three subunits of the macroglomerular ...
Our sense of smell monitors the molecules present in the immediate environment or the oral cavity. Carried by the air entering our nose during respiration, these molecules interact with specialized receptors localized within the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. The signal generated by these peripheral neurons will eventually be interpreted by the brain as an odor or an aroma. Twenty-five years after the discovery of the vertebrate olfactory receptors, a consensus emerges about the encoding of odorants in the nose, involving a so-called combinatorial encoding: every olfactory receptor recognizes a range of molecules, and conversely, every odorant appears to activate a specific subset of the several hundreds of receptors expressed in most vertebrate noses. This has been named the molecular logic of smell. However, this model alone cannot account for the entire olfactory encoding and the corresponding perception. Especially, molecules with very different structures and functionalities ...
Thapsigargin is an inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that depletes the intracellular Ca2+ stores (Thastrup et al., 1990; Rosay et al., 2001). Thapsigargin application for 15 min (Fig. 4) clearly decreased the total number of photons (Sp: 5813±1380.8, P,0.05; Ci: 3197±494.9, P,0.05; Oct: 4732±3013.7; P,0.05), as well as the duration of the response (Sp: 28±5.4 s, P,0.0001; Ci: 22±2.0 s, P,0.001; Oct: 25±3.0 s, P,0.001). The amplitude of the first component of the response was also affected, as compared with control flies, for spearmint (P,0.05) and octanol (P,0.05; Fig. 4A,G), whereas it was not affected for citronella (Fig. 4D). These results suggest that, although thapsigargin slightly affects the amplitude of the first component (for two of the three tested odors), more importantly, it affects the second component of the response (for the three tested odors). This lead us to suggest that the first component does not necessarily involve Ca2+ release from ...
A temporary loss of smell can be caused by a blocked nose or infection. In contrast, a permanent loss of smell may be caused by death of olfactory receptor neurons in the nose or by brain injury in which there is damage to the olfactory nerve or damage to brain areas that process smell (see olfactory system). The lack of the sense of smell at birth, usually due to genetic factors, is referred to as congenital anosmia. Family members of the patient suffering from congenital anosmia are often found with similar histories; this suggests that the anosmia may follow an autosomal dominant pattern.[7] Anosmia may very occasionally be an early sign of a degenerative brain disease such as Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease. Another specific cause of permanent loss could be from damage to olfactory receptor neurons because of use of certain types of nasal spray; i.e., those that cause vasoconstriction of the nasal microcirculation. To avoid such damage and the subsequent risk of loss of smell, ...
Insects sense odorants with specialized odorant receptors (ORs). Each antennal olfactory receptor neuron expresses one OR with an odorant binding site together with a conserved coreceptor called Orco
immune Uncategorized PD 166793, PSK-J3 Development of the adult olfactory program of the moth depends upon reciprocal connections between olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) PD 166793 axons developing in in the periphery and centrally-derived glial cells. recently fasciculated axon bundles will terminate in protoglomeruli the forming of which induces various other glial cells to migrate to surround them. Glial cells usually do not migrate PSK-J3 unless ORN axons can be found axons neglect to fasciculate and focus on correctly without enough glial cells and protoglomeruli arent maintained with out a glial surround. Weve proven previously that Epidermal Development Factor receptors as well as the IgCAMs Neuroglian and Fasciclin II are likely involved in the ORN replies to glial cells. In todays function we present proof for the need for glial Fibroblast Development Aspect receptors in glial migration proliferation and survival with this developing pathway. We also statement changes in growth ...
Receptors that couple to a heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein (G protein) are thought to stimulate a large number of G protein molecules. This model of signal amplification is based primarily on quantitative studies of phototransduction in vertebrate retinal cells. Bhandawat et al. have examined signal transduction by olfactory receptors in frog olfactory neurons. Quantal analysis of receptor responses to odorant ligands suggests that an activated odorant receptor, probably due to an extremely brief dwell time of odorant-receptor interaction, has a low probability of stimulating a single G protein molecule. High sensitivity to odorants might still be achieved with repetitive odorant binding and by signal convergence in the olfactory bulb.. V. Bhandawat, J. Reisert, K.-W. Yau, Elementary response of olfactory receptor neurons to odorants. Science 308, 1931-1934 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
In-vivo functional brain imaging, by bioluminescence.. This technique allows recording the neuronal calcium activity, in-vivo, in continue, from different brain structures, either superficially or deeply located, in semi-behavioral conditions. This approach opens several perspectives, as:. a) characterization of the olfactory response following natural stimuli (odors), at different levels of the olfactory circuitry: first, in the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antennal lobes, second, in the projections neurons (PNs), and third, in the Mushrooms-bodies (a structure implicated in the olfactory learning and memory). More particularly, we have described an olfactory adaptation process occurring in the axon terminal of the ORNs (within the antennal lobes), and we are currently characterizing such physiological phenomenon.. b) characterization of the delayed secondary response specifically in the Mushroom-Bodies lobes (axonal projections) induced by the nicotine (an acetylcholine ...
Simulation of experiments on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Focussing on the negative feedback that calcium (through calmodulin) has on its own influx through CNG channels, this model is able to reproduce both calcium oscillations as well as adaptation behaviour as seen in experiments done with ORNs ...
11 Richard Axel and Linda Buck used molecular techniques to determine the number of different olfactory receptor types. The concept and strategy: 1. SPECIFICITY WOULD BE BASED ON STRUCTURE OF RECEPTOR-G PROTEIN COMPLEX; THEREFORE, IF YOU DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT RECEPTOR STRUCTURES, YOU KNOW THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL TYPES, AND THEREFORE THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT PRIME ODORS 2. STRUCTURALLY DIFFERENT RECEPTOR PROTEINS WOULD BE CODED BY DIFFERENT GENES; CLONE, SEQUENCE, CHARACTERIZE GENES EXPRESSED IN THE OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM, LOOK FOR SYSTEMATIC VARIATION ON G-PROTEIN TYPES 3. LOCALIZE THE EXPRESSED GENES BACK TO THE OLFACTORY RECEPTOR CELLS ...
Odorants are volatile molecules that efficiently carry chemical information, providing one of the main ways for communicating with the environment in all kingdoms of life. In the other hand, mammalian genomes codify for hundreds of olfactory receptors (ORs), e.g. about 400 in human and more than 1000 in mouse, underlying the crucial role of the sense of smell during evolution. Therefore, the olfactory system is capable to discriminate between ~10,000 different odors. The possibility of collecting and compiling information about odorants and their receptors is thus fundamental for a functional characterization of the signaling firing event. OlfactionDB, a manually curated database providing comprehensive information for nearly 400 odorant-receptor interactions at the current state, has been developed for managing information about odorants and their receptors. OlfactionDB is a free publicly database available online from: http://molsim.sci.univr.it/OlfactionDB.
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neurol response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory…
A variety of signals governing early extension, guidance, and connectivity of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons has been identified; however, little is known about axon-mesoderm and forebrain (FB)-mesoderm signals. Using Wnt-ßcatenin reporter mice, we identify a novel Wnt-responsive resident cell population, located in a Frizzled7 expression domain at the surface of the embryonic FB, along the trajectory of incoming ORN axons. Organotypic slice cultures that recapitulate olfactory-associated Wnt-ßcatenin activation show that the ßcatenin response depends on a placode-derived signal(s). Likewise, in Dlx5-/- embryos, in which the primary connections fail to form, Wnt-ßcatenin response on the surface of the FB is strongly reduced. The olfactory placode expresses a number of ßcatenin-activating Wnt genes, and the Frizzled7 receptor transduces the canonical Wnt signal; using Wnt expression plasmids we show that Wnt5a and Wnt7b are sufficient to rescue ßcatenin activation in the absence of ...
Neurons, Olfactory Receptor Neurons, Calcium, Kinase, Ability, Role, Cells, Sodium, Cell, Plays, Transient, Cilia, Epithelium, Olfactory Epithelium, G Protein, Phosphatidylinositol, Inhibition, Mediating, Rat, Invertebrates
ENCODES a protein that exhibits G protein-coupled receptor activity (inferred); olfactory receptor activity (inferred); INVOLVED IN detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell (inferred); G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway (inferred); FOUND IN integral component of membrane (inferred); plasma membrane (inferred); INTERACTS WITH ammonium chloride
ENCODES a protein that exhibits olfactory receptor activity (inferred); INVOLVED IN detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell (inferred); G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway (inferred); G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway (inferred); FOUND IN integral component of membrane (inferred); synapse (inferred); INTERACTS WITH bisphenol A; copper atom; copper(0)
Complex eukaryotic promoters normally contain multiple cis-regulatory sequences for different transcription factors (TFs). The binding patterns of the TFs to these sites, as well as the way the TFs interact with each other and with the RNA polymerase (RNAp), lead to combinatorial problems rarely understood in detail, especially under varying epigenetic conditions. The aim of this paper is to build a model describing how the main regulatory cluster of the olfactory receptor Or59b drives transcription of this gene in Drosophila. The cluster-driven expression of this gene is represented as the equilibrium probability of RNAp being bound to the promoter region, using a statistical thermodynamic approach. The RNAp equilibrium probability is computed in terms of the occupancy probabilities of the single TFs of the cluster to the corresponding binding sites, and of the interaction rules among TFs and RNAp, using experimental data of Or59b expression to tune the model parameters. The model reproduces ...
integral component of membrane, olfactory receptor activity, G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, sensory perception of smell
Compare olfactory receptor family 4 subfamily D member 6 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
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OR8K3 (olfactory receptor family 8 subfamily K member 3 (gene/pseudogene)), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
OR4K14 (olfactory receptor family 4 subfamily K member 14), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily W, member 1 (OR52W1) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
J:84657 Vigers AJ, Bottger B, Baquet ZC, Finger TE, Jones KR, Neurotrophin-3 is expressed in a discrete subset of olfactory receptor neurons in the mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Aug 18;463(2):221-35 ...
In the present study, we estimated temporal kinetics and activities for both AC and cytoplasmic cAMP. It was shown that [cAMP]i increased superlinearly with time for ,1 s during the odorant stimulation, which was because of a gradual increase of cAMP production rate. So far, there was very limited information about the molecular activities of olfactory transduction elements, whereas G-protein-mediated signal transduction has been quite well documented in works done on the rod photoreceptor cell (Pugh and Lamb, 1990; Lamb and Pugh, 1992). In the present study, we overcame difficulties accompanied with the properties (heterogeneous responsiveness) and structure (fine cilia) of the olfactory receptor cell. One may concern about the hydrolysis and diffusion of cAMP during the present work. As long as the activities of both are constant, data interpretation and values obtained here would provide reasonable conclusions. Also, note that our estimations were performed in the time window in which time ...
A model of efficient coding by olfactory neurons explains context-dependence observed in the effect of perturbations to the olfactory environment.
Olfaction system plays a critical role for survival and reproduction in many animal species. Odorant molecules in the environment are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) located in the nasal cavity.
A major hindrance for functional expression of ORs has been that the receptors did not localize in the membrane or that the downstream coupling of the receptor to the Gα did not work properly. It has been shown that the rat olfactory receptor 17 (R17) that responds to octanal can be functionally expressed in many different cell types, including S. cerevisiae [6]. Earlier research investigated on the question whether the RI7 sequence can be used to functionally express other ORs. Sequence analysis of ORs have shown that the N-termini of the receptor are involved in plasma membrane localization, whereas the C-termini generally define the specificity for G protein interaction [7]. Based on this observations Radhika et al. functionally expressed a chimeric OR with the N-terminus and the C-terminus of the RI7 sequence. A schematic picture is shown in figure 2. In this iGEM project we use the same approach as Radhika et al. by substituting the receptor termini with the RI7 sequences. ...
A major hindrance for functional expression of ORs has been that the receptors did not localize in the membrane or that the downstream coupling of the receptor to the Gα did not work properly. It has been shown that the rat olfactory receptor 17 (R17) that responds to octanal can be functionally expressed in many different cell types, including S. cerevisiae [6]. Earlier research investigated on the question whether the RI7 sequence can be used to functionally express other ORs. Sequence analysis of ORs have shown that the N-termini of the receptor are involved in plasma membrane localization, whereas the C-termini generally define the specificity for G protein interaction [7]. Based on this observations Radhika et al. functionally expressed a chimeric OR with the N-terminus and the C-terminus of the RI7 sequence. A schematic picture is shown in figure 2. In this iGEM project we use the same approach as Radhika et al. by substituting the receptor termini with the RI7 sequences. ...
Margolis, F. L., Kudrycki, K., Stein-Izsak, C., Grillo, M. and Akeson, R. (2007) From Genotype to Olfactory Neuron Phenotype: The Role of the Olf-1-Binding Site, in Ciba Foundation Symposium 179 - The Molecular Basis of Smell and Taste Transduction (eds D. Chadwick, J. Marsh and J. Goode), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470514511.ch2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accumulation of stress-related proteins within the glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb following damage to olfactory receptor neurons. AU - Hirata, Kazuho. AU - Kanemaru, Takaaki. AU - Minohara, Motozumi. AU - Togo, Akinobu. AU - Kira, Jun Ichi. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - The expression of stress-responsive proteins, such as nestin and a 27-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP27), was immunohistochemically examined in order to demonstrate glial responses in the rat olfactory bulb following sensory deprivation. At 3 days to 1 week after sensory deprivation, numerous nestin-expressing cells appeared within the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. These cells were regarded as reactive astrocytes since they were immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and showed hypertrophic features. The glomeruli, in which nestin-immunoreactive astrocytes were localized, were filled with degenerating terminals of olfactory receptor neurons and migrated microglia. A small population of ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
1. Lagha M, Bothma JP, Levine M (2012) Mechanisms of transcriptional precision in animal development. Trends Genet 28: 409-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2012.03.006 22513408. 2. Frankel N, Davis GK, Vargas D, Wang S, Payre F, et al. (2010) Phenotypic robustness conferred by apparently redundant transcriptional enhancers. Nature 466: 490-493. doi: 10.1038/nature09158 20512118. 3. Ebert MS, Sharp PA (2010) Emerging roles for natural microRNA sponges. Curr Biol 20: R858-861. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.08.052 20937476. 4. Couto A, Alenius M, Dickson BJ (2005) Molecular, anatomical, and functional organization of the Drosophila olfactory system. Curr Biol 15: 1535-1547. 16139208. 5. Fishilevich E, Vosshall LB (2005) Genetic and functional subdivision of the Drosophila antennal lobe. Curr Biol 15: 1548-1553. 16139209. 6. Fuss SH, Ray A (2009) Mechanisms of odorant receptor gene choice in Drosophila and vertebrates. Mol Cell Neurosci 41: 101-112. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2009.02.014 19303443. 7. Tharadra SK, Medina ...
