Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Anomura: An infraorder of CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA comprising the hermit crabs and characterized by a small fifth pair of legs.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Oncorhynchus kisutch: An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
The close proximity of these two pathways causes them to be grouped together under dopaminergic projections. Several disorders ... Olfactory bulb VTA → Prefrontal cortex Because they develop from common embryonic tissue and partly overlap in their projection ... Noradrenergic projections from the LC thus interact with dopaminergic projections from the VTA to regulate cognitive control ... and the lateral olfactory tubercle. These pathways are called the meso-ventromedial and the meso-ventrolateral striatal ...
Mesolimbic pathway: Ventral tegmental area → Nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle. *Nigrostriatal pathway: Substantia nigra ... Pathway origin and projections. Regulated cognitive processes and behaviors. Noradrenaline system. [24][25][26][27][28][29]. ... Dopaminergic pathways. *Mesocortical pathway: Ventral tegmental area → Prefrontal cortices. * ... Noradrenergic projections from the LC thus interact with dopaminergic projections from the VTA to regulate cognitive control ...
The projections with the piriform cortex align with the rest of the olfactory system, the path beginning in the sensory cells ... Projections to and from the islands supplement this knowledge with their involvement in the reward pathways for both cocaine ... olfactory tubercle, and amygdala. However, the projections to the basal forebrain structures actually originate from the ... Projections to and from the islands connect the structures to the piriform cortex, which is responsible for processing smell, ...
Olfactory bulb projectionsEdit. Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve ... also mediate inhibition and excitation of mitral cells through pathways from centrifugal fibers and the anterior olfactory ... Human olfactory system. 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor ... Main olfactory systemEdit. Main article: Olfactory system. In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in ...
ISBN 0-19-506503-4. Finger, p. 183 "Extrinsic projections from area CA1 of the rat hippocampus: olfactory, cortical, ... The glutamatergic pathways have been seen to be largely affected. The subfield CA1 is seen to be the least involved of the ... Using anterograde tracing methods, Cenquizca and Swanson (2007) located the moderate projections to two primary olfactory ... the anterior olfactory nucleus, and to the primary olfactory cortex. There continues to be some interest in hippocampal ...
"Extrinsic projections from area CA1 of the rat hippocampus: olfactory, cortical, subcortical, and bilateral hippocampal ... The glutamatergic pathways have been seen to be largely affected. The subfield CA1 is seen to be the least involved of the ... located the moderate projections to two primary olfactory cortical areas and prelimbic areas of the medial prefrontal cortex. ... and field CA1 in the ventral hippocampus sends axons to the main olfactory bulb,[30] the anterior olfactory nucleus, and to the ...
There are no single axon projections to either the GPi, or to the SN, or to both of these areas; only connecting as continuing ... The striatum does not receive axons from the primary olfactory, visual or auditory cortices. The corticostriatal connection is ... an excitatory glutamatergic pathway. One small cortical site can project many axon branches to several parts of the striatum. ... All the projections from the primary somatosensory cortex to the putamen, avoid the striosomes and innervate areas within the ...
In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at the antennae (though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory ... The interaction between the olfactory receptor neurons, local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input ... In Drosophila, each olfactory sensory neuron generally expresses a single olfactory receptor gene,[5] and the neurons ... The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the ...
Olfactory bulb projections[edit]. Schematic of the early olfactory system including the olfactory epithelium and bulb. Each ORN ... also mediate inhibition and excitation of mitral cells through pathways from centrifugal fibers and the anterior olfactory ... Main olfactory system[edit]. Main article: Olfactory system. In humans and other vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory ... which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[17] The axons from the olfactory ...
Olfactory perception, communication, and the nose-to-brain pathway. Physiology & Behavior, 83, 3-11. Kovács, Tibor (2004-04-01 ... The medial prefrontal cortex receives extensive olfactory projections, which are activated immediately after birth in ... In mammals, each olfactory receptor protein has one type of molecule that it responds to, known as the one-olfactory-one-neuron ... Neuropsychological research has suggested that this pathway is vital for the development of olfactory memories. The primary ...
