Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An infraorder of CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA comprising the hermit crabs and characterized by a small fifth pair of legs.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The selection of one food over another.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.

A genetic approach to visualization of multisynaptic neural pathways using plant lectin transgene. (1/1308)

The wiring patterns among various types of neurons via specific synaptic connections are the basis of functional logic employed by the brain for information processing. This study introduces a powerful method of analyzing the neuronal connectivity patterns by delivering a tracer selectively to specific types of neurons while simultaneously transsynaptically labeling their target neurons. We developed a novel genetic approach introducing cDNA for a plant lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), as a transgene under the control of specific promoter elements. Using this method, we demonstrate three examples of visualization of specific transsynaptic neural pathways: the mouse cerebellar efferent pathways, the mouse olfactory pathways, and the Drosophila visual pathways. This strategy should greatly facilitate studies on the anatomical and functional organization of the developing and mature nervous system.  (+info)

Sodefrin: a novel sex pheromone in a newt. (2/1308)

The abdominal gland in the male red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, is the source of a female-attracting pheromone. An attempt was made to isolate and characterize the female-attracting pheromone in the abdominal glands of male newts. The active substance, named sodefrin (from the Japanese 'sodefuri' which means 'soliciting') has been isolated and shown to be a novel decapeptide with the sequence, Ser-Ile-Pro-Ser-Lys-Asp-Ala-Leu-Leu-Lys. Its minimum effective concentration in water is 0.1-1.0 pmol 1-1. Synthetic sodefrin shows a female-attracting activity similar to that of the native peptide, and acts through the olfactory organ of female newts. Electrophysiological studies reveal that sodefrin evokes a marked electroolfactogram response in the vomeronasal epithelium in sexually mature females and in ovariectomized females treated with prolactin and oestrogen. The pheromonal activity of sodefrin appears to be species-specific since it does not attract females of a congeneric species, the sword-tailed newt C. ensicauda. However, C. ensicauda has a variant of sodefrin differing from that in C. pyrrhogaster by substitutions of Leu for Pro at position 3 and Gln for Leu at position 8. The C. ensicauda variant sodefrin does not attract C. pyrrhogaster females. Genes encoding the sodefrin precursor protein have been cloned in both C. pyrrhogaster and C. ensicauda. Immunostaining of the abdominal gland using the antiserum against sodefrin shows that sodefrin occurs in the epithelial cells, predominantly within the secretory granules. Sodefrin content, detected by immunoassay, in C. pyrrhogaster males decreases after castration and hypophysectomy and increases markedly in the castrated and hypophysectomized newts after treatment with androgen and prolactin. This combination of hormones also enhances sodefrin mRNA content in the abdominal gland as assessed by northern blot analysis using sodefrin cDNA.  (+info)

A novel family of divergent seven-transmembrane proteins: candidate odorant receptors in Drosophila. (3/1308)

Although insects have proven to be valuable models for exploring the function, organization, and development of the olfactory system, the receptor molecules that bind odors have not been identified in any insect. We have developed a novel search algorithm, used it to search the Drosophila genomic sequence database, and identified a large multigene family encoding seven transmembrane domain proteins that are expressed in olfactory organs. We show that expression is restricted to subsets of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for a number of these genes. Different members of the family initiate expression at different times during antennal development. Some of the genes are not expressed in a mutant of the Acj6 POU-domain transcription factor, a mutant in which a subset of ORNs show abnormal odorant specificities.  (+info)

The odor specificities of a subset of olfactory receptor neurons are governed by Acj6, a POU-domain transcription factor. (4/1308)

Little is known about how the odor specificities of olfactory neurons are generated, a process essential to olfactory coding. We have found that neuronal identity relies on the abnormal chemosensory jump 6 (acj6) gene, originally identified by a defect in olfactory behavior. Physiological analysis of individual olfactory neurons shows that in acj6 mutants, a subset of neurons acquires a different odorant response profile. Certain other neurons do not respond to any tested odors in acj6. Molecular analysis of acj6 shows that it encodes a POU-domain transcription factor expressed in olfactory neurons. Our data suggest that the odor response spectrum of an olfactory neuron, and perhaps the choice of receptor genes, is determined through a process requiring the action of Acj6.  (+info)

Crossmodal associative memory representations in rodent orbitofrontal cortex. (5/1308)

Firing patterns of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex (OF) were analyzed in rats trained to perform a task that encouraged incidental associations between distinct odors and the places where their occurrence was detected. Many of the neurons fired differentially when the animals were at a particular location or sampled particular odors. Furthermore, a substantial fraction of the cells exhibited odor-specific firing patterns prior to odor presentation, when the animal arrived at a location associated with that odor. These findings suggest that neurons in the OF encode cross-modal associations between odors and locations within long-term memory.  (+info)

Blind smell: brain activation induced by an undetected air-borne chemical. (6/1308)

EEG and behavioural evidence suggests that air-borne chemicals can affect the nervous system without being consciously detected. EEG and behaviour, however, do not specify which brain structures are involved in chemical sensing that occurs below a threshold of conscious detection. Here we used functional MRI to localize brain activation induced by high and low concentrations of the air-borne compound oestra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3yl acetate. Following presentations of both concentrations, eight of eight subjects reported verbally that they could not detect any odour (P = 0.004). Forced choice detection performed during the presentations revealed above-chance detection of the high concentration, but no better than chance detection of the low concentration compound. Both concentrations induced significant brain activation, primarily in the anterior medial thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus during the high concentration condition was significantly greater in the right than in the left hemisphere (P = 0.03). A trend towards greater thalamic activation was observed for the high concentration than the low concentration compound (P = 0.08). These findings localize human brain activation that was induced by an undetectable air-borne chemical (the low concentration compound).  (+info)

Adenovirus-mediated expression of an olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel regulates the endogenous Ca2+-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase in C6-2B glioma cells. (7/1308)

Previous studies have established that Ca2+-sensitive adenylyl cyclases, whether endogenously or heterologously expressed, are preferentially regulated by capacitative Ca2+ entry, compared with other means of elevating cytosolic Ca2+ (Chiono, M., Mahey, R., Tate, G., and Cooper, D. M. F. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 1149-1155; Fagan, K. A., Mahey, R., and Cooper, D. M. F. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12438-12444; Fagan, K. A., Mons, N., and Cooper, D. M. F. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 9297-9305). These findings led to the suggestion that adenylyl cyclases and capacitative Ca2+ entry channels were localized in the same functional domain of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we have asked whether a heterologously expressed Ca2+-permeable channel could regulate the Ca2+-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase of C6-2B glioma cells. The cDNA coding for the rat olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel was inserted into an adenovirus construct to achieve high levels of expression. Electrophysiological measurements confirmed the preservation of the properties of the expressed olfactory channel. Stimulation of the channel with cGMP analogs yielded a robust elevation in cytosolic Ca2+, which was associated with an inhibition of cAMP accumulation, comparable with that elicited by capacitative Ca2+ entry. These findings not only extend the means whereby Ca2+-sensitive adenylyl cyclases may be regulated, they also suggest that in tissues where they co-exist, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and Ca2+-sensitive adenylyl cyclases may reciprocally modulate each other's activity.  (+info)

From embryo to adult: persistent neurogenesis and apoptotic cell death shape the lobster deutocerebrum. (8/1308)