Product Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 Polyclonal Antibody From Abbkine - A polyclonal antibody for detection of Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 from Human. This Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 antibody is for WB, IF, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 at AA rangle: 30-110 Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 at AA rangle: 30-110; Applications tips:
Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only a single odorant receptor from a large family of genes, and this singularity is an essential feature in models of olfactory perception. We have devised a genetic strategy to examine the stability of receptor choice. We observe that immature olfactory …
We have characterized the adenylyl cyclase activity in a newly developed preparation of isolated olfactory cilia from the bovine chemosensory neuroepithelium. Like its counterparts from frog and rat, the ciliary enzyme was stimulated by guanine nucleotides, by forskolin, and by a variety of odorants in the presence of GTP. The main difference between the bovine olfactory cilia preparation and the frog and rat olfactory cilia preparation is that odorant stimulation of the bovine olfactory adenylyl cyclase is strongly inhibited by submillimolar concentrations of dithiothreitol. This inhibition is a consequence of a concomitant increase in the GTP-stimulated level and the decrease of the odorant stimulation of the enzyme. Nasal respiratory cilia have a much lower level of adenylyl cyclase activity and show no odorant stimulation. Owing to the large quantities of material available, the bovine olfactory cilia preparation is advantageous for studies of the proteins involved in chemosensory
This study of the ventral olfactory bulb of larval Xenopus laevis shows for the first time the existence of a thermosensitive olfactory glomerulus. This thermosensitive olfactory glomerulus was found to be innervated by axons of olfactory sensory neurons emerging from the ipsilateral olfactory epithelium as well as from the contralateral olfactory epithelium. The perfusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral olfactory epithelium with cold, odor-free Ringer solution elicited a transient [Ca2+]i response within the axons of olfactory sensory neurons and in mitral cells. The activation of mitral cells demonstrated that the response to temperature stimulation is transmitted across the first olfactory synapse. The thermoreception was spatially restricted to this glomerulus, which did not respond to any of the tested odors. Adjacent olfactory glomeruli responded to olfactory and mechanical stimulation without showing any response to temperature changes. The spatially restricted, bilateral processing ...
Olfactory receptor 51B5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51B5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000242180 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: OR51B5 olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily B, member 5. Bulger M, van Doorninck JH, Saitoh N, et al. (1999). Conservation of ...
In Drosophila, most individual olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) project bilaterally to both sides of the brain1,2. Having bilateral rather than unilateral projections may represent a useful redundancy. However, bilateral ORN projections to the brain should also compromise the ability to lateralize odors. Nevertheless, walking or flying Drosophila reportedly turn toward their more strongly stimulated antenna3-5. Here we show that each ORN spike releases ~40% more neurotransmitter from the axon branch ipsilateral to the soma, as compared to the contralateral branch. As a result, when an odor activates the antennae asymmetrically, ipsilateral central neurons begin to spike a few milliseconds before contralateral neurons, and ipsilateral central neurons also fire at a 30-50% higher rate. We show that a walking fly can detect a 5% asymmetry in total ORN input to its left and right antennal lobes, and can turn toward the odor in less time than it requires the fly to complete a stride. These results ...
Gene targeting. The mouse I7 andM71 targeting vectors were derived from genomic fragments isolated from a mouse (129/Sv) λ FixII library (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA). A fragment of the M71 OR gene (Ressler et al., 1993; Xie et al., 2000) was isolated by PCR and used as a probe. A 9.2 kb fragment containing M71 was subcloned in pBS-SK, and aPacI site was engineered three nucleotides downstream of the stop codon by recombinant PCR, creating the plasmid M71/Pac. A cassette containing IRES-tauGFP-LTNL (Rodriguez et al., 1999) was inserted into the PacI site of M71/Pac, yielding the M71-IRES-tauGFP-LTNL targeting vector.. For OR swaps, the M71 coding sequence was replaced exactly from the start codon to the stop codon with the rat and mouseI7 coding sequences without the insertion of linker sequences or extraneous nucleotides. The coding sequence of the ratI7 OR gene (Buck and Axel, 1991) was isolated by PCR from an adenovirus vector (Ad-I7) (Zhao et al., 1998), cloned, and sequenced. For the ...
At a molecular level, insects utilize members of several highly divergent and unrelated families of cell-surface chemosensory receptors for detection of volatile odorants. Most odors are detected via a family of odorant receptors (ORs), which form heteromeric complexes consisting of a well-conserved OR co-receptor (Orco) ion channel and a non-conserved tuning OR that provides coding specificity to each complex. Orco functions as a non-selective cation channel and is expressed in the majority of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). As the destructive behaviors of many insects are principally driven by olfaction, Orco represents a novel target for behavior-based control strategies. While many natural and synthetic odorants have been shown to agonize Orco/Or complexes, only a single direct Orco modulator, VUAA1, has been described. In an effort to identify additional Orco modulators, we have investigated the structure/activity relationships around VUAA1.. ...
We recently demonstrated that the growth promoting effects of ensheathing cells are not limited to olfactory receptor neurons but are also seen in other populations of neurons. Particularly exciting, our recent studies demonstrate that the ensheathing cells remain pluri-potential and that when implanted into demyelinated spinal cord can adopt a myelinating phenotype which remyelinates the axons and contributes to a restoration of normal conduction velocities.. In parallel studies we are examining the molecular and synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb glomeruli. Using RT-PCR we are mapping the distribution of subsets of olfactory receptor cell axons in glomeruli to gain insights into the topography of odor-ligand maps in the olfactory bulb. In addition, working with colleagues, we are using a GFP tag to test hypotheses regarding the specificity of synaptic organization within glomeruli. Second, using antibodies synaptic vesicle related proteins and confocal microscopy we have begun to ...
The Drosophila olfactory system exhibits very precise and stereotyped wiring that is specified predominantly by genetic programming. Dendrites of olfactory projection neurons (PNs) pattern the developing antennal lobe before olfactory receptor neuron axon arrival, indicating an intrinsic wiring mechanism for PN dendrites. These wiring decisions are likely determined through a transcriptional program. This study found that loss of Brahma associated protein 55 kD (Bap55) results in a highly specific PN mistargeting phenotype. In Bap55 mutants, PNs that normally target to the DL1 glomerulus mistarget to the DA4l glomerulus with 100% penetrance. Loss of Bap55 also causes derepression of a GAL4 whose expression is normally restricted to a small subset of PNs. Bap55 is a member of both the Brahma (BRM) and the Tat interactive protein 60 kD (TIP60) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. The Bap55 mutant phenotype is partially recapitulated by Domino and Enhancer of Polycomb mutants, members of ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms ...
Turetsky, Bruce I; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Arnold, Steven E; Moberg, Paul J (February 2009). "Olfactory Receptor Neuron Dysfunction in ... may arise due to the local NMDA receptor blockage, which is also a pharmacological model of schizophrenia. These NMDA receptor ... Recent studies, reports on the new source of HFO in the olfactory bulb structures, which is surprisingly stronger than any ... Hunt, Mark J; Kasicki, Stefan (2013-07-17). "A systematic review of the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on oscillatory ...
"Calcium Microdomains in the Chemosensory Cilia of Olfactory Receptor Neurons". Chemical Senses. 33 (8): S61-S61. doi:10.1093/ ... Neuron Glia Biology. 6 (3): 183-191. doi:10.1017/s1740925x10000219. PMC 3136572. PMID 21205365. Thomsen, L. B. T. L. B.; ... effect of N-acetylcysteine against BDE-209-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured neonatal rat hippocampal neurons in vitro ...
"A receptor guanylyl cyclase expressed specifically in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 92 (8): 3571-3575. ... that is specifically expressed in a subpopulation of olfactory sensory neurons. This gene is a pseudogene in humans and most ... Young, JM (2007). "Degeneration of the olfactory guanylyl cyclase D gene during primate evolution". PLOS ONE. 2 (9): e884. ... Kuhn, M (2009). "Function and dysfunction of mammalian membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: lessons from genetic mouse models ...
Olfactory nerve (cranial nerve 1) Smell. See also: olfactory receptor neurons Optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) Sight. See also: ... Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve #1). How olfactory information ... Sensory neuron, Sensory receptor, Proprioception, and Category:Sensory receptors), as a center for coordinating certain ... Many neurons connect to the brain on one end, with the other end connected to another neuron, with the outside (the brain) ...
... s possess olfactory receptor neurons on their antennae for detecting pheromones. The neurons are specifically ... Grant, A. J.; Riendeau, C. J.; O'Connell, R. J. (1998-10-01). "Spatial organization of olfactory receptor neurons on the ... The base region of the antennae, where receptor neurons for this pheromone are located, has more sensory structures than the ... Temperature does not affect the pheromone-sensitive receptor neurons. The cabbage looper is a generalist insect that can reside ...
These receptor neurons then synapse at the olfactory cranial nerve (CN I), which sends the information to the olfactory bulbs ... An olfactory sensation is called an odor. For a molecule to trigger olfactory receptor neurons, it must have specific ... Receptor cells disseminate onto different neurons and convey the message of a particular taste in a single medullar nucleus. ... Our olfactory ability can vary due to different conditions. For example, our olfactory detection thresholds can change due to ...
... an olfactory receptor) is found only in neurons. This finding of tissue-specific biologically-functional genes that could have ... Prieto-Godino LL, Rytz R, Bargeton B, Abuin L, Arguello JR, Peraro MD, Benton R (November 2016). "Olfactory receptor pseudo- ... Drosophila glutamate receptor. The term "pseudo-pseudogene" was coined for the gene encoding the chemosensory ionotropic ... However, in vivo the D. sechellia Ir75a locus produces a functional receptor, owing to translational read-through of the PTC. ...
Insect pheromone-binding protein Odorant Olfactory receptor Olfactory receptor neuron Vogt, R. G.; Prestwich, G. D.; Lerner, M ... delivering the odorant molecules to olfactory receptors in the cell membrane of sensory neurons. The olfactory receptors of ... soluble proteins secreted by auxiliary cells surrounding olfactory receptor neurons, including the nasal mucus of many ... "Odorant-binding-protein subfamilies associate with distinct classes of olfactory receptor neurons in insects". Journal of ...
Kostal L, Lansky P, Rospars JP (April 2008). "Efficient olfactory coding in the pheromone receptor neuron of a moth". PLoS ... ability of non-visual senses such as rat facial whiskers and the olfactory coding of moth pheromone receptor neurons. Even with ... is the jth spike on the lth presentation of neuron i, v i ( t , s ) {\displaystyle v_{i}(t,s)} is the firing rate of neuron i ... These neurons are actually firing in response to the lower level features of visual input, possibly the edges of a picture ...
CNG channels have important functions in signal transduction in retinal photoreceptors and olfactory receptor neurons. They are ... Almost all responses to odorants in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are facilitated by CNG channels. When an odorant binds to ... CNG channels were also found in cone photoreceptors, chemo sensitive cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, and the pineal gland. ... CNGA2, previously called the olfactory α subunit, CNGA4, previously called the olfactory β subunit, and CnGB1b are involved in ...
Sustentacular cells have many ACE2 receptors on their surfaces, while olfactory sensory neurons do not. Loss of smell may also ... A June 2020 systematic review found a 29-54% prevalence of olfactory dysfunction for people with COVID-19, while an August 2020 ... Saniasiaya J, Islam MA (April 2021). "Prevalence of Olfactory Dysfunction in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Meta- ... that these symptoms are caused by infection of sustentacular cells that support and provide nutrients to sensory neurons in the ...
... each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor.[51] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key- ... 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor neurons ... Olfactory bulb projectionsEdit. Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve ... Main olfactory systemEdit. Main article: Olfactory system. In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in ...
They receive information from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, forming synapses in neuropils called glomeruli. Axons of ... Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central ... into a glomerulus receiving input from a population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing identical olfactory receptor ... Mitral cells receive input from at least four cell types: olfactory sensory neurons, periglomerular neurons, external tufted ...
A type of olfactory receptor neuron in special antennal sensilla of mosquitoes that is activated by DEET, as well as other ... A study with adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes found no activation of olfactory receptor neurons by DEET. Behavioral tests ... Recent evidence with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes suggests DEET does not directly inhibit olfactory receptors, but instead ... DEET was historically believed to work by blocking insect olfactory receptors for 1-octen-3-ol, a volatile substance that is ...
"Molecular profiling of activated olfactory neurons identifies odorant receptors for odors in vivo". Nature Neuroscience. 18 (10 ... Immunoprecipitation of RNA transcripts of murine olfactory cells have identified an enriched pool of odorant receptors ... that localize to the dorsal portion of the olfactory epithelium which can mediate fear behaviour. Rosen JB, Asok A, Chakraborty ... activated by TMT, including five receptors (Olfr20, Olfr30, Olfr57, Olfr376, Olfr491 ) ...
