Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Olfactory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Inbred ICRSural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
... axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers. ... New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be ... of the epithelial migrating precursors give rise to olfactory ensheathing glia that inhabit the olfactory nerve and glomerular ... In the peripheral nervous system OEG are dispersed within the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory nerve. In the central ...
Mitral cell output is not a passive reflection of their input from the olfactory nerve. In mice, each mitral cell sends a ... Nature Neuroscience Kikuta et.al (2013) Odorant response properties of individual neurons in an olfactory glomerular module. ... hypothesis is the idea of decorrelation in the olfactory bulb network, where the olfactory bulb network acts as a dynamical ... Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central ...
... the glomerular layer receives direct input from afferent nerves, made up of the axons from approximately ten million olfactory ... The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. The main olfactory ... Additionally, top down input to the olfactory bulb differentially affects olfactory outputs. The olfactory bulb sends olfactory ... Therefore, the olfactory bulb plays this role for the olfactory system. The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), which resides on ...
In the retina and the olfactory bulb, ATP is released by neurons to evoke transient calcium signals in several glial cells such ... In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells respond to nerve stimulation and modulate the release of neurotransmitters ... In the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is regulated by several mechanisms including tubuloglomerular feedback ( ... Burnstock G (1972). "Purinergic Nerves". Pharmacol. Rev. 24 (3): 509-81. PMID 4404211. Lipmann, Fritz (1941). "Metabolic ...
... axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers. ... New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be ... Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), also known as olfactory ensheathing glia or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type ... In the peripheral nervous system OECs are dispersed within the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory nerve. In the central ...
The olfactory bulb is a structure at the base of the frontal lobe. It comprises neurons, nerve fibers, interneurons, microglia ... It is made up of 6 layers: olfactory nerve layer, glomerular layer, external plexiform layer, mitral cell layer, internal ... Signals from odor sensation are sent from the olfactory bulb through mitral and tufts cell axons via the lateral olfactory ... Olfactory receptor neuron axons project through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb. ...
... from the air and congregate at the olfactory nerve before passing axons to the dendrites of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb ... making the previously organized glomerular pattern distributed in the olfactory cortex. This dispersion of mitral cell ... The olfactory bulb houses glomeruli, or cell junctures, on which thousands of receptors of the same type, in addition to mitral ... the olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium, mitral cells, and olfactory pyramidal neurons. At the level of the ...
From the olfactory bulb, mitral/tufted cells send axons via the lateral olfactory tract (the cranial nerve I) to the olfactory ... At the glomerular layer, axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with dendrites from intrinsic olfactory bulb ... These receptors are bipolar neurons that connect to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, traveling through the ... In a study by Atianjoh et al., it has been found that amphetamines decrease levels of dopamine in the olfactory bulbs of ...
The glomerular activation patterns within the olfactory bulb are thought to represent the quality of the odor being detected. ... Each glomerulus is composed of two compartments, the olfactory nerve zone and the non-olfactory nerve zone. The olfactory nerve ... All glomeruli are located near the surface of the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb also includes a portion of the anterior ... These ORNs then project their axons to the olfactory bulb. In the olfactory bulb, the ORNs synapse with termination in the ...
The olfactory epithelium contains olfactory sensory neurons, whose axons innervate the olfactory bulb. In order for olfactory ... The axons of the olfactory sensory neurons congregate to form the olfactory nerve (CN I). Once the axons pass through the ... "Odorant receptors signaling instructs the development and plasticity of the glomerular map". Neural Plasticity. 2015: 975367. ... As development of the olfactory pathway progresses, more axons innervate the olfactory bulb, which develops from the rostral- ...
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell. The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction). Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part ...
Rods, cones and nerve layers in the retina. The front (anterior) of the eye is on the left. Light (from the left) passes through several transparent nerve layers to reach the rods and cones (far right). A chemical change in the rods and cones send a signal back to the nerves. The signal goes first to the Retina bipolar cell and Retina horizontal cell(yellow layer), then to the Retina amacrine cell and Retinal ganglion cell(purple layer), then to the optic nerve fibres. The signals are processed in these layers. First, the signals start as raw outputs of points in the rod and cone cells. Then the nerve layers identify simple shapes, such as bright points surrounded by dark points, edges, and movement. (Based on a drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1911 ...
Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons.[3] In vertebrates, ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium.[4] Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[13] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[23] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons ...
