The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Surgical incision of the trachea.

Development of the chick olfactory nerve. (1/262)

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is produced and secreted by neurons dispersed throughout the septal-preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas in adult birds and mammals. These neurons, essential for a functional brain-pituitary-gonadal axis, differentiate in the olfactory placode, the superior aspect of which forms the olfactory epithelium. To reach their final placement within the brain, GnRH neurons migrate out of the epithelium and along the olfactory nerve to the CNS. This nerve is essential for the entrance of GnRH neurons into the CNS. Due to the importance of the nerve for the proper migration of these neurons, we have used immunocytochemistry, DiI labeling and 1 microm serial plastic-embedded sections to characterize the nerve's earliest development in the embryonic chick (stages 17-21). Initially (stage 17) the zone between the placode and prosencephalon is a cellular mass contiguous with the placode. This cluster, known as epithelioid cells, is positive for some but not all neuronal markers studied. The epithelium itself is negative for all neuronal and glial markers at this early stage. By stage 18, the first neurites emerge from the epithelium; this was confirmed at stage 19 by examination of serial 1 microm plastic sections. There is sequential acquisition of immunoreactivity to neuronal markers from stage 18 to 21. The glial component of the nerve appears at stage 21. Axons originating from epithelium, extend to the border of the CNS as confirmed by DiI labeling at stage 21. Small fascicles have entered the CNS at this stage. As previously reported, GnRH neurons begin their migration between stages 20-21 and have also arrived at the border of the brain at stage 21. Despite the penetration of neurites from the olfactory nerve into the CNS, GnRH neurons pause at the nerve-brain junction until stage 29 (2 1/2 days later) before entering the brain. Subsequent studies will examine the nature of the impediment to continued GnRH neuronal migration.  (+info)

Single-channel kinetics of the rat olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (2/262)

Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels are nonselective cation channels activated by intracellular cAMP and/or cGMP. It is not known how the binding of agonists opens the channel, or how the presumed four binding sites, one on each subunit, interact to generate cooperativity. We expressed the rat olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha subunit in Xenopus oocytes and recorded the single-channel currents. The channel had a single conductance state, and flickers at -60 mV showed the same power spectrum for cAMP and cGMP. At steady state, the distribution patterns of open and closed times were relatively simple, containing one or two exponential components. The conductance properties and the dwell-time distributions were adequately described by models that invoke only one or two binding events to open the channel, followed by an additional binding event that prolongs the openings and helps to explain apparent cooperativity. In a comparison between cAMP and cGMP, we find that cGMP has clearly higher binding affinity than cAMP, but only modestly higher probability of inducing the conformational transition that opens the channel.  (+info)

Effects of olfactory stimuli on urge reduction in smokers. (3/262)

This study examined the possibility that exposure to olfactory stimuli can reduce self-reported urge to smoke. After an initial assessment of self-reported urge, nicotine-deprived smokers evaluated the pleasantness of a series of 8 odors. Facial expressions during odor presentations were coded with P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen's (1978a) Facial Action Coding System. After odor administration, participants were exposed to smoking cues. Next, participants were administered their most pleasant, least pleasant, or a control odor (water) and reported their urge to smoke. Results indicated that sniffing either a pleasant or unpleasant odor reduced reported urge to smoke relative to the control odor. Reported pleasantness of the odors did not differentially affect urge reduction. Odors eliciting negative-affect-related expressions, however, were less effective than odors that did not elicit negative-affect-related expressions in reducing reported urge. Results of this preliminary investigation provide support for the consideration of odor stimuli as an approach to craving reduction.  (+info)

Dopamine depresses synaptic inputs into the olfactory bulb. (4/262)

Both observations in humans with disorders of dopaminergic transmission and molecular studies point to an important role for dopamine in olfaction. In this study we found that dopamine receptor activation in the olfactory bulb causes a significant depression of synaptic transmission at the first relay between olfactory receptor neurons and mitral cells. This depression was found to be caused by activation of the D2 subtype of dopamine receptor and was reversible by a specific D2 receptor antagonist. A change in paired-pulse modulation during the depression suggests a presynaptic locus of action. The depression was found to occur independent of synaptic activity. These results provide the first evidence for dopaminergic control of inputs to the main olfactory bulb. The magnitude and locus of dopamine's modulatory capabilities in the bulb suggest important roles for dopamine in odorant processing.  (+info)

Long-term effects on the olfactory system of exposure to hydrogen sulphide. (5/262)

OBJECTIVE: To study chronic effects of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) on cranial nerve I (nervi olfactorii), which have been only minimally described. METHODS: Chemosensations (smell and taste) were evaluated in eight men who complained of continuing dysfunction 2-3 years after the start of occupational exposure to H2S. Various bilateral (both nostrils) and unilateral (one nostril at a time) odour threshold tests with standard odorants as well as the Chicago smell test, a three odour detection and identification test and the University of Pennsylvania smell identification test, a series of 40 scratch and sniff odour identification tests were administered. RESULTS: Six of the eight patients showed deficits of various degrees. Two had normal scores on objective tests, but thought that they continued to have problems. H2S apparently can cause continuing, sometimes unrecognised olfactory deficits. CONCLUSION: Further exploration into the extent of such problems among workers exposed to H2S is warranted.  (+info)

Sites of plasticity in the neural circuit mediating tentacle withdrawal in the snail Helix aspersa: implications for behavioral change and learning kinetics. (6/262)

The tentacle withdrawal reflex of the snail Helix aspersa exhibits a complex combination of habituation and sensitization consistent with the dual-process theory of plasticity. Habituation, sensitization, or a combination of both were elicited by varying stimulation parameters and lesion condition. Analysis of response plasticity shows that the late phase of the response is selectively enhanced by sensitization, whereas all phases are decreased by habituation. Previous data have shown that tentacle withdrawal is mediated conjointly by parallel monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways. The former mediates the early phase, whereas the latter mediates the late phase of the response. Plastic loci were identified by stimulating and recording at different points within the neural circuit, in combination with selective lesions. Results indicate that depression occurs at an upstream locus, before circuit divergence, and is therefore expressed in all pathways, whereas facilitation requires downstream facilitatory neurons and is selectively expressed in polysynaptic pathways. Differential expression of plasticity between pathways helps explain the behavioral manifestation of depression and facilitation. A simple mathematical model is used to show how serial positioning of depression and facilitation can explain the kinetics of dual-process learning. These results illustrate how the position of cellular plasticity in the network affects behavioral change and how forms of plasticity can interact to determine the kinetics of the net changes.  (+info)

Relationships between odor-elicited oscillations in the salamander olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. (7/262)

Oscillations in neuronal population activity, or the synchronous neuronal spiking that underlies them, are thought to play a functional role in sensory processing in the CNS. In the olfactory system, stimulus-induced oscillations are observed both in central processing areas and in the peripheral receptor epithelium. To examine the relationship between these peripheral and central oscillations, we recorded local field potentials simultaneously from the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). Stimulus-induced oscillations recorded at these two sites were matched in frequency and slowed concurrently over the time course of the response, suggesting that the oscillations share a common source or are modulated together. Both the power and duration of oscillations increased over a range of amyl acetate concentrations from 2.5 x 10(-2) to 1 x 10(-1) dilution of saturated vapor, but peak frequency was not affected. The frequency of the oscillation did vary with different odorant compounds in both olfactory epithelium and bulb (OE and OB): amyl acetate, ethyl fenchol and d-carvone elicited oscillations of significantly different frequencies, and there was no difference in OE and OB oscillation frequencies. No change in the power or frequency of OE oscillations was observed after sectioning the olfactory nerve, indicating that the OE oscillations have a peripheral source. Finally, application of 1.0 and 10 microM tetrodotoxin to the epithelium blocked OE oscillations in a dose-dependent and reversible manner, suggesting that peripheral olfactory oscillations are related to receptor neuron spiking.  (+info)

Transplantation of human olfactory ensheathing cells elicits remyelination of demyelinated rat spinal cord. (8/262)