... model of the cAMP-mediated sensory response and calcium-dependent adaptation in vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons". ... It may often be bound to calmodulin such as in the olfactory system to either enhance or repress cation channels. Other times ... Ca2+ ion can also determine the speed of adaptation in a neural system depending on the receptors and proteins that have varied ... In electrically excitable cells, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles and neurons, membrane depolarization leads to a Ca2+ ...
It is hypothesized that URTIs can result in parosmia because of damage to olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). The condition has ... In humans, the olfactory bulb is located on the inferior side of the brain. Physical damage to this area would alter how the ... Damage to these neurons could render them unable to correctly encode a signal representing a particular odor, which would send ... Jacek, Sarah; R.J. Stevenson; L.A. Miller (November 2007). "Olfactory dysfunction in temporal lobe epilepsy: A case of ictus- ...
... model of the cAMP-mediated sensory response and calcium-dependent adaptation in vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons". ... Olfactory neurons utilize a feedback system from the levels of Ca2+ions to activate its adaptation to prolonged smells. Due to ... While large mechanosensory neurons such as type I/group Aß display adaptation, smaller type IV/group C nociceptive neurons do ... The sensory neurons that initially respond are no longer stimulated to respond; this is an example of neural adaptation. All ...
These studies were instrumental to map the wiring of olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptor genes to ... Bhalerao S, Sen A, Stocker RF, Rodrigues V (2003) Olfactory neurons expressing identified receptor genes project to subsets of ... "Olfactory neurons expressing identified receptor genes project to subsets of glomeruli within the antennal lobe ofDrosophila ... Stocker RF (2006) Olfactory coding: Connecting odorant receptor expression and behavior in the Drosophila larva (Dispatch). ...
The olfactory receptor cells, otherwise known as the primary olfactory neurons, are in the neuroepithilium. The neuroepithlium ... The information received by the olfactory receptors is transmitted by the olfactory nerves to the olfactory bulb through the ... Efferent neurons of the olfactory bulb become the fibers that form the olfactory tracts, which is directly under the frontal ... The olfactory bulb has been said to be the olfactory thalamus.[citation needed] It performs the final stage of sensory ...
He has made similarly important discoveries on olfactory transduction in the receptor neurons of the nasal olfactory epithelium ... Krautwurst D, Yau KW, Reed RR (1998). "Identification of ligands for olfactory receptors by functional expression of a receptor ... "Identification of ligands for olfactory receptors by functional expression of a receptor library", 534 citations 2002 " ... "Primary structure and functional expression of a cyclic nucleotide-activated channel from olfactory neurons", 672 citations ...
Van der Goes van Naters W (2013). "Inhibition among olfactory receptor neurons". Front Hum Neurosci. 7: 690. doi:10.3389/fnhum. ... model in which each olfactory receptor sends its signal to one neuron. The inhibition due to ephaptic coupling would help ... Neurons in the olfactory system are unmyelinated and densely packed and thus the often small effects of ephaptic coupling are ... A number of studies have shown how inhibition among neurons in the olfactory system work to fine tune integration of signals in ...
Variable expression of Robo receptors on Drosophila olfactory neurons controls axonal organization in the olfactory lobes. In ... to the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into olfactory neurons. The contribution of Robo signaling in this system is ... "The slit receptor Rig-1/Robo3 controls midline crossing by hindbrain precerebellar neurons and axons". Neuron. 43 (1): 69-79. ... Neuron. 22 (4): 649-52. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80723-0. PMID 10230784. Chétodal A (2010). "Slits and their receptors". In ...
The new olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the CNS to an olfactory bulb in order to be functional. ... Olfactory ensheathing cells, however, cross the CNS-PNS boundary, because they guide olfactory receptor neurons from the PNS to ... Olfactory receptor neurons have an average lifespan of 6-8 weeks and therefore must be replaced by cells differentiated from ... receptor interacting protein (RIP), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which are markers for early neurons, ...
Each glomerulus collects information from a specific olfactory receptor neuron. The olfactory signal is then conducted to the ... a dime-sized region located in the nasal cavity that contains olfactory receptor neurons. There are 350 types of olfactory ... receptors, each sensitive to a narrow range of odorants. These neurons send signals to the glomeruli within the olfactory bulb ... An olfactory cue is a chemical signal received by the olfactory system that represents an incoming signal received through the ...
... localization and genomic organization of genes encoding guanylyl cyclase receptors expressed in olfactory sensory neurons and ...
Olfactory receptors, through Golf in the olfactory neurons. *Parathyroid hormone receptor 1 ... ReceptorsEdit. The G protein-coupled receptors that couple to the Gs family proteins include: *5-HT receptors types 5-HT4 and 5 ... mu-type opioid receptor binding. • corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 binding. • beta-2 adrenergic receptor binding. • ... ionotropic glutamate receptor binding. • D1 dopamine receptor binding. • G-protein coupled receptor binding. ...
... including those present in retinal photoreceptors and olfactory receptor neurons. Standard first-aid treatment for any ...
In contrast, a permanent loss of smell may be caused by death of olfactory receptor neurons in the nose or by brain injury in ... Another specific cause of permanent loss could be from damage to olfactory receptor neurons because of use of certain types of ... June 2020). "Innate immune signaling in the olfactory epithelium reduces odorant receptor levels: modeling transient smell loss ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2020.06.032. PMC 7328585. PMID 32640192. Iravani B, Arshamian A, Ravia A, Mishor E, Snitz K, Shushan S, et ...
... the olfactory glomeruli function as sorts of way-stations for the information flowing from the olfactory receptor neurons to ... Neurons are necessary for all connections made in the brain, and thus can be thought of as the "wires" of the brain. As in ... For example, the neocortex and olfactory bulb both contain neuropil. White matter, which is mostly composed of myelinated axons ... There is also additional evidence that the neuropil may function in olfactory associative learning and memory. In humans, ...
... axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with dendrites from intrinsic olfactory bulb neurons: mitrial/tufted ... they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. These receptors are bipolar neurons that connect to the ... From the olfactory bulb, mitral/tufted cells send axons via the lateral olfactory tract (the cranial nerve I) to the olfactory ... This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and ...
In Drosophila, each olfactory sensory neuron generally expresses a single olfactory receptor gene,[5] and the neurons ... The interaction between the olfactory receptor neurons, local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input ... where the sensory neurons synapse with the two other kinds of neurons, the projection neurons and the local neurons.[1] There ... The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the ...
transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • Wnt-activated receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. ... neuron differentiation. • Wnt signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral axis specification. • canonical Wnt signaling ... "Frizzled Receptors: FZD5". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Receptors that adapt quickly (i.e. quickly return to a normal pulse rate) are referred to as "phasic". Those receptors that are ... where second-order neurons send the signal to the thalamus and synapse with third-order neurons in the ventrobasal complex. The ... Olfactory system (sense of smell). *Gustatory system (sense of taste). *Somatosensory system (sense of touch) ... Further information: Cutaneous receptor modalities. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2016) ...
... receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • synapse ... Infusion of BDNF into the lateral ventricles doubled the population of newborn neurons in the adult rat olfactory bulb and ... The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ...
New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be ... Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), also known as olfactory ensheathing glia or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type ... They are also known as olfactory Schwann cells, because they ensheath the non-myelinated axons of olfactory neurons in a ... During development, primitive olfactory neurons extend their axons from the olfactory placode, through the mesenchyme, towards ...
Increased flow in the right parahippocampal region and reduced serotonin type 1A receptor binding in the anterior and posterior ... Anxiety processing in the basolateral amygdala has been implicated with dendritic arborization of the amygdaloid neurons. SK2 ... "Emotion, olfaction, and the human amygdala: Amygdala activation during aversive olfactory stimulation". Proceedings of the ... increased adenosine receptor function; increased cortisol. In the central nervous system (CNS), the major mediators of the ...
The function of NMDA receptors varies according to the subregion of the hippocampus. NMDA receptors are required in the CA3 of ... Neuron. 63 (5): 643-56. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.08.014. PMID 19755107. Colby, C. L.; Goldberg, M. E. (1999). "Space and ... Measures are usually taken to prevent the rat from using its olfactory senses to navigate such as placing extra food throughout ... Spatial learning requires both NMDA and AMPA receptors, consolidation requires NMDA receptors, and the retrieval of spatial ...
These neurons originate in an area of the developing head, the olfactory placode, that will give rise to the olfactory ... Kisspeptin and its associated receptor KISS1R are known to be involved in the regulation of puberty. Studies have shown there ... Any problems with the development of the olfactory nerve fibres will prevent the progression of the GnRH releasing neurons ... Brain MRI to rule out any structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus or pituitary and to check for presence of olfactory ...
... describing the first olfactory receptors that helped to prompt the research into taste. The olfactory receptors are located on ... The enteric nervous system consists of some one hundred million neurons[37] that are embedded in the peritoneum, the lining of ... Taste is a form of chemoreception that takes place in the specialised taste receptors, contained in structures called taste ... It is assumed that signals from taste receptors work together with those from the nose, to form an idea of complex food ...
... the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb, there is strong evidence for substantial numbers of new neurons.[2][3] ... voids between cells where chemicals are released from the axon terminal of one cell to specialized chemical receptors on the ... Types of neuronsEdit. By connectionEdit. There are three classes of neurons: motor neurons, sensory neurons and interneurons. ... A neuron (or neurone) is a nerve cell that carries electrical impulses.[1] Neurons are the basic units of our nervous system. ...
Through diffusion tensor imaging results, the anterior commissure was categorized into two fiber systems: 1) the olfactory ... Upper motor neuron. *Lower motor neuron *α motorneuron. *β motorneuron. *γ motorneuron ... Sensory receptors. *Meissner's corpuscle. *Merkel nerve ending. *Pacinian corpuscle. *Ruffini ending. *Muscle spindle ...
There were physical changes that correlated with olfactory (smell) function in the brains of the trained mice and their ... including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the ... that governs the functioning of an odor receptor in the nose that responds specifically to this cherry blossom smell. ... "Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations". Nat. Neurosci. 17: 89-96. ...
"Neuron. 60 (1): 149-61. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.07.041. PMC 3417703. PMID 18940595.. ... "Attention enhances the retrieval and stability of visuospatial and olfactory representations in the dorsal hippocampus". PLoS ... "Genetic evidence for a protein-kinase-A-mediated presynaptic component in NMDA-receptor-dependent forms of long-term synaptic ... "Neuron. 65 (5): 585-96. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.02.014. PMC 4929859. PMID 20223196.. ...
Inhibition of central neuron excitation.. *N6-3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl adenine riboside (B2) ... The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors[1]) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as the ... A2A adenosine receptor[edit]. Main article: Adenosine A2A receptor. As with the A1, the A2A receptors are believed to play a ... A1 adenosine receptor[edit]. Main article: Adenosine A1 receptor. The adenosine A1 receptor has been found to be ubiquitous ...
... s (save for those of the olfactory bulb) have a structure typical of a neuron consisting of dendrites, a soma (cell ... those activated by an AMPA receptor and those activated by a NMDA receptor. This allows the granule cells to regulate the ... Olfactory bulb granule cell[edit]. The main intrinsic granule cell in the vertebrate olfactory bulb lacks an axon (as does the ... Olfactory bulb granule cells. Inhibition generated by granule cells, the most common GABAergic cell type in the olfactory bulb ...
As neurotransmitters activate receptors across the synaptic cleft, the connection between the two neurons is strengthened when ... At a synapse, the plasma membrane of the signal-passing neuron (the presynaptic neuron) comes into close apposition with the ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.11.007. PMID 16364893.. *^ a b Kimata, Tsubasa; Tanizawa, Yoshinori; Can, Yoko; et al. (June 1, 2012 ... In the nervous system, a synapse[1] is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical ...
... in many of the remaining neurons. This loss of neurons is accompanied by the death of astrocytes (star-shaped glial cells) and ... Several dopamine agonists that bind to dopamine receptors in the brain have similar effects to levodopa.[74] These were ... Lewy bodies first appear in the olfactory bulb, medulla oblongata and pontine tegmentum; individuals at this stage may be ... of the dopamine secreting neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta by the end of life)[51] and the presence of Lewy bodies ...
"Zinc and copper influence excitability of rat olfactory bulb neurons by multiple mechanisms". Journal of Neurophysiology. 86 (4 ... also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel found in neurons. The NMDA receptor is one ... Receptor modulation[edit]. The NMDA receptor is a non-specific cation channel that can allow the passage of Ca2+ and Na+ into ... Na+, K+ and Ca2+ not only pass through the NMDA receptor channel but also modulate the activity of NMDA receptors.[citation ...
Olfactory dysfunction (loss of sense of smell) is common in Parkinson's disease, and has also been reported to occur in ... Harmaline is a widely used model of essential tremor (ET) in rodents.[67] Harmaline is thought to act primarily on neurons in ... and GABA receptors[38] in the cerebellum of people with essential tremor. HAPT1 mutations have also been linked to ET, as well ... "Defective dentate nucleus GABA receptors in essential tremor". Brain. 135 (Pt 1): 105-16. doi:10.1093/brain/awr301. PMID ...
Sharks have keen olfactory senses, located in the short duct (which is not fused, unlike bony fish) between the anterior and ... They found that neurons located in the brainstem of fish are responsible for the genesis of the respiratory rhythm. The ... Most fish have sensitive receptors that form the lateral line system, which detects gentle currents and vibrations, and senses ... Neurons fired in a pattern resembling human neuronal patterns. Professor James D. Rose of the University of Wyoming claimed the ...