... forms a parallel pathway independent from the main olfactory bulb. The vomeronasal organ sends projections to the accessory ... Additionally, top down input to the olfactory bulb differentially affects olfactory outputs. The olfactory bulb sends olfactory ... Olfactory information is sent to the primary olfactory cortex, where projections are sent to the orbitofrontal cortex. The OFC ... Therefore, the olfactory bulb plays this role for the olfactory system. The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), which resides on ...
... , sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that ... Other pathways VTA → Amygdala VTA → Hippocampus VTA → Cingulate cortex VTA → Olfactory bulb SNc → Subthalamic nucleus The ... The mesolimbic pathway is involved in motivation cognition. Depletion of dopamine in this pathway, or lesions at its site of ... Noradrenergic projections from the LC thus interact with dopaminergic projections from the VTA to regulate cognitive control. ...
"The Differential Projections of the Olfactory Bulb and Accessory Olfactory Bulb in Mammals." Wiley Online Library. 01 May 1975 ... and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves.[1]. Odor molecules can enter the peripheral pathway and reach the nasal cavity either ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory ...
... including the projection of axons in the optic tract and in the olfactory epithelium. The Robo gene family contributes to the ... Instead, it is required for the lateral pathway selection of axons after crossing. Robo2 also contributes to lateral pathway ... The Slit2/Robo1 pathway has been associated with tumor angiogenesis, leading to subsequent tumor growth. Slit2 proteins have ... Fujiwara M, Ghazizadeh M, Kawanami O (May 2006). "Potential role of the Slit/Robo signal pathway in angiogenesis". Vasc Med. 11 ...
... "areas in the rostro-ventral portion of the forebrain which receive direct projections from the olfactory bulb," including the ... While the stria terminalis follows a C-shaped pathway along the lateral ventricles, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway is more ... Its strongest afferent connections are from the olfactory bulb. Although the olfactory cortex comprises all the " ... is one of the three major efferent pathways of the amygdala, meaning that it is one of the three principal pathways by which ...
... the pathway connecting the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, plays a critical role in the ... Increased dopamine projections from mesolimbic areas (e.g., the striatum) to the prefrontal cortex have been observed during ... These projections are pruned decline in early adulthood. Adolescent-specific peaks in dopamine receptors in the striatum have ... dopamine concentrations projecting to the prefrontal cortex increase into adolescence as do the dopamine projections from the ...
... and olfactory tubercle. It is one of the component pathways of the medial forebrain bundle, which is a set of neural pathways ... Noradrenergic projections from the LC thus interact with dopaminergic projections from the VTA to regulate cognitive control. ... The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain. The pathway ... Mesocortical pathway Nigrostriatal pathway Tuberoinfundibular pathway Antipsychotic Tardive dysphrenia Dreyer JL (2010). "New ...
... olfactory glands, olfactory neurons, and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves. Odor molecules can enter the peripheral pathway ... "The Differential Projections of the Olfactory Bulb and Accessory Olfactory Bulb in Mammals." Wiley Online Library. 01 May 1975 ... Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory ... "Projections from the Amygdaloid Complex and Adjacent Olfactory Structures to the Entorhinal Cortex and to the Subiculum in the ...
"Extrinsic projections from area CA1 of the rat hippocampus: olfactory, cortical, subcortical, and bilateral hippocampal ... In the initial part of this pathway, the axons project through the perforant pathway to the granule cells of the dentate gyrus ... located the moderate projections to two primary olfactory cortical areas and prelimbic areas of the medial prefrontal cortex. ... and field CA1 in the ventral hippocampus sends axons to the main olfactory bulb,[31] the anterior olfactory nucleus, and to the ...
... neurons involved in the olfactory pathway) layer, with mitral cells instead being scattered about. On the behavioral side, ... Axons are projections from neurons that connect with other cells in what is called a synapse and send neurotransmitters. In ... Radial glia express Pax6, while intermediate progenitor cells express Eomesodermin/Tbr2, and postmitotic projection neurons ...
The olfactory nerve (I) conveys the sense of smell. Damage to the olfactory nerve (I) can cause an inability to smell (anosmia ... Visual field testing may be used to pin-point structural lesions in the optic nerve, or further along the visual pathways.[12] ... Dog-fish brain in two projections. top; ventral bottom; lateral. The accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII) cannot be ... They are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), ...