Neuronal plasticity and synaptic remodeling play important roles during the development of the invertebrate nervous system. In addition, structural neuroplasticity as a result of long-term environmental changes, behavioral modifications, age, and experience have been demonstrated in the brains of sexually mature insects. In adult vertebrates, persistent neurogenesis is found in the granule cell layer of the mammalian hippocampus and the subventricular zone, as well as in the telencephalon of songbirds, indicating that persistent neurogenesis, which is presumably related to plasticity and learning, may be an integral part of the normal biology of the mature brain. In decapod crustaceans, persistent neurogenesis among olfactory projection neurons is a common principle that shapes the adult brain, indicating a remarkable degree of life-long structural plasticity. The present study closes a gap in our knowledge of this phenomenon by describing the continuous cell proliferation and gradual displacement of proliferation domains in the central olfactory pathway of the American lobster Homarus americanus from early embryonic through larval and juvenile stages into adult life. Neurogenesis in the deutocerebrum was examined by the in vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine, and development and structural maturation of the deutocerebral neuropils were studied using immunohistochemistry against Drosophila synapsin. The role of apoptotic cell death in shaping the developing deutocerebrum was studied using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling method, combined with immunolabeling using an antiphospho histone H3 mitosis marker. Our results indicate that, in juvenile and adult lobsters, birth and death of olfactory interneurons occur in parallel, suggesting a turnover of these cells. When the persistent neurogenesis and concurrent death of interneurons in the central olfactory pathway of the crustacean brain are taken into account with the life-long turnover of olfactory receptor cells in crustacean antennules, a new, highly dynamic picture of olfaction in crustaceans emerges.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrastructural study of the primary olfactory pathway in Macaca fascicularis. AU - Herrera, Loren P.. AU - Casas, Carlos E.. AU - Bates, Margaret L.. AU - Guest, James D. PY - 2005/8/8. Y1 - 2005/8/8. N2 - Olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OEGs) interact with a wide repertoire of cell types and support extension of olfactory axons (OAs) within the olfactory pathway. OEGs are thought to exclude OAs from contact with all other cells between the olfactory epithelium and the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. These properties have lead to testing to determine whether OEGs support axonal growth following transplantation. The cellular interactions of transplanted OEGs will probably resemble those that occur within the normal pathway where interactions between OEGs and fibroblasts are prominent. No previous primate studies have focused on these interactions, knowledge of which is important if clinical application is envisioned. We describe the detailed intercellular interactions of OAs ...
A Specialized Odor Memory Buffer in Primary Olfactory Cortex. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The mammalian olfactory cortex is a complex structure located along the rostro-caudal extension of the ventrolateral prosencephalon, which is divided into several anatomically and functionally distinct areas: the anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex, olfactory tubercle, amygdaloid olfactory nuclei, and the more caudal entorhinal cortex. Multiple forebrain progenitor domains contribute to the cellular diversity of the olfactory cortex, which is invaded simultaneously by cells originating in distinct germinal areas in the dorsal and ventral forebrain. Using a combination of dye labeling techniques, we identified two novel areas that contribute cells to the developing olfactory cortices, the septum and the ventral pallium, from which cells migrate along a radial and then a tangential path. We characterized these cell populations by comparing their expression of calretinin, calbindin, reelin and Tbr1 with that of other olfactory cell populations.
View more ,The process of establishing long-range neuronal connections can be divided into at least three discrete steps. First, axons need to be stimulated to grow and this growth must be towards appropriate targets. Second, after arriving at their target, axons need to be directed to their topographically appropriate position and in some cases, such as in cortical structures, they must grow radially to reach the correct laminar layer. Third, axons then arborize and form synaptic connections with only a defined subpopulation of potential post-synaptic partners. Attempts to understand these mechanisms in the visual system have been ongoing since pioneer studies in the 1940s highlighted the specificity of neuronal connections in the retino-tectal pathway. These classical systems-based approaches culminated in the 1990s with the discovery that Eph-ephrin repulsive interactions were involved in topographical mapping. In marked contrast, it was the cloning of the odorant receptor family that quickly ...
We used slice preparations and electrophysiological methods to investigate synaptic function and plasticity in Fmr1 KO mice and WT controls. We observed a pronounced deficit in expression of stable LTP in ASSN synapses in the anterior piriform cortex in mice lacking FMRP. This deficit only appeared in tissue from animals at least 6 months of age and was not observed in slices from hippocampus. We did not see significant differences in basal synaptic transmission, alterations in paired-pulse plasticity, or significantly modified local circuit properties in responses to high-frequency bursts. The same age-dependent LTP impairment in the APC was observed whether or not GABAA receptors were blocked. These findings suggest that the primary defect in LTP in the olfactory cortex involves mechanisms responsible for stabilization of potentiation. Both the age dependence and regional selectivity of the defect place constraints on the cellular basis for it.. FMRP could participate directly in the ...
Olfactory Pathways, part of the limbic system, are a set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex
The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the antenna. Functionally, it shares some similarities with the olfactory bulb in vertebrates.. In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at the antennae (though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory neurons in other parts of the body) from where the sensory neurons carry the information about the odorant molecules impinging on the antenna to the antennal lobe.[1] The antennal lobe is composed of densely packed neuropils, termed glomeruli, where the sensory neurons synapse with the two other kinds of neurons, the projection neurons and the local neurons.[1] There are 43 glomeruli in the Drosophila antennal lobe; in Aedes aegypti there are 32;[1] locusts and social wasps may have over 1000.[1] The projection neurons project to higher brain centers such as the mushroom body and the lateral horn.[2] [3] [4] The local neurons, which are primarily inhibitory, ...
Li backed up these findings with scans of the volunteers brains. She used a technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that their learning experiences were mirrored by changes in their posterior piriform cortex (PPC), a part of the brain involved in learning new smells. At the start of the study, sniffing both forms of 2-butanol triggered similar patterns of activity in the PPC. After the shock, these patterns became more distinct, even though the overall level of activity in the region stayed the same. In contrast, the patterns for the rose oxide molecules remained strongly coupled throughout the study. Adaptive sniffing Weve known for decades that a shocking stimulus can condition an animal towards certain types of behaviour, but this study clearly shows that it can also make an animal more sensitive to the stimulus in question. Clearly, animals benefit from being able to discern the smell of danger and ignore unimportant odours. As Li herself put it, the whiff of ...
To directly test for an explicit population code for reward valence, we trained linear classifiers (SVMs) to decode reward from the responses to a set of four odors (two rewarded, two unrewarded), then tested the ability of the same classifier to decode reward from the responses to the other set of four odors presented in the same session (Fig. 6B). Overall, we found that classifiers trained on OT data successfully decoded reward from responses to odors that the classifiers did not see during training. On the other hand, classifiers trained on pPC data did not have this property. Importantly, these results were consistent across individual mice (OT, n = 5 mice; pPC, n = 3 mice) and odor sets for which populations of at least five cells were available (Fig. 6B; Materials and Methods). A single neuron could respond similarly to two odors with the same valence, because the response is valence specific or strictly due to similar purely sensory-driven responses evoked by the two odors. In turn, the ...
An essential feature of the organization and function of the vertebrate and insect olfactory systems is the generation of a variety of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that have different specificities in regard to both odorant receptor expression and axonal targeting. Yet the underlying mechanisms …
The major finding of this study is that antennal lobe projection neurons and mushroom body Kenyon cells express different sets of ionic currents.. Kenyon cells express at least three different voltage-gated outward K+ currents. The transient component comprises a rapidly inactivating (A-type) current and a slowly inactivating current, whose kinetic parameters have been described in great detail (Pelz et al., 1999). The amplitude of the sustained (delayed rectifier) current is relatively small compared to the transient K+ currents, as described in various insect or crustacean neurons (e.g. Byerly and Leung, 1988; Saito and Wu, 1991; Hayashi and Levine, 1992; Delgado et al., 1998; Kloppenburg and Hörner, 1998; Benkenstein et al., 1999; Kloppenburg et al., 1999b; Schmidt et al., 2000 (for a review, see Wicher et al., 2001) and in antennal motoneurons within the honeybee deutocerebrum (Kloppenburg et al., 1999a). By contrast, projection neurons do not express such prominent transient K+ currents. ...
The Drosophila olfactory system exhibits very precise and stereotyped wiring that is specified predominantly by genetic programming. Dendrites of olfactory projection neurons (PNs) pattern the developing antennal lobe before olfactory receptor neuron axon arrival, indicating an intrinsic wiring mechanism for PN dendrites. These wiring decisions are likely determined through a transcriptional program. This study found that loss of Brahma associated protein 55 kD (Bap55) results in a highly specific PN mistargeting phenotype. In Bap55 mutants, PNs that normally target to the DL1 glomerulus mistarget to the DA4l glomerulus with 100% penetrance. Loss of Bap55 also causes derepression of a GAL4 whose expression is normally restricted to a small subset of PNs. Bap55 is a member of both the Brahma (BRM) and the Tat interactive protein 60 kD (TIP60) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. The Bap55 mutant phenotype is partially recapitulated by Domino and Enhancer of Polycomb mutants, members of ...
In approximately 60% of adult preparations, a few terminal branches cross the midline to innervate the antennal lobe ipsilateral to the soma (arrow in Figure 1c, h); these collaterals are not observed at the larval stage (Figure 1b, i). The larval olfactory system lacks an antennal commissure (Subhashini Srinivasan, unpublished observations), which in the adult carries contralateral branches of a majority of ORNs and some PNs that connect both lobes [4]. The terminals of the CSDn in the lobe contralateral to the soma are blebby in appearance, strongly serotonin positive (Figure 2b) and resemble structures of the B. mori CSD neuron that were shown by electron microscopy to be presynaptic to some of the neural elements within the lobe [20]. In order to confirm that these endings are presynaptic, we expressed a GFP-tagged synaptotagmin (Syt-GFP) in the CSDn and found the protein highly enriched in the terminal endings (Additional file 2c, f) and not in the ipsilateral arbors (Additional file 2a). ...
Fig. 437. View of inside of the lateral wall of lateral ventricle of a human foetus at beginning of third month== His. Bb, bulbus olfactorius; C. L, lateral limb of corpus striatum; C.m., medial segment (consisting of the middle and inner limbs) of the corpus striatum. The furrow between these two parts opens into the anterior olfactory lobe; hRl., posterior olfactory lobe; L./., frontal lobe; L. o. y occipital lobe; Og. } olfactory nerve; R. i., recessus infundibuli; R. o., recessus (prae-?) opticus; St., stalk of hemisphere (strio-thalamic junction); V.I., lateral ventricle; v.Rl.+Bb, anterior olfactory lobe. {{Template:Bailey 1921 Figures}} [[Category:Human]] [[Category:Neural ...
Van de Bittner GC, Riley MM, Cao L, Ehses J, Herrick SP, Ricq EL, Wey HY, ONeill MJ, Ahmed Z, Murray TK, Smith JE, Wang C, Schroeder FA, Albers MW, Hooker JM. Nasal neuron PET imaging quantifies neuron generation and degeneration. J Clin Invest. 2017 Feb 01; 127(2):681-694 ...
Such observations reinforced the prospect that the biological events underlying chemi- cally induced toxicity are complex and that the encapsulate concentrations of covalently bound adducts in macromolecules is not the solitary determinant of toxicity per se. A swatting following kainate-induced seizures showed that the cyclin D1 mRNA was induced in the vulnerable CA3 part, and to a lesser extent, in non-vulnerable regions, while that the expression of CDK4 and cyclin D1 was upregu- lated in neurons of the rat piriform cortex and amygdala 1В-3 days after KA administra- tion in vivo. Who Is Agonistic by Fibromyalgia toradol 10 mg on-line pain medication for dogs aleve. The thin film of a childish stripling may let someone have the visualization of cursory venous circulation across the abdomen. Perhaps a couple of centuries later, the grey Hebrews displayed presumptuousness with this pursuit: in the Out-moded Testament, the perpetually tormented Responsibility cries prohibited The arrows of the ...
Such observations reinforced the prospect that the biological events underlying chemi- cally induced toxicity are complex and that the encapsulate concentrations of covalently bound adducts in macromolecules is not the solitary determinant of toxicity per se. A swatting following kainate-induced seizures showed that the cyclin D1 mRNA was induced in the vulnerable CA3 part, and to a lesser extent, in non-vulnerable regions, while that the expression of CDK4 and cyclin D1 was upregu- lated in neurons of the rat piriform cortex and amygdala 1В-3 days after KA administra- tion in vivo. Who Is Agonistic by Fibromyalgia toradol 10 mg on-line pain medication for dogs aleve. The thin film of a childish stripling may let someone have the visualization of cursory venous circulation across the abdomen. Perhaps a couple of centuries later, the grey Hebrews displayed presumptuousness with this pursuit: in the Out-moded Testament, the perpetually tormented Responsibility cries prohibited The arrows of the ...
Author Summary Many lines of evidence suggest that few spikes carry the relevant stimulus information at later stages of sensory processing. Yet mechanisms for the emergence of a robust and temporally sparse sensory representation remain elusive. Here, we introduce an idea in which a temporal sparse and reliable stimulus representation develops naturally in spiking networks. It combines principles of signal propagation with the commonly observed mechanism of neuronal firing rate adaptation. Using a stringent numerical and mathematical approach, we show how a dense rate code at the periphery translates into a temporal sparse representation in the cortical network. At the same time, it dynamically suppresses trial-by-trial variability, matching experimental observations in sensory cortices. Computational modelling of the insects olfactory pathway suggests that the same principle underlies the prominent example of temporal sparse coding in the mushroom body. Our results reveal a computational principle
The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first processing station in the olfactory pathway. Despite smell impairment, which is considered an early event in Alzheimers disease (AD), little is known about the initial molecular ...
1. A large-scale computer model of the piriform cortex was constructed on the basis of the known anatomic and physiological organization of this region. 2. The oscillatory field potential and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity generated by the model was compared with actual physiological results. The model was able to produce patterns of activity similar to those recorded physiologically in response to both weak and strong electrical shocks to the afferent input. The model also generated activity patterns similar to EEGs recorded in behaving animals. 3 ...
Date: 07/18/2008 05:53 PMBy PEGGY HARRISAssociated Press WriterLITTLE ROCK, Ark. (AP) _ Because of his own injuries, Ben Vereen seems like a natural to hig
Organophosphorus nerve agents irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, causing a toxic buildup of acetylcholine at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Current medical countermeasures to nerve agent intoxication increase survival if administered within a short period of time following exposure but may not fully prevent neurological damage. Therefore, there is a need to discover drug treatments that are effective when administered after the onset of seizures and secondary responses that lead to brain injury. To determine potential therapeutic targets for such treatments, we analyzed gene expression changes in the rat piriform cortex following sarin (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate)-induced seizure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged with 1 × LD50 sarin and subsequently treated with atropine sulfate, 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM), and the anticonvulsant diazepam. Control animals received an equivalent volume of vehicle and drug treatments. The piriform cortex, a brain region
Hyperosmia is an increased olfactory acuity (heightened sense of smell), usually caused by a lower threshold for odor. This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and the olfactory cortex. The causes of hyperosmia may be genetic, environmental or the result of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. When odorants enter the nasal cavity, they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. These receptors are bipolar neurons that connect to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, traveling through the cribriform plate. At the glomerular layer, axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with dendrites from intrinsic olfactory bulb neurons: mitrial/tufted cells and dopaminergic periglomerular cells. From the olfactory bulb, mitral/tufted cells send axons via the lateral olfactory tract (the cranial nerve I) to the olfactory cortex, which includes the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, and ...
Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. EU Funded Project NEUROCHEM (Bio-ICT-FET- 216916) has developed novel computing paradigms and biologically motivated artefacts for chemical sensing taking inspiration from the biological olfactory pathway. To demonstrate this approach, a biomimetic demonstrator has been built featuring a large scale sensor array (65K elements) in conducting polymer technology mimicking the olfactory ...
The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) processes pheromonal signals which in turn drive social behaviors. Here we identify a tract of aromatase-expressing (arom+) fibers in the dorsal lateral olfactory tract (dLOT) which terminate in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the AOB. We utilized a retrograde tracer in aromatase reporter animals to delineate the source of these fibers. We show that these input fibers emerge almost exclusively from a contiguous population of arom+ neurons that spans the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) and posterioventral subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MeApv). This population of neurons expresses the estrogen receptor alpha and contains more aromatase neurons in male mice than female mice. Thus, this population of feedback neurons can detect neuroendocrine changes and modulate the output of AOB projection neurons in a way that is sexually dimorphic and could influence every downstream target of the AOB.