... (/ˌoʊdəbiːˈnɒsɪtɒps/) was a small toothed whale known from Peru and Chile. Restricted to the Neogene (mostly Miocene), the genus is believed to have become extinct before the Pliocene. It had two tusks, and, in some fossils, one tusk was longer than the other. Odobenocetops can be identified as a cetacean based on several features unique to this order: The presence of large air sinuses in the auditory region connected to large pterygoid sinuses. The large supraorbital process of the frontal bone overhanging the orbital region. Narial fossae opening dorsally (thought not at the apex of the skull like in other cetaceans.) The absence of a true cribriform plate (a bony blade separating the nares). In Odobenocetops, a group of foramina in this plate allows the passage of olfactory nerves connected to the small olfactory lobes in the brain. In other cetaceans, the olfactory ...
... is an increased olfactory acuity (heightened sense of smell), usually caused by a lower threshold for odor. This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and the olfactory cortex. The causes of hyperosmia may be genetic, environmental or the result of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. When odorants enter the nasal cavity, they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. These receptors are bipolar neurons that connect to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, traveling through the cribriform plate. At the glomerular layer, axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with dendrites from intrinsic olfactory ...
මොළයට අයත් කොටස්වලින් කෙලින්ම ඇතිවන ස්නායු කපාල ස්නායු නම් වේ. මෙමගින් මොලය හා දේහයේ අනෙක් කොටස් සමග ස්නායුක සම්බන්ධතාවය පවත්වා ගැනීම සිදු වේ. [1] මෙම ස්නායු රෝම ඉලක්කම් වලින් I සිට XII දක්වා දක්වන අතර ඒවායින් කෙරෙන කාර්යන් මත වෙන්වූ නම්ද පවතී. පහත එම ස්නායුවල සිංහල නම් හා ඉංග්‍රීසි නම් දක්වා ඇත. I. ආඝ්‍රාණ ස්නායුව - Olfactory nerve II. දෘෂ්ටික ස්නායුව - Optic nerve III. අක්ෂිචාලක ස්නායුව - Occulomotor nerve IV. කප්පික ...
The main olfactory bulb transmits pulses to both mitral and tufted cells, which help determine odor concentration based off the time certain neuron clusters fire (called 'timing code'). These cells also note differences between highly similar odors and use that data to aid in later recognition. The cells are different with mitral having low firing-rates and being easily inhibited by neighboring cells, while tufted have high rates of firing and are more difficult to inhibit.[7][8][9][10]. The uncus houses the olfactory cortex which includes the piriform cortex (posterior orbitofrontal cortex), amygdala, olfactory tubercle, and parahippocampal gyrus.. The olfactory tubercle connects to numerous areas of the amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brain stem, retina, auditory cortex, and olfactory system. *In total it ...
... are generally named according to their structure or function. For example, the olfactory nerve (I) supplies smell, and the facial nerve (VII) supplies motor innervation to the face. Because Latin was the lingua franca (common language) of the study of anatomy when the nerves were first documented, recorded, and discussed, many nerves maintain Latin or Greek names, including the trochlear nerve (IV), named according to its structure, as it supplies a muscle that attaches to a pulley (Greek: trochlea). The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: trigeminus meaning triplets),[6] and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus).[7] Cranial nerves ...
The olfactory tubercle differs in location and relative size between humans, non-human primates, rodents, birds, and other animals. In most cases, the olfactory tubercle is identified as a round bulge along the basal forebrain anterior to the optic chiasm and posterior to the olfactory peduncle.[7] In humans and non-human primates, visual identification of the olfactory tubercle is not easy because the basal forebrain bulge is small in these animals.[8] With regard to functional anatomy, the olfactory tubercle can be considered to be a part of three larger networks. First, it is considered to be part of the basal forebrain, the nucleus accumbens, and the amygdaloid nuclei because of its location along the rostral ventral region of the brain, that is, the front-bottom part. Second, it is considered to be part of the ...
Broca named the limbic lobe in 1878, identifying it with the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, and associating it with the sense of smell - Treviranus having earlier noted that, between species, the size of the parahippocampal gyrus varies with the size of the olfactory nerve.[2] In 1937 Papez theorized that a neural circuit (the Papez circuit) including the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus constitutes the neural substrate of emotional behavior,[3] and Klüver and Bucy reported that, in monkeys, resection involving the hippocampal formation and the amygdaloid complex has a profound effect on emotional responses.[4][5] As a consequence of these publications, the idea that the entire limbic lobe is dedicated to olfaction receded, and a direct connection between emotion and the limbic lobe was established.[6]. ...