... and dopaminergic projection neurons, although other types of projection neurons contribute (e.g., orexinergic projection ... Stimulation there activates fibers that form the ascending pathways; the ascending pathways include the mesolimbic dopamine ... First, rewards have basic sensory components (visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory) ... Second, rewards ... Most of the pathways that connect structures within the reward system are glutamatergic interneurons, GABAergic medium spiny ...
... which is analogous to the olfactory bulb in mammals. This glomerulus then connects to DA1 projection neurons (PNs) which relay ... The pathway to queen morphs is through increased mRNA translation in the cytosol. Biogenesis of organelles occurs at the same ... The pathways that govern the mapping of pheromones to the brain of drosophila are beginning to be understood in detail. ... Another pathway that has been studied is that involving another odorant receptor called Or47b, which is connected to the VA1v ...
... polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve - monomodal pathways). These pathways reach the ... Fewer cholinergic neurons of the pons and midbrain send projections to the forebrain along the ventral pathway, bypassing the ... During sleep onset, it acts via two pathways: a cholinergic pathway that projects to the cortex via the thalamus and a set of ... The exact mechanisms for the above are still unknown and the exact neural pathways and cellular mechanisms of sleep debt are ...
... polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve - monomodal pathways). These pathways reach the ... ascending cholinergic projections, descending non-cholinergic projections, and descending reticulospinal projections.[3] The ... It is also the origin of the descending analgesic pathways. The nerve fibers in these pathways act in the spinal cord to block ... The thalamic pathway consists primarily of cholinergic neurons in the pontine tegmentum, whereas the hypothalamic pathway is ...
The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the antenna. Functionally, it shares some similarities with the olfactory bulb in vertebrates.. In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at the antennae (though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory neurons in other parts of the body) from where the sensory neurons carry the information about the odorant molecules impinging on the antenna to the antennal lobe.[1] The antennal lobe is composed of densely packed neuropils, termed glomeruli, where the sensory neurons synapse with the two other kinds of neurons, the projection neurons and the local neurons.[1] There are 43 glomeruli in the Drosophila antennal lobe; in Aedes aegypti there are 32;[1] locusts and social wasps may have over 1000.[1] The ...
... is an increased olfactory acuity (heightened sense of smell), usually caused by a lower threshold for odor. This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and the olfactory cortex. The causes of hyperosmia may be genetic, environmental or the result of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. When odorants enter the nasal cavity, they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. These receptors are bipolar neurons that connect to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, traveling through the cribriform plate. At the glomerular layer, axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with dendrites from intrinsic olfactory bulb neurons: mitrial/tufted cells and dopaminergic ...
The main olfactory bulb transmits pulses to both mitral and tufted cells, which help determine odor concentration based off the time certain neuron clusters fire (called 'timing code'). These cells also note differences between highly similar odors and use that data to aid in later recognition. The cells are different with mitral having low firing-rates and being easily inhibited by neighboring cells, while tufted have high rates of firing and are more difficult to inhibit.[7][8][9][10]. The uncus houses the olfactory cortex which includes the piriform cortex (posterior orbitofrontal cortex), amygdala, olfactory tubercle, and parahippocampal gyrus.. The olfactory tubercle connects to numerous areas of the amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brain stem, retina, auditory cortex, and olfactory system. *In total it has 27 inputs and ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[13] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[23] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals ...
The olfactory tubercle differs in location and relative size between humans, non-human primates, rodents, birds, and other animals. In most cases, the olfactory tubercle is identified as a round bulge along the basal forebrain anterior to the optic chiasm and posterior to the olfactory peduncle.[7] In humans and non-human primates, visual identification of the olfactory tubercle is not easy because the basal forebrain bulge is small in these animals.[8] With regard to functional anatomy, the olfactory tubercle can be considered to be a part of three larger networks. First, it is considered to be part of the basal forebrain, the nucleus accumbens, and the amygdaloid nuclei because of its location along the rostral ventral region of the brain, that is, the front-bottom part. Second, it is considered to be part of the ...