Đây là một trong những cách dưỡng da tốt nhất cho làn da bị mụn và bị hao tổn do môi trường. Bạn có thể sử dụng nhiều loại mặt nạ đắp mặt từ thiên nhiên khác nhau, tuy nhiên bạn chỉ nên lựa chọn các loại mặt nạ phù hợp nhất với làn da của mình. Hãy xuy sét cẩn thận khi lựa chọn loại mặt nạ vì nó có thể gây kích ứng da khi bạn sử dụng đấy.. Thời gian tốt nhất để đắp mặt nạ là khoảng 15 phút, đừng để mặt nạ đắp mặt quá lâu vì nó có thể sẽ gây biến chất các loại vitamin và chất dưỡng da có trong mặt nạ. Bạn cũng có thể tận dụng khoảng thời gian đắp mặt nạ để thư giãn hoặc xem phim giải trí.. Một số loại mặt nạ đắp mặt tốt cho làn da như dưa leo, ngọc trai, bùn …có thể phù hợp với đại đa số làn da của bạn. Một số nhãn hiệu mặt nạ tốt ...
Đây là một trong những cách dưỡng da tốt nhất cho làn da bị mụn và bị hao tổn do môi trường. Bạn có thể sử dụng nhiều loại mặt nạ đắp mặt từ thiên nhiên khác nhau, tuy nhiên bạn chỉ nên lựa chọn các loại mặt nạ phù hợp nhất với làn da của mình. Hãy xuy sét cẩn thận khi lựa chọn loại mặt nạ vì nó có thể gây kích ứng da khi bạn sử dụng đấy.. Thời gian tốt nhất để đắp mặt nạ là khoảng 15 phút, đừng để mặt nạ đắp mặt quá lâu vì nó có thể sẽ gây biến chất các loại vitamin và chất dưỡng da có trong mặt nạ. Bạn cũng có thể tận dụng khoảng thời gian đắp mặt nạ để thư giãn hoặc xem phim giải trí.. Một số loại mặt nạ đắp mặt tốt cho làn da như dưa leo, ngọc trai, bùn …có thể phù hợp với đại đa số làn da của bạn. Một số nhãn hiệu mặt nạ tốt ...
Brain Regions (94): CTX (Cerebral cortex) MOB (Main olfactory bulb) AOB (Accessory olfactory bulb) AON (Anterior olfactory nucleus) TT (Taenia tecta) PIR (Piriform area) NLOT (Nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract) PAA (Piriform-amygdalar area) COA (Cortical amygdalar area) TR (Postpiriform transition area) CA (Ammons Horn) DG (Dentate gyrus) RHP (Retrohippocampal region) SUB (Subiculum) CP (Caudoputamen ) ACB (Nucleus accumbens ) FS (Fundus of striatum) OT (Olfactory tubercle ) LS (Lateral septal nucleus ) CEA (Central amygdalar nucleus ) AAA (Anterior amygdalar area) MEA (Medial amygdalar nucleus ) PALd (Pallidum_ dorsal region) PALv (Pallidum_ ventral region) BST (Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis ) PALm (Pallidum_ medial region) AM (Anteromedial nucleus) AV (Anteroventral nucleus of thalamus ) LD (Lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus) RT (Reticular nucleus of the thalamus) LAT (Lateral group of the dorsal thalamus) LP (Lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus) LGv (Ventral part of the ...
A unifying feature of mammalian and insect olfactory systems is that olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the same unique odorant-receptor gene converge onto the same glomeruli in the brain [1-7]. Most odorants activate a combination of receptors and thus distinct patterns of glomeruli, forming a proposed combinatorial spatial code that could support discrimination between a large number of odorants [8-11]. OSNs also exhibit odor-evoked responses with complex temporal dynamics [11], but the contribution of this activity to behavioral odor discrimination has received little attention [12]. Here, we investigated the importance of spatial encoding in the relatively simple Drosophila antennal lobe. We show that Drosophila can learn to discriminate between two odorants with one functional class of Or83b-expressing OSNs. Furthermore, these flies encode one odorant from a mixture and cross-adapt to odorants that activate the relevant OSN class, demonstrating that they discriminate odorants by using the
Multiple factors contribute to the onset and progress of PD, that initially targets few susceptible neuron types in motor nuclei of glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, and in the anterior olfactory nucleus [2, 3, 24]. Many animal models are available for mimicking PD landmarks, however none can reproduce in full the human pathology. The picture is even more complicated by the presence of both motor and non-motor symptoms, whose assessment in animal models may be difficult and need careful overall interpretation (for a review, see [25]). We choose the MPTP model because we were interested in olfactory dysfunctions, which are a hallmark of early PD stages. MPTP administered acutely in mice can reproduce early stages of PD [26], however, it is not sufficient for fully exploring PD, since MPTP-injected mice recover spontaneously, which precludes the study of pharmacological interventions. Moreover, various strains of mice show different sensitivity to MPTP.. PD implies a complex imbalance of the ...
1. Lagha M, Bothma JP, Levine M (2012) Mechanisms of transcriptional precision in animal development. Trends Genet 28: 409-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2012.03.006 22513408. 2. Frankel N, Davis GK, Vargas D, Wang S, Payre F, et al. (2010) Phenotypic robustness conferred by apparently redundant transcriptional enhancers. Nature 466: 490-493. doi: 10.1038/nature09158 20512118. 3. Ebert MS, Sharp PA (2010) Emerging roles for natural microRNA sponges. Curr Biol 20: R858-861. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.08.052 20937476. 4. Couto A, Alenius M, Dickson BJ (2005) Molecular, anatomical, and functional organization of the Drosophila olfactory system. Curr Biol 15: 1535-1547. 16139208. 5. Fishilevich E, Vosshall LB (2005) Genetic and functional subdivision of the Drosophila antennal lobe. Curr Biol 15: 1548-1553. 16139209. 6. Fuss SH, Ray A (2009) Mechanisms of odorant receptor gene choice in Drosophila and vertebrates. Mol Cell Neurosci 41: 101-112. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2009.02.014 19303443. 7. Tharadra SK, Medina ...
RATIONALE: Recent evidence in animals and humans suggests that low-frequency stimulation (LFS) has significant antiseizure properties. The anterior piriform cortex (APC) has been demonstrated to be a highly susceptible seizure-trigger zone, and may be critical for the initiation and propagation of seizures originating from cortical and limbic foci. We studied the effect of LFS of the APC on seizure frequency, severity, and duration in the kainate seizure model in rats. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=7; Hilltop Lab Animals Inc, Scottdale, PA) were implanted with tripolar electrodes in the left APC, and recording electrodes bilaterally in the hippocampal CA3 regions. Rats were monitored continuously with video-EEG for the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after induction of status epilepticus by intraperitoneal kainic acid injections (KA). After emergence of spontaneous seizures, animals underwent 2 weeks of baseline recordings to determine seizure frequency and duration. Then, LFS of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - D-serine, an endogenous synaptic modulator. T2 - Localization to astrocytes and glutamate-stimulated release. AU - Schell, Michael J.. AU - Molliver, Mark E.. AU - Snyder, Solomon H.. PY - 1995/4/25. Y1 - 1995/4/25. N2 - Using an antibody highly specific for D-serine conjugated to glutaraldehyde, we have localized endogenous D-serine in rat brain. Highest levels of D-serine immunoreactivity occur in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, and amygdala. Localizations of D-serine immunoreactivity correlate closely with those of D-serine binding to the glycine modulatory site of the N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) receptor as visualized by autoradiography and are inversely correlated to the presence of D-amino acid oxidase. D-Serine is enriched in process-bearing glial cells in neuropil with the morphology of protoplasmic astrocytes. In glial cultures of rat cerebral cortex, D-serine is enriched in type 2 astrocytes. The ...
Exposure to propofol (30g or 60 mg/kg) on P7 produced significant c-Fos expression in the deep layers of the piriform cortex on P8. Double immunofluorescence of c-Fos with interneuron markers in the piriform cortex revealed that c-Fos was specifically induced in calbindin (CB)-positive interneurons. Repeated propofol exposure from P7 to P9 induced behavioral deficits in adult mice, such as olfactory function deficit in a buried food test, decreased sociability in a three-chambered choice task, and impaired recognitive ability of learning and memory in novel object recognition tests. However, locomotor activity in the open-field test was not generally affected. Propofol treatment also significantly decreased the number of CB-positive interneurons in the piriform cortex of mice on P21 and adulthood.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Radial glia interact with primary olfactory axons to regulate development of the olfactory bulb. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In the mouse, each class of olfactory receptor neurons expressing a given odorant receptor has convergent axonal projections to two specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, thereby creating an odour map. However, it is unclear how this map is represented in the olfactory cortex. Here we combine rab …
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the glial cells of the olfactory system. Their primary role is thought to be to provide support and guidance for primary olfactory axons. However, OECs are known to phagocytose bacteria and express immune markers and thus they may help to maintain a healthy environment. Interestingly, following widespread death of primary olfactory axons, there is minimal mobilisation of macrophages but yet the axonal debris is rapidly cleared. Purpose: We have therefore investigated whether OECs are the cells that are primarily responsible for removal of axonal debris. Methods: We cultured red fluorescent OECs from S100beta-DsRed mice and green fluorescent primary olfactory neurons from OMP-ZsGreen mice. Results: In explant cultures of DsRed-OECs and ZsGreen-neurons, OECs clearly contained green fluorescent axonal debris. When cellular debris from green fluorescent neurons was added to cultured OECs, the OECs extended pseudopodia and rapidly phagocytosed the axonal debris ...
Boto T, Louis T, Jindachomthong K, Jalink K, Tomchik SM (2014) Dopaminergic modulation cAMP drives nonlinear plasticity across the Drosophila mushroom body lobes. Curr Biol 24: 822-831.. Tomchik SM (2013) Dopaminergic neurons encode a distributed, asymmetric representation of temperature in Drosophila. J Neurosci 33: 2166-2176.. Tomchik SM, Davis RL (2009) Dynamics of learning-related cAMP signaling and stimulus integration in the Drosophila olfactory pathway. Neuron 64: 510-521.. Tomchik SM, Davis RL (2008) Behavioural neuroscience: Out of sight, but not out of mind. Nature 453: 1192-1194.. Tomchik SM, Davis RL (2008) Cyclic AMP imaging sheds light on PDF signaling in circadian clock neurons. Neuron 58: 161-163.. Tomchik SM, Berg S, Kim JW, Chaudhari N, Roper SD (2007) Breadth of tuning and taste coding in mammalian taste buds. J Neurosci 27: 10840-10848.. Dvoryanchikov G, Tomchik SM, Chaudhari N (2007) Biogenic amine synthesis and uptake in rodent taste buds. J Comp Neurol 505: ...
Concentration invariance - the capacity to recognize a given odorant (analyte) across a range of concentrations - is an unusually difficult problem in the olfactory modality. Nevertheless, humans and other animals are able to recognize known odors across substantial concentration ranges, and this concentration invariance is a highly desirable property for artificial systems as well. Several properties of olfactory systems have been proposed to contribute to concentration invariance, but none of these alone can plausibly achieve full concentration invariance. We here propose that the mammalian olfactory system uses at least six computational mechanisms in series to reduce the concentration-dependent variance in odor representations to a level where different concentrations of odors evoke reasonably similar representations, while preserving variance arising from differences in odor quality. We suggest that the residual variance then is treated like any other source of stimulus variance, and
Thapsigargin is an inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that depletes the intracellular Ca2+ stores (Thastrup et al., 1990; Rosay et al., 2001). Thapsigargin application for 15 min (Fig. 4) clearly decreased the total number of photons (Sp: 5813±1380.8, P,0.05; Ci: 3197±494.9, P,0.05; Oct: 4732±3013.7; P,0.05), as well as the duration of the response (Sp: 28±5.4 s, P,0.0001; Ci: 22±2.0 s, P,0.001; Oct: 25±3.0 s, P,0.001). The amplitude of the first component of the response was also affected, as compared with control flies, for spearmint (P,0.05) and octanol (P,0.05; Fig. 4A,G), whereas it was not affected for citronella (Fig. 4D). These results suggest that, although thapsigargin slightly affects the amplitude of the first component (for two of the three tested odors), more importantly, it affects the second component of the response (for the three tested odors). This lead us to suggest that the first component does not necessarily involve Ca2+ release from ...
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In search of smells meaning. Gloria Chois research addresses the mechanisms by which the brain learns to recognize olfactory stimuli and to associate them with appropriate behavioral responses.. Much recent work has been devoted to the question of how the binding of odorant molecules to their receptors in the olfactory epithelium leads to the perception of odors. In other sensory modalities such as vision, touch or hearing, the primary sensory cortex shows a topographical organization in which stimulus features are systematically mapped on the cortical surface. In the olfactory area (known as piriform cortex), however, no such order has been found; while individual inputs to the cortex are tuned to specific odorants, their projections within the piriform cortex are widely dispersed. Consistent with this, olfactory stimuli typically activate sparse ensembles of piriform cells, with no obvious spatial pattern. Yet somehow the brain must learn to recognize these apparently arbitrary spatial ...
Olfactory sensory neurons express a wide variety of axon-sorting molecules to establish proper neural circuitry. This protocol...
The term olfactory bulb refers, in the human and macaque, to a small oval white structure located in the cleft between the ventral surface of the frontal lobe and the floor of the cranial cavity ( Carpenter-1983 ). In the rat and mouse it is a much larger structure in comparison to rest of the brain; there it occupies almost a quarter of the length of the cranial cavity ( Swanson-2004 ). Though classically considered a separate structure from the cerebral cortex in primates ( Nomina-1983 ), it is classified on the basis of internal structure as a component of paleocortex in all species ( Stephan-1975 ). In all species it is connected rostrally with the olfactory nerve. Caudally in primates it connects with the olfactory peduncle; in rodents it connects through the olfactory tract directly to the olfactory tubercle and olfactory areas (rodent) of the cerebral cortex ( Swanson-2004 ). It is a layered structure that contains cell bodies of the second neurons in the olfactory system. It is a key ...
What is an Odor Object? On a visit to the Western Ghats, we observed hundreds of species of phytophagous insects with equally diverse host choices; some specialized on a single plant species, some feeding on a variety of plants. How do these insects locate their hosts in the incredible floral diversity of the rainforest? How…
J:78541 Peretto P, Cummings D, Modena C, Behrens M, Venkatraman G, Fasolo A, Margolis FL, BMP mRNA and protein expression in the developing mouse olfactory system. J Comp Neurol. 2002 Sep 23;451(3):267-78 ...
odor - MedHelps odor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for odor. Find odor information, treatments for odor and odor symptoms.
The human brain has the ability to recognise and process a very wide range of sensory stimuli, from which it builds a mental representation.
The amygdala consists of a whole bunch of tiny little nuclei, and were going to just group them into a couple of two big clusters, the corticomedial and the basolateral. The corticomedial group is associated with the olfactory bulb. It gets a lot of information from the olfactory system, and then sends that information to the nuclei of the brain stem and the hypothalamus. This is one of the ways that olfactory information can have an impact on your visceral systems. So if somethings really particularly stinky, you dont want to eat it. Its one of those safety things. And it also helps you learn that if youve ever had ingested something that smelled funny, you dont eat it again because you remember the visceral responses that you had to the first time. Its also corticomedial group because it goes to brain stem and then on to spinal cord as well, is one of the ways that the amygdala is connected to your sympathetic nervous system. And so weve talked about the amygdala being part of your ...
Pharmacological fMRI reveals that associative connections contribute to odor categorization by supporting discrimination and generalization at different stages of the human olfactory system.
Một meme ( /miːm/ MEEM) là một quan niệm, hành vi, hoặc phong cách lan truyền từ người này sang người khác trong một nền văn hóa - thường với mục đích chuyển tải một hiện tượng, chủ đề, hoặc ý nghĩa cụ thể do meme đại diện.[1] Một meme hoạt động như một đơn vị để mang những quan niệm, biểu tượng, hoặc những thói quen thuộc về văn hóa có thể truyền tải từ ý nghĩ của người này sang người khác thông qua việc viết, nói, cử chỉ, nghi thức, hoặc các hiện tượng có thể mô phỏng khác, cùng với một chủ tố được bắt chước. Những người ủng hộ khái niệm này xem các meme như là những mô hình thuộc văn hóa có liên quan đến các gen mà trong đó chúng tự sao chép, biến đổi, và phản ứng lại với những áp lực chọn lọc.[2] Những người khởi xướng lý giải rằng các meme là ...
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Collaborative research: Computational models for this project will be developed in Dr. Bazhenovs laboratory (UC Riverside). Experimental work will be conducted...
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A korszerű chemo-, és immunprofilaxis ellenére a traumás lépsérülések sebészi megoldásaként felmerülő lépeltávolítás lehetséges szövődményei napjainkban is komoly problémát jelenthetnek, melyek megelőzésében a lépmegtartó eljárások igen fontosak lehetnek. A munkánk során használt homogén állatcsoport lehetővé tette egy olyan komplex vizsgálati protokoll beállítását, amelynek segítségével a splenectomiát illetve lép autotransplantatiót követő/követhető aspleniás-hyospleniás állapotok esetleges késői szövődményei és ezen megváltozott állapotok okozta hatások is eredményesen vizsgálhatóvá válhattak. Eredményeink igazolták, hogy a vörösvérsejt deformabilitás szignifikánsan rosszabb még 2 évvel a splenectomia után is, szemben a lép autotransplantatiót követő állapottal. A vizsgálatok során két módszert, a filtrometriát és az ektacytometriát párhuzamosan alkalmaztunk eredményesen a különbségek ...
Mất giấy phép kinh doanh không phải là hiếm gặp đối với những trường hợp doanh nghiệp thường xuyên phải mang đi ra ngoài hoặc khi đổi địa chỉ văn phòng.
The U.S. Department of Treasury plans to offer shares of M&T Bank Corp. it owns to collect $381.5 million, which is the amount the bank owes the gover ...
Nấm linh chi Hàn Quốc, Đông trùng hạ thảo chất lượng tốt, giá cả phải chăng, Mascara - Chì mắt - Chì mày
.Tôi Yêu Việt Nam. Chào mừng 20 năm tái lập tỉnh Lào Cai và ngày Quốc khánh 2/9. 2/9/1945 - 2/9/2012 http://enviet.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/vn14.jpg
Nếu bạn đã cập nhật lên Office 2013, hay Office 365, có thể bạn sẽ gặp phải trục trặc khi mở các file đính kèm mà người khác gửi email cho bạn. Cố gắng mở một file Word ra bạn có thể nhận ra chương trình Word không chỉ từ chối mở file, mà còn không cung cấp giải pháp hỗ trợ. Lý do các file không thể mở được là vì nó xuất phát từ một máy tính khác - và phần mềm Office xem đó là mối đe doạ bảo mật. Khi bạn đang xử lý với những file được gửi qua email đến cho bạn, hoặc bạn tải chúng từ
Evеrуоnе knоwѕ thаt mоѕt реорlе wоuld lіkе tо lоѕе wеіght, but mоѕt dоnt ѕееm tо knоw thе bеѕt wау tо lоѕе wеіght. [...] ...
Other articles where Neocortex is discussed: Nonbiological Man: Hes Closer Than You Think: We will connect our biological neocortex to a synthetic neocortex in the cloud. This will be done by using medical nano-robots that go into the brain through the capillaries and provide wireless communication between our neocortical modules and the cloud in the same way that your smartphone today has wireless…
Đặc Trưng là một diễn đàn ôn hòa, chú trọng về văn thơ nhạc, văn hóa, kiến thức, tin tức, tâm tình và không có mục đích chính trị.
Giương cao là một động từ tỏ rõ sự minh bạch, sự công khai, sự biểu lộ tỏ tường của một điều tốt