Blows to the head can shear off the olfactory nerves that pass though the ethmoid bone and cause anosmia, an irreversible loss of the sense of smell and a great reduction in the sense of taste (most of which depends on smell). This not only deprives life of some of its pleasures, but can also be dangerous, as when a person fails to smell smoke, gas, or spoiled food.. ...
In the control mouse, the olfactory nerve and glomerular layer are labelled; also the accessory olfactory bulb glomerular layer ... Olfactory Marker Protein decreased in the olfactory bulb of MPTP mice, while a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase increased in ... Olfactory processing is linked to dopaminergic signaling, which has a prominent role in the olfactory bulb (OB) circuitry: ... Distribution of D2 dopamine receptor in the olfactory glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1357-67.View ...
The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals. (See the image ... Mitral cells are second-order neurons contacted by the olfactory nerve fibers at the glomerular layer of the bulb. The ... Olfactory Bulb. The olfactory bulb lies inferior to the basal frontal lobe. The olfactory bulb is a highly organized structure ... Olfactory Nerve and the Cribriform Plate. The small, unmyelinated axons of the olfactory receptor cells form the fine fibers of ...
... in a schematic representation of the main olfactory bulb. ONL, Olfactory nerve layer; GL, glomerular layer;EPL, external ... Electrical membrane properties of mitral cells in response to olfactory nerve stimulation. A, Pharmacology of olfactory nerve ( ... This oscillatory activity seems to be intrinsic to the olfactory bulb neural network, because olfactory or antennal nerve ... 1998) Olfactory bulb. in The synaptic organization of the brain, Ed 4, ed Shepherd GM (Oxford UP, New-York), pp 159-203. ...
... Olfactory Bulb Glomerular NMDA Receptors Mediate Olfactory Nerve Potentiation and Odor Preference Learning in the Neonate Rat ... Olfactory Bulb Glomerular NMDA Receptors Mediate Olfactory Nerve Potentiation and Odor Preference Learning in the Neonate Rat. ... that olfactory nerve stimulation, at sniffing frequencies, paired with beta-adrenoceptor activation, potentiates olfactory ...
... terminals and glomerular layer (GL); D1-like receptors are widely distributed throughout OB, except for the olfactory nerve ... 1991) Olfactory bulb DA receptors may be located on terminals of the olfactory nerve. Neuroreport 2:9-12. ... 2009) Control of on/off glomerular signaling by a local GABAergic microcircuit in the olfactory bulb. J Neurosci 29:13454-13464 ... 2006) Coding and synaptic processing of sensory information in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Semin Cell Dev Biol ...
All mice bulb slices showed the six well-described olfactory bulb layers: nerve, glomerular, external plexiform, mitral, ... The olfactory bulb has been implicated in certain types of olfactory learning and memory (see review in ref. 44). One theory ... and the glomerular layer (e and f) of the olfactory bulb. Labeled cells in the granule cell layer (arrows) were more or less ... we focused our numeration on the main olfactory bulb functional levels, i.e., the glomerular, the mitral, and the granular ...
The electrical signal proceeds through the olfactory nerves axons to the olfactory bulbs. In this region there are between ... This database can be navigated at the Glomerular Activity Response Archive [4]. ... Olfactory Bulbs[edit]. In humans, the olfactory bulb is located anteriorly with respect to the cerebral hemisphere and remain ... Due to phylogeny, olfactory sensory activity is transferred directly from the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex, without a ...
Glomerular synaptic responses to olfactory nerve input in rat olfactory bulb slices. Neuroscience 1997; 79(2):425-434.PubMed ... Olfactory deprivation increases dopamine D2 receptor density in the rat olfactory bulb. Synapse 1991; 8:61-70.PubMedCrossRef ... Chemically defined neuron groups and their subpopulations in the glomerular layer of the rat main olfactory bulb. Neurosci Res ... Tyrosine Hydroxylase Olfactory Bulb Neural Stem Cell Subventricular Zone Olfactory Receptor Neuron These keywords were added by ...
... axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers. ... New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be ... of the epithelial migrating precursors give rise to olfactory ensheathing glia that inhabit the olfactory nerve and glomerular ... In the peripheral nervous system OEG are dispersed within the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory nerve. In the central ...
... of olfactory nerves in the rat from their first contact with the telencephalic vesicle until the formation of glomerular ... The first synaptic contacts of olfactory axons with dendritic processes in the olfactory bulb were observed at embryonic day 18 ... represent precursor elements that will later develop into the ensheathing cells of the olfactory nerves and olfactory nerve ... also derived from the olfactory placode, that reach the prospective olfactory bulb by embryonic day 13. The mass of migratory ...
The olfactory nerve and glomerular structures in the bulb grow dramatically during smolting in both coho and Atlantic salmon ( ... This interpretation is consistent with other studies in salmon showing targeted growth in the olfactory nerve and glomerular ... Burd, G. D. (1992). Development of the olfactory nerve in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis: II. Effects of hypothyroidism. J. ... Bowers, S. M. (1988). Morphological differences in the Atlantic salmon olfactory bulb between the parr and smolt stages of ...
Several properties of olfactory systems have been proposed to contribute to concentration invariance, but none of these alone ... Several properties of olfactory systems have been proposed to contribute to concentration invariance, but none of these alone ... We here propose that the mammalian olfactory system uses at least six computational mechanisms in series to reduce the ... We here propose that the mammalian olfactory system uses at least six computational mechanisms in series to reduce the ...
Lethbridge et al (2012) Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and odor preference ... regulates the frequency and timing of action potentials in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb: role of olfactory experience ... GABA regulates dendritic growth by stabilizing lamellipodia in newly generated interneurons of the olfactory bulb. J Neurosci ... Liu et al (2015) Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output. J Negat Results ...
Halasz N, Greer CA. Terminal arborizations of olfactory nerve fibers in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. J Comp Neurol 337 ... Pinching AJ, Powell TP. The neuron types of the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. J Cell Sci 9: 305-345, 1971a. ... Olfactory nerve axons terminate in olfactory bulb glomeruli forming excitatory synapses onto the dendrites of mitral/tufted (M/ ... Evidence for GABAB-mediated inhibition of transmission from the olfactory nerve to mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb. ...
Nerve Net/cytology. *Nerve Net/physiology. *Neurons/cytology*. *Neurons/physiology. *Olfactory Bulb/cytology* ... When a strong olfactory nerve excitatory input was paired with an inhibition from mitral cell basal dendrites, a small spike- ... With the use of two-photon Ca2+ imaging in rat olfactory bulb slices, we found that these distal dendritic branches displayed a ... tuft not only receives olfactory nerve sensory input but also generates dendrodendritic output to form complicated glomerular ...
Lethbridge R, Hou Q, Harley CW, Yuan Q (2012) Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and ... Recovery of Olfactory Function After Excitotoxic Lesion of the Olfactory Bulbs Is Associated with Increases in Bulbar SIRT1 and ... A population of glomerular glutamatergic neurons controls sensory information transfer in the mouse olfactory bulb. Nat Commun ... Neurogenic correlates of an olfactory discrimination task in the adult olfactory bulb. Eur J Neurosci 24:3578-3588PubMed ...
... there is no chemotropic map in the olfactory bulb.68 Glomerular activity is crucial for detecting odorous stimuli. ... It is advisable to use scents that only stimulate the olfactory nerve without irritating the trigeminal nerve endings, which ... Synaptic loss of olfactory interneurons modifies olfactory perception.1. Neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb adjusts at the ... Both the olfactory bulb and the primary olfactory cortex receive afferents from the hypothalamus and brain stem. Cholinergic ...
... olfactory nerve axons with their sheath cells enter together and become incorporated into the developing olfactory bulb as ... Since suitable light microscopic markers for the identification of glomerular epithelial cells are rare, ezrin may also be a ... Based on these observations the anatomy of the mouse olfactory nerve is herein redefined. Exiting olfactory nerve axons and ... the olfactory message may be maintained undisturbed throughout the life span of the animal. In addition, olfactory nerve axons ...
It has a primary dendrite that receives the sensory input from the olfactory nerve terminals in its distal dendritic tuft in ... through interactions of its dendritic tuft dendrites with periglomerular cell interneurons at the glomerular level, and by ... Olfactory Bulb Network (Davison et al 2003) 20.. Olfactory bulb network model of gamma oscillations (Bathellier et al. 2006; ... Olfactory bulb microcircuits model with dual-layer inhibition (Gilra & Bhalla 2015) 15.. Olfactory bulb mitral and granule cell ...