... perception is a complex process involving the central nervous system and can evoke psychological and physiological responses. Because the olfactory signal terminates in or near the amygdala, odors are strongly linked to memories and can evoke emotions. The amygdala participates in the hedonic or emotional processing of olfactory stimuli.[45] Odors can disturb our concentration, diminish productivity, evoke symptoms, and in general increase a dislike for an environment. Odors can impact the liking for a person, place, food, or product as a form of conditioning.[46] Memories recalled by odors are significantly more emotional and evocative than those recalled by the same cue presented visually or auditorily.[47] Odors can become conditioned to experiential states and when later encountered have directional influences on behavior. Doing a frustrating task in a scented room decreases performance of other cognitive tasks in the presence of ...
Một meme ( /miːm/ MEEM) là một quan niệm, hành vi, hoặc phong cách lan truyền từ người này sang người khác trong một nền văn hóa - thường với mục đích chuyển tải một hiện tượng, chủ đề, hoặc ý nghĩa cụ thể do meme đại diện.[1] Một meme hoạt động như một đơn vị để mang những quan niệm, biểu tượng, hoặc những thói quen thuộc về văn hóa có thể truyền tải từ ý nghĩ của người này sang người khác thông qua việc viết, nói, cử chỉ, nghi thức, hoặc các hiện tượng có thể mô phỏng khác, cùng với một chủ tố được bắt chước. Những người ủng hộ khái niệm này xem các meme như là những mô hình thuộc văn hóa có liên quan đến các gen mà trong đó chúng tự sao chép, biến đổi, và phản ứng lại với những áp lực chọn lọc.[2] Những người khởi xướng lý giải rằng các meme là ...
Bizoni ir lieli un masīvi pārnadži. Tēviņi ir nedaudz lielāki nekā mātītes un dažos gadījumos tēviņi ir ievērojami masīvāki un smagāki. Bizona tēviņa ķermeņa garums ir 3,6 - 3,8 m, augstums skaustā 1,67 - 1,86 m.[3] Mātītes ķermeņa garums ir 2,13 - 3,18 m, augstums skaustā 1,52 - 1,57 m.[3] Bizona masa ir 318 - 1000 kg.[4] Smagākais datētais tēviņš savvaļā ir svēris 1,27 tonnas,[4][5] bet nebrīvē bizons var izaugt vēl lielāks. Lielākais bizons nebrīvē ir sasniedzis 1,724 tonnas.[6] Aste ir vidēji gara (50 - 60 cm).[7] Bizonam ir raksturīgs plecu kupris un proporcionāli milzīga galva. Salīdzinot abas pasugas, līdzenuma bizons ir mazāks nekā meža bizons. Turklāt meža bizons salīdzinoši ir ar tumšāku matojumu un tā augstākā vieta skaustā ir nedaudz pirms priekškājām, bet līdzenuma bizonam tieši virs priekškājām. Bizonam ziemā ir garš, biezs, savēlies, tumši brūns matojums, bet vasarā kažoks kļūst gaišāks un plānāks. ...
Kesha 2010 yılında biseksüel olduğunu açıkladı.[7] Ocak 2014'te yeme bozukluğu tedavisi için rehabilitasyona girdi.[8] 2015'te Dr. Luke'a fiziksel ve ruhsal taciz davası açmıştır fakat Dr. Luke davayı kabul etmemiştir.Kesha'nın avukatı Mark Geragos "Dava Kesha'nın yeniden müzik kariyerininin kontrolünü ele alması, kişisel özgürlükleri, 10 yıldır ruhsal olarak sorun yasadığı ve duygusal olarak zarar gördüğü için Dr Luke'in ellerinde cinsel tacize maruz kaldığı için çok önemli dedi. "Kesha hayatını ve kariyerini bu kötü zamanların gerisinde bırakmak istiyor. Davada aynı anda Dr Luke ile olan kontratın feshedilmesi isteniyor. Dr Luke'ın avukatları Kesha ve annesi şu anda Dr Luke'u karalama kampanyası başlattılar. Hakkında yalan yanlış iddialarda bulunuyorlar" dedi.Davada Kararı gözyaşları içinde dinleyen şarkıcı, birçok ünlü isim, sosyal medyadan destek verdi. Kesha, prodüktörü Dr. Luke'u 10 senedir kendisini cinsel, ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
ইন্দ্রিয় তন্ত্র (ইংরেজি: Sensory system) বলতে স্নায়ুতন্ত্রের একটি অংশকে বোঝায় , যেটি নানাবিধ ইন্দ্রিয়জাত তথ্য প্রক্রিয়া করে । একটি ইন্দ্রিয়তন্ত্র ইন্দ্রিয় সংগ্রহক , স্নায়বিক পথ এবং মস্তিষ্কের যেসব অংশ ইন্দ্রিয় সংগ্রহণের সাথে জড়িত , সেগুলি নিয়ে গঠিত । সাধারণভাবে স্বীকৃত ইন্দ্রিয় তন্ত্রগুলির মধ্যে আছে দর্শন, শ্রবণ, স্পর্শ, স্বাদ ও ঘ্রাণের সাথে সম্পর্কিত ইন্দ্রিয়সমূহ। কোন ...