These include receptor desensitization, alterations in intracellular transduction cascades and gene expression, the induction ... The anatomical core of the reward system are dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmentum that project to the nucleus ... A microdialysis study in olfactory bulbectomized rats". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 97 (3): 444-52. doi:10.1016/j. ... Cocaine is a short-acting SNDRI that also exerts auxiliary pharmacological actions on other receptors. Cocaine is a relatively ...
Stimulation of the olfactory sensory neurons in the periphery activates neurons in the olfactory bulb of a sea lamprey[68] ... Lamprey leukocytes express surface variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) generated from somatic recombination of leucine-rich ... "Antigen-receptor genes of the agnathan lamprey are assembled by a process involving copy choice". Nature Immunology. 8 (2): ... "A novel neural substrate for the transformation of olfactory inputs into motor output". PLOS Biology. 8 (12): e1000567. doi ...
2004 - Richard Axel and Linda Buck, United States, for finding small receptors and the organization of the olfactory system, ( ... 1932 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, United Kingdom, and Edgar Douglas Adrian, United Kingdom, for discoveries about neurons ( ...
Neuron. 65 (1): 7-19. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.11.031. PMC 2822727. PMID 20152109.. ... de Olmos J, Hardy H, Heimer L (Sep 1978). "The afferent connections of the main and the accessory olfactory bulb formations in ... Nakazawa K, McHugh TJ, Wilson MA, Tonegawa S (May 2004). "NMDA receptors, place cells and hippocampal spatial memory". Nature ... "Neuron. 61 (1): 6-9. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.12.023. PMC 2649674. PMID 19146808.. ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... are integral to receiving stimuli as gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the ... The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... Receptors[edit]. Main article: sensory receptor. The initialization of sensation stems from the response of a specific receptor ...
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway. • adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway ... Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons edit *^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: " ... type 1 angiotensin receptor binding. • protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ...
Talk:Accessory olfactory cortical areas. *Talk:Acclimatisation (neurones). *Talk:Acoustic tubercle. *Talk:Acta Neurologica ... Talk:Anaxonic neuron. *Talk:Angular bundle. *Talk:Ansa lenticularis. *Talk:Anterior ethmoidal nerve ...
"Photoinactivation of native AMPA receptors reveals their real-time trafficking". Neuron. 48 (6): 977-85. doi:10.1016/j.neuron. ... in the rat olfactory bulb. RECA-1-positive blood vessels - blue color. ... Arun KH, Kaul CL, Ramarao P (2005). "Green fluorescent proteins in receptor research: an emerging tool for drug discovery". ... tracking of AMPA receptors on cell membranes,[48] viral entry and the infection of individual influenza viruses and lentiviral ...
The binding of neurotransmitters to the postsynaptic receptors then induces a change in the postsynaptic neuron. The process of ... postsynaptic neuron which bears receptors for the neurotransmitter (at the bottom), together with a gap between the two called ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.07.001. PMID 15260957.. *^ George Zanazzi & Gary Matthews. The Molecular Architecture of Ribbon ... Two neurons make near contact through structures called synapses allowing them to communicate with each other. As shown in the ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Olfactory receptor neurons.. *NIF Search - Olfactory receptor neuron via the ... Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ...
An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ... Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ... The olfactory receptor neuron has a fast working negative feedback response upon depolarization. When the neuron is ... Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons. In vertebrates, ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites ...
Calcium-signaling networks in olfactory receptor neurons.. Klimmeck D1, Mayer U, Ungerer N, Warnken U, Schnölzer M, Frings S, ... signaling in the function of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). We set out to establish Ca(2+)-dependent signaling networks in ... The olfactory neuroepithelium represents a unique interface between the brain and the external environment. Olfactory function ... We point out novel perspectives for research on the Ca(2+)-signaling networks in the olfactory system of the rat. ...
... are the primary sensory cell in a system designed to detect and discriminate between a large and ... Neuron 8: 205-209. Shepherd GM (1994) Discrimination of molecular signals by the olfactory receptor neuron. Neuron 13: 771-790 ... Olfactory receptor neurons are the primary sensory cell in a system designed to detect and discriminate between a large and ... Olfactory Receptor Neurons. Stuart J Firestein, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA ...
One Neuron-Multiple Receptors: Increased Complexity in Olfactory Coding? Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
One Neuron-Multiple Receptors: Increased Complexity in Olfactory Coding? Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... the past decade have led to the assumption that an individual olfactory sensory neuron expresses only a single odorant receptor ... "one receptor-one neuron" hypothesis. This idea is attractive because of its simplicity and has served as the basis for models ... This functional challenge has been met by simultaneous expression of a multitude of odor-detecting receptors that all belong to ...
Gene context of Olfactory Receptor Neurons. *The olfactory epithelium in Dlx5(-/-) mice is composed of olfactory receptor ... Biological context of Olfactory Receptor Neurons. *Activation of the sensory current in salamander olfactory receptor neurons ... Psychiatry related information on Olfactory Receptor Neurons. *3-Nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in olfactory receptor neurons ... we misexpressed olfactory receptor Or43a in additional olfactory receptor neurons of the third antennal segment using enhancer ...
Negative Feedback Regulation Ensures the One Receptor-One Olfactory Neuron Rule in Mouse ... Negative Feedback Regulation Ensures the One Receptor-One Olfactory Neuron Rule in Mouse ... Negative Feedback Regulation Ensures the One Receptor-One Olfactory Neuron Rule in Mouse ... Negative Feedback Regulation Ensures the One Receptor-One Olfactory Neuron Rule in Mouse ...
... olfactory receptor neurons include Whole Mount Immunolabeling of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Drosophila Antenna, ... Odorant-induced Responses Recorded from Olfactory Receptor Neurons using the Suction Pipette Technique, Recording Temperature ... Perforated Patch-clamp Recording of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Intact Neuroepithelium: Functional Analysis of Neurons ... Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals, ...
Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by ... Olfactory receptor neurons were identified that were specifically stimulated by sandalwood compounds. These neurons expressed ... of perfume compounds was analyzed for its ability to activate endogenous olfactory receptors in olfactory receptor neurons. ... olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their molecular structures. ...
Suppression of GABAergic neurons through D2-like receptor secures efficient conditioning in Drosophila aversive olfactory ... Suppression of GABAergic neurons through D2-like receptor secures efficient conditioning in Drosophila aversive olfactory ... Suppression of GABAergic neurons through D2-like receptor secures efficient conditioning in Drosophila aversive olfactory ... Suppression of GABAergic neurons through D2-like receptor secures efficient conditioning in Drosophila aversive olfactory ...
"Olfactory Receptor Neurons" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Olfactory Receptor Neurons" was a ... Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send ... "Olfactory Receptor Neurons" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Olfactory Receptor Neurons*Olfactory Receptor Neurons. *Neurons, Olfactory Receptor. *Neuron, Olfactory Receptor ...
Structured odorant response patterns across a complete olfactory receptor neuron population. Neuron 101, 950-962.e7 (2019).. ... Antagonism in olfactory receptor neurons and its implications for the perception of odor mixtures. eLife 7, e34958 (2018).. ... Spontaneous olfactory receptor neuron activity determines follower cell response properties. J. Neurosci. 32, 2900-2910 (2012). ... High precision of spike timing across olfactory receptor neurons allows rapid odor coding in Drosophila. iScience 4, 76-83 ( ...
... the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has not been documented ... the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has not been documented ... We show that this orphan receptor subgroup with presumably non-olfactory function in insects is likely the basis of olfaction ... Hermit crab olfactory aesthetascs are arranged in a field on the distal segment of the antennular flagellum. Aesthetascs house ...
Expression of Bcl-2 extends the survival of olfactory receptor neurons in the absence of an olfactory bulb. Brain Res Mol Brain ... we expressed a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor selectively in olfactory sensory neurons. We show that neurons ... OMP and odorant receptor transcripts are expressed before olfactory axons form synapses with olfactory bulb neurons, and ... Retinoic Acid Receptor-Dependent Survival of Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Postnatal and Adult Mice. Maria Hägglund, Anna ...
ラット嗅糸切断後の嗅上皮における神経栄養因子の効果 [in Japanese] The effect of neurotrophic factor on the rat olfactory receptor neurons following ... Immunohistochemical identification of discrete subsets of rat olfactory neurons and the glomeruli that they innervate RING G ... Transforming growth factor-a and other growth factors stimulate cell division in olfactory epithelium
Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor- ... Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor- ... Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor- ... Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor- ...
Concentration Tuning Mediated by Spare Receptor Capacity in Olfactory Sensory Neurons: A Theoretical Study ... However, the contemporary model for olfactory signal transduction provides that odorants bind to olfactory receptors with ... The regulation of spare receptor capacity may play an important role in the olfactory systems ability to reliably detect low ... We employ a computational model to demonstrate how olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) sensitivity can be tuned by modulation of ...
Heme turnover and CO biosynthesis in olfactory receptor neurons. In addition to heme and HO-2, olfactory receptor neurons ... glycine in primary cultures of olfactory receptor neurons. Primary cultures of olfactory receptor neurons were prepared from ... Among neurons, olfactory receptor neurons have the highest level of HO activity. Metabolic labeling with [2-14C]glycine or δ-[3 ... In olfactory receptor neuron cultures, TGF-β2 caused an increase in neuron cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM)-positive cells; N-CAM ...
olfactory receptor neurons. PNs. projections neurons. RNAi. RNA interference. ROI. region of interest. RyR. ryanodine receptor ... In Drosophila, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), with their cell bodies and dendrites located in the antennae, detect odors ... 2009). Presynaptic peptidergic modulation of olfactory receptor neurons in Drosophila. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 13070- ... In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to several odors. They also adapt to stimulus ...
... induction generates olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal neurons (VRNs), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ... neurons, the major neuron classes associated with the olfactory epithelium (OE). To assess specificity of M/E-mediated ... Moreover, only appropriate pairing of frontonasal epithelial and mesenchymal partners yields ORNs, VRNs, and GnRH neurons. ... subsequent inductive interactions specify the genesis and differentiation of peripheral chemosensory and neuroendocrine neurons ...
Altered olfactory receptor neuron responsiveness in rare Ostrinia nubilalis males attracted to the O. furnacalis pheromone ... We assessed the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) responses of these behaviorally "rare" males versus those of normal males. For ...
Methods are described for odor-stimulated labeling of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the freshwater zebrafish Danio rerio ... Methods are described for odor-stimulated labeling of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the freshwater zebrafish Danio rerio ... High-resolution functional labeling of vertebrate and invertebrate olfactory receptor neurons using agmatine, a channel- ... of the olfactory epithelial area. Approximately 6% of the olfactory epithelium was labeled during stimulation with a control ...
Biochemical and genetic experiments show that Ebf and Lhx2 cooperate to specify olfactory receptor enhancers, which cooperate ... Olfactory sensory neurons transiently express multiple olfactory receptors during development * L Tan ... and monoallelic expression of a single olfactory receptor (OR) gene. Each mature olfactory sensory neuron (mOSN) in the MOE ... Genetic disruptions of O/E2 and O/E3 genes reveal involvement in olfactory receptor neuron projection * SS Wang ...
Genetic disruptions of O/E2 and O/E3 genes reveal involvement in olfactory receptor neuron projection ... Genetic disruptions of O/E2 and O/E3 genes reveal involvement in olfactory receptor neuron projection ... Genetic disruptions of O/E2 and O/E3 genes reveal involvement in olfactory receptor neuron projection ... Genetic disruptions of O/E2 and O/E3 genes reveal involvement in olfactory receptor neuron projection ...
Much is known about olfactory responses to pulses and steps, but it remains unclear how olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) ... that Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the co-receptor Orco scale their gain inversely with mean odor ... Olfactory receptor neurons use gain control and complementary kinetics to encode intermittent odorant stimuli. ... Instead, a feedback mechanism adjusts receptor sensitivity based on the activity of the receptor-Orco complex, according to ...
Unusual response characteristics of pheromone-specific olfactory receptor neurons in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia ... Dose-response and cross-adaptation studies showed that olfactory receptor neurons with large amplitude action potentials ... Dose-response and cross-adaptation studies showed that olfactory receptor neurons with large amplitude action potentials ... Unusual response characteristics of pheromone-specific olfactory receptor neurons in the Asian corn borer moth, ,i,Ostrinia ...
... channels in acutely isolated rat olfactory receptor neurons. Single-channel and macroscopic currents were activated by 200 ... Macroscopic measurements in native olfactory CNG channels with mixtures of Na(+)-NH(4)(+) indicated similar AMFE. These results ... use of the rOCNC1 channel as an effective model for structure-function studies of ion permeation and selectivity in olfactory ... in both recombinant wild-type alpha-homomeric rat olfactory adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-gated channels (rOCNC1 ...
How a neuron keeps its identity is not well understood. In the olfactory system, the identity of the olfactory sensory neuron ( ... How a neuron keeps its identity is not well understood. In the olfactory system, the identity of the olfactory sensory neuron ( ... in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses only one olfactory receptor (OR) gene from its genomic repertoire of one ... Axon guidance of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by odorant receptors and the beta2 adrenergic receptor. Cell 117: 833-846. ...
An olfactory receptor cells with apical microvilli. The pear shaped soma is located in the apical region of the olfactory ...