... follows the olfactory tracts through the cribiform plate and projects to the glomerular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb ( ... However, numerous, small, unmyelinated nerve fibers have been reported in the lamina propria surrounding the human VNO, and it ... In addition, the accessory olfactory bulb, although present in the human fetus, is not thought to be present in the adult human ... In contrast, when the probe was located on the olfactory mucosa, the olfactory stimulants produced large depolarizations, ...
Mitral cell output is not a passive reflection of their input from the olfactory nerve. In mice, each mitral cell sends a ... Nature Neuroscience Kikuta et.al (2013) Odorant response properties of individual neurons in an olfactory glomerular module. ... hypothesis is the idea of decorrelation in the olfactory bulb network, where the olfactory bulb network acts as a dynamical ... Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central ...
... glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb; GrA, granule cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb; IL, infralimbic cortex; LA, ... B nerve fibers projected widely into the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. Dense ... 3H). Moderate numbers of orexin fibers were present in the olfactory bulb (not shown), insular, prelimbic and infralimbic ... Moderate numbers of these fibers were found in the olfactory bulb, insular, infralimbic and prelimbic cortex, amygdala, ventral ...
The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the cape hyrax expresses Gαi2 but not Gαo.Similar to S. beecheyi, the AOB of Procavia ... although Gαo is expressed to some extent at the glomerular layer (Gl) of the AOB, the vomeronasal nerve (VN) shows no Gαo ... pone-0026436-g003: The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the cape hyrax expresses Gαi2 but not Gαo.Similar to S. beecheyi, the ... pone-0026436-g003: The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the cape hyrax expresses Gαi2 but not Gαo.Similar to S. beecheyi, the ...
20 µm from the glomerular border. This stereotypic spatial pattern of activated cells persisted at different odorant ... Juxtaglomerular neurons coded for many perceptual characteristics of the olfactory stimulus such as (i) identity of the odorant ... Juxtaglomerular neurons coded for many perceptual characteristics of the olfactory stimulus such as (i) identity of the odorant ... 20 µm from the glomerular border. This stereotypic spatial pattern of activated cells persisted at different odorant ...
Shepherd GM, Greer CA, Mazzarello P, Sassoè-Pognetto M: The first images of nerve cells: Golgi on the olfactory bulb 1875. ... Maresh A, Rodriguez Gil D, Whitman MC, Greer CA: Principles of glomerular organization in the human olfactory bulb-- ... Au WW, Treloar HB, Greer CA: Sublaminar organization of the mouse olfactory bulb nerve layer. J Comp Neurol. 2002 Apr 22. PMID ... Optical imaging of postsynaptic odor representation in the glomerular layer of the mouse olfactory bulb. J Neurophysiol. 2009 ...
  • Brains and olfactory mucosa were investigated via immunohistochemistry for thyrosine hydroxylase, Olfactory Marker Protein and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase as an intracellular pathway involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfaction is often affected in parkinsonian patients, but dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb are not affected by some Parkinson-inducing drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rat pup odor preference learning follows pairing of bulbar beta-adrenoceptor activation with olfactory input. (mun.ca)
  • A glomerular GABAA receptor antagonist paired with odor can induce NMDAR-dependent learning. (mun.ca)
  • In contrast, both the detection thresholds for odors and short-term olfactory memory were unaltered, demonstrating that a critical number of bulbar granule cells is crucial only for odor discrimination but not for general olfactory functions. (pnas.org)
  • We found that the dramatic reduction in granule cells in knockout mice was accompanied by impaired odor discrimination but not by impairments in olfactory detection level or memory, indicating a specific role for this cell population for downstream coding of odorant information. (pnas.org)
  • The D2 antagonist spiperone mimics the effects of olfactory deprivation on mitral/tufted cell odor response patterns. (springer.com)
  • We here propose that the mammalian olfactory system uses at least six computational mechanisms in series to reduce the concentration-dependent variance in odor representations to a level at which different concentrations of odors evoke reasonably similar representations, while preserving variance arising from differences in odor quality. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to recognize known odors across the ranges of concentration at which they may be encountered, the olfactory system must in some way achieve concentration invariance in its odor representations, somehow separating concentration-dependent effects from information representing odor quality so that the odor source can be correctly identified. (frontiersin.org)
  • Olfactory bulb network: neurogenetic restructuring and odor decorrelation (Chow et al. (yale.edu)