Human olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) were prepared from adult human olfactory nerves, which were removed during surgery for frontal base tumors, and were transplanted into the demyelinated spinal cord of immunosuppressed adult rats. Extensive remyelination was observed in the lesion site: In situ hybridization using a human DNA probe (COT-1) indicated a similar number of COT-1-positive cells and OEC nuclei within the repaired lesion. The myelination was of a peripheral type with large nuclei and cytoplasmic regions surrounding the axons, characteristic of Schwann cell and OEC remyelination. These results provide evidence that adult human OECs are able to produce Schwann cell-like myelin sheaths around demyelinated axons in the adult mammalian CNS in vivo.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter in developing mouse olfactory nerve layer marks a specialized subgroup of olfactory ensheathing cells. AU - Wang, Ya Zhou. AU - Molotkov, Andrei. AU - Song, Lanying. AU - Li, Yunhong. AU - Pleasure, David E. AU - Zhou, Chengji. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Wnt reporter TOPgal mice carry a β-galactosidase (βgal) gene under the control of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling responsive elements. We found that the intensely immunolabeled βgal+ cells were co-immunolabeled with Nestin and formed a tangentially oriented single-cell layer in the connecting or docking zone where the olfactory sensory axons attached to the brain surface during mid-gestation. During early postnatal development, βgal+ cells were located in the inner olfactory nerve layer (ONLi) and co-labeled with olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) markers S100β and NPY but not with lineage-specific markers for neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia, ...
Previous studies of the olfactory nerve, mainly in higher vertebrates, have indicated that axonal injury causes total degeneration of the mature neurons, followed by replacement of new neuronal cells arising from undifferentiated mucosal cells. A similar regeneration process was confirmed in the garfish olfactory system. Regeneration of the nerve, crushed 1.5 cm from the cell bodies, is found to produce three distinct populations of regenerating fibers. The first traverses the crush site 1 wk postoperative and progresses along the nerve at a rate of 5.8 +/- 0.3 mm/d for the leading fibers of the group. The second group of fibers traverses the crush site after 2 wk postcrush and advances at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.1 mm/d for the leading fibers. The rate of growth of this group of fibers remains constant for 60 d but subsequently falls to 1.6 +/- 0.2 for the leading population of fibers. The leading fibers in the third group of regenerating axons traverse the crush site after 4 wk and advance at a ...
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell. The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction). Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity.[1] From the olfactory mucosa, the nerve (actually many small nerve fascicles) travels up through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the surface of the brain. Here the fascicles enter the olfactory bulb and synapse there; from the bulbs (one on each side) the olfactory information is transmitted into the brain via the olfactory tract.[2] The fascicles of the olfactory nerve are not visible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary afferent depolarization in the in vitro frog olfactory bulb. AU - Jahr, C. E.. AU - Nicoll, R. A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1981/9/1. Y1 - 1981/9/1. N2 - 1. Experiments on the frog olfactory bulb have been performed in vitro in order to determine whether primary afferent transmission is modified by presynaptic inhibition. 2. Stimulation of the olfactory nerve resulted in a prolonged depolarization of the olfactory nerve as recorded across a sucrose gap. Unstimulated olfactory nerve fibres adjacent to the stimulated fibres were also depolarized. 3. An excitability increase of the olfactory nerve terminals was found that lasted the entire duration of the olfactory nerve depolarization, indicating that the terminals themselves were depolarized. Both the olfactory nerve depolarization and the excitability increase were blocked by cobalt and manganese ions. 4. Low concentrations of glutamate were found to produce a substantial ...
Olfactory nerve definition, either one of the first pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct to the brain the impulses from the mucous membranes of the nose. See more.
Olfactory Nerve Definition Also called as CN1, the olfactory nerve is among the first of 12 cranial nerves situated in the head. It transmits sensory data to
ICD-10-PCS code 00NF4ZZ for Release Olfactory Nerve, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - C
ICD-10-PCS code 00NF3ZZ for Release Olfactory Nerve, Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Central Nerv
Use videos, quizzes, articles and a full atlas to learn: Course of the olfactory nerve viewed from the left side of a parasagittal section.
Rhythmic Breathing Plus Olfactory Nerve Influence on Respiration (Paperback, Primary Source) / Author: Emily Noble ; 9781287385165 ; Reference, Childrens & Educational, Books
Rods, cones and nerve layers in the retina. The front (anterior) of the eye is on the left. Light (from the left) passes through several transparent nerve layers to reach the rods and cones (far right). A chemical change in the rods and cones send a signal back to the nerves. The signal goes first to the Retina bipolar cell and Retina horizontal cell(yellow layer), then to the Retina amacrine cell and Retinal ganglion cell(purple layer), then to the optic nerve fibres. The signals are processed in these layers. First, the signals start as raw outputs of points in the rod and cone cells. Then the nerve layers identify simple shapes, such as bright points surrounded by dark points, edges, and movement. (Based on a drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1911 ...
The most striking features of FXGs are their localization to axonal and presynaptic compartments, restriction to a subset of brain circuits during defined developmental periods, absolute dependence on FXR2P and regulation by FMRP. All of these attributes distinguish FXGs from the ubiquitous pool of Fragile X proteins investing the somatodendritic domain. Here, we will discuss the evidence supporting the assignment of FXGs as a novel context for Fragile X proteins and the implications of these findings for FXS and autism.. Several lines of evidence support the conclusion that FXGs are predominantly localized to the axonal and presynaptic compartments of selected neurons. (1) FXGs are most abundant in neuropil, e.g., strata oriens and lucidum in hippocampal area CA3 as well as the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (Figs. 1 ⇑ ⇑-4). (2) FXGs are also observed in the axons in the hilus of the hippocampus and in the olfactory nerve layer (Fig. 3 B; supplemental Fig. S1, available at ...
Odobenocetops (/ˌoʊdəbiːˈnɒsɪtɒps/) was a small toothed whale known from Peru and Chile. Restricted to the Neogene (mostly Miocene), the genus is believed to have become extinct before the Pliocene. It had two tusks, and, in some fossils, one tusk was longer than the other. Odobenocetops can be identified as a cetacean based on several features unique to this order: The presence of large air sinuses in the auditory region connected to large pterygoid sinuses. The large supraorbital process of the frontal bone overhanging the orbital region. Narial fossae opening dorsally (thought not at the apex of the skull like in other cetaceans.) The absence of a true cribriform plate (a bony blade separating the nares). In Odobenocetops, a group of foramina in this plate allows the passage of olfactory nerves connected to the small olfactory lobes in the brain. In other cetaceans, the olfactory nerves are similarly present but strongly reduced. The elbow joint is immobile, as shown by a single ...
The perception of odorous molecules begins in the olfactory epithelium when odorant ligands bind to molecular receptors expressed on the cilia of the olfactory...
මොළයට අයත් කොටස්වලින් කෙලින්ම ඇතිවන ස්නායු කපාල ස්නායු නම් වේ. මෙමගින් මොලය හා දේහයේ අනෙක් කොටස් සමග ස්නායුක සම්බන්ධතාවය පවත්වා ගැනීම සිදු වේ. [1] මෙම ස්නායු රෝම ඉලක්කම් වලින් I සිට XII දක්වා දක්වන අතර ඒවායින් කෙරෙන කාර්යන් මත වෙන්වූ නම්ද පවතී. පහත එම ස්නායුවල සිංහල නම් හා ඉංග්‍රීසි නම් දක්වා ඇත. I. ආඝ්‍රාණ ස්නායුව - Olfactory nerve II. දෘෂ්ටික ස්නායුව - Optic nerve III. අක්ෂිචාලක ස්නායුව - Occulomotor nerve IV. කප්පික ...
ನಮ್ಮ ಮಿದುಳಿನಿಂದ ಒಟ್ಟು ಹನ್ನೆರಡು ಜೊತೆ ಕಪೋಲ ನರಗಳು (Cranial Nerves) ಹೊರಡುತ್ತವೆ. ಅವುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಕೆಲವು ಚಲನೆಯನ್ನು ನಿರ್ದೇಶಿಸುವ ನರಗಳಾದರೆ, ಕೆಲವು ಪರಿಧಿಯಿಂದ (ಚರ್ಮದಿಂದ ಅಥವಾ ಇತರ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಗಳಿಂದ) ಸಂವೇದನೆ (ಸ್ಪರ್ಶ, ಒತ್ತಡ, ಶಾಖ, ನೋವು, ಉರಿ)ಗಳನ್ನು ಮಿದುಳಿಗೆ ಒಯ್ಯುವ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡುತ್ತವೆ. ಮತ್ತೆ ಕೆಲವು ಚಲನೆ ಮತ್ತು ವಂವೇದನೆ ಎರಡನ್ನೂ ಮಾಡುವ ಮಿಶ್ರ ನರಗಳು.. ಒಂದನೇ ಕಪೋಲ ನರ: (Olfactory nerve): ಇದು ವಾಸನೆಯ ಸಂವೇದನೆಯನ್ನು ಮೂಗಿನಿಂದ ಮಿದುಳಿಗೆ ಸಾಗಿಸುವುದಕ್ಕೆ ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM G52.0 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM C72.22 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
I feel very much rooted in the earth, but my friends and family describe my personality as free spirited. It is good to be free spirited and wholly alive, methinks, swimming in the flow until fingers get pruney and ones soul feels saturated and content. Life is a mystery to be cherished and traveled. I like to eat good food. Soak up Natures beauty. Laugh in the company of good people. Drum at pickup music sessions. Feel lambs ear and pine and lavender and sage between my fingers. Count the stars in the sky and watch satellites whiz by in their orbits. I like listening to the old ones and absorbing their stories that always manage to sound fresh. I feel honored when the Muse sits and visits and the dreams that dance me into other realms at night. The synchronicities that lead my way each day, always making me feel like Alice. And the quiet that can be heard in the desert and on the shore and in the trees ...
Ito yung responsable sa pang-amoy natin. Ano nga bang mensahe ng bawat amoy? Bukod sa amoy ng tsismis na siguradong may mensahe, bawat amoy ay may konteksto. Na pwedeng pagsimulan ng rebolusyon? Naalala ko nung 4th year high school, minsan naitanong ng guro namin sa Filipino ang tungkol sa ipinapasang ordinansa kaugnay sa may mga…
Academic Commons provides global access to research and scholarship produced at Columbia University, Barnard College, Teachers College, Union Theological Seminary and Jewish Theological Seminary. Academic Commons is managed by the Columbia University Libraries ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Every once in a while, the science nerd plays a critical role in a summer monster movie (think Jeff Goldblum in Independence Day). For that to work, you need a plot twist that only a scientist character can provide. Writing in the journal Virulence, German scientists at the Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research note there are biological mechanisms that fight neurotropic viruses coming up the olfactory nerves. For example, there is a Type I interferon-dependent response in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. [Boooooring.-Ed.] The take-away for the aspiring screen writer is that Brad, the brilliant and ridiculously good-looking immunologist at UCLA, can be shown working his Pipetman with furrowed brow as he comes up with an ingenious cure for the zombie virus that began with pole dancers in West Hollywood. [Pole dancers. Yes.-Ed ...
Current knowledge indicates the possibility of nerve cell virus invasion by several mechanisms. These include the transfer of viruses across synapses of infected cells, entering the brain through the olfactory nerve, infection of endothelial blood vessels, and migration of infected white blood cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).. The corona virus has been shown to spread back along the nerves from the edge of the peripheral nerves, across synapses, and thus into the brain, in several small animal studies. This is facilitated by a pathway for endocytosis or exocytosis between motor cortex neurons, and other secretory vesicular pathways between neurons and satellite cells.. Axonal transport occurs rapidly using axonal microtubules, which allow the virus to reach the body of neuron cells with a retrograde version of this mechanism.. The possibility of spreading the olfactory route is marked by the occurrence of isolated anosmia and age. In such cases, the virus can pass through the latticed ...
absence of the sense of smell (as by damage to olfactory nasal tissue or the olfactory nerve or by obstruction of the nasal passages ...
Although infection occurs through direct contact with tainted waters, its not possible to catch the bacteria from another person. When tainted water is introduced into the nose through bathing or swimming, the bacteria invades and attaches to your nervous system and brain. It attaches to your olfactory nerve and moves to your olfactory bulbs-where it causes significant damage-then migrates to the brain. The disease progresses quickly and victims experience several symptoms including changes in taste and smell, headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting. It then leads to confusion, hallucination, a lack of attention, loss of balance, and seizures. It significantly shortens your life cycle as death occurs one to two weeks after the first symptoms are experienced.. ...
Cannabinoids are most beneficial when they reach our bloodstream without being passed through an organ. Therefore, when you spray vapors of CBD into your passage they are directly transported to your bloodstream in a matter of seconds. Without having to pass through the liver where all substances are transported to be absorbed into the bloodstream, CBD molecules through respiratory tract is absorbed 6-8 times more efficiently. The extensive network of vascular capillaries under the nasal skin mucosa guarantees immediate and easy conduction of active neurons to and from the brain. There are two cranial nerves, the Olfactory Nerve and the Trigeminal Nerve that acts as a direct passageway to brain. ...
The lack of visual representations is one of the difficulties in studying the psychology of odor perception. Chemists have models of molecular structure and anatomists can trace the olfactory nerves with dyes. But for smells loose in the real world, psychologists and odor trackers need a compelling visual representation. Esther Wus artistic approach is a great starting point ...