  • The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • An odorant will dissolve into the mucus of the olfactory epithelium and then bind to an OR. (wikipedia.org)
  • b) A schematic of the olfactory epithelium (OE) showing the three major cell types. (els.net)
  • Through gene targetting experiments (see text) it is now clear that all the ORNs expressing the same receptor send their axons to the same glomerulus even though the cells are widely distributed on the olfactory epithelium. (els.net)
  • Ressler KJ, Sullivan SL, and Buck LB (1993) A zonal organization of odorant receptor gene expression in the olfactory epithelium. (els.net)
  • Vassar R, Ngai J, and Axel R (1993) Spatial segregation of odorant receptor expression in the mammalian olfactory epithelium. (els.net)
  • Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. (harvard.edu)
  • These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. (harvard.edu)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the olfactory epithelium and their synaptic target structures, the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, provide a useful system to determine the role of retinoid signaling during formation, refinement, maintenance, and/or regeneration of an axonal projection map in mammals. (jneurosci.org)
  • We asked whether specific mesenchymal/epithelial (M/E) induction generates olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal neurons (VRNs), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, the major neuron classes associated with the olfactory epithelium (OE). (harvard.edu)
  • Approximately 6% of the olfactory epithelium was labeled during stimulation with a control stimulus, AGB alone. (nih.gov)
  • The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) provides an extreme example of cellular diversity orchestrated by the seemingly stochastic, monogenic, and monoallelic expression of a single olfactory receptor (OR) gene. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ebf ( O/E1 ) mutant animals showed defects in B-cell lineage and brain regions where it is the only O/E family member expressed, but the olfactory epithelium appeared unaffected and olfactory marker expression was grossly normal in these animals. (biologists.org)
  • The O/E mRNAs are also observed in sensory structures including the olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organ (VNO), retina, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and some cranial nerve ganglia. (biologists.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium and VNO continue to express O/E proteins into adulthood, consistent with the continual neuronal differentiation in these tissues and an independent role for the O/E proteins in regulating mature ORN gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • The pear shaped soma is located in the apical region of the olfactory epithelium. (zfin.org)
  • The choice is random, except that each OR gene is available for expression only in a defined region of the olfactory epithelium called a zone. (eneuro.org)
  • In vertebrates the main olfactory system detects odorants that are inhaled through the nose where they come to contact with the olfactory epithelium, which contains the olfactory receptors. (wikibooks.org)
  • Similar to other sensory modalities, olfactory information must be transmitted from peripheral olfactory structures, like the olfactory epithelium, to more central structures, meaning the olfactory bulb and cortex. (wikibooks.org)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are continuously replaced by mitotic division of the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium. (wikibooks.org)
  • In normal olfactory epithelium , a subpopulation of immature neurons , as well as mature neurons , showed internucleosomal DNA -fragmentation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apoptosis might play a role in turnover of the olfactory epithelium and regeneration in adult rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are embedded in the nasal epithelium, which contains olfactory receptors embedded in plasma membrane that bind odorants. (google.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the peripheral sensory epithelium display two main differentiation features: the selective expression of a single odorant receptor out of a large genomic repertoire of receptor genes and the synaptic connection to a single type of relay neuron in the primary olfactory CNS target area. (springer.com)
  • In vertebrates , smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium . (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium is made up of at least six morphologically and biochemically different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] The proportion of olfactory epithelium compared to respiratory epithelium (not innervated, or supplied with nerves) gives an indication of the animal's olfactory sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have about 10 cm 2 (1.6 sq in) of olfactory epithelium, whereas some dogs have 170 cm 2 (26 sq in). (wikipedia.org)
  • A dog's olfactory epithelium is also considerably more densely innervated, with a hundred times more receptors per square centimeter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE) express α-synuclein (brown) from their dendrites to their axons, which bundle into a cranial nerve that passes through the bony cribiform plate (CP) to the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • In olfactory receptor neurons, the protein turned up throughout-from the cells' dendrites stretching to the nasal airways, to their cell bodies that traverse the olfactory epithelium, and all the way down their axons, which bundle together to form cranial nerve I. Tomlinson also saw tau expressed in the same spots. (alzforum.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium (OE) of the mouse provides a unique system for understanding how cell birth and cell death interact to regulate neuron number during development and regeneration. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to the olfactory neurons, the epithelium is composed of supporting cells, Bowman glands and ducts unique to the olfactory epithelium, and basal cells that allow for the regeneration of the epithelium, including the olfactory sensory neurons. (medscape.com)
  • Smells (odorants) are sensed by the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal cavity and first processed by the olfactory bulb. (smartdraw.com)
  • 1000 genes) has remained unsolved due to the difficulty of purifying sufficient material from the olfactory epithelium. (riken.jp)
  • In mouse, odor is sensed by the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) by about 1100 types of olfactory receptors that are expressed by olfactory sensory neurons. (riken.jp)
  • Do these placodal cells persist in the adult or are the stem cell progenitors in the adult olfactory epithelium (OE) a different kind of cell altogether? (ubc.ca)
  • The axons of OSNs expressing the same odorant receptors converge onto the same glomerulus at the olfactory bulb, allowing for the organization of olfactory information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb . (wikipedia.org)
  • Three possible ways in which ORN axons could be wired to their glomerular targets in the olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • Cellular circuitry of the olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • Imamura K, Mataga N, and Mori K (1992) Coding of odor molecules by mitral/tufted cells in rabbit olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • Shepherd GM and Greer CA (1998) Olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN. (harvard.edu)
  • We show that neurons deficient in nuclear retinoid signaling are responsive to odors and form correct odorant receptor-specific axonal projections to target neurons in the olfactory bulb of the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Subsequent to the formation of the map, the neurons die prematurely by retrograde-driven caspase-3 activation, which resembles the previously described mechanism of neural death after olfactory bulb ablation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Interestingly, both O/E2 and O/E3 knockout mice as well as O/E2/O/E3 double heterozygous animals share a common phenotype: olfactory neurons (ORN) fail to project to dorsal olfactory bulb. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, a systematic study of the coding of retronasal odor intensities in the olfactory bulb (OB) of any species is yet to be reported. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is well known that, in mammalian ORNs, only one OR isoform is expressed in one neuron and projections from ORNs expressing the same ORs converge exclusively on one or two glomeruli in the olfactory bulb 5 , 6 . (nature.com)
  • [3] In vertebrates , ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the inferior space of the nasal cavity and an axon that passes through the cribiform plate then travels along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb . (gutenberg.org)
  • The expression of stress-responsive proteins, such as nestin and a 27-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP27), was immunohistochemically examined in order to demonstrate glial responses in the rat olfactory bulb following sensory deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • At 3 days to 1 week after sensory deprivation, numerous nestin-expressing cells appeared within the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. (elsevier.com)
  • In the adult olfactory bulb, adult neurogenesis produces less pronounced, but continuously ongoing synapse turnover. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Two-photon imaging of M/T cells and their apical dendrites in the olfactory bulb of a YFP-G mouse. (nature.com)
  • Cell proliferation and migration in the anterior forebrain, with special reference to persisting neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb. (nature.com)
  • Shepherd, G.M. & Greer, C.A. Olfactory bulb in The Synaptic Organization of the Brain (ed. (nature.com)
  • Due to phylogeny, olfactory sensory activity is transferred directly from the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex, without a thalamic relay. (wikibooks.org)
  • Neural integration and analysis of olfactory stimuli may not involve topographic organization beyond the olfactory bulb, meaning that spatial or frequency axis are not needed to project the signal. (wikibooks.org)
  • Such expression forms the genetic basis for OR-instructed axonal projection of OSNs to the olfactory bulb of the brain during development. (sciencemag.org)
  • Postnatal construction of neural circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have undertaken a quantitative analysis of the mouse olfactory bulb to address several major questions concerning the development of neural circuitry in the postnatal mammalian brain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Autoradiographic study of histogenesis in the mouse olfactory bulb. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the antennal lobes (a region analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb) ORNs make synaptic contacts with second-order neurons, the projection neurons (PNs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies, reports on the new source of HFO in the olfactory bulb structures, which is surprisingly stronger than any other previously seen in the mammalian brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of TUNEL -labeled neurons increased dramatically 32 hours after removal of olfactory bulb . (bvsalud.org)
  • Expression and signalling of protease-activated receptors in distinct layers of rat olfactory bulb and olfactory sensory neurons. (unica.it)
  • Western blot analysis of microdissected main olfactory bulb indicated the presence of both PAR1 and PAR2 in olfactory nerve-glomerular cell layer (ON-GL), external plexiform layer (EPL) and granule cell layer (GRL). (unica.it)
  • Olfactory bulb deafferentation by lesions of the olfactory mucosa elicited a significant decrease of PAR1 and PAR2 immunoreactivity in ON-GL and a reduced stimulation of [35S]GTPyS binding by PAR selective peptides. (unica.it)
  • The signal involves odorant binding factors, olfactory receptor neurons and surrounding cells in the nasal mucosa, the olfactory nerve, the olfactory bulb, and connections to the limbic region of the brain. (google.com)
  • Topographic organization of sensory projections to the olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • [2] Glomeruli aggregate signals from these receptors and transmit them to the olfactory bulb , where the sensory input will start to interact with parts of the brain responsible for smell identification, memory , and emotion . (wikipedia.org)
  • A close-up of the ethmoid sinus and olfactory bulb. (alzforum.org)
  • Olfactory bulb plays an important part in signal encoding of olfactory system. (hindawi.com)
  • Then we set up a dynamical model of MC and GC in the olfactory bulb. (hindawi.com)
  • These receptors pass the odour information to olfactory bulb. (hindawi.com)
  • Then the information will be the information will be transmitted to the entorhinal cortex of the brain by olfactory bulb, resulting in the sense of smell. (hindawi.com)
  • As the first transfer station of the olfactory system, olfactory bulb plays an important role in processing olfactory information. (hindawi.com)
  • When nerve signals coming from the depths of nasal get to the olfactory bulb, it will generate corresponding spatial and temporal coding [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many scholars are discussing how the information processed by olfactory bulb is transferred synchronously to the entorhinal cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • In the olfactory bulb, there is an interaction between excitatory MCs and inhibitory GCs. (hindawi.com)
  • These neurons are going from the nose directly to the brain and connecting to the olfactory bulb. (wyso.org)
  • [3] In vertebrates , ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multitude of biochemical studies has revealed the central role of Ca(2+) signaling in the function of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). (nih.gov)
  • There are numerous different odorant molecules in nature but only a relatively small number of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in brains. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we investigate possible optimal olfactory coding strategies by maximizing mutual information between odor mixtures and ORNs' responses with respect to the bipartite odor-receptor interaction network (ORIN) characterized by sensitivities between all odorant-ORN pairs. (pnas.org)
  • For ORNs with a finite basal activity, we find that having inhibitory odor-receptor interactions increases the coding capacity and the fraction of inhibitory interactions increases with the ORN basal activity. (pnas.org)
  • In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to several odors. (biologists.org)
  • However, in invertebrates, especially in sensory neurons such as ORNs, similar mechanisms have not yet been detected. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that disrupting the intracellular Ca 2+ stores in the ORNs has functional consequences since Ins P 3 R- or RyR-RNAi expressing flies were defective in olfactory behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Altogether, our results indicate that for long odor applications in Drosophila , the olfactory response depends on intracellular Ca 2+ stores within the axon terminals of the ORNs. (biologists.org)
  • In Drosophila , olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), with their cell bodies and dendrites located in the antennae, detect odors and transmit olfactory information to the antennal lobes. (biologists.org)
  • The axon terminals of the ORNs make synaptic contact with dendrites of a few uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs), which propagate olfactory information to higher brain centers, such as the mushroom bodies. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, only appropriate pairing of frontonasal epithelial and mesenchymal partners yields ORNs, VRNs, and GnRH neurons. (harvard.edu)
  • Methods are described for odor-stimulated labeling of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the freshwater zebrafish Danio rerio and the marine spiny lobster Panulirus argus. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, mature ORN proteins including those essential for transducing odorant signals are induced as immature ORNs differentiate into functional neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Much is known about olfactory responses to pulses and steps, but it remains unclear how olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) detect the intensity and timing of natural stimuli, where the absence of scale in the signal makes detection a formidable olfactory task. (elifesciences.org)
  • 2017) that Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the co-receptor Orco scale their gain inversely with mean odor intensity according to Weber-Fechner's law. (elifesciences.org)
  • Eight A. aegypti CREs that promote gene expression in antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) were identified in a Drosophila melanogaster transgenic reporter screen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six A. aegypti strains, including strains displaying transgene expression in all ORNs, subsets of these neurons, or in a sex-specific fashion, were isolated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the olfactory system of Drosophila, 50 functional classes of sensory receptor neurons (ORNs) project in a highly organized fashion into the CNS, where they sort out from one another and converge into distinct synaptic glomeruli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in grooved peg sensilla on the antennae of Ae. (slu.se)
  • The peripheral end of the olfactory circuit consists of first order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), that synapse onto the second order projection neurons (PNs), and regulatory local neurons (LNs) that innervate ORNs and PNs. (unr.edu)
  • We hypothesized that starvation differentially alters the sensitivity of individual first-order Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs). (unr.edu)
  • We conclude that an animal's internal state such as hunger differentially modulates the functions of individual ORNs to impact olfactory information processing. (unr.edu)