Stocker RF (2009) The olfactory pathway of adult and larval Drosophila: conservation or adaptation to stage-specific needs? Ann ... These studies were instrumental to map the wiring of olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptor genes to ... Stocker RF (2001) Drosophila as a focus in olfactory research: mapping of olfactory sensilla by fine structure, odor ... Stocker, Reinhard F. (2001). "Drosophila as a focus in olfactory research: Mapping of olfactory sensilla by fine structure, ...
In most animals the central pathways of olfactory systems are associated with glomerular neuropil and lack topographic mapping ... Among arthropods, the insect and crustacean olfactory (antennal) pathways are typical examples. Two orders of chelicerate ... These comparisons between arthropod taxa suggest that olfactory projections are, to varying degrees, typically glomerular but ... projection from the malleoli shows less topographic order with fewer and larger glomeruli reminiscent of the insect olfactory ...
Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in olfactory neuroblastoma. Oncology, 3-4, 231-243. Weiss, G. J., Liang, W. S., ... arising from olfactory sensory cells in the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory epithelium consists of olfactory sensory cells ... Thompson LD (2009). Olfactory neuroblastoma. Head and neck pathology. 3: 252-259 Jiang, G. Y., Li, F. C., Chen, W. K., Liu, A. ... 34-40 Kim D.W., Jo Y.H., Kim J.H., et al: Neoadjuvant etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin for the treatment of olfactory ...
"Dendrodendritic synaptic pathway for inhibition in the olfactory bulb". Experimental Neurology. 14 (1): 44-56. doi:10.1016/0014 ... While studying the mammalian olfactory bulb, they found that there were active dendrites that couple and send signals to each ... Dendrodendritic synapses have been studied extensively in the olfactory bulb of rats where it is believed they help in the ... Dendrodendritic synapses have also been found to have similar effects on olfactory input from the glomeruli of the antennal ...
Owald, David; Waddell, Scott (2015-12-01). "Olfactory learning skews mushroom body output pathways to steer behavioral choice ... Mushroom bodies are essential for olfactory learning and memory. Odor information is represented by sparse combinations of ...
1966) Dendro-dendritic synaptic pathway for inhibition in the olfactory bulb. Exptl. Neurol. 14:44-56. The Theoretical ...
... also innervate gustatory and olfactory pathways, as well as pre-frontal motor areas. Visual input ... This is the primary pathway involved in the transference of cerebellar input to the primary motor cortex. The VA projects ... Several studies indicate that parallel innervations to S1 and also S2 via thalamocortical pathways result in the processing of ... Past research suggests that the thalamocortical-auditory pathway may be the only neural correlate that can explain a direct ...
Shipley, Michael T.; Geinisman, Yuri (1984-03-01). "Anatomical evidence for convergence of olfactory, gustatory, and visceral ... Norgren, Ralph; Leonard, Christiana M. (1973-07-15). "Ascending central gustatory pathways". The Journal of Comparative ... afferent pathways in mouse cerebral cortex". Brain Research Bulletin. 12 (3): 221-226. doi:10.1016/0361-9230(84)90049-2. ISSN ...
This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory system. All lemuriforms have a VNO, as do tarsiers and some ... while olfactory receptors of the main olfactory system lining the ethmoturbinals detect airborne smells. The olfactory bulbs of ... From the accessory olfactory bulb, information is sent to the amygdala, which handles emotions, and then to the hypothalamus, ... The surface of the rhinarium does not have any olfactory receptors, so it is not used for smell in terms of detecting volatile ...
"Dynamic expression patterns of ECM molecules in the developing mouse olfactory pathway". Dev. Dyn. 237 (7): 1837-50. doi: ... Olfactory neurite outgrowth in mouse development is guided at least in part by an ECM laid down by olfactory epithelial cells ( ... Another signaling pathway shown to augment pln transcription is the VEGF pathway. VEGF165 treatment of human brain ... When the endocytic pathway of HeLa cells is inhibited by overexpression of a mutant dynamin, Protein Kinase C is activated and ...
"Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy ... The new olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the CNS to an olfactory bulb in order to be functional. ... Olfactory ensheathing cells, however, cross the CNS-PNS boundary, because they guide olfactory receptor neurons from the PNS to ... The mammalian primary olfactory system has retained the ability to continuously regenerate during adulthood. Olfactory receptor ...
... while odors directly activate neurons in the olfactory pathway, causing calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. ... "Dynamics of Learning-Related cAMP Signaling and stimulus Integration in the Drosophila Olfactory Pathway". Neuron. 64 (4): 510- ... In Hymenoptera, olfactory input is layered in the calyx. In ants, several layers can be discriminated, corresponding to ... Typically, olfactory learning assays consist of exposing flies to two odors separately; one is paired with electric shock ...
Sublethal effects of copper on Coho Salmon: Impacts on nonoverlapping receptor pathways in the peripheral olfactory nervous ... The olfactory system is used to gather important information about one's environment. In the case of salmon, olfactory cues can ... However, when salmon are affected by copper, the olfactory system can be impacted in a matter of minutes. If the fish is no ... Salmon can detect distinct copper gradients using their olfactory system, and use this information to avoid contaminated waters ...
Similarly to the olfactory cortex, the gustatory pathway operates through both peripheral and central mechanisms.[clarification ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ... all of which make up the primary olfactory cortex. In contrast to vision and hearing, the olfactory bulbs are not cross- ... Distance chemoreceptors are integral to receiving stimuli in gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor ...
2012-03-12). "Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth". PLOS ONE. 7 ... Olfactory cues are widely used for conspecific and mate selection but are also commonly used in avoidance strategies. The role ... Chemosensory pathways are vital for exogenous and endogenous recognition and processing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); ... Sensory pathways allow integration of environmental stimuli that strongly influence an organism's behavior and are hypothesized ...
It is commonly used in electrophysiology while studying the function of the olfactory pathway in insects. The technique was ... Further detailed examination of the odor response at the olfactory sensory level can be done by sensilla recording. National ...
... also mediate inhibition and excitation of mitral cells through pathways from centrifugal fibers and the anterior olfactory ... In humans and other vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory ... Electronic nose Evolution of olfaction Nasal administration olfactory transfer Olfactory ensheathing cell Olfactory fatigue ... which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas. The axons from the olfactory receptors ...
In this migrational pathway, olfactory neurons move from the nasal cavities to the mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. The ... anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, piriform cortexr, entorhinal cortex, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. "Lot ... The lateral olfactory tract (LOT) is the first system where guideposts cells were proposed to play a role in axonal guidance. ... They act as intermediate targets for long and complex axonal growths by creating short and easy pathways, leading axon growth ...
Similarly to the olfactory cortex, the gustatory pathway operates through both peripheral and central mechanisms.[clarification ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Primary olfactory cortex[edit]. Located in the temporal lobe, the primary olfactory cortex is the primary receptive area for ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ...
The vomeronasal organ's sensory neurons act on a different signaling pathway than that of the main olfactory system's sensory ... Unlike the main olfactory bulb that sends neuronal signals to the olfactory cortex, the VNO sends neuronal signals to the ... The main olfactory sensory neurons fire single burst action potentials and show a much quicker adaptation rate. Activating ... Likewise, there is no evidence for any accessory olfactory bulb in adult human beings, and the key genes involved in VNO ...
Evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?". Frontiers in Zoology. 7 (25): 25. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-7-25. PMC 2945339 ... The olfactory system in the coconut crab's brain is well-developed compared to other areas of the brain. Coconut crabs mate ... "Insect-like olfactory adaptations in the terrestrial giant robber crab" (PDF). Current Biology. 15 (2): 116-121. doi:10.1016/j. ...
However, other causes such as internal differences in the actual olfactory pathway or the central nervous system must not be ... Successive Olfactory Reversal Learning in Honeybees. Learn. Mem. 9:122-129. Riveros and Gronenberg. 2009. Olfactory learning ... The same study also found that the right antenna has more olfactory receptors than the left antenna, a possible cause for this ... Recently, interesting findings in PER studies show laterality in olfactory learning in the two antennae i.e., one antenna is ...
In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at the antennae (though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory ... Each olfactory sensory neuron expresses a single odorant receptor type and targets the same glomeruli as other olfactory ... "Two Parallel Olfactory Pathways for Processing General Odors in a Cockroach". Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 11: 32. doi:10.3389 ... The antennal lobe is the primary (first order) olfactory brain area in insects. The antennal lobe is a sphere-shaped ...
This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory system.[111] ... while olfactory receptors of the main olfactory system lining the ethmoturbinals detect airborne smells.[47][101] The olfactory ... The surface of the rhinarium does not have any olfactory receptors, so it is not used for smell in terms of detecting volatile ... They also have a smaller brain than comparably sized simians, large olfactory lobes for smell, a vomeronasal organ to detect ...
... early days of Joseph Erlanger's research on nerve conduction to Richard Axel's dissection of the pathways relevant to olfactory ...
When odors activate the olfactory pathways that lead to the limbic portion of the brain they trigger the release of ... happiness and well-being brought about by odors stimulating the olfactory pathways in the brain and, in particular, the limbic ... Olfactory stimulation was provided to the subjects with different aromatic air samples with a 5-second rest period, followed by ... Also, these olfactory substances are very different from perfume and should instead replicate the smell of natural outdoor air ...
Airborne metal particulates have been shown to directly access and affect the brain through olfactory pathways, which allows a ... 2000). "Direct olfactory transport of inhaled manganese (54MnCl2) to the rat brain: toxicokinetic investigations in a ...
During neural development, GnRH neurons migrate through one of these olfactory axon pathways, and the loss of function of FEZF1 ... As axons are developing and migrating in the early embryo, FEZF1 allows the axons of olfactory neurons to attach to the central ...
... it is unlikely that it contributes greatly to olfactory signaling pathways due to its expression being almost exclusive to the ... While there is experimental evidence RTP3 may potentially be able to interact with proteins involved in olfactory signaling, as ... suggesting possible involvement of the gene in the TGF-β signaling pathway. "RTP3 receptor transporter protein 3 [Homo sapiens ...
Provided the seed can withstand the pathway through the digestive system, it is not only likely to be far away from the parent ... Disgust toward feces appears to be strongest in modern Western cultures where flushing toilets make olfactory contact with it ...
The olfactory lobes are absent in toothed whales, suggesting that they have no sense of smell. Some whales, such as the bowhead ... Cranford, T.W.; Krysl, P.; Hildebrand, J.A. (2008). "Acoustic pathways revealed: simulated sound transmission and reception in ...
... these researchers were able to demonstrate the existence of numerous pathways between the pars triangularis and pars ...
The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptor 1C1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1C1 gene.[3][4] ... olfactory receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • plasma ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway. • beta-catenin ... Wnt signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral axis specification. • canonical Wnt signaling pathway. • synapse assembly. • ... Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell surface receptor ... regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway. • cellular response to molecule of bacterial origin. • positive regulation of ...
Although ammonia has a pungent odor, it also causes olfactory fatigue or adaptation, reducing awareness of prolonged exposure. ... Other promising drugs in earlier stages of development act at various steps in the complex molecular pathways underlying ... Chlorine's odor provides early warning signs of exposure but causes olfactory fatigue or adaptations, reducing awareness of ... bid-activated pathway that involves matrix metalloproteinase-12. J Biol Chem. 282 :7723-32. Pulichino AM, Wang IM, Caron A, ...
BDNF can promote protective pathways and inhibit damaging pathways in the NSCs and NPCs that contribute to the brain's ... Infusion of BDNF into the lateral ventricles doubled the population of newborn neurons in the adult rat olfactory bulb and ... The activation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway is important in the development of short-term memory and the growth of neurons.[ ... BDNF mediates more pathways involved in these enrichment-induced processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by ...
"Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), also known as olfactory ensheathing glia or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type ... Olfactory axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and ... New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be ...
While the participant watches, the experimenter uses his or her finger to trace a pathway from the opening of the maze to the ... Measures are usually taken to prevent the rat from using its olfactory senses to navigate such as placing extra food throughout ... The length of the pathway varies depending on the level of difficulty (1-10) and the matrices themselves may vary in length ... The participant is then expected to replicate the demonstrated pathway through the maze to the drawing of the man. Mazes vary ...
These neurons originate in an area of the developing head, the olfactory placode, that will give rise to the olfactory ... "The kisspeptin-GnRH pathway in human reproductive health and disease". Human Reproduction Update. 20 (4): 485-500. doi:10.1093 ... Brain MRI to rule out any structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus or pituitary and to check for presence of olfactory ... Any problems with the development of the olfactory nerve fibres will prevent the progression of the GnRH releasing neurons ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of taste. • ...
Nevertheless, the anterior commissure is a significant pathway that can be clearly distinguished in the brains of all mammals. ... Through diffusion tensor imaging results, the anterior commissure was categorized into two fiber systems: 1) the olfactory ...
The formation of ΔFosB in multiple brain regions, and the molecular pathway leading to the formation of AP-1 complexes is well ... There were physical changes that correlated with olfactory (smell) function in the brains of the trained mice and their ... These newly constructed networks function very efficiently via new pathways as soon as drugs of abuse are further taken ... In ... In the original sense of this definition, epigenetics referred to all molecular pathways modulating the expression of a ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • signal transduction. • G-protein coupled purinergic nucleotide receptor ...
"While recording the behavior of a single cell in a ganglion, one nerve axon pathway to the ganglion could be stimulated weakly ... "Attention enhances the retrieval and stability of visuospatial and olfactory representations in the dorsal hippocampus". PLoS ... acted in this biochemical pathway in response to elevated levels of cAMP. Steven Siegelbaum identified a potassium channel that ... electrically as a conditioned [tactile] stimulus, while another pathway was stimulated as an unconditioned [pain] stimulus, ...
Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. They are ...
It has been shown in studies to inhibit some specific signal pathways of adenosine. It allows for the inhibition of growth in ... Peart JN, Headrick JP (May 2007). "Adenosinergic cardioprotection: multiple receptors, multiple pathways". Pharmacology & ...
1.4 Olfactory bulb granule cell. *2 Function *2.1 Neural pathways and circuits of the cerebellum ... Olfactory bulb granule cell[edit]. The main intrinsic granule cell in the vertebrate olfactory bulb lacks an axon (as does the ... Olfactory bulb granule cells. Inhibition generated by granule cells, the most common GABAergic cell type in the olfactory bulb ... This allows the granule cells to regulate the processing of the sensory input in the olfactory bulb.[20] The olfactory bulb ...
The strength of two connected neural pathways is thought to result in the storage of information, resulting in memory. This ... The neurotransmitter may initiate an electrical response or a secondary messenger pathway that may either excite or inhibit the ...
There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, ... Lewy bodies first appear in the olfactory bulb, medulla oblongata and pontine tegmentum; individuals at this stage may be ... Blum D, Torch S, Lambeng N, Nissou M, Benabid AL, Sadoul R, Verna JM (October 2001). "Molecular pathways involved in the ... Anticholinergics and surgery (lesioning of the corticospinal pathway or some of the basal ganglia structures) were the only ...
Differing cascade pathways[edit]. In order to support the localization hypothesis, it would be necessary to show differing ... "Zinc and copper influence excitability of rat olfactory bulb neurons by multiple mechanisms". Journal of Neurophysiology. 86 ... In the early 1980s, NMDA receptors were shown to be involved in several central synaptic pathways.[19][20] Receptor subunit ... Lai TW, Shyu WC, Wang YT (May 2011). "Stroke intervention pathways: NMDA receptors and beyond". Trends in Molecular Medicine. ...
TMS involves the administration of a focused electromagnetic field to the cortex to stimulate specific nerve pathways. ... olfactory (smell), or haptic (touch), and are congruent with delusional material.[2] Affect is sad, not flat. Severe anhedonia ...
2011). "Evidence of selection at melanin synthesis pathway loci during silkworm domestication". Molecular Biology and Evolution ... https://phys.org/news/2013-11-captive-thousands-years-impaired-olfactory.html ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of fever generation. • cell death. • signal transduction. • ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • intestine smooth muscle contraction. • inflammatory ... adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion ... "Shear-induced cyclooxygenase-2 via a JNK2/c-Jun-dependent pathway regulates prostaglandin receptor expression in chondrocytic ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. • adenylate cyclase- ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA ... Galanin receptors are seven-trans membrane proteins shown to activate a variety of intracellular second-messenger pathways. ... activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration. • ...
... s have two olfactory centers. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors. ... These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones.[72] ...