  • Understanding odor information segregation in the olfactory bulb by MC/TCs (Polese et al. (yale.edu)
  • We present a biomimetic system that captures essential functional properties of the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb, specifically including its capacity to decorrelate similar odor representations without foreknowledge of the statistical distributions of analyte features. (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, the glomerular layer does not contain a true map of odor similarity or perceptual quality, but does comprise a lookup table of OR chemoreceptive fields (Murthy, 2011). (nih.gov)
  • The sensory neuron axons segregate in the olfactory bulb based on odor receptor expression, producing a highly specific molecular map. (yale.edu)
  • Using RT-PCR we are mapping the distribution of subsets of olfactory receptor cell axons in glomeruli to gain insights into the topography of odor-ligand maps in the olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • The spatial map of the glomeruli layer may be used for perception of odor in the olfactory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odor receptor nerve cells may function like a multiple lock and key system so that when any part of a specific molecule (a key) can fit into the receptor (lock), the nerve cell will be triggered and a specific odor will be perceived. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These "wires" are projected from cells involved in receiving incoming odor signals from neurons in the nose, and local cells in the bulb that modulate them - including short axon (SA) cells (brightly illuminated in this view) and external tufted (ET) cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the olfactory system, the adverse consequences are twofold: the individual loses the ability to make fine distinctions about both the identity and concentration of the overpowering odor. (healthcanal.com)
  • These are the two primary tasks of the sensory end of the system - to feed information about odor identity and intensity to the olfactory cortex and other brain areas to enable an individual to take action. (healthcanal.com)
  • The team was able to view the responses of tens of neurons at a time to signals arriving in the olfactory bulb from the mouse's odor detectors, called olfactory sensory neurons, located in the nose. (healthcanal.com)
  • These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing (Yuan et al. (neuronbank.org)
  • The next step in the olfactory sensory pathway occurs when ORN axons arrive at the highly organized olfactory bulb, the first site of further odor processing. (adeepthought.com)
  • In particular, there is a massive gap in the literature with respect to how the brain turns glomerular information from the bulb into a perception of odor on to which meaning, value, memory, and emotional importance are superimposed - issues at the very heart of recent neuroscientific inquiry. (adeepthought.com)
  • Alan Carleton's team from the Neuroscience Department at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) Faculty of Medicine has just shown that the representation of an odor evolves after the first breath, and that an olfactory retentivity persists at the central level. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Maresh A, Rodriguez Gil D, Whitman MC, Greer CA. Principles of glomerular organization in the human olfactory bulb--implications for odor processing. (childrenshospital.org)
  • OEG are thought to be in part responsible for the neurogenesis of primary olfactory neurons through the processes of fasciculation, cell sorting, and axonal targeting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although fish have only one recognized olfactory epithelium, Dulka (1993) [ 19 ] suggested a functional division of the primary olfactory pathway in goldfish that may be analagous to the output neurons from the MOE and VOE in tetrapods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, NCAM-knockout mice, which also have been shown to be almost totally devoid of polysialic acid, show a defect in the rostral migration of subventricular zone precursors, resulting in an accumulation of precursors along the pathway and finally in a size reduction of the olfactory bulb ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesize that this tonic GABA B R-dependent presynaptic inhibition of olfactory nerve terminals is due to autonomous bursting of ET cells in the ON→ET→PG circuit, which drives tonic spontaneous GABA release from ET-driven PG cells. (physiology.org)
  • Glomeruli comprise the circuitry necessary to drive OB output, and are thought to be ideally suited to encapsulate NO. In vitro stimulation of the olfactory nerves entering glomeruli mimics odour input, generating long lasting-depolarisations (LLDs) in all MCs associated with the stimulated glomeruli. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The use of nerve stimulation for treating and controlling a variety of medical, psychiatric, and neurological disorders has seen significant growth over the last several decades. (justia.com)
  • The rate of the heart is restrained in part by parasympathetic stimulation from the right and left vagus nerves. (justia.com)
  • Stimulation of the vagus nerve has been proposed as a method for treating various heart conditions, including heart failure and atrial fibrillation. (justia.com)