What makes us fall in love? Is it lust, mutual interests, shared life goals, or something much more intangible? Recent research suggests the latter. Researchers have only recently discovered an olfactory nerve that they believe is the route through which pheromones are processed. Nerve
Elizabethan England didnt smell very good - not even in its palaces, whose floors Queen Elizabeth I ordered her underlings to strew with herbs. Releasing aromas when stepped upon, these sprigs of hyssop, sage, rosemary, and thyme were sixteenth-century air fresheners that battled the ambient odors of a pre-plumbing realm in which few people bathed.. The queen loved lemons. She used them to help with her hygiene, said aromatherapist Elizabeth Anne Jones, who will discuss her new book Awaken to Healing Fragrance: The Power of Essential Oils Therapy at Mrs. Dalloways (2904 College Ave., Berkeley) on Saturday, June 5. She wore pomanders around her neck that she would sniff all day just so that she could stand living in those stinky castles.. Fragrant plants are still used as beauty and alternative-healing aids, but scientists now know more about how they do what they do.. When you inhale the molecules from essential oils, they go into the olfactory nerve and from there to the limbic brain, ...
Great post from EirePrenuer:. Aroma Tours, an Australian company, organises holidays to nice-smelling places.. My wife has an outstanding olfactory nerve. She would love this.. ...
What did I get? Well, instead of the above (which could be, for some, overwhelming to the olfactory nerves and cause sensory overload), I got a very pleasant candle of cedar with just enough tobacco aroma to cut the sweetness. It is a great blend. No over-floweriness (or sweetness) of the plain cedar (which Johnny, the owner, sent me for comparison), so it wont smell like your grandmas house, but no overpowering tobacco smell, either. In my honest opinion, Johnny and the folks at Valor did a great job with this scent ...
Brand Marketing 101 disguised as moral lession. One cannot underestimate the power of fragrance in a consumers buying decision, whether its impulse or premeditated. Either you make it fragrance-free or delightful to the olfactory nerves. Its not that hard to sniff and evaluate. Scent is relative, others like floral or citrus but I dont know of anyone who enjoys plastic, chemical or rancid odor. Also, the role of samples is to lure you to buying full-sized products so first impression does count! Common sense, why would I insist on buying a product that I didnt like from the start?. So there….samples saved me, my wallet thanked me, in the end Im happy!. Kathryne. ...
Humans and aromatic herbs have a long history together. All throughout the world, babies are born into the world amid the scent of fragrant herbs strewn about the birthing room. Couples come together in holy union within the haze of incense smoke. Elders die and are transported to the next life on a waft of incense and fragrant oils that anoint the body. Some believe that people utilized these fragrant plants and their resins and essential oils only to clean and sterilize the air, the body…But if we realize how closely scent is connected to memory, then we see that humans have been marking major transitions in their lives through the use of aromatics. Aromatic herbs, specifically the essential oils extracted from those herbs, calm, relax, expand and stimulate our minds, bodies, and our spirits. They connect us to a time and place through a direct connection between our olfactory nerve and our brain. When we smell those scents again, they transport us right back to that same time and place. The ...
solemnly declare that during the whole of my residence--nearly five years--I never saw the table otherwise than plentifully and wholesomely supplied…I confess that sometimes, at the breakfast hour, our olfactory nerves were saluted with a perceptible odour of burnt porridge; but I have known the milk to be burnt now and then at Thornycroft Hall; and certainly our bread and butter was cut in planks, not slices, and the butter was, perhaps, a little hard to find…but if you had seen the large dishes-full replenished again and again till every girl was satisfied; if you had seen them passing down the long narrow tables in the lofty eating-room, disappearing with astonishing rapidity; if you had counted the number of planks each young lady consumed, you would not have imagined any pupil to be badly served. ...
I have been without smell/taste for almost one year. ENT examined via scope and MRI - nothing further. Opinion is that there was damage to the olfactory nerve from several bouts of sinusitis. Damage...
1) He smells terrible. No, not a typical oh I just got a whiff of something pee-pee like bum... were talking clear the subway car, Im going to throw up, seriously my nostrils are burning boxcar hobo. You know the kind: a crowded train comes by and then a glimmer of hope, a car with almost nobody in it and tons of seats. You step on, and a sledgehammer of stink slams you in your olfactory nerve ...
1) He smells terrible. No, not a typical oh I just got a whiff of something pee-pee like bum... were talking clear the subway car, Im going to throw up, seriously my nostrils are burning boxcar hobo. You know the kind: a crowded train comes by and then a glimmer of hope, a car with almost nobody in it and tons of seats. You step on, and a sledgehammer of stink slams you in your olfactory nerve ...
Ambient particles matter and nanoparticles have been seen as a cause of changing brain activity and influencing the central nervous system. Over the past decades, several studies have suggested that nanoparticles could arrive to the brain through the inhalation of these particles via olfactory nerves. Passage to the brain is a particular concern since it has been demonstrated that nanoparticles are potent inducers of oxidative stress. The reason why the oxidative stress is so worrying is because it has been related to the appearance of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease. MRI evaluation of the brain reaches two results. Firstly, those children who live in more polluted locations revealed greater prefrontal lesions; and secondly, highly-exposed children and young adults showed upregulated inflammatory markers.. In particular diesel exhaust pollutants has been identified as an important and harmful source of health diseases. We can take as an example this ...
The skull, facial bones, and scalp provide protection and insulation to the deeper structures. The scalp and face are rich in blood vessels that vasodilate in response to cold to maintain normal body temperatures within these vital structures. The head contains the organs of special sense: the eyes, ears, olfactory nerve, and taste buds of the tongue. Impairment of the special senses suggests problems with the sensory organs, their CNs, or the brain. The tongue, pharynx, and larynx are the organs of speech. Changes in articulation suggest anatomic or functional problems with these structures. The nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, and trachea form the upper airways; any compromise of these structures may impair effective respiration and effect changes in the tone or volume of voice. The mouth, teeth, mandible and maxilla, tongue, salivary glands, pharynx, and upper esophagus are the upper alimentary tract necessary for mastication and swallowing of food. The head and neck are highly vascular. The ...
Zélia Velez is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Extracellular Multi-Unit Recording from the Olfactory Nerve of Teleosts
Dr. Tina Ridgeway, the female neurosurgeon who is destined to hook up with the hunky neurosurgeon with nightmares (another Dr. Jekyll? See Do No Harm), presented a case at M&M conference. The patient, a chef, suffered olfactory nerve damage during a craniotomy for a meningioma. She acknowledged that she relied on the resident to obtain informed consent. This is not permitted in most hospitals. The chief of surgery then castigates her for allowing the resident to do the case. When I was a chief of surgery, I usually was faced with the opposite problem. Some of the attending staff were not letting the residents do enough ...
This mindset is imperative as a foundation to create cold chain system infrastructure as a requirement in food security program. ARPI demonstrated that 708 unit of cold storage-based fish processing businesses are only able to produce 3-5 tons of high quality product a day, or 15% equivalent from existing potential. Cold memory space that has recently been installed from individuals business units simply reached 226 thousands of tons. This issue becomes a challenge for future investment in the industry. Mechanical strirring the mixture of minced meat and water releases the fat and oil from the muscle tissue and floats them out as the supernatant, which is readily removed by draining. Also separated from the meat are the remnants of digestive organs, which tend to float out alongside with the junk substance. The cleansing dilutes blood as well as other impurities in typically the minced meat which often may cause yellowing to the merchandise or catalyze denaturation of protein.. Chemical ...
Trinuclear cobalt paddlewheel complexes, [Co3(dpa)4X2] (dpa = the anion of 2,2′-dipyridylamine, X = Cl−, Br−, -NCS−, -CN−, (NC)2N−), are known to demonstrate a thermally-induced spin-crossover (SCO). Despite a wealth of structural and magnetic information about such complexes, the role of the axial ligand on
Its up to you, but be careful--lots of devils lurk in trying to approximate the contributions of a cell to extracellular field. An initially plausible but probably fatally flawed strategy would be to rely on somatic membrane current (insert extracellular into the soma, then multiply i_membrane by area of that segment). This would be easy to implement in NMODL with a statement in a BREAKPOINT block (so it would occur automatically at every time step, and be performed by compiled code). The flaw is that somatic current grossly overemphasizes the contribution of spike currents while grossly underestimating the effect of synaptic currents ...
MalaCards based summary : Olfactory Nerve Disease, is also known as olfactory nerve diseases, and has symptoms including anosmia and impaired sense of smell. An important gene associated with Olfactory Nerve Disease is B4GALT1 (Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 1). Affiliated tissues include olfactory nerve and brain, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and reproductive system ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differing phagocytic capacities of accessory and main olfactory ensheathing cells and the implication for olfactory glia transplantation therapies. AU - Nazareth, Lynnmaria. AU - Tello Velasquez, Johana. AU - Lineburg, Katie E.. AU - Chehrehasa, Fatemeh. AU - St John, James A.. AU - Ekberg, Jenny A K. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - The rodent olfactory systems comprise the main olfactory system for the detection of odours and the accessory olfactory system which detects pheromones. In both systems, olfactory axon fascicles are ensheathed by olfactory glia, termed olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which are crucial for the growth and maintenance of the olfactory nerve. The growth-promoting and phagocytic characteristics of OECs make them potential candidates for neural repair therapies such as transplantation to repair the injured spinal cord. However, transplanting mixed populations of glia with unknown properties may lead to variations in outcomes for neural repair. As the ...
Shear Injury to the Olfactory Nerves (Cranial Nerve I). Graphically depicts a violent blow to the back of the head as it strikes the pavement, resulting in tearing of the fibers of the olfactory nerve bulb (C.N. I) in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone in the skull. This injury usually results in the victim losing his sense of smell and taste ...
Shear Injury to the Olfactory Nerves (Cranial Nerve I). Graphically depicts a violent blow to the back of the head as it strikes the pavement, resulting in tearing of the fibers of the olfactory nerve bulb (C.N. I) in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone in the skull. This injury usually results in the victim losing his sense of smell and taste.
Shear Injury to the Olfactory Nerves (Cranial Nerve I). Graphically depicts a violent blow to the back of the head as it strikes the pavement, resulting in tearing of the fibers of the olfactory nerve bulb (C.N. I) in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone in the skull. This injury usually results in the victim losing his sense of smell and taste.
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Olfactory Nerve -- blood supply ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Olfactory Nerve -- blood supply Subjects Rabbits -- physiology ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Rabbits -- physiology Genre Book Illustrations ✖Remove constraint Genre: Book Illustrations Titles Section through the olfactory tissue of a rabbit, with blood vessels in red, lymph ducts in blue ✖Remove constraint Titles: Section through the olfactory tissue of a rabbit, with blood vessels in red, lymph ducts in blue Publication Year 2010 ✖Remove constraint Publication Year: 2010 ...
Start Over You searched for: Copyright Copyright may apply ✖Remove constraint Copyright: Copyright may apply Subjects Olfactory Nerve -- blood supply ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Olfactory Nerve -- blood supply Subjects Rabbits -- physiology ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Rabbits -- physiology Titles Section through the olfactory tissue of a rabbit, with blood vessels in red, lymph ducts in blue ✖Remove constraint Titles: Section through the olfactory tissue of a rabbit, with blood vessels in red, lymph ducts in blue ...