... is an approach to cognitive science research that deploys models of the extended mind (see, for example, the paper The Extended Mind) by taking as the fundamental unit of analysis "a collection of individuals and artifacts and their relations to each other in a particular work practice" . "DCog" is a specific approach to distributed cognition (distinct from other meanings) which takes a computational perspective towards goal-based activity systems. Dcog frameworks employed were originally developed in the mid-1980s by Edwin Hutchins, who continues to be the leading pioneer and whose research is based at the University of California at San Diego. Using insights from sociology, cognitive science, and the psychology of Vygotsky (cf. cultural-historical psychology) it emphasizes the ways that cognition is off-loaded into the environment through social and technological means. It is a framework for studying cognition rather than a type of cognition. This framework involves the ...
Sullivan JM, Beltz BS: Evolutionary changes in the olfactory projection neuron pathways of eumalacostracan crustaceans. The ... olfactory globular tract neuropil; OGTNa, accessory olfactory globular tract neuropil; ON, olfactory neuropil (olfactory lobe ... The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection ... The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection ...
The VTA-mOT DAergic pathway mediates a variety of naturalistic reward processes and different types of preferences including ... The organization of projections from the olfactory bulb to the piriform cortex and olfactory tubercle in the rat * JW Scott ... Olfactory tubercle has been implicated in both reward and olfactory information processing. However, in both the olfactory ... Olfactory tubercle has been implicated in both reward and olfactory information processing. However, in both the olfactory ...
Each olfactory receptor cell emits two processes (projections). One of these is a short peripheral dendrite, which reaches to ... Olfactory system - Nervous pathways of smell: The pathway of olfactory conduction begins with the olfactory receptors-small, ... The other process is a long and extremely thin axon, the olfactory nerve fibre, which reaches the cranial cavity by passing ... the surface of the epithelium, where it ends in a knob carrying a number of fine radially placed filaments, the olfactory hairs ...
Garel, S., Garcia-Dominguez, M. and Charnay, P. (2000). Control of the migratory pathway of facial branchiomotor neurones. ... However, there is a marked defect in the projection of olfactory axons to the dorsal olfactory bulb (OB) surface in O/E2lacZ/ ... have been implicated in the projection of olfactory axons and proper formation of the olfactory circuitry (Pasterkamp et al., ... A) The ORN projection to dorsal OB and olfactory glomeruli formation in this region were visualized by GFP fluorescence and OMP ...
Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which ... Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which ... thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we ... thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we ...
I. Cellular and molecular determinants that separate the optic and olfactory projections. J Neurosci 7:2264-2272. ... 1999) Altered midline axon pathways and ectopic neurons in the developing hypothalamus of netrin-1- and DCC-deficient mice. J ... To examine the effects of the CS-GAG removal on pathway formation of the retinal axons, they were anterogradely labeled with ... The enzymatic treatment did not only lower the concentrations of the CS-GAG around the retinal pathway but also cancelled the ...
The olfactory pathway does not involve a thalamic relay prior to its cortical projections. Relays from the olfactory tubercle ... Olfactory dysfunction. Disturbances in olfaction can result from pathologic processes at any level along the olfactory pathway ... Treatment of Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction. Treatment of olfactory dysfunction. Any treatment of olfactory disorders must ... the anterior olfactory nucleus, connecting the 2 olfactory bulbs through the anterior commissure, (2) the olfactory tubercle, ( ...