It is thus possible that the stimulation of multiple signalling pathways resulting from the elevation of all three monoamines ... A microdialysis study in olfactory bulbectomized rats". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 97 (3): 444-52. doi:10.1016/j. ... in monoamine pathways. When reserpine (an alkaloid with uses in the treatment of hypertension and psychosis) was first ... pathways, although most pharmacologic treatment strategies directly enhance only 5-HT and NE neurotransmission. In some ...
Olfactory code: This category deals in the kind and degree of odor detected by each participant from the other. ... Action-extrapersonal-space is located in the medial temporo-frontal pathways, spans the entire space, and is head-centered and ... Focal-extrapersonal space is located in the lateral temporo-frontal pathways at the center of our vision, is retinotopically ... Ambient-extrapersonal space initially courses through the peripheral parieto-occipital visual pathways before joining up with ...
Olfactory system - Nervous pathways of smell: The pathway of olfactory conduction begins with the olfactory receptors-small, ... the olfactory hairs. The other process is a long and extremely thin axon, the olfactory nerve fibre, which reaches the cranial ... Each olfactory receptor cell emits two processes (projections). One of these is a short peripheral dendrite, which reaches to ... Nervous pathways of smell. The pathway of olfactory conduction begins with the olfactory receptors-small, slender nerve cells ...
Dissecting neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila olfactory aversive memory. Yichun Shuai, Areekul Hirokawa, Yulian Ai, ...
Olfactory transduction - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description ... cAMP targets an olfactory-specific cyclic-nucleotide gated ion channel (CNG), allowing cations, particularly Na and Ca, to flow ... Odorant molecules bind to a receptor protein (R) coupled to an olfactory specific Gs-protein (G) and activate a type III ... Within the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an ...
It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and ... "Olfactory Pathways" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Olfactory Pathways" was a major or minor topic ... "Olfactory Pathways" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Olfactory Pathways" by people in Profiles. ...
Rapid activation of alternative second messenger pathways in olfactory cilia from rats by different odorants.. Boekhoff I1, ... Thus, at least two different second messenger pathways appear to be involved in olfactory signal transduction. ... In this study odor induced formation of second messengers in rat olfactory cilia was monitored in a subsecond time range using ... The molecular mechanisms mediating the chemo-electrical signal transduction in olfactory receptor cells are still elusive. ...
An important component in understanding central olfactory processing and coding in the insect brain relates to the ... An important component in understanding central olfactory processing and coding in the insect brain relates to the ... Figure 1. Olfactory pathways in the honeybee brain. (A) Two main olfactory pathways comprised of uniglomerular projection ... Differential odor processing in two olfactory pathways in the honeybee Nobuhiro Yamagata1,2, Michael Schmuker1, Paul Szyszka3, ...
A centrifugal pathway to the mouse accessory olfactory bulb from the medial amygdala conveys gender-specific volatile ... A centrifugal pathway to the mouse accessory olfactory bulb from the medial amygdala conveys gender-specific volatile ... A centrifugal pathway to the mouse accessory olfactory bulb from the medial amygdala conveys gender-specific volatile ... A centrifugal pathway to the mouse accessory olfactory bulb from the medial amygdala conveys gender-specific volatile ...
Study of potential transfer of aluminum to the brain via the olfactory pathway.. Author: Chalansonnet M, Carabin N, Boucard S, ... Some metal salts and metal oxides have been shown to enter the brain through the olfactory route, bypassing the blood-brain ... In this context, we sought to determine whether aluminum was found in rat olfactory bulbs and whether its transfer depended on ... Some transfer of aluminum salts to the central nervous system via the olfactory route was observed, with the more soluble ...
Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus ... Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus ... Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus ... Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus ...
These analyses revealed that the various neurons of the honeybee olfactory pathway in vitro have different current phenotypes, ... Differential expression of voltage-sensitive K+ and Ca2+ currents in neurons of the honeybee olfactory pathway ... Differential expression of voltage-sensitive K+ and Ca2+ currents in neurons of the honeybee olfactory pathway ... Differential expression of voltage-sensitive K+ and Ca2+ currents in neurons of the honeybee olfactory pathway ...
For aromatic amino acids and bile acids, there were differences in the contribution of each transduction pathway (PLC, AC and ... This study tested whether differences in sensitivity between the upper and lower olfactory epithelia of Solea senegalensis are ... Inhibition by U73122 [a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] suggested that olfactory responses to amino acids were mediated mostly ... associated with different odorant receptors and transduction pathways, using the electro-olfactogram. Receptor mechanisms were ...
The VTA-mOT DAergic pathway mediates a variety of naturalistic reward processes and different types of preferences including ... Olfactory tubercle has been implicated in both reward and olfactory information processing. However, in both the olfactory ... Olfactory tubercle has been implicated in both reward and olfactory information processing. However, in both the olfactory ... It belongs to the olfactory system and receives dense direct inputs from the main olfactory bulb (OB) and other olfactory ...
This article describes the anatomy of olfactory pathway, from the nasal cavity to the brain. Learn this topic now at Kenhub. ... Olfactory Nerve Pathway. It is important to note that the olfactory nerve is only one component of the overall pathway and is, ... The Olfactory Pathway How do we smell? This article describes the anatomy of olfactory pathway, from the nasal cavity to the ... Olfactory bulb. It is the relay station of the olfactory pathway and contains olfactory glomeruli.. ...
The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals. (See the image ... Olfactory Tract and Central Pathways. Mitral cell axons project to the olfactory cortex via the olfactory tract. Medial fibers ... Olfactory Bulb. The olfactory bulb lies inferior to the basal frontal lobe. The olfactory bulb is a highly organized structure ... Olfactory Epithelium. The olfactory epithelium consists of 3 cell types: basal, supporting, and olfactory receptor cells. Basal ...
Hermit crab olfactory aesthetascs are arranged in a field on the distal segment of the antennular flagellum. Aesthetascs house ... Hermit crab olfactory aesthetascs are arranged in a field on the distal segment of the antennular flagellum. Aesthetascs house ... We show that this orphan receptor subgroup with presumably non-olfactory function in insects is likely the basis of olfaction ... This change in lifestyle required adaptation of the peripheral olfactory organs, the antennules, in order to sense chemical ...
... the olfactory tract/bulb (n = 79), the anterior olfactory nucleus in the lateral olfactory gyrus (n = 193), the region of ... Five areas of the olfactory pathway were examined by immunolabelling for alpha-synuclein - a major component of Lewy pathology ... Results show that Lewy pathology affects different parts of the olfactory pathways differentially, suggesting a specific ... The aim of this study was to understand further the extent of Lewy pathology in the olfactory system of patients with ...
... olfactory nerve, olfactory nerve, olfactory tubercle, olfactory nerve, cranial nerve, nose anatomy, olfactory nerve, cranial ... Olfactory system pathway. 03/11/2009 03:25:00 this image shows the pathway for the impulses of smell from the nose to the C.N.S ... olfactory nerve pathway. cranial nerves, cranial nerves, cranial nerves, olfactory tubercle, trigeminal nerve, ... Olfactory nerve course. 24/10/2009 04:10:00 this image shows the course of the olfactory nerve from the olfactory bulb to ...
The olfactory nerve (CN I) is the first and shortest cranial nerve. It is a special visceral afferent nerve, which transmits ... Olfactory Bulb. Once in the cranial cavity, the fibres enter the olfactory bulb, which lies in the olfactory groove within the ... Olfactory Bulb. Once in the cranial cavity, the fibres enter the olfactory bulb, which lies in the olfactory groove within the ... olfactory tubercle and the secondary olfactory cortex. These areas are involved in the memory and appreciation of olfactory ...
Neural Pathways / anatomy & histology * Neural Pathways / physiology * Olfactory Pathways / anatomy & histology * Olfactory ... Remembrance of odors past: human olfactory cortex in cross-modal recognition memory Neuron. 2004 May 27;42(4):687-95. doi: ... Primary olfactory (piriform) cortex, as well as anterior hippocampus, was activated during the successful retrieval of old ( ... Our findings indicate that sensory features of the original engram are preserved in unimodal olfactory cortex. We suggest that ...
Functional Evaluation of Olfactory Pathways in Living Xenopus Tadpoles, A Positioning Device for the Placement of Mice During ... olfactory nerve include Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory ... The Olfactory System as a Model to Study Axonal Growth Patterns and Morphology In Vivo, A Lateralized Odor Learning Model in ... Imaging Odor-Evoked Activities in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb using Optical Reflectance and Autofluorescence Signals, Lentivirus ...
An essential feature of the organization and function of the vertebrate and insect olfactory systems is the generation of a ... variety of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that have different specificities in regard to both odorant receptor expression ... Olfactory Pathways / cytology * Olfactory Pathways / growth & development* * Olfactory Pathways / metabolism * Olfactory ... Notch signal organizes the Drosophila olfactory circuitry by diversifying the sensory neuronal lineages Nat Neurosci. 2007 Feb; ...
The last 10 years have seen the olfactory pathway rise in prominence as a model system for axon guidance. Once considered to be ... it was the cloning of the odorant receptor family that quickly led to a better understanding of axon targeting in the olfactory ... aspects of axon guidance and targeting with implications not only for our understanding of these mechanisms in the olfactory ... ongoing since pioneer studies in the 1940s highlighted the specificity of neuronal connections in the retino-tectal pathway. ...
We evaluated the severity of olfactory disturbance (OD) in the murine model of allergic rhinitis (AR) and local allergic ... Olfactory Pathways. Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the ... OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and olfactory cortex. The ... Reversal of Olfactory Disturbance in Allergic Rhinitis Related to OMP Suppression by Intranasal Budesonide Treatment.. 07:00 ...
Neurogenesis is critical to continuously replacie olfactory neurons but is impaired during chronic inflammatory rhinosinusitis ... Olfactory Pathways. Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the ... OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and olfactory cortex. The ... on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives ...
The Neural Pathways Underlying Odor Perception (Olfaction). Olfactory stimulation is first received by olfactory receptor ... After being received by the primary olfactory cortex, olfactory signals reach the secondary olfactory cortex, including the ... 2. Neuroanatomy of the Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways. Researchers have made great advances in understanding how human beings ... The olfactory tract projects to the primary olfactory cortex, which is composed of several regions within the frontal and ...
... Type of Publication:. Journal ... Slow presynaptic mechanisms that mediate adaptation in the olfactory pathway of Drosophila. * Home ... Slow presynaptic mechanisms that mediate adaptation in the olfactory pathway of Drosophila. In: eLife. 8, e43735. eISSN 2050- ... article{Martelli2019-06-10presy-46462, title={Slow presynaptic mechanisms that mediate adaptation in the olfactory pathway of ...
... are a set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex ... Olfactory Pathways Olfactory Pathways In the bodys brain, Olfactory Pathways, an afferent pathway of the limbic system, are a ... olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, olfactory nerves, olfactory tract, and the olfactory tubercle. * ... Olfactory Bulb In our bodys brain, the Olfactory Bulb, an afferent pathway component of the limbic system, in the grey matter ...
1). One of these pathways is analogous to the olfactory pathway; it is based on aesthetasc sensilla, which have dendrites of ... Thus spiny lobsters tightly regulate foraging and any other activities via the risk-assessment pathway - the olfactory pathway ... the olfactory pathway is represented by aesthetasc sensilla on the antennules, which contain olfactory receptor neurons whose ... are detected by the olfactory system. Some fish have several olfactory pathways, with the one detecting alarm cues being ...
... olfactory receptor activity, G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, sensory perception of smell ... R-RNO-381753. Olfactory Signaling Pathway. Family and domain databases. Integrated resource of protein families, domains and ... Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes ... Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, sensory perception of smell ... olfactory receptor activity, transmembrane signaling receptor activity, detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory ... R-MMU-381753. Olfactory Signaling Pathway. Miscellaneous databases. The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs ... Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes ...
  • The other process is a long and extremely thin axon, the olfactory nerve fibre , which reaches the cranial cavity by passing through one of the openings in the bony roof of the nasal cavity and enters the olfactory bulb of the forebrain. (britannica.com)
  • Information about the molecules is then transmitted from the receptors to the olfactory bulb in the brain. (britannica.com)
  • In the olfactory bulb, the olfactory nerve fibres end in contact with the antenna-shaped dendrites of the large mitral cells, which represent the second main link in the chain of olfactory conduction. (britannica.com)
  • Each mitral cell emits a long axon, many of which enter into the formation of the olfactory tract, a white fibre band extending back from the bulb over the basal surface of the forebrain. (britannica.com)
  • The term rhinencephalon is restricted to structures in the CNS receiving fibers from the olfactory bulb. (harvard.edu)
  • Vinograd A, Livneh Y, Mizrahi A. History-Dependent Odor Processing in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb. (harvard.edu)
  • A centrifugal pathway to the mouse accessory olfactory bulb from the medial amygdala conveys gender-specific volatile pheromonal signals. (nih.gov)
  • We previously found that female mice exhibited Fos responses in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) after exposure to volatile opposite-sex, but not same-sex, urinary odours. (nih.gov)
  • A) Successful CTB injections into the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) were defined as having filled at least 2/3 of the mitral (Mi) and granule (Gr)-cell layers without significant expansion of CTB-IR into the main olfactory bulb (MOB). (nih.gov)
  • It belongs to the olfactory system and receives dense direct inputs from the main olfactory bulb (OB) and other olfactory cortexes such as the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and piriform cortex (PCX) ( Wesson and Wilson, 2011 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The small, unmyelinated axons of the olfactory receptor cells form the fine fibers of the first cranial nerve and travel centrally toward the ipsilateral olfactory bulb to make contact with the second-order neurons. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory bulb lies inferior to the basal frontal lobe. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory bulb is a highly organized structure composed of several distinct layers and synaptic specializations. (medscape.com)
  • Mitral cells are second-order neurons contacted by the olfactory nerve fibers at the glomerular layer of the bulb. (medscape.com)
  • Five areas of the olfactory pathway were examined by immunolabelling for alpha-synuclein - a major component of Lewy pathology: the olfactory tract/bulb (n = 79), the anterior olfactory nucleus in the lateral olfactory gyrus (n = 193), the region of olfactory projection to the orbito-frontal cortex (n = 225), the hippocampus (n = 236) and the amygdala (n = 201). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clinical Parkinson's disease is most likely to be identified if the orbito-frontal cortex is affected, while the diagnosis is less likely if the pathology is restricted to the olfactory bulb or tract. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that pathology in the olfactory bulb and tract occurs prior to clinical signs of Parkinson's disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • this image shows the course of the olfactory nerve from the olfactory bulb to centers showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
  • this image shows the beginning of the olfactory nerve at the nose ( the olfactory bulb) showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
  • Once in the cranial cavity, the fibres enter the olfactory bulb , which lies in the olfactory groove within the anterior cranial fossa. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The olfactory bulb is an ovoid structure which contains specialised neurones, called mitral cells . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Medial stria - carries the axons across the medial plane of the anterior commissure, where they meet the olfactory bulb of the opposite side. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • It is formed by the axons of Olfactory receptor neurons which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the Olfactory bulb . (jove.com)
  • Distraction of olfactory bulb-medial prefrontal cortex circuit may induce anxiety-like behavior in allergic rhinitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the body's brain , Olfactory Pathways , an afferent pathway of the limbic system , are a set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex, which includes the anterior perforated substance , olfactory bulb , olfactory cortex , olfactory nerves , olfactory tract , and the olfactory tubercle. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body's brain, the Olfactory Bulb , an afferent pathway component of the limbic system , in the grey matter of the olfactory system , is an ovoid body that rests on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone where the olfactory nerve terminates, which contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In the body's brain , Olfactory Tract , part of the limbic system is a bundle of axons connecting the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb to several target regions. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • recorded from neurons in the posteroventral division of the MeA (MePV) in brain slices while stimulating extracellularly either in the molecular layer, which activated inputs from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), or in the cortical amygdala (CoA), which activated inputs from the main olfactory system. (jneurosci.org)
  • OEGs are thought to exclude OAs from contact with all other cells between the olfactory epithelium and the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. (elsevier.com)
  • These local pathways initiated by glutamate account for a large part of the coupling between synaptic activity and functional hyperemia in the olfactory bulb. (elsevier.com)