The cranial nerve that passes through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone is the _____ nerve. 98% (my own guess) have no clue about anatomy/physiology nor u deter snd what a cribriform plate is or that there is even access to the brain. Cribriform Plate and Contours of Inside of the Skull Also Brain Hazard. Origin. FAQ. cribriform plate. Relevance. It is best visualized and evaluated in the coronal plane. The olfactory nerve is shown in Figure 10.1.. Lateral 7ii. The cribriform plate supports the olfactory bulb - the terminus of the - and is perforated by numerous passage of the branches of the for the b. Olfactory bulbs of CN 01 1. The shape is consistent with the damage to the palatine bone and the cribriform plate. Whats the difference between a tsunami and a flood? Fracture of the cribriform plate This type of injury may predispose to leakage of CSF, allowing rare but extremely serious complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, or … Any recovery can take quite some time. The ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in olfactory bulb mitral cell layer development pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Todays is the first in a series of posts on the CRANIAL NERVES, the nerves that innervate a good chunk of your body, and which emerge DIRECTLY from your brain. Were going in order from the front of the brain, brackward. So todays post is about the cranial nerve thats the closest to your face, the olfactory.. Take a nice, BIG sniff. What do you smell? Sci smells coffee, some nice spring air outside, car exhaust (ah, city living), my deodorant...you know, the basics. Whatever it is YOU smelled...well I hope it wasnt gross.. The reason you can smell what youre smelling is entirely due to the glory of your olfactory nerve. So todays post is, in a way, a salute to your nose. Cause it KNOWS.. While its not as important to us as it is to say, dogs, who rely on smell a lot more than we do, the olfactory system is still a thing of awesome. Humans can tell the difference between THOUSANDS of different scents, as high as 10,000 or more in people who are trained for things like perfume, wine, ...
Todays is the first in a series of posts on the CRANIAL NERVES, the nerves that innervate a good chunk of your body, and which emerge DIRECTLY from your brain. Were going in order from the front of the brain, brackward. So todays post is about the cranial nerve thats the closest to your face, the olfactory.. Take a nice, BIG sniff. What do you smell? Sci smells coffee, some nice spring air outside, car exhaust (ah, city living), my deodorant...you know, the basics. Whatever it is YOU smelled...well I hope it wasnt gross.. The reason you can smell what youre smelling is entirely due to the glory of your olfactory nerve. So todays post is, in a way, a salute to your nose. Cause it KNOWS.. While its not as important to us as it is to say, dogs, who rely on smell a lot more than we do, the olfactory system is still a thing of awesome. Humans can tell the difference between THOUSANDS of different scents, as high as 10,000 or more in people who are trained for things like perfume, wine, ...
I am interested in describing synaptic circuits in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station for odor processing in the brain. In the mammalian olfactory system, sensory inputs converge in the olfactory bulb in spatially segregated anatomical structure called glomeruli. Olfactory neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor project in specific glomeruli where they transmit sensory information to ~25 mitral and tufted cells, the principal output neurons of the bulb. Each glomerulus is surrounded by local juxtaglomerular neurons that shape the output of mitral and tufted cells. Juxtaglomerular cells include different types of neurons like inhibitory periglomerular cells, excitatory external tufted cells and mixed dopaminergic-GABAergic short axon cells.. My earlier work focused on intraglomerular excitatory interactions that amplify the complex and unique long-lasting synaptic response of mitral and tufted cells to an olfactory nerve input. I demonstrated the unexpected role of external tufted ...
Figure 71. This is a slice from the same specimen in Figure 70 cut farther back into the olfactory peduncle where the lumen of the olfactory recess of the lateral ventricle is visible. Similar laminar features seen in Figure 70 are in the medially-placed MOB, but a dorsal area shows a different layering pattern. The dashed-line outline surrounds the settling AOB output neurons. The pars externa of the anterior olfactory nucleus may be on either side of the AOB. Olfactory nerve fibers coalesce into a thick layer surrounding the ventral and medial part of the olfactory peduncle; some fibers are growing through the dense cells beneath the bulb that are forming the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. Individual olfactory nerve bundles are plentiful at the periphery of the olfactory epithelium. The two sets of mitotic cells are easily distinguished in this slice as well as the one in Figure 70. Jacobsons organ is completely separated from the rest of the nasal cavity in this slice, occupying a ...
Glaucoma is the term used to describe a group diseases characterised by a specific type of damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) known as cupping and a characteristic type of visual field loss. This loss is associated with progressive atrophy and loss of the retinal ganglion cells. Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. This project was aimed at investigating olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), a population of radial glia proven to be neuroprotective in central and peripheral nerve injury models, and their potential to protect the retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. We studied the interactions of RGC and OEC in culture. We show that OEC can straighten, ensheath and bundle RGC neurites as well as support the survival of RGC and their synapses in culture. We also show that OEC endocytose dead RGC in culture. We modified a rat model of glaucoma (where paramagnetic microbeads are injected into the anterior chamber of the rat eyes) and characterised the early and late ...
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the glial cells of the olfactory system. Their primary role is thought to be to provide support and guidance for primary olfactory axons. However, OECs are known to phagocytose bacteria and express immune markers and thus they may help to maintain a healthy environment. Interestingly, following widespread death of primary olfactory axons, there is minimal mobilisation of macrophages but yet the axonal debris is rapidly cleared. Purpose: We have therefore investigated whether OECs are the cells that are primarily responsible for removal of axonal debris. Methods: We cultured red fluorescent OECs from S100beta-DsRed mice and green fluorescent primary olfactory neurons from OMP-ZsGreen mice. Results: In explant cultures of DsRed-OECs and ZsGreen-neurons, OECs clearly contained green fluorescent axonal debris. When cellular debris from green fluorescent neurons was added to cultured OECs, the OECs extended pseudopodia and rapidly phagocytosed the axonal debris ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[13] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[23] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[7] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
In the present study, we have shown that Robo proteins are expressed in cultured OECs and exhibit enriched distribution at the leading edge. A Slit-2 gradient indeed strongly repelled the migration of these cultured OECs. To our knowledge, this is the first guidance factor discovered to repel OEC migration. Because Slit-2 is highly expressed in the apical cells of OE, it is likely that it might help Robo-expressing OECs and olfactory axons migrate out of the OE through chemorepulsion during early development. Slits expressing in the OB might also regulate the stop and scattering of OECs that have arrived at the surface of the OB. OECs have been reported to pioneer the olfactory sensory nerves and provide a conductive substrate for the growth of olfactory sensory axons during development (Tennent and Chuah, 1996; Tisay and Key, 1999). An intriguing possibility is that the guidance of OECs by Slits might contribute to the guidance of axons because of the close interaction between neurons and glia. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Radial glia interact with primary olfactory axons to regulate development of the olfactory bulb. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In addition, they conducted similar experiments on five volunteers who had no olfactory nerves and therefore couldnt smell at all, a condition known as anosmia. Normal subjects, 16 in all, were able to tell which nostril was receiving a squirt of scent, but anosmic volunteers could only localize the trigeminal odorants, Sobel said. This shows that humans are able to localize odors through the olfactory nerves alone.. One possible objection is that the experimental set-up, with a mask that provides separate air flow to each nostril, is artificial. How behaviorally relevant is that? said Porter. Subsequent experiments not yet reported, however, provide additional support for their hypothesis that the ability to localize odors to one nostril or the other is realistic.. The experiments were conducted with the subjects heads inside a functional MRI to allow the scientists to see which areas of the brain were most active during sniffing and attempts to identify and localize odors. They found that ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ali Jahed, James W Rowland, Todd McDonald, J Gordon Boyd, Ronald Doucette, Michael D Kawaja].
The term olfactory bulb refers, in the human and macaque, to a small oval white structure located in the cleft between the ventral surface of the frontal lobe and the floor of the cranial cavity ( Carpenter-1983 ). In the rat and mouse it is a much larger structure in comparison to rest of the brain; there it occupies almost a quarter of the length of the cranial cavity ( Swanson-2004 ). Though classically considered a separate structure from the cerebral cortex in primates ( Nomina-1983 ), it is classified on the basis of internal structure as a component of paleocortex in all species ( Stephan-1975 ). In all species it is connected rostrally with the olfactory nerve. Caudally in primates it connects with the olfactory peduncle; in rodents it connects through the olfactory tract directly to the olfactory tubercle and olfactory areas (rodent) of the cerebral cortex ( Swanson-2004 ). It is a layered structure that contains cell bodies of the second neurons in the olfactory system. It is a key ...
They are claiming the virus wrecks the nervous systems of a large percentage of people, leaving lasting neurological problems and brain damage. But Id like to ask - is it really a virus doing that, or are the tests doing that? Folks, the coronavirus tests themselves, in many cases, (there are probably different types) but in many cases they are obviously what is causing the brain damage. Easily explained:. Many of the tests, (all of them that use the incredibly long swab) take their samples from the cribriform plate, which is a millimeter thick bone at the top of the nasal cavity that is perforated with many holes that go directly into the brain cavity. These holes are what your olfactory nerves pass through, and there are many (the bone is similar to a coarse screen). If you wanted to sabotage someone by planting a clandestine brain virus, nanotech, or plant a chip in someone, this would be the place to do it because perhaps a doctor could get a chip out but individuals certainly never could ...
Theres no question that one of the most difficult things to get used to about the hospital is the smell - or, rather, the smells. This is especially true on a surgery service where many patients undergo multiple operations. Some need a leg or foot amputated. Others need open abdominal surgery and cant control their bowel movements afterwards. Some patients intestines cannot absorb fat, leading to oily stools which give off their own distinct and foul odor. And still others have abscesses, or deep bacterial infections, which need to be cut and drained. Its impossible to know how to react to the offending smell. Mostly, in the presence of these stenches, I control my desire to run from the room and, stoically, attempt to breathe through my mouth. But the smells are potent and dehumanizing. Empathy for these patients is difficult to find when ones visceral desire is to sever the olfactory nerve which transmits smells to the brain. One encounter in particular is burned into my memory.. The ...
We built a computational model of a peripheral nerve trunk in which the interstitial space between the fibers and the tissues is modelled using a resistor network, thus enabling distance-dependent ephaptic coupling between myelinated axons and between fascicles as well. We used the model to simulate a) the stimulation of a nerve trunk model with a cuff electrode, and b) the propagation of action potentials along the axons. Results were used to investigate the effect of ephaptic interactions on recruitment and selectivity stemming from artificial (i.e., neural implant) stimulation and on the relative timing between action potentials during propagation ...
We built a computational model of a peripheral nerve trunk in which the interstitial space between the fibers and the tissues is modelled using a resistor network, thus enabling distance-dependent ephaptic coupling between myelinated axons and between fascicles as well. We used the model to simulate a) the stimulation of a nerve trunk model with a cuff electrode, and b) the propagation of action potentials along the axons. Results were used to investigate the effect of ephaptic interactions on recruitment and selectivity stemming from artificial (i.e., neural implant) stimulation and on the relative timing between action potentials during propagation ...
Results Age, gender, spherical equivalent, and average intraocular pressure during follow-up were not significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in the mRNFL, mGCIPL and cpRNFL among the three groups at baseline (p,0.0001 in all sectors except for the mRNFL in the superonasal sector). The average thinning rates of the mRNFL, mGCIPL and cpRNFL were −0.38±0.32 µm/year, −0.62±0.46 µm/year and −0.86±0.83 µm/year, respectively. No significant difference in the rates of change in the mRNFL and mGCIPL were found among the groups in any sector. However, there was a significant difference in the rate of change in the cpRNFL among the groups (in all sectors: p,0.0001). ...
Clone REA1131 recognizes the human, mouse and rat nulear antigen NeuN, also known as Neuronal Nuclei, which is detected in most neuronal cell types in the central and peripheral nervous systems in both the embryo and adult except of Purkinje cells, olfactory bulb mitral cells, retinal photoreceptor cells, and Golgi cells.Additional information: Clone REA1131 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. | Belgique
the first two cranial nerves olfactory nerve i that transmits signals make up your sense of smell and optic ii responsible brain diagram brains.. ...
I THIS world is a play of colours and sounds. This sense-universe is a play of nerves. It is a false show kept up by the jugglery of Maya, mind and nerves. You enjoy the sensual pleasures for a period of twenty years when the senses are strong. What is this short evanescent period of twenty years in eternity? What is this despicable, jarring, monotonous sensual life, compared with the eternal and peaceful life in the immortal Self within? If the nerve of taste, the glosso-pharyngeal gets paralysed, you cannot enjoy different kinds of palatable dishes. If your retina or optic nerve is paralysed, you cannot enjoy diverse beautiful forms. If the auditory nerve is paralysed, you cannot hear melodious music. If the olfactory nerve is paralysed, you cannot enjoy various kinds of sweet fragrance. If your sensory nerve of the hands is paralysed, you cannot enjoy soft things. If the nerve origin is paralysed, you cannot enjoy conjugal bliss. Do you not now clearly see that this world is a mere play of ...