... the cortical projection pathways and centrifugal feedback connections; the physiological coding principles that underlie odor ... Our lab focuses on understanding how the human brain transforms olfactory inputs into perceptual representations, and how ... Currently even the most well-founded research assumptions - the cellular organization of the peripheral olfactory system; ... and systems-level analysis using functional MRI and olfactory psychophysical techniques in human subjects, and also in mouse ...
Anatomy and fine structure of neurons in the deutocerebral projection pathway of the crayfish olfactory system. J. Comp. Neurol ... the non-olfactory sensilla-LAN pathway represents a second antennular chemosensory pathway that parallels the olfactory pathway ... The axons of the olfactory lobe projection neurons form a common fiber tract (olfactory globular tract, OGT) projecting to ... and associative learning of food-related chemicals can be mediated by either the olfactory or non-olfactory antennular pathway ...
... and exposed some novel aspects of well-established cortical olfactory projections. ... 72 pathways; 36 efferent/36 afferent) currently are available to view in iConnectome within their corresponding atlas level and ... Additional MOB injections and injections of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), and other ... Additional MOB injections and injections of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), and other ...
Describe the mesocortical pathway projections and what it is responsible for? VTA to DLPFC, VMPFC, cingulate, olfactory bulbs; ... Dendritic spines receive what kind of input? Whats an important projection to neocortex via these spine interactions? ... The cingulum also sends a projection to this structure to mediate what pain-related emotion? ...
Nitric oxide signaling is implicated in olfactory and visual pathways within the insect brain. In contrast, little is known ... Nitric oxide signaling is implicated in olfactory and visual pathways within the insect brain. In contrast, little is known ... Different cells innervate exteroceptive and proprioceptive projection neuropiles. In the projection neuropiles of tactile ... a previously undescribed type of unpaired median neurone with bilaterally ascending and descending intersegmental projections ...
Stemme T*, Eickhoff R*, Bicker G (2014): Olfactory projection neuron pathways in two species of marine Isopoda (Peracarida, ... Stemme T, Iliffe TM, Bicker G (2016): Olfactory pathway in Xibalbanus tulumensis: remipedian hemiellipsoid body as homologue of ...
2007) Segregated pathways to the vomeronasal amygdala: Differential projections from the anterior and posterior divisions of ... In mammals, genes expressed in the olfactory system (more precisely, those coding for olfactory chemosensors) evolve very ... This interspecies chemosensor repertoire variability reaches an extreme with the olfactory Fpr family. Indeed, Fpr olfactory ... A divergent pattern of sensory axonal projections is rendered convergent by second-order neurons in the accessory olfactory ...
... occurs during tests of olfactory memory.[20] The medial prefrontal cortex receives extensive olfactory projections, which are ... Neuropsychological research has suggested that this pathway is vital for the development of olfactory memories. The primary ... Olfactory cues[edit]. Mammalian studies[edit]. Mammalian olfactory cues play an important role in the coordination of the ... Olfactory deficits in the brain[edit]. Olfactory memory deficits can be significant indicators of brain damage and pathology.[ ...
The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals. (See the image ... Olfactory Tract and Central Pathways. Mitral cell axons project to the olfactory cortex via the olfactory tract. Medial fibers ... Central Projections. The pyriform lobe includes the olfactory tract, the uncus, and the anterior part of the parahippocampal ... Olfactory Bulb. The olfactory bulb lies inferior to the basal frontal lobe. The olfactory bulb is a highly organized structure ...
... forms a parallel pathway independent from the main olfactory bulb. The vomeronasal organ sends projections to the accessory ... Therefore, the olfactory bulb plays this role for the olfactory system. Accessory olfactory bulb[edit]. The accessory olfactory ... The accessory olfactory bulb resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb and forms a parallel pathway. ... Olfactory information is sent to the primary olfactory cortex, where projections are sent to the orbitofrontal cortex. The OFC ...