  • Recently, in Drosophila , we reported that odor-induced Ca 2+ -response in axon terminals of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is related to odor duration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Application of GABAergic receptor antagonists, both GABA A or GABA B , abolishes the adaptation, while RNAi targeting the GABAB R (a metabotropic receptor) within the ORNs, blocks the Ca 2+ -store dependent component, and consequently disrupts the adaptation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, at the behavioral level, using an olfactory test, genetically impairing the GABA B R or its signaling pathway specifically in the ORNs disrupts olfactory adapted behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vertebrate ORNs, like other types of sensory neurons, adapt to a given stimulus, by time-dependent modification in sensitivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A biochemical model is developed for the receptor, G-protein and effector (RGE) steps of olfactory signal transduction in the cilia of the vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). (beds.ac.uk)
  • In the cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), cAMP regulates cyclic nucleotide gated channels, which in turn control Ca influx and Ca dependent activation of chloride conductances. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The new RGE-model was integrated- and linked to a previous model of receptor potential generation in vertebrate ORNs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Consistent with observed effects of neurotrophins, immunohistochemistry localized the neurotrophin receptors trkB and trkC to fractions of ORNs scattered throughout neonatal OE. (elsevier.com)
  • Simulation of experiments on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). (yale.edu)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antenna of insects serve to encode odors in action potential activity conducted to the olfactory lobe of the deuterocerebrum. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, recent reports regarding Drosophila have found exceptions to the rule that could have important implications for the logic of olfactory coding. (sciencemag.org)
  • In Drosophila , a pair of GABAergic neurons negatively regulates aversive olfactory learning. (pnas.org)
  • Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor-Driven Behavioral Kinetics. (nih.gov)
  • To address this question, we delivered to Drosophila melanogaster flies pulses of high odor intensity that induce sustained peripheral responses in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). (nih.gov)
  • Developmental origin of wiring specificity in the olfactory system of Drosophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dock and Pak regulate olfactory axon pathfinding in Drosophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the olfactory pathway of Drosophila , a GABA B receptor mediated presynaptic gain control mechanism at the first synapse between olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and projection neurons has been suggested to play a critical role in setting the sensitivity and detection range of the sensory system. (ijbs.com)
  • The olfactory system of Drosophila , although similar in structural and functional organization compared to mammals, does not seem to involve odorant receptors in the selection of OR gene expression and target cell recognition, suggesting distinct developmental control mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Drosophila as a focus in olfactory research: mapping of olfactory sensilla by fine structure, odor specificity, odorant receptor expression and central connectivity. (springer.com)
  • A novel family of divergent seven-transmembrane proteins: candidate odorant receptors in Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • Vosshall LB, Amrein H, Morozov PS, Rzhetsky A, Axel R. A spatial map of olfactory receptor expression in the Drosophila antenna. (springer.com)
  • Here we find that the same group of DA neurons also form functional synaptic connections with the APL neurons, thereby emitting a suppressive signal to the latter through Drosophila dopamine 2-like receptor (DD2R). (hbhsxingwang.com)
  • Here we review how birth timing-related intrinsic factors guide development of wiring specificity in several model systems, including Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs), mushroom body (MB) neurons and mouse cortical excitatory neurons. (springer.com)
  • Odorant Receptor Mutants Reveal Peripheral Coding Mechanisms in Drosophila J. Neuroscience , 23: 9906-9912. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • The olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as one of the best characterized olfactory systems, which in addition to a family of odorant receptors, contains an approximately equal number of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), encoded by a multigene family of 51 genes. (genetics.org)
  • Drosophila provides an excellent model system for studies of olfaction due to its well-established genetics and the relative simplicity of its olfactory system. (genetics.org)
  • The Drosophila olfactory genes OS-E and OS-F are members of a family of genes that encode insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). (genetics.org)
  • The recent discovery of a large family of olfactory receptor genes in Drosophila raises new questions about the function, diversity, regulation, and evolution of the OBP family. (genetics.org)
  • [11] The effect of this negative feedback response inhibits the neuron from further activation when another odor molecule is introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buck L and Axel R (1991) A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. (els.net)
  • This functional challenge has been met by simultaneous expression of a multitude of odor-detecting receptors that all belong to the superfamily of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Horio N, Murata K, Yoshikawa K, Yoshihara Y, Touhara K. Contribution of individual olfactory receptors to odor-induced attractive or aversive behavior in mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we study how a relatively small number of neurons with a limited response range can optimize transmission of such high-dimensional sparse odor mixture information. (pnas.org)
  • For neurons without basal activity, we find that the optimal coding matrix is "sparse"-a fraction of ligand-receptor sensitivities are zero and the nonzero sensitivities follow a broad distribution matching the odor mixture statistics. (pnas.org)
  • For neurons with a finite spontaneous activity, we show that introducing odor-evoked inhibition further enhances coding capacity. (pnas.org)
  • While the aesthetascs of aquatic crustaceans have been shown to be the place of odor uptake and previous studies identified ionotropic receptors (IRs) as the putative chemosensory receptors expressed in decapod antennules, the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has not been documented yet. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, it remains unclear how mechanisms for temporal contrast enhancement in the olfactory system can enhance the detection of odor plume edges during navigation. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we show how these GABA receptors modulate the time course of innate behavioral responses after odor pulse termination, demonstrating an important role for temporal contrast enhancement in odor-guided navigation. (nih.gov)
  • These data are difficult to reconcile with certain contemporary hypotheses that convergent OSNs in mammals exhibit a homogeneous population of olfactory receptors and identical tuning for odor stimuli. (mit.edu)
  • The regulation of spare receptor capacity may play an important role in the olfactory system's ability to reliably detect low odor concentrations, discriminate odor intensities, and segregate this intensity information from representations of odor quality. (mit.edu)
  • A large percentage of sensilla (72% and 81%, respectively, of all sensilla sampled) contained a single odor-responsive receptor neuron tuned to the major pheromone component of both species, Z-11-hexadecenal. (elsevier.com)
  • Although pharmacologically increased activity could elicit morphological changes, under natural conditions such as ongoing neurogenesis, an odor-enriched environment or olfactory-based learning, M/T cell dendrites remained highly stable. (nature.com)
  • Each olfactory neuron has one odor receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory sensitivity and odor structure-activity relationships for aliphatic ketones in CD-1 mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Olfactory fingerprints for major histocompatibility complex-determined body odors II: relationship among odor maps, genetics, odor composition, and behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Breer H (1994) Odor recognition and second messenger signalling in olfactory receptor neurons. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, the decrease in odor response of the APL neurons persists to the postconditioning phase, and this change is also absent in DD2R knockdown flies. (hbhsxingwang.com)
  • [7] As the Epicurean and atomistic Roman philosopher Lucretius (1st century BCE) speculated, different odors are attributed to different shapes and sizes of "atoms" (odor molecules in the modern understanding) that stimulate the olfactory organ [1] . (wikipedia.org)
  • A modern demonstration of that theory was the cloning of olfactory receptor proteins by Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel (who were awarded the Nobel Prize in 2004), and subsequent pairing of odor molecules to specific receptor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each odor receptor molecule recognizes only a particular molecular feature or class of odor molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Of the genes that code for odor receptors, only a portion are functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have far fewer active odor receptor genes than other primates and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] In mammals, each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key-lock system: if the airborne molecules of a certain chemical can fit into the lock, the nerve cell will respond. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the shape theory , each receptor detects a feature of the odor molecule . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, deciphering the underlying molecular mechanism of odor sensing through the detection machinery (olfactory system), odor processing and decision-making by decision machinery (brain), and regulation of saliva secretion by the action machinery (salivary gland) is likely to reveal molecular pathways which can be targeted to disrupt mosquitoes' feeding behavior. (intechopen.com)
  • Physiological and genetic data indicated that the flies must have a neuron type that responds to a specific, yet unidentified, compound within odor collections from flies. (eurekalert.org)
  • The odorant must possess certain molecular properties-it must be water soluble and have high vapor pressure and low polarity-in order to interact with the olfactory receptors and produce signals that can be interpreted as odor. (smartdraw.com)
  • These neurons expressed olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their molecular structures. (ovid.com)
  • The olfactory system is capable of detecting odorants at very low concentrations. (mit.edu)
  • However, the contemporary model for olfactory signal transduction provides that odorants bind to olfactory receptors with relatively low specificity and consequently low affinity, making this detection of low-concentration odorants theoretically difficult to understand. (mit.edu)
  • The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose) and also retronasally (exhalation), enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs) can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. (frontiersin.org)
  • While a considerable amount of information has been generated, in various animal systems, regarding sensory neuron responses to food odorants and modulation of these responses by hunger, much less is known about the extent of modulation that exists among individual sensory neurons and its impact on driving behavioral output. (unr.edu)
  • The signal then goes forth to the olfactory cortex where it will be recognized and compared with known odorants (i.e. olfactory memory) involving also an emotional response to the olfactory stimuli. (wikibooks.org)
  • Sensory neuron responsible for detection of odorants. (xenbase.org)
  • State-of-the-art techniques to model the 3D structure of an olfactory receptor in complex with various odorants are presented here. (springer.com)
  • Malnic B, Hirono J, Sato T, Buck L (1999) Combinatorial receptor codes for odorants. (springer.com)
  • Olfaction occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity . (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a new study, researchers have found that a functional relationship exists between molecular volume of odorants and the olfactory neural response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules of odorants passing through the superior nasal concha of the nasal passages dissolve in the mucus that lines the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory sensory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via retronasal olfaction. (medscape.com)
  • Odorants diffuse into the mucous and are transported to the olfactory receptor. (medscape.com)
  • Odorants must dissolve in the aqueous perilymph to reach their cognate membrane-associated odorant receptors. (genetics.org)
  • OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants through the aqueous fluid within olfactory sensilla to the underlying receptor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • in particular, the OBP(s) present in a particular olfactory sensillum might determine the spectrum of odorants to which the underlying receptors have access. (genetics.org)
  • Elementary response of olfactory receptor neurons to odorants. (jhu.edu)
  • D , Mean firing rates ( n = 4 flies) of a neuron recorded in ab3 sensilla of ArcLight-expressing flies. (nih.gov)
  • Using recordings from a cut-sensillum technique, trichoid sensilla could be grouped into four physiological types (1-4), according to the response of receptor neurons to the two major pheromone components, (E)-12- and (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (E12- and Z12-14: OAc). (lu.se)
  • In addition, the HvirGABA B -R1 specific probe also labelled several cells under shorter olfactory sensilla, but never stained cells under mechanosensory/gustatory sensilla chaetica. (ijbs.com)
  • However, we observe an increase in sensitivity to primarily indole and phenolic compounds in neurons housed within four of the five functional types of short blunt tipped II trichoid sensilla, both at 24 and 72 h post-blood feeding, which was more pronounced at 24 h than 72 h. (slu.se)
  • Single-cell electrophysiological recordings were obtained from olfactory receptor neurons in sensilla trichodea on male antennae of the heliothine species Heliothis subflexa and the closely related congener H. virescens. (elsevier.com)
  • A second population of sensilla on H. subflexa antennae (18%) housed receptor neurons that were tuned to Z-9-hexadecenal but also responded with less sensitivity to Z-9-tetradecenal. (elsevier.com)
  • A similar population of sensilla (4%) on H. virescens male antennae housed receptor neurons that were shown to be tuned specifically only to Z-9-tetradecenal, with no response to even high dosages of Z-9-hexadecenal. (elsevier.com)
  • A third population of sensilla (comprising 8% and 16% of the sensilla sampled in H. subflexa and H. virescens, respectively) housed two olfactory receptor neurons, one of which was tuned to Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the other tuned to Z-11-hexadecenol. (elsevier.com)
  • In the spiny lobster Panulirus argus the antennules carrying olfactory sensilla called aesthetascs and several types of other non-olfactory sensilla accompanying them are frequently groomed by the third maxillipeds in a stereotyped behavioral pattern. (biologists.org)
  • The basal segments and all annuli bear numerous and diverse types of sensilla, which are small cuticular setae innervated by sensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • In the current study we concentrated on the paired antennal lobes (AL), the part of the brain that is typically responsible for the first processing of olfactory information collected from olfactory sensilla on antenna and mouthparts. (fraunhofer.de)
  • INSECT odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small, soluble proteins found in the aqueous lymph that fills the olfactory sensilla on the antenna ( P elosi and M aida 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • They are coexpressed within two morphological types of olfactory sensilla that are located in the same region of the antenna, the ventrolateral region. (genetics.org)
  • article{e588686d-f055-4895-ba7b-86b276c09b8b, abstract = {Male moth pheromone-detecting receptor neurons are known to be highly specific and very sensitive. (lu.se)
  • Abstract: We develop a mechanistic mathematical model of the G-protein coupled signaling pathway responsible for generating current responses in frog olfactory receptor neurons. (cellml.org)
  • abstract = "Background: Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are olfactory disorders caused by inflammation of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses. (elsevier.com)
  • a) Sagittal section of human head showing nasal cavity and olfactory mucosa lining the turbinates. (els.net)
  • Iwamura H, Kondo K, Kikuta S, Nishijima H, Kagoya R, Suzukawa K, Ando M, Fujimoto C, Toma-Hirano M, Yamasoba T. Caloric restriction reduces basal cell proliferation and results in the deterioration of neuroepithelial regeneration following olfactotoxic mucosal damage in mouse olfactory mucosa. (harvard.edu)
  • To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) subtypes across mammalian evolution, we applied RNA sequencing of whole olfactory mucosa samples from mouse, rat, dog, marmoset, macaque, and human. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase -mediated dUTP- fluorescein nick end labeling ( TUNEL ) and transmission electron microscopy to detect apoptosis in olfactory mucosa of normal adult rats and damaged olfactory mucosa of 16, 32, 48 hours and 3, 7, 30 days after bulbectomy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ultrastructural data of olfactory mucosa showed that the feature of apoptotic neurons was chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example in vertebrates, presynaptic Ca 2+ stores relying on either the ryanodine receptor (RyR) or the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) have been reported to participate in synaptic transmission, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and in basket cell-Purkinje cell synapses. (biologists.org)