The brain seen from below. 1: Great fissure; 2: Anterior lobes of cerebrum; 3: Posterior lobes of cerebrum; 4: Lobes of cerebellum; 5: Cranial nerves; 6: Auditory nerve; 7: Optic nerve; 8: Olfactory nerve; 9: Main body of medulla oblongata; 10: End of medulla oblongata.. ...
The sense of smell is a tool that can elicit powerful physiologic, mental, and emotional responses. Essential oils are quickly absorbed by the smell receptors, which have a direct link to the limbic system by way of the olfactory nerve. The limbic system is part of the brain that supports a variety of functions including smell, emotions, behavior, and memory. For this reason, essential oils have an especially powerful effect via aromatic ...
Damage to the olfactory nerves leading to problems with the sense of smell. Whatever the cause and the symptoms you need to seek qualified and experienced legal advice to see if you have a right to redress and a claim.. In addition to compensation for your pain and suffering we will look to recover the cost of the initial procedure as well as any remedial surgery that you may need. Additionally any lost income due to time away from work for treatment or recovery will also be claimed along with any other financial losses that have arisen as a result of the procedure.. We will also look to claim for the psychological damage and loss of self confidence that can result from a poorly executed procedure; such problems can lead to depression and therefore severely impact upon your ability to work.. We will consider all of these aspects when assessing the extent of your claim.. For an initial assessment to see if your claim can be dealt with on a no win-no fee basis get in touch with us today:. ...
today i woke up groggy and tired. as i was driving to work, i got this overwhelming emotion. the best way that i can describe it is that my body feels like a quiet - silent, actually - room. all of the food noise is gone, and every other sensory experience is amplified and echoes through me, bouncing off the boundaries that separate ME from the space and time of the universe around me. (no, i am not stoned). for example, i havent really even been wearing perfume lately, even though i love perfume, because the smells have been overwhelming me. even my olfactory nerve has reset itself ...
From then until they died, he came downstairs from his seventhfloor office with his black bag and climbed into the back seat of their yellow Oldsmobile 88 to give them their physicals. You can talk to your doctor or nurse if you are having problems keeping it at bay. Los estudios tambin han descubierto una conexin entre la ideologa poltica y los genes involucrados con el sentido del olfato. Las afecciones relacionadas con la obesidad mejoraron en muchos pacientes, entre ellos el 64 por ciento de los que tenan colesterol alto, el 59 por ciento de los que tenan hipertensin y el 85 por ciento de los que tenan diabetes. Some CLA supplements contain soy or soybean oil. El metotrexato es la piedra angular del tratamiento de los nios que se enfrentan a la LLA. Due to pressure on the olfactory nerve, they may also result in a loss of the sense of smell anosmia. Lee S. Friedman of the division of environmental and occupational health sciences in the School of Public Health at the University of Illinois, ...
As if it wasnt bad enough that particulate matter from diesel exhaust causes a range of respiratory problems including 15,000 premature deaths each year, new research shows that even short-term exposure to nanoparticles found in diesel fumes can affect brain function.. Nanoparticles can travel to the brain via the olfactory nerve, where they could cause an oxidative stress response in the region of the brain critical to information processing.. Researchers placed subjects in a room with either clean air or diesel fumes (similar to a busy street), and used a electro- encephalograph (EEG) to measure brain response. Subjects breathing the sooty air showed a stress response in the brains cortex within 30 minutes, which continued even after they left the room.. ...
Olfactory nerve. Kerala PSC Pharmacist Grade 2 Answer Key 2021 Kerala PSC News 2021-01-04 04:10:59 . Would love your thoughts, please comment. Download Kerala PSC Previous Year Question Papers â Updated List. Kerala PSC had released notification for the Post of Peon (Special Recruitment from among ST Only). Normal Serum Potassium level? Kerala PSC Peon Answer Key 2019 â Download Question Papers @www.keralapsc.gov.in. In order to avoid this situation, the candidates should practice plenty of Kerala PSC previous question papers and answers pdf. Here we provide detailed information about the Kerala Lower Division Clerks Answer key paper 2021 with question papers. 10000+ PSC Last Grade Servant (LGS) Questions PDF Download. 10 to 20 mEq/L. Kerala PSC Hantex Salesman / Saleswoman Answer Key Question Paper. As we all know in many competitive exams like SSC, Railways, UPSC and other sate PCS Physics Questions asked repeatedly, so you cannot ignore Physics section of General Science. ൠമഠ- ...
Your olfactory nerves. All up the spout. You can´t smell a rat. When your rose is out. Rent-to-kill. By any other name. Kiss an ...
The particles can take a more dangerous lesser know path: they can travel through the olfactory nerves directly to brain. Once ... Doctors even use early breakdowns in the olfactory system - through which all of these harmful processes occur - as an ...
It also reaches the central nervous system via the olfactory nerve. Now we want to know how it causes clotting in the micro- ... It also reaches the central nervous system via the olfactory nerve. Now we want to know how it causes clotting in the micro- ... It also reaches the central nervous system via the olfactory nerve. Now we want to know how it causes clotting in the micro- ...
The fact that it goes past the olfactory nerve so you are smelling it and not tasting it -Microscopic molecules in the saline ...
Some pollution particles, such as ultrafine magnetite, can enter the body through the olfactory nerve and the gut, and, due to ...
... the nose and its olfactory nerves and the ear with its acoustic nerves, and that if all these nerves were connected at their ... But the moment we become aware of what I have already described, we realize also that in man the sensory nerves which run back ... The cerebrum evolves from a progressive metamorphosis of the sensory nerve fibres that run back to the cranial cavity. This ... We realize that if we had been endowed only with sense organs, with the eye and its optic nerves, ...
Sensory neuron signaling to the brain: properties of transmitter release from the olfactory nerve terminals. Journal of ...
Olfactory Nerve -- blood supply. Lymphatic Vessels -- blood supply. Rabbits -- physiology. Key, Axel, 1832-1901.. ... Section through the olfactory tissue of a rabbit, with blood vessels in red, lymph ducts in blue✖[remove]1 ... 1. Section through the olfactory tissue of a rabbit, with blood vessels in red, lymph ducts in blue ... Section through the olfactory tissue of a rabbit, with blood vessels in red, lymph ducts in blue ✖Remove constraint Titles: ...
The development of the olfactory nerve in man. (1941) J Comp. Neurol. 199-217. ... von Kupffer C. The development of the cranial nerves of vertebrates. (1891) Translated by Oliver S. Strong J Comp. Neurol. 1: ... von Kupffer C. The development of the cranial nerves of vertebrates. (1891) Translated by Oliver S. Strong J Comp. Neurol. 1: ... The spinal accessory nerve in human embryos. (1938) J Comp. Neurol. 68(2): 243-266. ...
Role of nerve growth factor in the olfactory system. Microsc Res Tech 2002; 58: 197-203. PMD: 12203698. ... Fiore M, Chaldakov GN, Aloe L. Nerve growth factor as a signalling molecule for nerve cells and also for the neuroendocrine- ... Nerve growth factor: structure, function and therapeutic implications for Alzheimer`s disease. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol ... Tuveri MA, Triaca V, Aloe L. The nerve growth factor induces cutaneous ulcer healing in non-responder transplanted skin. Ann ...
They do this with nerve cells located in their olfactory hairs on antennae! ...
Our preventive lice spray contains essential oils that attack a louses olfactory nerves. The preventive spray will smell ...
This puppy already caused enough disruptions to my rest, olfactory nerves, and sanity. ...
In this slice, there is a continuity between the olfactory nerve and the olfactory epithelium. Indeed, fibers can be seen ... that nurture the growing olfactory axons. The olfactory nerve makes contact at various points with the brain surface where ... Figure 18 is an intermediate sagittal slice through a part of the telencephalon where presumptive olfactory nerve fibers are ... Some of the cells outside the olfactory NEP are no doubt the AOB output neurons. The curved arrows exiting the ganglionic ...
When inhaled, they work on the brain and nervous system through stimulation of the olfactory nerves ...
to perceive the odor or scent of through the nose by means of the olfactory nerves; inhale the odor of: to perceive, detect, or ...
... smell seeps into each narrative and wafts out in pleasant and unpleas-ant ways to attack the olfactory nerves. From the very ...
The variety of cells which represent the layer across the olfactory nerve is barely 4 to five cells thick. Therefore, it is ... important oils effectively move via the blood mind barrier within the space surrounding the olfactory nerve. A real blood-brain ... Your sense of scent, which is a part of your olfactory system, is likely one of the strongest channels into the physique. In ... Inhalation barely makes use of any oil and it goes instantly and effectively into the olfactory channel. Topical utility ...
Stimulating the olfactory nerve inside your nose activates the limbic system of the brain which is associated with mood. ... Thus, lets ride our way out of a summer slump with a feng shui quick fix of olfactory sensations. When you smell an essential ... Olfactory sensations are powerful, immediate and fleeting. These sensations are deeply imbedded in our memory banks, waiting to ... Another, often underestimated mood make-over is the qi of our olfactory experience. Sniffing something pleasant is a faster way ...
The combination of these herbal remedies produce an aroma that is distinct and pleasing to the olfactory nerves. ...
Olfactory Cortex as a Model for Telencephalic Processing olfactory lobe olfactory nerve ...
2D model of olfactory bulb gamma oscillations (Li and Cleland 2017). A two-layer biophysical olfactory bulb model of ... 2D model of olfactory bulb gamma oscillations (Li and Cleland 2017). A two-layer biophysical olfactory bulb model of ... 2D model of olfactory bulb gamma oscillations (Li and Cleland 2017). A two-layer biophysical olfactory bulb model of ... 2D model of olfactory bulb gamma oscillations (Li and Cleland 2017). A two-layer biophysical olfactory bulb model of ...
Abnormal Smells A severe dental infection may lead to inflammation of your olfactory nerve, which is a cranial nerve ... When the olfactory nerve becomes inflamed or damaged as a result of infection or otherwise, your sense of smell may be impaired ... This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and ... Hyperosmia is an increased olfactory acuity (heightened sense of smell), usually caused by a lower threshold for odor. ...
... infected when water containing Naegleria fowleri enters the nose and the ameba migrates to the brain along the olfactory nerve ...
... which have a direct link to the limbic system by way of the olfactory nerve. The limbic system is part of the brain that ...
... we talk about the olfactory nerve, detailing its function and describing the anatomy of this important nerve for the sense of ...
We associate scents with people, places and specific memories because our olfactory nerves connect directly with our brains, ...
When stimulated by oder molecules, this lining of nerve cells triggers electrical impulses to the olfactory bulb in the brain. ... When fragrance is inhaled, the older molecules travel of the nose where theyre trapped by olfactory membranes that are well ...
Inhaling a scent leads to a stimulation of the Olfactory Nerve which sends signals to the specific area of our brain which is ...
Physiologically, they trigger the olfactory nerve, which is connected to our "emotional brain" and limbic system, and that ...
  • The olfactory nerves consist of a collection of many sensory nerve fibers that extend from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb , passing through the many openings of the cribriform plate , a sieve -like structure of the ethmoid bone . (wikipedia.org)
  • These stimulants are transduced into electrical activity in the olfactory neurons, which then transmit these impulses to the olfactory bulb and from there to the rest of the central nervous system via the olfactory tract . (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of numerous olfactory filaments in the olfactory portion of the nasal mucosa that enter the olfactory bulb, where they terminate in synaptic contact with mitral cells, tufted cells, and granule cells. (dictionary.com)
  • The small, unmyelinated axons of the olfactory receptor cells form the fine fibers of the first cranial nerve and travel centrally toward the ipsilateral olfactory bulb to make contact with the second-order neurons. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory bulb lies inferior to the basal frontal lobe. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory bulb is a highly organized structure composed of several distinct layers and synaptic specializations. (medscape.com)
  • Mitral cells are second-order neurons contacted by the olfactory nerve fibers at the glomerular layer of the bulb. (medscape.com)
  • It is formed by the axons of Olfactory receptor neurons which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the Olfactory bulb . (jove.com)
  • Ma TF, Zhao XL, Cai L, Zhang N, Ren SQ, Ji F, Tian T, Lu W. Regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity of olfactory inputs in mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb. (harvard.edu)
  • Kinoshita Y, Shiga H, Washiyama K, Ogawa D, Amano R, Ito M, Tsukatani T, Furukawa M, Miwa T. Thallium transport and the evaluation of olfactory nerve connectivity between the nasal cavity and olfactory bulb. (harvard.edu)