The Neuroanatomical Organization of Projection Neurons Associated with Different Olfactory Bulb Pathways in the Sea Lamprey, ... However, the axons from olfactory sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium extend to non-medial regions of the ... the spatial relationship between the second order projection neurons (PNs) of olfactory subsystems connecting sensory input to ... It is not known if the receptive fields of the PNs in the two output pathways overlap; nor has the morphology of these PNs been ...
In contrast to the graded and continuous organization of retinal projections, the primary olfactory pathway is arranged in a ... The olfactory map is formed by the convergence of the axonal projections of olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) expressing a ... An accessory olfactory pathway in Lepidoptera: the labial pit organ and its central projections in Manduca sexta and certain ... Targeted ingrowth and glial relationships of olfactory receptor axons in the primary olfactory pathway of an insect. J Comp ...
2004). Sexual incentive motivation, olfactory preference, and activation of the vomeronasal projection pathway by sexually ... 2005). Olfactory discrimination of female reproductive status by male tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). J. Exp. Biol. 208, ... 2004). An experimental study of the connections of the telencephalon in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). I: Olfactory ... of sexual experience on conspecific odor preference and male odor-induced activation of the vomeronasal projection pathway and ...
The close proximity of these two pathways causes them to be grouped together under dopaminergic projections. Several disorders ... Olfactory bulb VTA → Prefrontal cortex Because they develop from common embryonic tissue and partly overlap in their projection ... Noradrenergic projections from the LC thus interact with dopaminergic projections from the VTA to regulate cognitive control ... and the lateral olfactory tubercle. These pathways are called the meso-ventromedial and the meso-ventrolateral striatal ...
We asked which main olfactory forebrain targets send axonal projections to the AOB, and whether these input neurons express Fos ... A centrifugal pathway to the mouse accessory olfactory bulb from the medial amygdala conveys gender-specific volatile ... A centrifugal pathway to the mouse accessory olfactory bulb from the medial amygdala conveys gender-specific volatile ... A centrifugal pathway to the mouse accessory olfactory bulb from the medial amygdala conveys gender-specific volatile ...
Neurogenesis is critical to continuously replacie olfactory neurons but is impaired during chronic inflammatory rhinosinusitis ... Olfactory Pathways. Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the ... forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the ... OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and olfactory cortex. The ...
... parabrachio-amygdaloid nociceptive pathway [Bernard & Besson (1990) J. Neurophysiol. 63, 473-490; Bernard et al. (1992) J. ... the olfactory tubercle, the nucleus of olfactory tract and the rostral pole of the cingulate/frontal cortex. This study ... Projections from the nociceptive area of the central nucleus of the amygdala to the forebrain: a PHA-L study in the rat Eur J ... The projections of the BLA are totally different from those of the Ce as they terminate in the dorsal striatum, the accumbens ...
In the fly olfactory system, axons of 50 classes of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and dendrites of 50 classes of projection ... MicroRNA Processing Pathway Regulates Olfactory Neuron Morphogenesis CURRENT BIOLOGY Berdnik, D., Fan, A. P., Potter, C. J., ... In Drosophila, olfactory projection neurons (PNs) receive input by synapsing with olfactory receptor neurons in the antennal ... Dendrites of olfactory projection neurons (PNs) pattern the developing antennal lobe before olfactory receptor neuron axon ...
  • In parallel to previous behavioral findings that B. latro has aerial olfaction, our results indicate that their central olfactory pathway is indeed most prominent. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Similar findings from the closely related terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus suggest that in Coenobitidae, olfaction is a major sensory modality processed by the brain, and that for these animals, exploring the olfactory landscape is vital for survival in their terrestrial habitat. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The projection neuron axonal branches make contact to ca. 250.000 interneurons (per side) associated with the hemiellipsoid neuropils. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here we analyze the brain, in particular the olfactory processing areas of B. latro , by morphological analysis followed by 3 D reconstruction and immunocytochemical studies of synaptic proteins and a neuropeptide. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Amounting to ca. 1,000,000, the numbers of interneurons that analyse the olfactory input in B. latro brains surpasses that in other terrestrial arthropods, as e.g. the honeybee Apis mellifera or the moth Manduca sexta , by two orders of magnitude suggesting that B. latro in fact is a land-living arthropod that has devoted a substantial amount of nervous tissue to the sense of smell. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae): evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway? (beds.ac.uk)
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