  • Although it has been reported in invertebrates that almost all sensory systems (including olfactory) adapt to stimuli variations and display synaptic plasticity, similarly to mammals, the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and more particularly, the involvement of the internal Ca 2+ stores remain relatively unexplored. (biologists.org)
  • The present study suggests that reactive astrocytes may be involved in axonal regeneration and synaptic remodeling in the olfactory system, through the recapitulation of developmentally regulated proteins, such as nestin and HSP27. (elsevier.com)
  • Synaptic potentials evoked in the medial amygdala (m-AMG) neurons were studied in in vitro slice preparations obtained from normal and olfactory bulbectomized rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: Repeated intranasal administration of LPS that induced persistent nasal inflammation in mice caused a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and gliosis and synaptic loss in the OBs within 3 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • Olfactory function comprises a distinct set of molecular tasks: sensory signal transduction, cytoprotection and adult neurogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Ninety-seven proteins (79%) could be assigned to specific olfactory functions, including 32 to sensory signal transduction and 40 to cytoprotection. (nih.gov)
  • have been shown to play a role in olfactory signal transduction and adaptation. (biologists.org)
  • The intracellular signal transduction machinery couples the olfactory receptors to heterotrimeric G-proteins. (google.com)
  • This relatively simple model system allows us to correlate expression of signal transduction molecules with specific subsets of olfactory neurons so we can understand chemical information processing by the brain. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) express odorant receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our goal was to reveal the expression and distribution pattern of non-co-receptor IRs in OSNs of Coenobita clypeatus , a terrestrial hermit crab, with RNA in situ hybridization. (frontiersin.org)
  • This way, the direct responses of OSNs to retinoids during late stages of olfactory map formation and maintenance may be selectively examined. (jneurosci.org)
  • The EC 10-90 intensity tuning ranges (ITRs) of whole olfactory glomeruli and postsynaptic mitral cells are considerably broader than the commensurate ITRs of individual OSNs. (mit.edu)
  • We show that heterogeneity in spare receptor capacities within a convergent OSN population can increase the ITR (EC 10-90 ) of a convergent population of OSNs regardless of the presence or absence of a diversity of receptor expression within the population. (mit.edu)
  • We present a model illustrating that these processes can underlie both how OSNs come to exhibit high sensitivity to odorant stimuli without necessitating increased ligand-receptor binding affinities or specificities and how a population of convergent OSNs could exhibit a broader concentration sensitivity than its individual constituent neurons, even given a population expressing identical odorant receptors. (mit.edu)
  • Together, the results indicate that a GABA B receptor is expressed in pheromone-responsive OSNs of H. virescens and suggest a presynaptic gain control mechanism in the axon terminals of these cells. (ijbs.com)
  • Conditional deletion experiments in mice demonstrate that Lhx2 is necessary for normal expression frequencies of nearly all ORs and all trace amine-associated receptors, irrespective of whether the deletion of Lhx2 is initiated in immature or mature OSNs. (eneuro.org)
  • In our cultures, OSNs isolated from olfactory neuroepithelia (OE) of embryonic or neonatal mice were maintained on a confluent layer of cortical astrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1000 mouse olfactory receptor (ORs) genes requires the formation of large heterochromatic chromatin domains that sequester the OR gene clusters. (elifesciences.org)
  • These constructs, which contained FAIRE DNA elements associated with the A. aegypti odorant coreceptor ( orco ), odorant receptor 1 ( Or1 ), odorant receptor 8 ( Or8 ) and fruitless ( fru ) genes, were used for transformation of A. aegypti . (biomedcentral.com)
  • A developmental program of epigenetic repression prepares each mammalian olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) to strongly express one allele from just one of hundreds of odorant receptor (OR) genes, but what completes this process of OR gene choice by driving the expression of this allele is incompletely understood. (eneuro.org)
  • 1000 and therefore comprise the largest family of mammalian genes, are G-protein-coupled receptors that evolved to transduce the binding of odorant molecules into intracellular signals ( DeMaria and Ngai, 2010 ). (eneuro.org)
  • It is also interesting to note that the human genome has about 600 - 700 genes (~2% of the complete genome) specialized in characterizing the olfactory receptors, but only 350 are still used to build the olfactory system . (wikibooks.org)
  • Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemosensory genes were described: overall, 77 odorant binding proteins (OBP), 82 odorant receptors (OR), 60 ionotropic receptors (IR) and 30 gustatory receptors (GR) were identified by comparative genomics and transcriptomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We analyzed the sequences of 13 Obp genes in two chromosomal clusters in a population of wild-derived inbred lines, and asked whether polymorphisms in these genes are associated with variation in olfactory responsiveness. (genetics.org)
  • The results show for the first time that olfactory receptor genes contain hundreds of non-coding RNAs, suggesting that these RNAs may play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of olfactory receptors. (riken.jp)
  • The large number of receptor genes, their restricted expression in subsets of olfactory neurons, and their high degree of sequence divergence raise questions about their relationship to OBPs. (genetics.org)
  • other mechanisms for cellular regulation of spare receptor capacity are also highly plausible (e.g., quantitative regulation of the relative expression levels of receptor and effector proteins). (mit.edu)
  • When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Man O, Gilad Y, Lancet D (2004) Prediction of the odorant binding site of olfactory receptor proteins by human-mouse comparisons. (springer.com)
  • Researchers led by Michael Schlossmacher, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Canada, used this method to visualize high levels of Parkinson's-associated proteins in olfactory neurons. (alzforum.org)
  • Together, the data suggest all three proteins are expressed in the olfactory system in commonly used mouse models and can be analyzed for their role in disease pathogenesis, Tomlinson told Alzforum. (alzforum.org)
  • To date, the transmembrane proteins tricellulin and lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) are known to be molecular components of tTJs. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, we show that two LSR-related proteins, immunoglobulin-like domain-containing receptor (ILDR) 1 and ILDR2, are also localized at TCs and recruit tricellulin. (biologists.org)
  • These studies highlight potential regions of functional significance in the OS-E and OS-F proteins, which may include a region required for interaction with receptor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • The mammalian Olf1/EBF (O/E) family of repeated helix-loop-helix (rHLH) transcription factors has been implicated in olfactory system gene regulation, nervous system development and B-cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • In the olfactory system, the identity of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is a result of the expression of a single odorant receptor (OR) from a large receptor gene repertoire in the genome. (prolekare.cz)
  • Neurons, for example, are remarkably robust: their function can be maintained for one hundred years, implying that gene function is also maintained during this time. (prolekare.cz)
  • The high regulatory demands placed on the nervous system are typified by the olfactory sensory system, in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses only one olfactory receptor (OR) gene from its genomic repertoire of one hundred to one thousand ORs [ 4 - 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Sophisticated tools for manipulation of gene expression in select neurons, including neurons that regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors, are increasingly available for analysis of genetic model organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements followed by sequencing (FAIRE-seq) recently facilitated genome-wide discovery of putative A. aegypti cis-regulatory elements (CREs), many of which could be used to manipulate gene expression in mosquito neurons and other tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal of this investigation was to identify FAIRE DNA elements that promote gene expression in the olfactory system, a tissue of vector importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1000 different subtypes of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), each defined by the expression of a single odorant receptor (OR) gene. (eneuro.org)
  • In a process called OR gene choice, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) selects one allele of one OR gene for high-level expression ( Rodriguez, 2013 ). (eneuro.org)
  • In the mouse olfactory system, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses only one odorant receptor (OR) gene in a monoallelic and mutually exclusive manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • We propose that stochastic activation of only one OR gene within the cluster and negative feedback regulation by that OR gene product are necessary to ensure the one receptor-one neuron rule. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We find that OSN subtypes, representative of all known mouse chemosensory receptor gene families, are present in all analyzed species. (sciencemag.org)
  • Allelic inactivation regulates olfactory receptor gene expression. (springer.com)
  • By using nanoCAGE on the MOE, the researchers succeeded in identifying 87.5% of the olfactory receptor gene TSSs. (riken.jp)
  • If individual OBPs interact with specific receptors, has the OBP gene family evolved in concert with the receptor gene family? (genetics.org)
  • We use optical electrophysiology to directly measure electrical responses in presynaptic terminals and demonstrate that sustained peripheral responses are temporally sharpened by the combined activity of two types of inhibitory GABA receptors to generate contrast-enhanced voltage responses in central OSN axon terminals. (nih.gov)
  • We assessed the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) responses of these behaviorally "rare" males versus those of normal males. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory stimuli generate cellular responses by modifying the levels of different second messengers in both vertebrates and invertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • in addition, responses too small to be characterized were elicited in some neurons. (scripps.edu)
  • We performed an analysis of the electrophysiological responses of olfactory neurons in the antennae of the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. and investigated the effect of blood feeding on responsiveness. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neurons in GP were tuned to more polar compounds including the important behavioral attractant ammonia and its synergist L-lactic acid, responses to which were found only in GP. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1998) Functional expression of a mammalian odorant receptor. (els.net)
  • Mori K and Yoshihara Y (1995) Molecular recognition and olfactory processing in the mammalian olfactory system. (els.net)
  • The mammalian olfactory system can discriminate between volatile molecules with subtle differences in their molecular structures. (ovid.com)
  • The sensory neurons of the mammalian olfactory system are remarkable in their ability to undergo continuous replacement throughout the lifespan of the animal ( Mackay-Sim and Kittel, 1991 ). (biologists.org)
  • The mammalian olfactory system displays species-specific adaptations to different ecological niches. (sciencemag.org)
  • We subjected a ciliary membrane preparation to Ca(2+)/calmodulin-affinity chromatography using mild detergent conditions in order to maintain functional protein complexes involved in olfactory Ca(2+) signaling. (nih.gov)
  • We provide evidence that RARE-dependent transcription and local homeostatic control of retinoids is required for the maintenance of a population of functional neurons with established projections and that inhibition of retinoid signaling results in postnatal and adult neurodegeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurons that share an expressed receptor make a functional class. (prolekare.cz)
  • Functional integration of adult-born neurons. (nature.com)
  • We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The OBs have been widely used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capability in vertebrates, and we speculate that differences in olfactory capabilities may be the result of functional rather than phylogenetic adaptations. (springer.com)
  • By using biochemical, immunological and immunohistochemical techniques, we have investigated the expression and functional activity of protease-activated receptor (PARs) 1 and 2 in the rat olfactory system. (unica.it)
  • Sandalwood oil and four synthetic sandalwood molecules were selected to study the activation profile of endogenous olfactory receptors when exposed to compounds from the same odorant family. (ovid.com)
  • Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by monitoring fluxes in the internal calcium concentration. (ovid.com)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This study aims to understand the regulatory mechanism that controls the identity of olfactory sensory neurons in their odorant receptor choice and their expression of adhesion molecules for axon targeting. (elsevier.com)
  • Microscopic molecules released by substances around us-whether it's coffee brewing or pine trees in a forest-stimulate these receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Once the neurons detect the molecules, they send messages to your brain, which identifies the smell. (nih.gov)
  • Both taste and smell receptors are chemoreceptors that are stimulated by molecules soluted respectively in mucus or saliva. (wikibooks.org)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Knockdown of either DD2R or its downstream molecules in the APL neurons results in impaired olfactory learning at the behavioral level. (hbhsxingwang.com)
  • The weak-shape theory, known as the odotope theory , suggests that different receptors detect only small pieces of molecules, and these minimal inputs are combined to form a larger olfactory perception (similar to the way visual perception is built up of smaller, information-poor sensations, combined and refined to create a detailed overall perception) [ citation needed ] . (wikipedia.org)
  • To stimulate the olfactory receptors, airborne molecules must pass through the nasal cavity with relatively turbulent air currents and contact the receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Gustation and olfaction are chemical senses because the receptors they contain are sensitive to the molecules in the food we eat, along with the air we breathe. (wikibooks.org)
  • Accordingly, the position and molecular identity of specialized frontonasal epithelia and mesenchyme early in gestation and subsequent inductive interactions specify the genesis and differentiation of peripheral chemosensory and neuroendocrine neurons. (harvard.edu)
  • Additionally, unc-3 worms display specific defects in ASI chemosensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Chemoreception in multicellular animals is generally organized into two or more `chemical senses' or chemosensory pathways, differing in the physiology and location of the receptor neurons, the way the sensory information is processed in the central nervous system, and the behavioral output that is generated. (biologists.org)
  • The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors , a type of G protein-coupled receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • ModelDB: Model of calcium oscillations in olfactory cilia (Reidl et al. (yale.edu)
  • 1 . Reidl J, Borowski P, Sensse A, Starke J, Zapotocky M, Eiswirth M (2006) Model of calcium oscillations due to negative feedback in olfactory cilia. (yale.edu)
  • Each olfactory receptor neuron has 8-20 cilia that are whip-like extensions (they mark the beginning of sensory transduction). (smartdraw.com)
  • Olfactory sensitivity is directly proportional to the area in the nasal cavity near the septum reserved to the olfactory mucous membrane, which is the region where the olfactory receptor cells are located. (wikibooks.org)
  • To take a closer look at the nasal cavity, its vulnerability to infection, and α-synuclein expression there, scientists have developed a new technique that preserves the entire olfactory system of a mouse by keeping intact the head-nose, teeth, and eyes, the whole shebang. (alzforum.org)
  • The average nasal cavity contains more than 100 million such neurons. (medscape.com)
  • Attractant and repellent cues cooperate in guiding a subset of olfactory sensory axons to a well-defined protoglomerular target. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Much like in vertebrates, axons from the sensory neurons converge into glomeruli in the antennal lobe . (gutenberg.org)
  • The electrical signal proceeds through the olfactory nerve's axons to the olfactory bulbs. (wikibooks.org)
  • To overcome this, we utilize a simple and uniquely talented part of the nervous system - the olfactory system, which contains the only recognized neurons of CNS origin in the vertebrate kingdom which are capable of successfully replacing themselves and re-targetting their axons successfully following injury. (ubc.ca)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells express ORs which bind the same set of odors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies conducted over the past decade have led to the assumption that an individual olfactory sensory neuron expresses only a single odorant receptor, consequently giving rise to the "one receptor-one neuron" hypothesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • When this neuron type, which expresses the specific olfactory receptor Or47b, was missing, mating behavior in males was inhibited. (eurekalert.org)