  • The glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb contains a substantial population of dopaminergic neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Binding of the D1 selective ligand [3H]SCH23390 was slightly above background and was distributed through all layers of the bulb except the olfactory nerve layer. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) convey sensory information directly to the CNS via conventional glutamatergic synaptic contacts in olfactory bulb glomeruli. (jneurosci.org)
  • To better understand the process by which information contained in the odorant-evoked firing of ORNs is transmitted to the brain, we examined the properties of glutamate release from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals in slices of the rat olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • Activity in ORNs is conveyed directly to the brain via olfactory nerve (ON) input to the olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, ON terminals make excitatory glutamatergic synapses onto the dendrites of principal mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and local interneurons, periglomerular (PG) cells, in olfactory bulb glomeruli. (jneurosci.org)
  • Regardless of the ultimate coding strategies used for olfaction, the properties of synaptic transmission between ORNs and their postsynaptic targets in the olfactory bulb will constrain how olfactory stimuli are encoded in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Do the synapses of ORNs in the olfactory bulb also possess features that enable information about sensory stimuli to be passed efficiently from receptor neurons to the CNS? (jneurosci.org)
  • To better understand how olfactory information is transmitted to the brain, we examined the intrinsic features of synaptic transmission between ORNs and their synaptic targets in the olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • Binding levels of [3H]Ro5-4864, a ligand selective for peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, are substantially higher in homogenates of the olfactory bulb than in the rest of the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Their presence in the nasal epithelium and in the olfactory bulb can be demonstrated in several different mammalian species. (nih.gov)
  • In the brain a high density of [3H]Ro5-4864 binding sites occurs in the nerve fiber and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • Intranasal irrigation with 5% ZnSO4 results in a 50% reduction of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in the olfactory bulb without affecting the density of central-type benzodiazepine receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, [3H]Ro5-4864 binding sites in the olfactory bulb appear in large part to be localized to olfactory nerves which originate in the nasal epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Just below your brain, they all pass into the olfactory bulb , where the signals from each axon come together and are sent on to the brain via the olfactory tract . (study.com)
  • Bacteria were detected in the submucosa of the olfactory epithelium, along olfactory nerves in the cribriform plate, at the olfactory bulb and subsequently at the meninges and subarachnoid space. (diva-portal.org)
  • This communication deals primarily with the development of the olfactory nerve and its relation to the development of the olfactory bulb. (edu.au)
  • This also means that those chemical compounds have a direct connection to the brain through the olfactory bulb. (motherjai.com)
  • Every smell we experience affects all of the systems in the body through the large olfactory bulb and it's close communication with the brain and gut. (motherjai.com)
  • The axons of the olfactory receptor cells continue as small nerve fascicles (olfactory fila), which in gross anatomy is referred to as the olfactory nerve , passing through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and reach the olfactory bulb of the brain, where the second-order neurons are located. (anatomynext.com)
  • The axons of the second-order cells form the olfactory tract that serves as a connection between the olfactory bulb and the cerebral hemispheres. (anatomynext.com)
  • unilateral loss is of more concern and could suggest a structural lesion affecting the olfactory bulb or tract or simply due to a blocked nasal passage or deviated septum. (torontonotes.ca)
  • When a person inhales fragrant molecules, olfactory receptors within the nasal passage send the impulses to the cranial cavity, which then travel to the olfactory bulb. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The olfactory nerves then transmit the chemical signals through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb. (anatomicaljustice.com)
  • In the olfactory bulb, the chemical signal is translated into an electrical signal, and transmitted to the brain for interpretation. (anatomicaljustice.com)
  • However, as they progress over the surface of the olfactory bulb and a point of glomerular convergence, the axons undergo a profound topographical reorganization such that all of the axons coming from neurons expressing the same odorant receptor converge into only 2/3 glomeruli/olfactory bulb. (grantome.com)
  • this image shows the course of the olfactory nerve from the olfactory bulb to centers showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
  • this image shows the beginning of the olfactory nerve at the nose ( the olfactory bulb) showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
  • Odor information is first represented in the brain by patterns of input activity across the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). (jneurosci.org)
  • Odorants are first encoded in the brain by patterns of afferent activity across the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB), which constitute functional units in olfactory information processing ( Shepherd, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Once in the cranial cavity, the fibres enter the olfactory bulb , which lies in the olfactory groove, within the anterior cranial fossa. (com.ng)
  • The olfactory bulb is an ovoid structure which contains specialised neurones, called mitral cells . (com.ng)
  • The medial stria carry the axons across the medial plane of the anterior commissure where they meet the olfactory bulb of the opposite side. (com.ng)
  • The olfactory receptor cell's axons extend into the olfactory bulb. (knowyourbody.net)
  • They may result in odor sensation that happens at the level of our nose and olfactory bulb. (knowyourbody.net)
  • They extend out to this little bulb called the olfactory vesicle, and from there all these little cilia spring out, protected by a layer of mucus. (scientopia.org)
  • In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. (nature.com)
  • Shear Injury to the Olfactory Nerves (Cranial Nerve I). Graphically depicts a violent blow to the back of the head as it strikes the pavement, resulting in tearing of the fibers of the olfactory nerve bulb (C.N. I) in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone in the skull. (photoshelter.com)
  • The fibers pass through small foramina in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone , and enter the olfactory bulb in the anterior cranial fossa. (osmosis.org)
  • In both levels of infection, the bacteria penetrated and colonised the olfactory and trigeminal nerves and migrated directly into the olfactory bulb within central nervous system. (edu.au)
  • Little is known about the differences between olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells in the capability to promote nerve regeneration. (bjorl.org)
  • To study the recovery of the rat facial nerve after olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation, and to compare the differences between the facial nerve regeneration of olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation. (bjorl.org)
  • Olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory ensheathing cells were cultured and harvested after 7 days in vitro. (bjorl.org)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit. (frontiersin.org)
  • Information from activated neurons is first transmitted to the olfactory bulb. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the olfactory bulb, multiple types of neurons form sophisticated networks to process information before transmitting it further to the olfactory cortex. (frontiersin.org)
  • Currently, there is a pressing demand for understanding the numerous neuronal types and networks to elucidate the mechanism(s) of olfactory information processing in the olfactory bulb. (frontiersin.org)
  • Histologically, the olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers. (frontiersin.org)
  • This categorization provides us with a basic model of the olfactory bulb network (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Basic model of the olfactory bulb network. (frontiersin.org)
  • The illustrated olfactory bulb network is based on the conventional categorization of participating neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Orexin-A and -B neurons were restricted to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, whereas both orexin-A and -B nerve fibers projected widely into the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. (pnas.org)
  • The olfactory bulb is a body part involved in the human sense of smell, so "type of bulb" is a legal but difficult definition. (thetimes.co.uk)
  • Number of mitral cells and the bulb volume in the aging human olfactory bulb: a quantitative morphological study. (medscape.com)
  • Carry sensations of smell from the nasal mucosa to the olfactory bulb, from there through the olfactory tracts and roots especially the lateral root to the peri amygdaloid and pre piriform areas of the cortex, the uncus and the hippocampal gyrus. (physioblasts.org)
  • Distraction of olfactory bulb-medial prefrontal cortex circuit may induce anxiety-like behavior in allergic rhinitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In neonates and adults, we observed discrete p75 NGFR -immunoreactivity (p75 NGFR -ir) in the glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb. (utmb.edu)
  • This was in keeping with the general ontogeny of the main olfactory bulb. (utmb.edu)
  • Generally, granule cells, mitral cells and periglomerular cells of the main olfactory bulb were not specifically stained. (utmb.edu)
  • Additional specific staining was found in the olfactory receptor neurons of neonatal and adult olfactory neuroepithelium, the olfactory fascicles and in the glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb. (utmb.edu)
  • The intensity, but not the organization, of specific staining in the accessory olfactory bulb increased as the animal matured. (utmb.edu)
  • We believe that p75 NGFR -ir in the olfactory system is associated with its unique capacity to regenerate its peripheral input to the main olfactory bulb. (utmb.edu)
  • The presence of p75 NGFR -ir in the accessory olfactory bulb would suggest a broader role for this protein. (utmb.edu)
  • Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei migrated through the cribriform plate via the olfactory nerves to enter the outer layer of the olfactory bulb in the brain within 24 h. (edu.au)
  • Methimazole-mediated injury resulted in increased B. pseudomallei invasion of the olfactory epithelium, and only in pre-injured animals were bacteria found in the olfactory nerve and bulb. (edu.au)
  • Here, we show that the expression of truncated human α-synuclein(1-120), driven by the rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter on a mouse α-synuclein null background, leads to the formation of pathological inclusions in the substantia nigra and olfactory bulb and to a reduction in striatal dopamine levels. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The axons of the olfactory sensory neurons collect in fascicles of increasing diameter in the lamina propria mucosae from where they run centripetally toward the olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • The olfactory axons form an intricate nerve plexus on the surface of the homolateral olfactory bulb before terminating in globose structures, the olfactory glomeruli, where they synapse with the dendrites of large cortical neurons, the mitral cells. (springer.com)
  • Lesions of the olfactory nerve do not lead to a reduced ability to sense pain from the nasal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because pain from the nasal epithelium is not carried to the central nervous system by the olfactory nerve - it is carried to the central nervous system by the trigeminal nerve . (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the nasal cavity , the turbinates or nasal conchae serve to direct the inspired air toward the olfactory epithelium in the upper posterior region. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory epithelium consists of 3 cell types: basal, supporting, and olfactory receptor cells. (medscape.com)
  • As previously mentioned, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) sends fibers to the olfactory epithelium to detect caustic chemicals, such as ammonia. (medscape.com)
  • Olfaction begins in the olfactory epithelium, where odorants bind G-protein-coupled receptors on the dendritic cilia of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) ( Firestein, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • High up inside your nose, about 7 cm above and behind your nostrils, is a region of the nasal cavity known as the olfactory epithelium . (study.com)
  • Upon bacterial infection, epithelial lesions and redistribution of intracellular junction protein N-cadherin were observed at the nasal epithelial mucosa, especially at the olfactory epithelium, which is functionally and anatomically connected to the CNS. (diva-portal.org)
  • The differentiation of the cells of the olfactory plaeode into the mature elements of the olfactory epithelium has not been described fully in human material. (edu.au)
  • There are around 3 million receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium supplemented with supporting cells and the ducts of the Bowman`s glands. (anatomynext.com)
  • The perception of odorous molecules begins in the olfactory epithelium when odorant ligands bind to molecular receptors expressed on the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). (grantome.com)
  • Despite its inherent complexity, the olfactory nerve pathway is regenerated and remodeled throughout life as a result of ongoing neurogenesis of olfactory sensory neurons in the epithelium. (grantome.com)
  • The dendritic process projects to the surface of the epithelium, where they project a number of short cilia, the olfactory hairs , into the mucous membrane. (com.ng)