  • Research has demonstrated that the changes to the olfactory bulb and main olfactory system following birth are extremely important and influential for maternal behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] An odorant's features are detected by the olfactory system's glomeruli and mitral cells which can be found in the olfactory bulb , a cortical structure involved in the perceptual differentiation of odorants. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [3] The olfactory bulb itself affects how odors come to be encoded through its temporal structure and firing rate, which in turn influences the likelihood of an odorant being remembered. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Studies involving the noradrenergic system of mice demonstrate elimination of habitual learning when areas involving this system are lesioned, and subsequent restoration of habitual learning abilities when noradrenaline is injected into the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor selectively regulates dendritogenesis of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb through the PLCgamma pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To address the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the morphogenesis of GABAergic neurons of the main olfactory bulb, we analyzed mice lacking BDNF, mice carrying neurotrophin-3 (NT3) in the place of BDNF, and TrkB signaling mutant mice with a receptor that can activate phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) but is unable to recruit the adaptors Shc/Frs2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BDNF deletion yielded a compressed olfactory bulb with a significant loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in GABAergic interneurons of the external plexiform layer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our experimental approach employs an olfactory bulb brain slice preparation using whole-cell patch-clamp recording from mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb. (mdpi.com)
  • The main olfactory bulb is a key integrative center in the olfactory pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Mitral cells are the principal output neurons of the main olfactory bulb, receiving olfactory receptor neuron input at their dendrites within glomeruli, and projecting glutamatergic axons through the lateral olfactory tract to the olfactory cortex. (mdpi.com)
  • The info for these processes comes from the vomeronasal organ indirectly via the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral pulses to the hypothalamus promote/discourage feeding, whereas accessory olfactory bulb pulses regulate reproductive and odor-related-reflex processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical activity can be detected with fine insulated wires inserted into the olfactory bulb . (britannica.com)
  • Portions of the olfactory bulb toward the anterior or oral region in the rabbit are found to be more sensitive to water-soluble substances, whereas the more posterior parts of the olfactory bulb are more sensitive to fat-soluble substances. (britannica.com)
  • For example, the third- and fourth-order olfactory neurons found beyond the olfactory bulb of the rat seem particularly concerned with distinguishing the odour of sexually receptive females. (britannica.com)
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) migrate from the olfactory epithelium towards the olfactory bulb during development. (biologists.org)
  • Through combining in vivo two-photon imaging with time-coded labelling of neurons in the olfactory bulb of A30P α-SYN transgenic mice, we show impaired growth and branching of dendrites of adult-born granule cells (GCs), with reduced gain and plasticity of dendritic spines. (nature.com)
  • The olfactory bulb (OB) constitutes the first central hub for the processing of odour inputs and represents one of few brain structures constantly supplied with adult-born neurons. (nature.com)
  • The electrical signals are passed into the brain via bundles of nerve fibers that connect to a small area of the brain called the olfactory bulb. (nytimes.com)
  • In the central nervous system , OECs are found within the outer two layers of the olfactory bulb . (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers . (wikipedia.org)
  • New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axonal growth is guided by the glial composition and cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulb in addition to the presence of OECs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells send impulses to the olfactory bulb. (thoughtco.com)
  • Olfactory bulbs - bulb-shaped structures in the forebrain where olfactory nerves end and the olfactory tract begins. (thoughtco.com)
  • Olfactory tract - band of nerve fibers that extend from each olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex of the brain. (thoughtco.com)
  • We will point out that newborn interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) represent a privileged cellular target for social stimuli that elicit reproductive behaviors and that such cues modulate adult neurogenesis at two different levels increasing both proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the germinative regions and integration of newborn neurons into functional circuits. (hindawi.com)
  • This important function is achieved through a continuous supply of new neurons into the circuits of the olfactory bulb (OB) and dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, two key regions exerting an important control on brain circuits critical for survival of individuals and species [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Allison, A.C. The structure of the olfactory bulb and its relations to the olfactory pathways in the rabbit and the cat. (springer.com)
  • Druga, R. Projection area of the olfactory bulb in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Land, J.L., Eager, R.P., and Shepherd, G.M. Olfactory nerve projections to the olfactory bulb in rabbit: demonstration by means of a simplified ammoniacal siver degeneration method. (springer.com)
  • Lohman, A.H., and Mentink, G.M. The lateral olfactory tract, the anterior commissure and the cells of the olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Nicoll, R.A. Recurrent excitatory pathways of anterior commissure and mitral cell axons in the olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Price, J.L. The origin of the centrifugal fibers to the olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Price, J.L., and Powell, T.P. An electron-microscopic study of the termination of the afferent fibres to the olfactory bulb from the cerebral hemisphere. (springer.com)
  • Price, J.L., and Powell, T.P. An experimental study of the origin and course of the centrifugal fibres to the olfactory bulb in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Raisman, G. An experimental study of the projection of the amygdala to the accessory olfactory bulb and its relationship to the concept of a dual olfactory system. (springer.com)
  • Scalia, F., and Winans, S.S. The differential projections of the olfactory bulb and accessory olfactory bulb in mammals. (springer.com)
  • Shepherd, G.M. Synaptic organization of the mammalian olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Alterations of the synaptic input of the primary olfactory neurons to their target neurons in the olfactory bulb has demonstrated that the afferent olfactory neurons can modulate the biochemical phenotype expressed by their juxtaglomerular target neurons (Baker et al. (springer.com)
  • Cell proliferation and migration in the anterior forebrain, with special reference to persisting neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Baker H, Kawano T, Margolis FL, Joh TH (1983) Transneuronal regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in olfactory bulb of mouse and rat. (springer.com)
  • Baker H, Kawano T, Albert V, Joh TH, Reis DJ, Margolis FL (1984) Olfactory bulb dopamine neurons survive deafferentation induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase. (springer.com)
  • Barbaro D, Fisher DE, Strumeyer DH, Fisher H (1978) Developmental changes and dietary histidine manipulation: Effect on rat olfactory bulb and leg muscle components. (springer.com)
  • Brunjes P, Smith-Crafts LK, McCarty R (1985) Unilateral odor deprivation: Effects on the development of olfactory bulb catecholamines and behavior. (springer.com)
  • Chuah Ml, Farbman Al (1983) Olfactory bulb increases marker protein in olfactory receptor cells. (springer.com)
  • Frosch MP, Dichter MA (1984) Physiology and pharmacology of olfactory bulb neurons in dissociated cell culture. (springer.com)
  • Gonzales-Estrada MT, Freeman WJ (1980) Effects of carnosine on olfactory bulb EEC, evoked potentials and DC potentials. (springer.com)
  • Halasz N, Shepherd GM (1983) Neurochemistry of the vertebrate olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Hinds JW (1972) Early neuron differentiation in the mouse olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Horinishi H, Crillo M, Margolis FL (1978) Purification and characterization of carnosine synthetase from mouse olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Kawano T, Margolis FL (1982) Transsynaptic regulation of olfactory bulb catecholamines in mice and rats. (springer.com)
  • Once the odorant has been bound to a matching receptor(s), a neural signal is produced that travels along the receptor axon through the cribiform layer of the ethmoidal bone to the glomerular enlargement of the mitral cells, which lie in the olfactory bulb. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The olfactory signals are carried from the olfactory bulb primarily by cranial nerve I, but the trigeminal nerve or cranial nerve V, is also involved in olfactory perception. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The receptor responses initiate signals to the olfactory bulb in so-called 'zone-to-zone' projection ( Simoes de Souza & Antunes 2007 ), when a pattern of receptor response maps directly onto corresponding locations in the bulb, whence information defining the scent is communicated as a combinatorial code to the brain. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It generates odorant and pheromone receptor cells that project to the olfactory and accessory olfactory bulb, as well as supporting cells and a diverse set of neurons that express GnRH , somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and calbindin and migrate along the olfactory nerve into the CNS (Murakami and Arai, 1994 , Hilal et al. (stembook.org)
  • The pathway of olfactory conduction begins with the olfactory receptors-small, slender nerve cells embedded in large numbers (about 100 million in the rabbit ) in the epithelium of the mucous membrane lining the upper part of the nasal cavity. (britannica.com)
  • One of these is a short peripheral dendrite, which reaches to the surface of the epithelium, where it ends in a knob carrying a number of fine radially placed filaments, the olfactory hairs. (britannica.com)
  • olfactory epithelium The olfactory epithelium, found within the nasal cavity, contains olfactory receptor cells, which have specialized cilia extensions. (britannica.com)
  • This effect was eliminated by lesioning the main olfactory epithelium, raising the possibility that the AOB receives information about gender via centrifugal inputs originating in the main olfactory system instead of from the vomeronasal organ. (nih.gov)
  • The odor information originates in the epithelium of the nasal cavity and is transported to the brain via components of the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve 1 - CNI) and the olfactory pathway . (kenhub.com)
  • To understand the olfactory nerve and its clinical implications, this article will trace the olfactory nerve from its receptor cells, located in the nasal epithelium, to the olfactory cortex and beyond. (kenhub.com)
  • These cells are located in the olfactory epithelium , a mucosal membrane that lines the roof and sides of the nasal cavity. (kenhub.com)
  • There are three cell types contained within the epithelium: the olfactory receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal (stem) cells. (kenhub.com)
  • One projection, the dendrite, extends to the surface of the olfactory epithelium. (kenhub.com)
  • The cilia contain receptors for odor molecules that pass into the nasal cavity and are captured in the fluid covering the olfactory epithelium. (kenhub.com)
  • Within the nasal cavity , the turbinates or nasal conchae serve to direct the inspired air toward the olfactory epithelium in the upper posterior region. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory epithelium consists of 3 cell types: basal, supporting, and olfactory receptor cells. (medscape.com)
  • As previously mentioned, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) sends fibers to the olfactory epithelium to detect caustic chemicals, such as ammonia. (medscape.com)
  • The anatomical course of the olfactory nerve describes the transmission of special sensory information from the nasal epithelium to the primary olfactory cortex of the brain. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The sense of smell is detected by olfactory receptors located within the nasal epithelium . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Dendritic process projects to the surface of the epithelium, where they project a number of short cilia, the olfactory hairs, into the mucous membrane. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • In vertebrates the olfactory epithelium (OE) is the tissue responsible for conducting chemosensory stimulation. (kzoo.edu)
  • We describe the detailed intercellular interactions of OAs with supporting cells throughout the olfactory epithelium, the lamina propria, the fila olfactoria, and the olfactory nerve layer by using transmission electron microscopy in adult Macaca fascicularis. (elsevier.com)
  • This paper discusses the possibility, that in the main olfactory epithelium of mammals ciliated and microvillar sensory cells exist concurrently. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The peripheral olfactory system consists mainly of the nostrils , ethmoid bone , nasal cavity , and the olfactory epithelium (layers of thin tissue covered in mucus that line the nasal cavity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucus also covers the olfactory epithelium, which contains mucous membranes that produce and store mucus and olfactory glands that secrete metabolic enzymes found in the mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory neurons are receptor cells in the epithelium that detect odor molecules dissolved in the mucus and transmit information about the odor to the brain in a process called sensory transduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory system of the brain, which is separated from the epithelium by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone . (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory nerve fibers, which originate in the epithelium, pass through the cribriform plate, connecting the epithelium to the brain's limbic system at the olfactory bulbs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Facial mesenchyme also supported the initial projection of the olfactory nerve and differentiation of the olfactory epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the nasal placode has two roles: as a signaling center for the lateral nasal skeleton and as a source of olfactory neurons and sensory epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • Neural precursors in the developing olfactory epithelium (OE) give rise to three major neuronal classes - olfactory receptor (ORNs), vomeronasal (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. (biologists.org)
  • We characterized two precursor classes in the olfactory epithelium (OE) shortly after it becomes a distinct tissue at midgestation in the mouse: slowly dividing self-renewing precursors that express Meis1/2 at high levels, and rapidly dividing neurogenic precursors that express high levels of Sox2 and Ascl1. (biologists.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium (OE) differentiates from the lateral surface ectoderm of the vertebrate head, and gives rise to three major neuron classes: olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal receptor neurons (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. (biologists.org)
  • These cells, called the olfactory epithelium, have direct connections to the brain. (nytimes.com)
  • Dr. Snyder and his team were searching for possible receptor proteins on the cilia, hairlike projections extending from the olfactory epithelium at the back of the nose. (nytimes.com)
  • In the peripheral nervous system OECs are dispersed within the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory nerve . (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory epithelium - specialized type of epithelial tissue in nasal cavities that contains olfactory nerve cells and receptor nerve cells. (thoughtco.com)
  • Olfactory epithelium located in the nose contains millions of chemical receptors that detect odors. (thoughtco.com)
  • Odor receptor neurons in olfactory epithelium detect these odors and send the signals on to the olfactory bulbs. (thoughtco.com)
  • Hinds JW, Hinds PL, McNelly NA (1984) An autoradiographic study of the mouse olfactory epithelium: Evidence for long-lived receptors. (springer.com)
  • The bloodhound , for example, has 76 times the surface area of nasal epithelium as humans and four billion olfactory receptor cells relative to a human's 30 million (Chudler 2007). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This layer extends along the superior concha forming a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium composed of three types of cells: (1) olfactory receptor cells,(2) basal cells, and (3) supporting cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition to the olfactory neurons, the epithelium is composed of supporting cells, Bowman glands and ducts unique to the olfactory epithelium, and basal cells that allow for the regeneration of the epithelium, including the olfactory sensory neurons. (medscape.com)
  • The sensory nervous system of the vertebrate head comprises the three paired sense organs, the eye, ear and olfactory epithelium, and the cranial sensory ganglia. (stembook.org)
  • Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. (harvard.edu)
  • This study tested whether differences in sensitivity between the upper and lower olfactory epithelia of Solea senegalensis are associated with different odorant receptors and transduction pathways, using the electro-olfactogram. (ualg.pt)
  • It is important to note that the olfactory nerve is only one component of the overall pathway and is, in fact, made up of multiple nerve fibers/rootlets coming from the receptors cells. (kenhub.com)
  • Olfactory receptors. (medscape.com)
  • While the aesthetascs of aquatic crustaceans have been shown to be the place of odor uptake and previous studies identified ionotropic receptors (IRs) as the putative chemosensory receptors expressed in decapod antennules, the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has not been documented yet. (frontiersin.org)
  • Where are olfactory receptors? (studystack.com)
  • Ischemic stroke is recognized to trigger two main pathways of apoptosis- the intrinsic pathway originating from mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and an extrinsic pathway that occurs by signaling through cell death receptors that belong to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily such as Fas (Apo-1, CD95), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand-R1 (TRAIL-R1), TRAIL-R2 and TNFRp55 7 . (nature.com)
  • Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. (genecards.org)
  • The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. (genecards.org)
  • Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. (genecards.org)
  • in particular, the OBP(s) present in a particular olfactory sensillum might determine the spectrum of odorants to which the underlying receptors have access. (genetics.org)
  • The olfactory receptors and and the olfaction pathway. (unige.it)
  • The gustatory receptors and the taste pathway. (unige.it)
  • It is a specialized pseudostratified neuroepithelium containing the primary olfactory receptors. (medscape.com)
  • To stimulate the olfactory receptors, airborne molecules must pass through the nasal cavity with relatively turbulent air currents and contact the receptors. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory system sensitively discerns scents from many small molecules as the brain analyses signals from nasal receptors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • this process contributes to deficient replacement of olfactory sensory neurons. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Your ability to smell comes from specialized sensory cells, called olfactory sensory neurons, which are found in a small patch of tissue high inside the nose. (nih.gov)
  • Smells reach the olfactory sensory neurons through two pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Chewing food releases aromas that access the olfactory sensory neurons through the second channel. (nih.gov)
  • Without the olfactory sensory neurons, familiar flavors such as chocolate or oranges would be hard to distinguish. (nih.gov)