  • Interestingly, each sensory neuron expresses only a single type of olfactory receptors, whose selective expression mechanism remains largely unknown. (riken.jp)
  • Kosaka, K., Aika, Y., Toida, K. & Kosaka, T. Structure of intraglomerular dendritic tufts of mitral cells and their contacts with olfactory nerve terminals and calbindin-immunoreactive type 2 periglomerular neurons. (nature.com)
  • Human skull showing the Cribriform Plate in green and Olfactory nerve in yellow. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this study, we have addressed these questions by directly examining interspecific variation in the size of the olfactory bulbs (OB), the region of the brain that receives the primary sensory projections from the olfactory nerve, in 58 species of cartilaginous fishes. (springer.com)
  • Ovoid body resting on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone where the olfactory nerve terminates. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Subsequent staining revealed the complex network of olfactory receptor neurons and their nerve bundles, and how they connect to the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • Sacrificing mice at different time points up to 10 days after inoculation, the researchers documented the march of reovirus-T3D from olfactory receptor neurons to these cells' nerve bundles (see image above left). (alzforum.org)
  • Head anatomy with olfactory nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Those signals are carried to the brain via the trigeminal nerve, which is separate from the olfactory system and unaffected by Pradhan's anosmia. (wyso.org)
  • In this study, metabolic labeling of heme was used to investigate the regulatory mechanism of porphyrin turnover and CO production caused by heme degradation under physiological conditions in primary cultures of olfactory receptor neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) chooses to express only one OR and converges its axon according to its OR identity to a stereotypic glomerulus. (elsevier.com)
  • The activity of each glomerulus corresponds to stimulation of specific olfactory receptor neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory system . (wikipedia.org)
  • We point out novel perspectives for research on the Ca(2+)-signaling networks in the olfactory system of the rat. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are the primary sensory cell in a system designed to detect and discriminate between a large and diverse array of chemical ligands called odours. (els.net)
  • Anatomy of the olfactory system. (els.net)
  • Graziadei GAM and Graziadei PPC (1979) Neurogenesis and neuron regeneration in the olfactory system of mammals. (els.net)
  • To address the hypothesis that retinoids produced by synthesizing enzymes present in the primary olfactory system influence the mouse olfactory sensory map, we expressed a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor selectively in olfactory sensory neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • O. furnacalis males thus display an unusual coding system for odors involved in sexual communication, mainly built on less specific neurons, but still have the ability to detect and respond to the correct female blend. (lu.se)
  • While hundreds of neuron-specific GAL4 driver lines enable sophisticated perturbation of the fruit fly nervous system [ 3 , 4 ], we lack comparable genetic tools for analysis of the neurophysiological basis of behaviors in most insects, including mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To approach the question if such a mechanism may be realized in the pheromone recognition system of male moths in this study attempts were made to explore if moth's pheromone-responsive cells express a GABA B - receptor. (ijbs.com)
  • The olfactory system has an important function as an environmental sensor. (nature.com)
  • We speculated that this might be conceptually analogous to olfactory perception, although, to our knowledge, there have been no studies examining the OR system in pancreatic β-cells. (nature.com)
  • The nervous system develops myriad different types of neurons, many having numerous subtypes. (eneuro.org)
  • Probably the oldest sensory system in the nature, the olfactory system concerns the sense of smell. (wikibooks.org)
  • The olfactory system is physiologically strongly related to the gustatory system, so that the two are often examined together. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this article we will first focus on the organs composing the olfactory system , then we will characterize them in order to understand their functionality and we will end explaining the transduction of the signal and the commercial application such as the eNose. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To establish an in vitro system to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of odorant receptor expression and function, we first extensively validated our primary OSN culture system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Allison A, Warwick R (1949) Quantitative observations on the olfactory system of rabbit. (springer.com)
  • CMV lesions were found in the olfactory system of children with congenital CMV infection but no study has hitherto examined the impact of congenital CMV infection on olfaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This findings may help to explain early symptoms of schizophrenia patients, that suffer from olfactory system impairments. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biological neuron model , also known as a spiking neuron model , is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane , roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig. 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiking neurons are known to be a major signaling unit of the nervous system , and for this reason characterizing their operation is of great importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worth noting that not all the cells of the nervous system produce the type of spike that define the scope of the spiking neuron models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, many cells in the nervous system are not classified as neurons but instead are classified as glia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, biological neuron models aim to explain the mechanisms underlying the operation of the nervous system for the purpose of restoring lost control capabilities such as perception (e.g. deafness or blindness), motor movement decision making , and continuous limb control . (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory system throughout the animal kingdom is characterized by a large number of highly specialized neuronal cell types. (springer.com)
  • In the mouse olfactory system, odorant receptors themselves play a central role in the coordination of both types of ORN differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Feinstein P, Mombaerts P. A contextual model for axonal sorting into glomeruli in the mouse olfactory system. (springer.com)
  • Komiyama T, Luo L. Development of wiring specificity in the olfactory system. (springer.com)
  • Jefferis GS, Hummel T. Wiring specificity in the olfactory system. (springer.com)
  • Human olfactory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processing and integration of chemical information in the neuro-olfactory system followed by salivary actions facilitate blood meal uptake process. (intechopen.com)
  • They also traced an infection as it progressed throughout the olfactory system into the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • Importantly, staining with α-synuclein antibodies in newborn and aged mice revealed abundant expression in the olfactory system (see image above right). (alzforum.org)
  • Their olfactory system also harbored Aβ plaques. (alzforum.org)
  • In this paper, the current situation of synchronous oscillation in the network of olfactory system is firstly introduced. (hindawi.com)
  • Olfactory system is an important part in sensory nervous system. (hindawi.com)
  • On the concept of many-are-equal (MAE), Brody and Hopfield [ 6 ] further checked that olfactory system can identify odour by the synchronization of spikes of MCs. (hindawi.com)
  • 7 ] studied the encoding mechanism of locust olfactory system through space-time coding model. (hindawi.com)
  • Combinatorial coding is the most plausible principle operating in the olfactory system of this mosquito species. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In summary, the current study provides a solid basis for further studies to unravel mechanisms that are basic to evolutionary adaptions of the insect olfactory system. (fraunhofer.de)
  • In vertebrates and invertebrates, sensory neurons adapt to variable ambient conditions, such as the duration or repetition of a stimulus, a physiological mechanism considered as a simple form of non-associative learning and neuronal plasticity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The behavioral requirements of males of these two species for distinct pheromonal blends was, therefore, reflected by the subtle differences in the tuning properties of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Firestein, Stuart J(Apr 2001) Olfactory Receptor Neurons. (els.net)
  • Zozulya S, Echeverri F, Nguyen T (2001) The human olfactory receptor repertoire. (springer.com)
  • Computational model of the cAMP-mediated sensory response and calcium-dependent adaptation in vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons, Daniel P. Dougherty, Geraldine A. Wright, Alice C. Yew, 2005, Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences , 102, 10415- 10420. (cellml.org)
  • Your ability to smell comes from specialized sensory cells, called olfactory sensory neurons, which are found in a small patch of tissue high inside the nose. (nih.gov)
  • The optimal coding model provides a unifying framework to understand the peripheral olfactory systems across different organisms. (pnas.org)
  • This change in lifestyle required adaptation of the peripheral olfactory organs, the antennules, in order to sense chemical cues in the new terrestrial habitat. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular components underlying peripheral olfactory signalling encompass a range of intracellular and extracellular contexts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that GABA (B) receptors are localized at the ORN synapses. (unr.edu)
  • 3) these synapses may be able to store the olfactory memory. (hindawi.com)
  • Collectively, the results provide evidence for a role of locally regulated retinoid metabolism in neuroprotection and in determining population size of neurons at a late stage of neural circuit formation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, given that the CREs drive comparable olfactory neural expression in both A. aegypti and D. melanogaster , it is likely that they may function similarly in multiple dipteran insects, including other disease vector mosquito species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In that sense, biological neuron models differ from artificial neuron models that do not presume to predict the outcomes of experiments involving the biological neural tissue (although artificial neuron models are also concerned with execution of perception and estimation tasks). (wikipedia.org)
  • In neonates, this area is a dense neural sheet, but, in children and adults, the respiratory and olfactory tissues interdigitate. (medscape.com)
  • As many different types of neurons and glia are generated in complex spatiotemporal patterns throughout neural development, it can be difficult to study singular regulatory events that occur very early in embryogenesis. (ubc.ca)
  • They also determined that the neurons act through a selective neural circuit and a neuroendocrine pathway to directly regulate fat metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
  • As these cells migrate away from the ventricular zone, they first cease O/E3 expression, and after terminal differentiation, the neurons cease expression of O/E1 and O/E2. (biologists.org)
  • Samanen, D.W. & Forbes, W.B. Replication and differentiation of olfactory receptor neurons following axotomy in the adult hamster: a morphometric analysis of postnatal neurogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Progenitors undergo a series of cell proliferation and differentiation events in the process of generating postmitotic neurons. (springer.com)
  • 5. What role does methylation-dependent chromatin remodelling play in olfactory neuron differentiation and adaptation? (ubc.ca)
  • Odors are transduced by processes that modulate the membrane conductance of olfactory receptor neurons. (scripps.edu)
  • Some odors selectively activate or inhibit a single olfactory neuron, while others can stimulate a group of neurons," Mutlu said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers tested several odors in C. elegans and discovered that only certain scents dynamically regulate fat mobilization by interacting with specific olfactory neurons through specific receptors. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1996) Visualizing an olfactory sensory map. (els.net)
  • Thus, the one receptor-one neuron rule is essential for establishing the discrete sensory map of olfactory neuronal connections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vosshall LB, Wong AM, Axel R. An olfactory sensory map in the fly brain. (springer.com)
  • The model incorporates descriptions of ligand-receptor interaction, intracellular transduction events involving the second messenger cAMP, effector ion-channel activity, and calcium-mediated feedback steps. (cellml.org)
  • Considering the timing of these changes, we believe that these neurons may be involved in driving the orientation behavior of female mosquitoes to oviposition sites, which are known to release these compounds. (slu.se)
  • The identification of asymmetric setae and not aesthetascs as the drivers of chemically elicited antennular grooming suggests that it is not the olfactory pathway in the brain but a parallel pathway, constituted mainly by the lateral antennular neuropils, that is the neuronal substrate of this behavior. (biologists.org)
  • The lateral antennular neuropils receive non-olfactory sensory input from the antennule and contain the major arborizations of antennular motoneurons, allowing that direct sensory-motor coupling is involved in mediating the chemical elicitation of antennular grooming behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Model predictions of alternative pre-mRNA secondary structures associated with polymorphic sites suggest that alterations in Obp mRNA structure could contribute to phenotypic variation in olfactory behavior. (genetics.org)
  • Several complex mosquito behaviours such as host seeking, feeding, mating or oviposition rely on olfactory stimuli that target a range of sensory neurons localized mainly on specialized head appendages such as antennae, maxillary palps and the mouthparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • olfactory repertoire we have used RNA-seq to reveal the transcriptome profiles of female antennae and maxillary palps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We employ a computational model to demonstrate how olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) sensitivity can be tuned by modulation of receptor-effector coupling and/or by other mechanisms regulating spare receptor capacity, thus resolving this conundrum. (mit.edu)
  • Although various signaling pathways, as cAMP, cGMP, and the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) play a role in adaptation, their precise mechanisms of action at the cellular level remain incompletely understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many molecular factors and cellular mechanisms synergize to ensure that each step, from progenitor proliferation to wiring of immature neurons, is tightly controlled. (springer.com)
  • The laboratory worm has three pairs of olfactory neurons that detect a variety of airborne scents. (eurekalert.org)
  • To study whether apoptosis plays a role in controlling the number of olfactory receptor neurons , so as to reveal the specialty and mystery of neurogenesis . (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. How do caspases control Olfactory Receptor Neuron (ORN) Apoptosis? (ubc.ca)
  • Figure 7: Dendritic stability following learning of an olfactory discrimination task. (nature.com)
  • Axon guidance of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by odorant receptors and the beta2 adrenergic receptor. (springer.com)
  • A neuronal identity code for the odorant receptor-specific and activity-dependent axon sorting. (springer.com)
  • A few days after a virus is inhaled from the nose to the ethmoid sinus (ES), researchers use anti-viral antibodies (brown) to monitor the virus in dendrites and cell bodies of olfactory receptor neurons, as well as their axon bundles (arrows). (alzforum.org)
  • In addition, we set up simple olfactory network models, discussing the influence of ring-like and grid-like neuronal networks of GCs on the synchronization of two MCs. (hindawi.com)
  • We are using a multiorganismal cellular and molecular approach to understand how different cell types within the developing olfactory neuraxis communicate with each other and orchestrate the final events that lead to neuronal and glial maturation, allowing each other to develop and adapt to the environment as an animal matures. (ubc.ca)
  • The simulation results indicated that excitatory neurons were phase-locked in different oscillatory period and showed synchronization. (hindawi.com)
  • Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter NKCC1 is necessary for the excitatory Cl- response of mouse olfactory receptor neurons. (jhu.edu)
  • Precise recognition of such diverse stimuli requires a massive receptor repertoire. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data indicate that in ON-GL a population of PAR1 and PAR2 is localized on terminals of olfactory sensory neurons and it may regulate axonal growth and synaptogenesis. (unica.it)
  • Imai T, Suzuki M, Sakano H. Odorant receptor-derived cAMP signals direct axonal targeting. (springer.com)
  • Efficiency of human olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation into spinal cysts to improve mobility of the hind limbs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Shepherd GM (1994) Discrimination of molecular signals by the olfactory receptor neuron. (els.net)
  • This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)