  • The anatomical course of the olfactory nerve describes the transmission of special sensory information from the nasal epithelium to the primary olfactory cortex of the brain. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The sense of smell is detected by olfactory receptors located within the nasal epithelium . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Besides this, the olfactory epithelium is prepared from supporting cells, basal cells, ducts, and Bowman glands that enable regeneration of the olfactory nerve. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Air (and the chemicals in it from that dog poo you just stepped in) goes up into your nostrils and nose, and hits the olfactory epithelium, a little patch of cells on the roof and wall of the inside of the nose, represented here in grey. (scientopia.org)
  • This olfactory epithelium is made of three types of cells: olfactory receptor neurons, support cells, and basal cells. (scientopia.org)
  • And the way it comes back is through the basal cells, which form the membrane of the olfactory epithelium, and which can divide and become olfactory neurons and supporting cells when they are needed. (scientopia.org)
  • These fibers transmit olfactory impulses from the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity to the brain, where they are perceived as the sense of smell. (osmosis.org)
  • Now, the olfactory epithelium is located on each side of the roof of the nasal cavity where the nasal mucosa contains olfactory receptor neurons. (osmosis.org)
  • In widespread major infection, the olfactory epithelium rapidly responded by degradation and an immune response which limited the penetration of bacteria in the mucosal layer. (edu.au)
  • In contrast, in low level minor infection, very small numbers of bacteria penetrated the olfactory mucosa without causing degradation of the epithelium or an obvious immune response. (edu.au)
  • These odorant receptors are expressed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stem and progenitor cells of the mammalian olfactory epithelium: Taking poietic license. (medscape.com)
  • The sense of smell (olfaction) arises from the stimulation of olfactory (or odorant) receptors by small molecules of different spatial, chemical, and electrical properties that pass over the nasal epithelium in the nasal cavity during inhalation. (physioblasts.org)
  • We found that the olfactory epithelium responded to intranasal B. pseudomallei infection by widespread crenellation followed by disintegration of the neuronal layer to expose the underlying basal layer, which the bacteria then colonized. (edu.au)
  • We also found that the bacteria colonized the thin respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity and then rapidly migrated along the underlying trigeminal nerve to penetrate the cranial cavity. (edu.au)
  • These data suggest that injuries to the olfactory epithelium expose the primary olfactory nervous system to bacterial invasion, which can then result in CNS infection with potential pathogenic consequences for the glial cells. (edu.au)
  • The olfactory sensory epithelium lines portions of the nasal cavity, and in the adult animal three cell types, which are organized in columnar units, contribute to its formation: neurons, basal cells, and supporting cells (Fig. 1). (springer.com)
  • Some of this decrease results from repeated damage to the olfactory nerve receptors due likely to repeated upper respiratory infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibres of the nerve run upwards from smell receptors in the nasal mucosa and join to form the olfactory tract to the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Olfactory receptors. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast there were relatively high levels of [3H]spiperone binding to D2 DA receptors in the glomerular and olfactory nerve layers. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of relatively high concentrations of D2 DA receptors in both the nerve layer and glomerular layer suggests the novel hypothesis that these receptors may be localized on terminals of the olfactory nerve. (nih.gov)
  • Autoradiographic studies of murine nose reveal a bipolar staining pattern around the cell bodies of the olfactory receptor cells, suggesting the presence of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors on both processes of these bipolar neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Each of the first pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the smell receptors in the mucous membrane of the nose. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Thus the olfactory epitheium is a complex mosaic of neurons each of which expresses only 1 of 1,200 possible odorant receptors. (grantome.com)
  • Peripheral olfactory processes (receptors) in the olfactory mucosa. (com.ng)
  • The olfactory receptors of the nerve are situated within the mucosa of the nasal cavity. (knowyourbody.net)
  • It is a special pseudostratified neuroepithelium comprising the primary olfactory receptors. (knowyourbody.net)
  • To boost the olfactory receptors, it is essential for airborne molecules to pass through the nasal cavity with quite turbulent air currents and link the receptors. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are bipolar neurons that each have a dendrite on their apical surface that gives rise to many olfactory cilia, which possess receptors for odorant molecules. (osmosis.org)
  • Here we discuss the implications of these findings with regards to nerve growth factor, other trophic molecules, and their receptors. (utmb.edu)
  • The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system , where they are perceived by the sense of smell ( olfaction ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to this nerve impairs the sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to this nerve leads to impairment or total loss anosmia of the sense of smell To simply test the function of the olfactory nerve, each nostril is tested with a pungent odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. (jove.com)
  • Your olfactory nerve is responsible for your sense of smell and plays a big part in your sense of taste, too. (study.com)
  • The olfactory nerve is responsible for your sense of smell and partially responsible for your sense of taste. (study.com)
  • Toothed whales do not have a sense of smell, but baleen whales do have some olfactory nerves. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • 12 A brain disease that is characterized by nerve injury located in olfactory nerve, occurring as a result of normal aging, trauma, mass lesion or other insult, and has symptom impaired sense of smell, has symptom anosmia or loss of smell. (malacards.org)
  • Olfactory Nerve Disease, is also known as olfactory nerve diseases , and has symptoms including anosmia and impaired sense of smell . (malacards.org)
  • The olfactory nerve is purely sensory in function and transmits the sense of smell. (anatomynext.com)
  • The olfactory nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The olfactory nerve (cranial nerve one) is responsible for the sense of smell. (anatomicaljustice.com)
  • Olfactory lesions can be sub-divided into the following categories: a) anosmia: inability to appreciate qualitative olfactory sensations, b) partial anosmia: the ability to appreciate some but not all odorants, c) microsmia or hyposmia: reduced sensitivity to odorants d) hyperosmia: pathologically acute sense of smell, e) dysosmia, cacosmia, or parosmia: altered/distorted sense of smell, f) phantosmia: an olfactory hallucination, and g) olfactory agnosia: the inability to interpret an odorant. (clinicalexams.co.uk)
  • It is the nerve which transmits special sensory information, allowing us to have a sense of smell . (com.ng)
  • With the cutoff, the olfactory nerve appears dead and hence the sense of smell is destroyed. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Because each neuron only makes one (though there can be more than one olfactory receptor neuron with that protein, in fact there are usually thousands), this means our sense of smell can be extremely specific. (scientopia.org)
  • So first, there's cranial nerve I, or the olfactory nerve, which only contains special sensory fibers responsible for the sense of smell. (osmosis.org)
  • The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve , or simply CN I , that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell . (wikipedia.org)
  • either one of the first pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct to the brain the impulses from the mucous membranes of the nose. (dictionary.com)
  • In naegleriasis, "brain-eating" amoeba enter through the olfactory mucosa of the nasal tissues and follow the olfactory nerve fibers into the olfactory bulbs and then the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, separated at the midline by the crista galli, contains multiple small foramina through which the olfactory nerve fibers, or fila olfactoria, traverse. (medscape.com)
  • Fracture of the cribriform plate in traumatic settings can disrupt these fine fibers and lead to olfactory dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • The glomerular layer is the most superficial layer, consisting of mitral cell dendritic arborizations (glomeruli), olfactory nerve fibers, and periglomerular cells. (medscape.com)
  • Each mitral cell is contacted by at least 1000 olfactory nerve fibers. (medscape.com)
  • Regeneration of the nerve, crushed 1.5 cm from the cell bodies, is found to produce three distinct populations of regenerating fibers. (rupress.org)
  • The first traverses the crush site 1 wk postoperative and progresses along the nerve at a rate of 5.8 +/- 0.3 mm/d for the leading fibers of the group. (rupress.org)
  • The multiple populations of regenerating fibers with differing rates of growth are discussed in the context of precursor cell maturity at the time of nerve injury and possible conditioning effects of the lesion upon these cells. (rupress.org)
  • In the trigone, the fibers separate into olfactory stria, which synapse with the third-order neurons in the perforated substance. (anatomynext.com)
  • Specialized olfactory neurons and nerve fibers meet with other nerves, which pass into the olfactory tract. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most of the fibers of the optic nerve cross into a structure called the optic chiasm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The medulla is comprised of both myelinated white matter and unmyelinated gray matter nerve fibers. (associazione-experience.it)
  • Specialized olfactory nerve fibers located in the upper nasal mucosa are activated by the inhalation of chemical molecules (odorants). (anatomicaljustice.com)
  • The olfactory receptor neurons contain afferent nerve fibers that transfer nerve impulses regarding odor or smell to the central nervous system. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons have no myelin to help conduct the signal, and the axon fibers themselves are long and thin, which means the action potentials move slowly (fatter axons produce faster conduction). (scientopia.org)
  • a macroscopic cordlike structure of the body, comprising a collection of nerve fibers that convey impulses between a part of the central nervous system and some other body region. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mixed nerves are composed of both motor and sensory fibers, and transmit messages in both directions at once. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The various nerve fibers and cells that make up the autonomic nervous system innervate the glands, heart, blood vessels, and involuntary muscles of the internal organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mixed nerve ( nerve of mixed fibers ) a nerve composed of both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cranial nerves are made up of sensory fibers, motor fibers, or both, that innervate the majority of structures in the head and neck. (osmosis.org)
  • Here, the olfactory nerve fibers synapse on second order neurons, called mitral cells. (osmosis.org)
  • Some of these nerves are sensory or motor only while others are mixed containing a combination of sensory and motor fibers. (healthhype.com)
  • Paresthesias are reported over the area of nerve distribution, along with tenderness over nerve fibers and muscles supplied by the involved nerve. (chiro.org)
  • The olfactory nerve is the shortest of the twelve cranial nerves and, similar to the optic nerve, does not emanate from the brainstem . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also known as cranial nerve 1 because it is the shortest of the cranial nerves and one of only two nerves (the other is the optic nerve) that bypass the brain stem and connect directly to your brain. (study.com)
  • Glaucoma is the term used to describe a group diseases characterised by a specific type of damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) known as cupping and a characteristic type of visual field loss. (bl.uk)
  • We injected OEC into glaucomatous rat eyes to study the effects of OEC on optic nerve damage. (bl.uk)
  • The presence of OEC in the vitreous cavity of the glaucomatous rat eye significantly reduced the optic nerve damage in glaucomatous eyes. (bl.uk)
  • The sphenethmoid is intimately connected with the olfactory nerves, the entire optic apparatus and the fore- and mid-brain. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The optic nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's vision. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These photoreceptors carry signal impulses along nerve cells to form the optic nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Along with the optic nerve, it is actually a peripheral outpost of the central nervous system. (associazione-experience.it)
  • muscle Iris Lacrimal gland Lateral rectus muscle Lens Medial rectus Optic nerve Pupil Superior oblique Superior. (associazione-experience.it)
  • optic nerve 3. (edoctoronline.com)
  • It is one of two nerves that do not join with the brainstem, the other being the optic nerve. (com.ng)
  • It is similar to the optic nerve also in its structure, as it has a meningeal covering unlike CN III to XII. (com.ng)
  • So to stop and smell the roses, but also to see the roses, we need to focus on the Olfactory and Optic nerves, also known as cranial nerves I and II. (osmosis.org)
  • The terminal nerves (0), olfactory nerves (I) and optic nerves (II) emerge from the cerebrum or forebrain, and the remaining ten pairs arise from the brainstem, which is the lower part of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging of the optic nerve and visual pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CMV lesions were found in the olfactory system of children with congenital CMV infection but no study has hitherto examined the impact of congenital CMV infection on olfaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • from the bulbs (one on each side) the olfactory information is transmitted into the brain via the olfactory tract . (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory tract then travels to the frontal lobe and other areas of the brain that are involved with memory and notation of different smells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • From the glomeruli, second order nerves then pass posteriorly into the olfactory tract. (com.ng)