  • In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • We further demonstrated that MACO-1 and SCD-2/HEN-1 functioned in parallel genetic pathways, and only MACO-1 regulated forgetting of olfactory adaptation to isoamyl alcohol, which is an attractive odorant sensed by different types of sensory neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • We then outline the functional architecture of olfactory sensory neurons and their signal transduction pathways, which are the primary detectors that render olfactory perception possible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whether OECs, which have the same developmental origin as olfactory sensory neurons, are also responsive to Slits is unknown. (biologists.org)
  • These studies were instrumental to map the wiring of olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptor genes to these glomeruli and to understand the functional significance of this wiring for the combinatorial coding of odours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several complex mosquito behaviours such as host seeking, feeding, mating or oviposition rely on olfactory stimuli that target a range of sensory neurons localized mainly on specialized head appendages such as antennae, maxillary palps and the mouthparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2 / TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. (genetics.org)
  • The olfactory tract distributes its fibres mainly to the cortex of the pyriform lobe, which constitutes the final cortical receiving area of the olfactory pathway. (britannica.com)
  • the olfactory tubercle and the medial part of the amygdaloid complex (the latter lies deep to the olfactory cortex). (britannica.com)
  • Kondoh K, Lu Z, Ye X, Olson DP, Lowell BB, Buck LB. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours. (harvard.edu)
  • medial olfactory cortex 4. (edoctoronline.com)
  • this image shows the auditory pathway that carry sensation from the ear to the cerebral cortex showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
  • Lateral stria - carries the axons to the primary olfactory cortex, located within the uncus of temporal lobe. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The primary olfactory cortex sends nerve fibres to many other areas of the brain, notably the piriform cortex, the amygdala, olfactory tubercle and the secondary olfactory cortex. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Primary olfactory (piriform) cortex, as well as anterior hippocampus, was activated during the successful retrieval of old (compared to new) objects. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that sensory features of the original engram are preserved in unimodal olfactory cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Where does input from primary olfactory cortex come from? (studystack.com)
  • Lewy bodies are deposits of abnormal protein in the brain that interfere with brain cell communication and may occur in several areas of the brain such as the cerebral cortex, limbic cortex, hippocampus, midbrain, brainstem, and the olfactory pathways. (medicinenet.com)
  • The uncus houses the olfactory cortex which includes the piriform cortex (posterior orbitofrontal cortex ), amygdala , olfactory tubercle , and parahippocampal gyrus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory cortex - area of the cerebral cortex that processes information about odors and receives nerve signals from the olfactory bulbs. (thoughtco.com)
  • These signals are then sent along olfactory tracts to the olfactory cortex of the brain. (thoughtco.com)
  • The olfactory cortex is vital for the processing and perception of odor. (thoughtco.com)
  • The olfactory cortex is also a component of the limbic system . (thoughtco.com)
  • The olfactory cortex has connections with other limbic system structures such as the amygdala , hippocampus , and hypothalamus . (thoughtco.com)
  • The molecular mechanisms mediating the chemo-electrical signal transduction in olfactory receptor cells are still elusive. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory receptor cells (sense odor and contain cilia), supporting cells, basal (stem) cells (replacing old and damaged olfactory receptor cells). (kenhub.com)
  • The olfactory receptor cells are bipolar, meaning that they have two projections from their cell body. (kenhub.com)
  • The basal surface of olfactory receptor cells is located directly inferior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone which makes up the bony roof of the nasal cavity. (kenhub.com)
  • This area (only a few centimeters wide) contains more than 100 million olfactory receptor cells. (medscape.com)
  • Basal cells are stem cells that give rise to the olfactory receptor cells (seen in the image below). (medscape.com)
  • The receptor cells are actually bipolar neurons, each possessing a thin dendritic rod that contains specialized cilia extending from the olfactory vesicle and a long central process that forms the fila olfactoria. (medscape.com)
  • [4] [5] Olfactory neurons have cilia (tiny hairs) containing proteins that bind to odor molecules, causing an electrical response that spreads through the receptor cells to the olfactory nerve fibers at the back of the nasal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of the relative inaccessibility of the olfactory receptor cells, odour stimuli can be detected at extremely low concentrations. (britannica.com)
  • The basal cells are transformed over a period of about 40 days to become olfactory receptor cells (Leffingwell 2002). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The sense of smell is mediated through stimulation of the olfactory receptor cells by volatile chemicals. (medscape.com)
  • In mammals with a highly developed sense of smell (macrosmatic mammals), such as rodents , the olfactory brain structures are relatively large and occupy all or a large part of the basal surface of the forebrain. (britannica.com)
  • In this study odor induced formation of second messengers in rat olfactory cilia was monitored in a subsecond time range using a rapid kinetic device. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, our results revealed that the VTA (DAergic)-mOT pathway mediates a variety of naturalistic reward processes and different types of preferences including odor-preference in mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • The formation of odor-preference should involve the interaction between the olfactory and reward systems, although the mechanisms, the engaged brain regions and neural circuits are still unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • From these anatomical and functional facts about the two brain regions, we hypothesized that the VTA (DAergic)-OT pathway play pivotal roles in the formation of odor-preference and reward behaviors involving other modalities. (elifesciences.org)
  • The olfactory system encodes odor stimuli as combinatorial activity of populations of neurons whose response depends on stimulus history. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Each olfactory neuron has one odor receptor. (nih.gov)
  • In the fruit fly olfactory memories of particular value are represented within sparse populations of odor-activated Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body ensemble. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using intravital multiphoton microscopy, we measured presynaptic activity, postsynaptic neuronal and astrocytic calcium responses, and erythrocyte velocity and flux in olfactory glomeruli during odor stimulation in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • In olfactory adaptation, odor-evoked Ca 2+ responses in olfactory neurons are attenuated by conditioning and recovered thereafter. (elsevier.com)
  • [7] In regards to olfactory memory, deliberate recollection of an odor experience is not necessary in order for implicit memories of odors to form in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odor molecules can enter the peripheral pathway and reach the nasal cavity either through the nostrils when inhaling ( olfaction ) or through the throat when the tongue pushes air to the back of the nasal cavity while chewing or swallowing (retro-nasal olfaction). (wikipedia.org)
  • An oversimplification of its role is to state that it: checks to ensure odor signals arose from actual odors rather than villi irritation, regulates motor behavior (primarily social and stereotypical) brought on by odors, integrates auditory and olfactory sensory info to complete the aforementioned tasks, and plays a role in transmitting positive signals to reward sensors (and is thus involved in addiction). (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] The main olfactory bulb's pulses in the amygdala are used to pair odors to names and recognize odor to odor differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuron pathways activated in the moths were tracked by inserting a 16-channel electrode into the moth's antennal lobe, where the moth processes odor information from its antennae. (eurekalert.org)
  • In an effort to find the postulated receptor proteins, Dr. Snyder's team made various odor molecules radioactive, mixed the molecules in test tubes with olfactory tissue from rats, and found that the odor molecules bound to a particular protein in the rat tissue. (nytimes.com)
  • This illustration of the olfactory system shows the two pathways of odor detection: orthonasal smell (air coming in through nostrils), retronasal smell (air entering nasal cavity from the rear, carried up from the mouth). (thoughtco.com)
  • Organization of the olfactory pathway and odor processing in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus floridanus. (mpg.de)
  • Elucidating olfactory circuits in Drosophila - From odor coding to behavior. (mpg.de)
  • Odor processing strategies of olfactory circuits in Drosophila. (mpg.de)
  • Axon Navigation in the Mammalian Primary Olfactory Pathway: Where to Next? (edu.au)
  • Ferriero D, Margolis FL (1975) Denervation in the primary olfactory pathway of mice. (springer.com)
  • We found CTB-labeled cell bodies in several forebrain sites including the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the rostral portion of the medial amygdala (MeA) and the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala. (nih.gov)
  • They are the medial and lateral divisions of the olfactory tract. (kenhub.com)
  • From the glomeruli, second order nerves then pass posteriorly into the olfactory tract. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The olfactory tract travels posteriorly on the inferior surface of the frontal lobe . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Some 6 have failed to find any plaques in the olfactory tracts of brains from patients with multiple sclerosis but there is pathological evidence 7 8 that the olfactory tract can be affected. (bmj.com)
  • Its apex, directed forward, occupies the posterior part of the olfactory sulcus, and is brought into view by throwing back the olfactory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Price, J.L., and Sprich, W.W. Observations on the lateral olfactory tract of the rat. (springer.com)
  • These cells produce a signal which is modified by several other cell types until it is sent down the olfactory nerve tract to several brain areas, where it can be consciously perceived, cataloged, put into memory, and linked with other perceived sensations. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Attractant and repellent cues cooperate in guiding a subset of olfactory sensory axons to a well-defined protoglomerular target. (harvard.edu)
  • The axons of the olfactory receptor neurons terminate within the primary olfactory neuropils of the honeybee brain, the antennal lobes. (biologists.org)
  • CN I formed out of a collection of olfactory receptor cell axons, which pass through the cribriform plate and into the roof of the nasal cavity. (kenhub.com)
  • Their axons (fila olfactoria) assemble into small bundles of true olfactory nerves, which penetrate the small foramina in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and enter the cranial cavity. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OEGs) interact with a wide repertoire of cell types and support extension of olfactory axons (OAs) within the olfactory pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • They are also known as olfactory Schwann cells , because they ensheath the non- myelinated axons of olfactory neurons in a similar way to which Schwann cells ensheath non-myelinated peripheral neurons . (wikipedia.org)
  • During development, primitive olfactory neurons extend their axons from the olfactory placode , through the mesenchyme , towards the telencephalic vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also form on bundles of olfactory sensory neuron axons in a manner distinct from myelination . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] OECs are also known to support and guide olfactory axons, grow through glial scars, and secrete many neurotrophic factors . (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth and regeneration of olfactory axons can be attributable to OECs, as they form the fascicles through which axons grow from the peripheral nervous system into the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, Notch signaling contributes to the diversification of ORNs, thereby regulating multiple developmental events that establish the olfactory map in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • We use in vivo optical imaging in Drosophila to analyze sensory adaptation at the first synaptic step along the olfactory pathway. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Here we report two sets of Drosophila neurons that account for the rapid forgetting of early olfactory aversive memory. (cshl.edu)
  • Our results thus not only establish the presence of multiple neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila but also suggest the existence of diverse circuit mechanisms of forgetting in different contexts. (cshl.edu)
  • Olfactory learning skews mushroom body output pathways to steer behavioral choice in Drosophila. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Drosophila olfactory genes OS-E and OS-F are members of a family of genes that encode insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). (genetics.org)
  • The recent discovery of a large family of olfactory receptor genes in Drosophila raises new questions about the function, diversity, regulation, and evolution of the OBP family. (genetics.org)
  • Bicker G, Kreissl S, Hofbauer A (1993) Monoclonal antibody labels olfactory and visual pathways in Drosophila and Apis brains. (springer.com)
  • He provided a detailed account of the anatomy and development of the olfactory system, in particular across metamorphosis, for which he received the Théodore-Ott-Prize of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences in 2007, and pioneered the use of larval Drosophila for the brain and behavioural sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural sources of alcohol provide pheromone pathway amplification in Drosophila via microbial assistance. (mpg.de)
  • Olfactory microcircuits and brain dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster . (mpg.de)
  • Olfactory maps, circuits and behaviors of Drosophila. (mpg.de)
  • Dissecting olfactory circuits in Drosophila. (mpg.de)
  • Experience-dependent plasticity of an aversive olfactory circuit in Drosophila melanogaster . (mpg.de)
  • Plasticity of olfactory circuits in Drosophila melanogaster . (mpg.de)
  • Elucidating olfactory coding mechanisms in Drosophila. (mpg.de)
  • The olfactory system consists of the primary olfactory nerves in the nasal cavity, the olfactory bulbs and tracts, and numerous intracranial connections and pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study, a model for olfactory drug absorption has been investigated using intravenous and unilateral nasal administration of lidocaine hydrochloride in rats. (chemweb.com)
  • Later, the nasal pit deepens to form a nasal slit and ultimately the nasal passages that are lined by respiratory and olfactory epithelia ( Croucher and Tickle, 1989 ). (biologists.org)
  • The olfactory neuroepithelium is located at the upper area of each nasal chamber adjacent to the cribriform plate, superior nasal septum, and superior-lateral nasal wall. (medscape.com)
  • It is the relay station of the olfactory pathway and contains olfactory glomeruli. (kenhub.com)
  • The glomerular layer is the most superficial layer, consisting of mitral cell dendritic arborizations (glomeruli), olfactory nerve fibers, and periglomerular cells. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory nerve fibres synapse with the mitral cells, forming collections known as synaptic glomeruli . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Odors are detected by olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) on the antennae. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we found that the VTA (DAergic)-mOT pathway could be activated by different types of naturalistic rewards as well as odors in DAT-cre mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • These signals, which are not detected consciously as odors by the olfactory system, mediate human autonomic, psychological, and endocrine responses. (medscape.com)
  • These cilia react to odors in the air and stimulate the olfactory cells. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Both the main olfactory system, which processes volatile odors, and the accessory olfactory system, which processes pheromones, send projections to the amygdala. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data suggest that single neurons in the MePV-a region involved in detecting predator odors (Gross and Canteras, 2012, Nat Rev Neurosci 13:651)-integrate information from the main and accessory olfactory systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • Some fish have several olfactory pathways, with the one detecting alarm cues being anatomically and functionally separate from those detecting sex pheromones and food odors ( Hamdani and Døving, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • Olfactory memory refers to the recollection of odors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Explicit memory is typically the form focused on in the studies of olfactory memory, though implicit forms of memory certainly supply distinct contributions to the understanding of odors and memories of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odors are detected through two pathways. (thoughtco.com)
  • The first is the orthonasal pathway which involves odors that are sniffed in through the nose. (thoughtco.com)
  • Within the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be transmitted to the brain. (genome.jp)
  • Odorant molecules bind to a receptor protein (R) coupled to an olfactory specific Gs-protein (G) and activate a type III adenylyl cyclase (AC), increasing intracellular cAMP levels. (genome.jp)
  • An essential feature of the organization and function of the vertebrate and insect olfactory systems is the generation of a variety of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that have different specificities in regard to both odorant receptor expression and axonal targeting. (nih.gov)
  • In marked contrast, it was the cloning of the odorant receptor family that quickly led to a better understanding of axon targeting in the olfactory system. (edu.au)
  • To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. (elsevier.com)
  • RT "Odorant receptor expressed sequence tags demonstrate olfactory RT expression of over 400 genes, extensive alternate splicing and unequal RT expression levels. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • INSECT odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small, soluble proteins found in the aqueous lymph that fills the olfactory sensilla on the antenna ( P elosi and M aida 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • Each olfactory receptor neuron (cell) in the nose interacts with only one specific characteristic of an odorant. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The medial olfactory tubercle (mOT) is involved in both reward and olfaction, whereas the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are considered to be engaged in reward and motivation. (elifesciences.org)
  • We show that this orphan receptor subgroup with presumably non-olfactory function in insects is likely the basis of olfaction in terrestrial hermit crabs. (frontiersin.org)
  • CMV lesions were found in the olfactory system of children with congenital CMV infection but no study has hitherto examined the impact of congenital CMV infection on olfaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The olfactory system , or sense of smell , is the part of the sensory system used for smelling ( olfaction ). (wikipedia.org)
  • METHODS Olfaction was assessed by: (1) The University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT, which uses microencapsulated odours that are released when scratched with a pencil) in 72 patients with multiple sclerosis and 96 controls, (2) olfactory evoked potentials (OEP) to 20 ppm H 2 S by volume, and 50% CO 2 in air for 45 patients with multiple sclerosis and 47 controls. (bmj.com)
  • Olfactory nerve - nerve (first cranial nerve) involved in olfaction. (thoughtco.com)
  • Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via retronasal olfaction. (medscape.com)
  • Olfaction is different from your other senses, processed through different pathways in your brain. (mercola.com)
  • Despite innervating more distal dendritic branches than inputs from the main olfactory system, inputs from the accessory system were more likely to drive spiking in MePV neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Most mammals and reptiles have a main olfactory system and an accessory olfactory system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main olfactory system detects airborne substances, while the accessory system senses fluid-phase stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, separated at the midline by the crista galli, contains multiple small foramina through which the olfactory nerve fibers, or fila olfactoria, traverse. (medscape.com)
  • Each mitral cell is contacted by at least 1000 olfactory nerve fibers. (medscape.com)
  • In the body's brain , the Anterior Perforated Substance is part of the basal forebrain and set of nerve fibers (olfactory pathways), which includes the nucleus basalis. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • The primary components of the layers of epithelial tissue are the mucous membranes , olfactory glands , olfactory neurons , and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves . (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory nerve fibers extend through the holes in the cribriform to reach the olfactory bulbs. (thoughtco.com)
  • Olfactory nerve fibers extend from the mucous membrane, through the cribriform plate, to the olfactory bulbs. (thoughtco.com)
  • The olfactory nerve is the first of the 12 cranial nerves and one of the few cranial nerves that carries special sensory information only. (kenhub.com)
  • The olfactory nerve (CN I) is the first and shortest cranial nerve. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The cranial placodes are focal thickenings of the ectoderm and include the olfactory, lens, otic, trigeminal, hypophyseal, lateral line and epibranchial placodes. (biologists.org)
  • Head anatomy with olfactory nerve. (medscape.com)
  • In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the olfactory nerve - its structure, anatomical course and clinical relevance. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Efficiency of human olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation into spinal cysts to improve mobility of the hind limbs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RT "Different evolutionary processes shaped the mouse and human olfactory RT receptor gene families. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Human primary olfactory cortical regions can be parcellated into anatomically distinct areas based on whole-brain functional connectivity profiles, suggesting distinct, parallel functional pathways in the human olfactory system. (elifesciences.org)
  • The connection between our sense of smell and emotions is unlike that of the other senses because olfactory system nerves connect directly to brain structures of the limbic system. (thoughtco.com)
  • the notion that the primary function of the limbic system (rhinencephalon) was to process olfactory information is also of historical importance (cf. (springer.com)
  • gamma1gamma2), terminate in distinct subdomains in the mushroom body and represent parallel neural pathways for regulating forgetting. (cshl.edu)
  • Neuromodulation exists in the olfactory system and is responsible for neural plasticity and behavioural change in both mammals and insects . (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete neural circuit map of a tractable olfactory system will support studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • Different parts of the olfactory neural pathways seem to be selectively tuned to discriminate different classes of olfactory information. (britannica.com)
  • It is upon these olfactory receptor cilia, lying within the mucous layer, that odorants are detected and a neural signal is initiated. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In neonates, this area is a dense neural sheet, but, in children and adults, the respiratory and olfactory tissues interdigitate. (medscape.com)
  • In order to understand the neuronal processes underlying olfactory learning, biophysical properties such as ion channel activity need to be analysed within neurons of the olfactory pathway. (biologists.org)
  • Attempts to understand these mechanisms in the visual system have been ongoing since pioneer studies in the 1940s highlighted the specificity of neuronal connections in the retino-tectal pathway. (edu.au)
  • Basal cells - form the new stem cells from which the new olfactory cells can develop. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) is thought to be a key modulator of this process, propagating a transduction pathway resulting in mature cell development from pleuripotent cells located in the basal lamina of the OE. (kzoo.edu)
  • olfactory mucosa 4. (edoctoronline.com)
  • The sensory function of the olfactory nerve is achieved via the olfactory mucosa . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Olfactory glia that express the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme (LYZ) are thought to play an important role in immunoprotection in the mucosa , where neurons are directly exposed to the external environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the olfactory nerve is responsible for our sense of smell . (kenhub.com)
  • The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. (jove.com)
  • Information from each pathway is conveyed to the medial amygdala (MeA), where-as Keshavarzi et al. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stria terminalis , specifically bed nuclei (BNST), act as the information pathway between the amygdala and hypothalamus, as well as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • (A) Two main olfactory pathways comprised of uniglomerular projection neurons (PN) connect the primary olfactory neuropil, the antennal lobe (AL), and second order neuropils, the mushroom body (MB) and the lateral horn (LH). (frontiersin.org)
  • Scott, J.W., and Chafin, B.R. Origin of olfactory projections to lateral hypothalamus and nuclei gemini of the rat. (springer.com)
  • Thus, at least two different second messenger pathways appear to be involved in olfactory signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory transduction pathways in the Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis. (ualg.pt)
  • For aromatic amino acids and bile acids, there were differences in the contribution of each transduction pathway (PLC, AC and non-PLC and non-AC) between the two epithelia. (ualg.pt)
  • These specialized epithelial cells give rise to the olfactory vesicles containing kinocilia, which serve as sites of stimulus transduction. (medscape.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Olfactory transduction . (genecards.org)
  • Embryologicallly, the olfactory nerve is derived from the olfactory placode (a thickening of the ectoderm layer), which also give rise to the glial cells which support the nerve. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The olfactory placode gives rise to the olfactory nerve, which is composed of several types of neurons, olfactory ensheathing cells and glia. (biologists.org)
  • Several secreted signaling molecules are expressed around the olfactory placode and pit in chicken and mouse embryos. (biologists.org)
  • While some, like the otic and olfactory placode, undergo complex patterning events to form adult organs, others are simple neurogenic centres that shed neuroblasts into the underlying mesenchyme. (stembook.org)
  • The olfactory placode is the most anterior of these and develops next to the forebrain. (stembook.org)
  • The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals. (medscape.com)
  • As a chemical sensor, the olfactory system detects food and influences social and sexual behavior. (medscape.com)
  • The continuous turnover and new supply of these neurons are unique to the olfactory system. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this study was to understand further the extent of Lewy pathology in the olfactory system of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The last 10 years have seen the olfactory pathway rise in prominence as a model system for axon guidance. (edu.au)
  • Once considered to be experimentally intractable, it is now providing a wealth of information on all aspects of axon guidance and targeting with implications not only for our understanding of these mechanisms in the olfactory system but also in other regions of the nervous system. (edu.au)
  • These alarm cues in fish, like those in insects, are detected by the olfactory system. (biologists.org)
  • Imaging of the olfactory system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We characterized a number of aspects of olfactory system of Apis dorsata and compared it with the well-characterized, western honeybee, Apis mellifera , a domesticated, cavity-nesting species. (springer.com)
  • Hence, there can be different demands on its olfactory system. (springer.com)
  • Bastin F, Couto A, Larcher V, Phiancharoen M, Koeniger G, Koeniger N, Sandoz JC (2018) Marked interspecific differences in the neuroanatomy of the male olfactory system of honey bees (genus Apis). (springer.com)
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells ( OECs ), also known as olfactory ensheathing glia or olfactory ensheathing glial cells , are a type of macroglia ( radial glia ) found in the nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the olfactory system they phagocytose axonal debris and dead cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mammalian olfactory system is unusual in that it has the ability to continuously regenerate its neurons during adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies dating back to the 1990s have begun researching the olfactory system of mammals, rats in particular, to gain a greater understanding of axonal regeneration and neurogenesis , and the possible implementation of these cells at the site of the spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graziadei PPC, Monti Graziadei GA (1978) The olfactory system: A model for the study of neurogenesis and axon regeneration in mammals. (springer.com)
  • Adopting the Gal4-UAS method for the cell-type specific manipulation of neurons as established by Brand and Perrimon in 1993 (Development 118, 401-415), this allowed him and his co-workers to describe at unprecedented detail and completeness the first relay of the olfactory system, the antennal lobe, and how it develops during metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Which pathways allow an infectious agent (pathogen) access to the central nervous system (CNS) in meningitis? (medscape.com)
  • We have utilized fifth instar nymphs vs adults as a developmental system to identify antennal gene products which may be correlated with transition to adult olfactory function. (usda.gov)
  • Ecologically labeled lines in the insect olfactory system. (mpg.de)
  • Looking into the olfactory system of non-melanogaster flies. (mpg.de)
  • It will highlight some of the unique characteristics of certain cells within the olfactory pathway, and the connection of the pathway to memory (and behavior ) related brain regions. (kenhub.com)
  • This process of olfactory-visual integration is likely to be relevant to different aspects of behavior, especially hunting and prey-capture in zebrafish. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. (genecards.org)
  • Results show that Lewy pathology affects different parts of the olfactory pathways differentially, suggesting a specific pattern of development of pathology. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mammalian olfactory cues play an important role in the coordination of the mother infant bond, and the following normal development of the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally assumed that mammalian olfactory neurons are of the ciliary type only. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An important component in understanding central olfactory processing and coding in the insect brain relates to the characterization of the functional divisions between morphologically distinct types of projection neurons (PN). (frontiersin.org)
  • Menzel, 2001 ) and our long-term goal is to analyse learning-related changes of cell physiology in the different olfactory neurons, beginning with an analysis of the ionic conductances of the different neurons types, antennal lobe projection neurons and mushroom body Kenyon cells. (biologists.org)
  • After embryogenesis, the central olfactory pathway integrates newborn olfactory local and projection interneurons that replace old neurons or expand the existing population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory and visual projection neurons form distinct synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) with KC dendrites in the olfactory lip or visual collar of the MB calyx, respectively [ 18 , 22 , 28 - 30 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, it is now well documented that the central olfactory pathway in the decapod crustacean brain is characterized by an addition of new olfactory interneurons that starts during early post-embryonic stages and continues throughout the life span of the animal [ 13 - 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell emits two processes (projections). (britannica.com)
  • Activation occurs when odiferous molecules come in contact with specialized processes known as the olfactory vesicles. (medscape.com)
  • At both transitional ends of the pathway seamless intercellular interactions were observed, and fibroblast processes were absent. (elsevier.com)
  • OECs are thought to be in part responsible for the neurogenesis of primary olfactory neurons through the processes of fasciculation , cell sorting , and axonal targeting. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] In mammals , each olfactory receptor protein has one type of molecule that it responds to, known as the one-olfactory-one-neuron rule, and approximately one thousand kinds of which have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existance of so-called olfactory microvillar cells in mammals, however, is well documented, but their nature remains unclear and their function orphaned. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This change in lifestyle required adaptation of the peripheral olfactory organs, the antennules, in order to sense chemical cues in the new terrestrial habitat. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular components underlying peripheral olfactory signalling encompass a range of intracellular and extracellular contexts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. (biologists.org)
  • The results also lend strong support to the view that the newly inseminated female mouse identifies her coital partner as an individual through olfactory cues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this paper we will summarize some of the major achievements on cues and mechanisms modulating adult neurogenesis during social behaviors related to reproduction and possible role/s played by olfactory newborn neurons in this context. (hindawi.com)
  • Desert ant navigation by olfactory and visual cues. (mpg.de)
  • We propose that distinct signaling pathways, each of which has a specific function, may coordinately and temporally regulate forgetting by controlling sensory responses. (elsevier.com)
  • While major progress has been made towards interpreting the basic biology and physiological mechanisms of GCs and their role in processing of olfactory inputs, little is known about the synaptic functions and plasticity of adult-born GCs under pathological conditions. (nature.com)
  • Posterior to the olfactory lies the simplest of the placodes, the lens. (stembook.org)
  • The olfactory tubercle (OT) is a long and narrow tubular brain structure located at the ventral part of striatum. (elifesciences.org)
  • Arnold G, Masson C, Budharugsa S (1985) Comparative study of the antennal lobes and their afferent pathway in the worker bee and the drone ( Apis mellifera ). (springer.com)
  • Olfactory pathways in the honeybee brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Study of potential transfer of aluminum to the brain via the olfactory pathway. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Some metal salts and metal oxides have been shown to enter the brain through the olfactory route, bypassing the blood- brain barrier, but few studies have examined whether aluminum compounds also use this pathway. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The formation of olfactory memory is a multistage process that involves different areas of the insect brain. (biologists.org)
  • To obtain olfactory bulbs from brain stem dead patients who undergo organ donation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Functional neuroimaging uses activity-dependent changes in cerebral blood flow to map brain activity, but the contributions of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity are incompletely understood, as are the underlying cellular pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • There is also evidence suggesting that there are deficits in olfactory memory in individuals with brain degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia . (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings present strong evidence that Fas ligand/receptor pathway promotes cell death following brain ischemia and inhibition of Fas ligand/receptor interaction may provide significant neuroprotection affording a new treatment modality in ischemic stroke injury. (nature.com)
  • Electrophysiological recordings and a large-scale biophysical model show that a unique inhibitory neuron plays a central role in structuring olfactory codes in the insect brain. (elifesciences.org)
  • Caste- and sex-specific adaptations within the olfactory pathway in the brain of the ant Camponotus floridanus. (mpg.de)
  • Elucidating olfactory circuits in the insect brain. (mpg.de)
  • How it impacts on well-being either through direct application such as using massage, its effect on the internal organs such as the brain, the olfactory and digestive organs, as well as its psychological (mental and emotional) benefits will be discussed in detail. (oxfordcollege.ac)
  • The total brain volume and absolute volumes of olfactory mushroom body subdivisions were positively correlated with head widths, but mini workers had significantly larger MB to total brain ratios. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • They also have a smaller brain than comparably sized simians , large olfactory lobes for smell, a vomeronasal organ to detect pheromones , and a bicornuate uterus with an epitheliochorial placenta . (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was attempted in order to identify any sources of ATP release from OE under tonic, unstressed conditions by observing the results of potential pathway inhibition and localizing proteins associated with ATP transmission through immunoreactivity. (kzoo.edu)
  • OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants through the aqueous fluid within olfactory sensilla to the underlying receptor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Ferrer, N.G. Efferent projections of the anterior olfactory nucleus. (springer.com)
  • They are coexpressed within two morphological types of olfactory sensilla that are located in the same region of the antenna, the ventrolateral region. (genetics.org)
  • LAP was associated with specific subtypes of sensilla, specifically the multiporous olfactory sensilla. (usda.gov)
  • The olfactory (yellow), lens (blue), trigeminal (green), otic (purple) and epibranchial (orange) placodes locate to characteristic positions here shown in a side view of a 3-day-old chick embryo. (stembook.org)
  • In this context, we sought to determine whether aluminum was found in rat olfactory bulbs and whether its transfer depended on physicochemical characteristics such as solubility and granulometry. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Olfactory bulbs (ipsilateral and contralateral relative to instilled nostril) were harvested and the aluminum content was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after tissue mineralization. (fluoridealert.org)