  • The olfactory tract runs inferiorly to the frontal lobe . (com.ng)
  • The olfactory tract travels posteriorly on the inferior surface of the frontal lobe . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The axons of these cells form the olfactory tract, which travels posteriorly to several olfactory areas including the primary olfactory cortex within the temporal lobe. (osmosis.org)
  • However, in early neonates, granule cells close to the lateral olfactory tract exhibited p75 NGFR -ir. (utmb.edu)
  • Derived from the embryonic nasal placode , the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specialized olfactory epithelial cells characterize the only group of neurons capable of regeneration. (medscape.com)
  • Study of regeneration in the garfish olfactory nerve. (rupress.org)
  • A similar regeneration process was confirmed in the garfish olfactory system. (rupress.org)
  • The olfactory nerve is also capable of regeneration . (com.ng)
  • This nerve is unique as compared to other cranial nerves as it holds some power of regeneration when damaged. (knowyourbody.net)
  • This nerve is capable of regeneration and is unmyelinated and covered with Schwann cells. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Graziadei PPC, Monti Graziadei GA (1979): Neurogenesis and neuron regeneration in the olfactory system of mammals. (springer.com)
  • Graziadei P.P.C., Graziadei G.A.M. (1988) Olfactory System, Turnover and Regeneration. (springer.com)
  • Histologically, glomeruli are distinct units that are not restricted to vertebrates but have evolved also in the olfactory systems of other phylogenetic groups such as molluscs and arthropods ( Hildebrand and Shepherd, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The olfactory nerve fibres synapse with the mitral cells, forming collections known as synaptic glomeruli . (com.ng)
  • The axons of olfactory sensory neurons make synapses in the glomerular layer (GL), consisting of spherical structures called glomeruli. (frontiersin.org)
  • The functional components of the olfactory nerve include the special visceral afferent (SVA), which carries the modality of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • olfactory nerve n. the first cranial nerve (I): the special sensory nerve of smell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Either of the first pair of cranial nerves that carries sensory information relating to smell from the nose to the brain. (dictionary.com)
  • Without a properly functioning olfactory nerve, you wouldn't be able to smell any of these things. (study.com)
  • The job of your olfactory nerve is to detect chemicals floating around in the air and transmit information about them to your brain, where you interpret this as a certain smell. (study.com)
  • On the side facing your nasal cavity (and so exposed to the smell-inducing chemicals), they are covered with tiny hairs called cilia , and on the other side, they are connected to an axon , which is the main body of a nerve cell. (study.com)
  • Some people with olfactory nerve damage develop anosmia, but some simply have a reduced ability to smell. (study.com)
  • Finally, olfactory nerve disorders can cause people to develop dysosmia , where smells are mixed up so that a pleasant aroma like that of a rose might smell bad, like rotting garbage. (study.com)
  • By the way, you'll be happy to know the smell is gone now, or my olfactory nerves have been killed dead. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • At levels higher than this, the poisonous gas will start to degrade the olfactory nerves, making it impossible to smell. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • A follow-up experiment found a third link: olfactory dreamers are better at identifying odors in a smell test. (firstnerve.com)
  • This historic 1941 paper by Pearson described development of the olfactory nerve involved with smell . (edu.au)
  • Sensory cranial nerves help a person to see, smell, and hear. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The olfactory mucosa is a very important structure as it not only senses smell, but also the more advanced aspects of taste. (com.ng)
  • It is a special visceral afferent nerve, which transmits information relating to smell . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The potential to smell comes from special sensory cells, known as olfactory sensory neurons that are found in a small tissue patch inside the nose. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The sensation of smell is mediated through stimulation of olfactory receptor cells through volatile chemicals. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The reason you can smell what you're smelling is entirely due to the glory of your olfactory nerve. (scientopia.org)
  • While it's not as important to us as it is to say, dogs, who rely on smell a lot more than we do, the olfactory system is still a thing of awesome. (scientopia.org)
  • For example, the olfactory nerve (I) supplies smell, and the facial nerve (VII) supplies motor innervation to the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the study is to see whether patients with chronic smell impairment after brain injury benefit from a treatment that consists of corticosteroids, and then olfactory training in 3. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The receptor cells are actually bipolar neurons, each possessing a thin dendritic rod that contains specialized cilia extending from the olfactory vesicle and a long central process that forms the fila olfactoria. (medscape.com)
  • The cilia react to specific chemicals and send electrical signals through the axons of the olfactory nerve to your brain. (study.com)
  • These cilia react to odors in the air and stimulate the olfactory cells. (com.ng)
  • The chemicals that are in the air around you will then diffuse across the mucus membrane and hit the cilia, stimulating the olfactory receptor neuron. (scientopia.org)
  • The olfactory nerve originates in the nasal mucosa on the upper part of the nasal cavity as special sensory cells (neurosensory cells of the mucosa), which are the first-order neurons in the olfactory pathway. (anatomynext.com)
  • In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early stage of the olfactory pathway. (nature.com)
  • The olfactory sensory pathway is, consequently, the only one that directly extends from the periphery to a cortical area without entering a commissure and without a synaptic interruption. (springer.com)
  • Alternatively, it has been proposed that information about the identity and concentration of odorants can be encoded in the timevarying activity of neurons in the olfactory system (Stopfer et al. (jneurosci.org)
  • Permanent anosmia can be caused by head injury , or tumours which occur in the olfactory groove (e.g. meningioma). (com.ng)
  • [1] From the olfactory mucosa, the nerve (actually many small nerve fascicles) travels up through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the surface of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • On each side of the groove the dura is rough, because of its attachment to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and because it is pierced by numerous olfactory nerve bundles. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Their axons (fila olfactoria) assemble into small bundles of true olfactory nerves, which penetrate the small foramina in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and enter the cranial cavity. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The olfactory neuroepithelium is situated in the upper region of each nasal chamber close to the cribriform plate, superior-lateral nasal wall, and superior nasal septum. (knowyourbody.net)
  • When there is a sudden blow in front of the head then it knocks the cribriform plate out of its location, causing the delicate olfactory axons to shear off. (knowyourbody.net)
  • One potential route is via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves of the nasal cavity. (edu.au)
  • Conclusion: These results demonstrate that B. pseudomallei enters the CNS via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves within 24 hr after inoculation. (edu.au)
  • We have now investigated in detail the mechanism by which the bacteria penetrate the olfactory and trigeminal nerves within the nasal cavity and infect the brain. (edu.au)
  • We have previously discovered that B. pseudomallei can infect the CNS via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves in mice. (edu.au)
  • In vitro assays demonstrated that B. pseudomallei readily infected glial cells isolated from the olfactory and trigeminal nerves (olfactory ensheathing cells and trigeminal Schwann cells, respectively). (edu.au)
  • The axons of the third-order neurons reach the olfactory cortex, and also synapse with the components of the limbic system. (anatomynext.com)
  • medial olfactory cortex 4. (edoctoronline.com)
  • The lateral stria sends carries the axons to the olfactory area of the cerebral cortex (also known as the primary olfactory cortex ). (com.ng)
  • The primary olfactory cortex sends nerve fibres to many other areas of the brain, notably the piriform cortex, the amygdala, olfactory tubercle and the secondary olfactory cortex. (com.ng)
  • Lateral stria - carries the axons to the primary olfactory cortex, located within the uncus of temporal lobe. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • A range of neurons extends from olfactory cortex down to thalamus. (knowyourbody.net)
  • These nuclei are important relative to cranial nerve dysfunction because damage to these nuclei such as from a stroke or trauma can mimic damage to one or more branches of a cranial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory dysfunction is commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may be related to disorder of the central olfactory processing system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Olfactory dysfunction is a cardinal symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis, a disease which affects 12.5% of the adult population across all racial and ethnic groups. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Intracranially congenital, traumatic, and neurodegenerative disorders are usually to blame for olfactory dysfunction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gustatory and olfactory dysfunction in older adults: a national probability study. (medscape.com)
  • Martin GE, Junque C, Juncadella M, Gabarros A, de Miquel MA, Rubio F. Olfactory dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. (medscape.com)
  • Frequency and prognostic factors of olfactory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury. (medscape.com)
  • It continues as the olfactory trigone that lies in the olfactory groove of the frontal lobe. (anatomynext.com)
  • Embryologically it is derived from the olfactory placode (a thickening of the ectoderm layer), which also give rise to the glial cells which support the nerve. (com.ng)
  • Course of the olfactory nerve viewed from the left side of a parasagittal section. (kenhub.com)
  • What is the relationship of individual axons to the olfactory ensheathing cells along the course of the olfactory nerve and olfactory nerve layer? (grantome.com)
  • nervus olfactorius ) is considered as the first cranial nerve , although it is actually a collection of the olfactory receptor cell axons and is derived from the telencephalon. (anatomynext.com)
  • Their olfactory bulbs were the size of a grapefruit, and the bundle of olfactory nerves leading to the brain was wider than the spinal cord, judging by the size of the skull openings. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • At the transition of the medulla to the spinal cord, there are two major decussations, or crossings, of nerve fibres. (associazione-experience.it)
  • Sensory nerves, sometimes called afferent nerves, carry information from the outside world, such as sensations of heat, cold, and pain, to the brain and spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Motor nerves, or efferent nerves, transmit impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Together, the nerves make up the peripheral nervous system, as distinguished from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • sensory nerve a peripheral nerve that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the spinal cord or brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Your peripheral nerves are the ones outside your brain and spinal cord. (icdlist.com)
  • Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem ), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal nerves emerge sequentially from the spinal cord with the spinal nerve closest to the head ( C1 ) emerging in the space above the first cervical vertebra. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms and signs of damage to the spinal roots are the same as for peripheral-nerve damage except that the area of involvement is restricted to the area supplied by the spinal roots rather than the nerves. (britannica.com)
  • Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves are not shown. (britannica.com)
  • As with lesions of the spinal cord, localization of the level of the lesion is determined by noting which of the cranial nerve functions are affected. (britannica.com)
  • As olfactory receptor axons grow from the peripheral to the central nervous system (CNS) aided by olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), the transplantation of OECs has been suggested as a plausible therapy for spinal cord lesions. (mdpi.com)
  • and (iii) their transplantation in organotypic slices of spinal cord and peripheral nerve showed positive integration in the model. (mdpi.com)
  • Most of these nerves emerge pass through the spinal cord and are known as the spinal nerves. (healthhype.com)
  • The nervous system consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves from these areas. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, 12 nerves that come from the brain, and the nerves that come from the spinal cord. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • To examine how odorants are represented at this stage of olfactory processing, we labeled anterogradely the axons of olfactory receptor neurons with the voltage-sensitive dye Di8-ANEPPQ in zebrafish. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because each olfactory sensory neuron expresses only a single odorant receptor, different odorants can activate distinct subsets of olfactory sensory neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • These bundles of nerves constitute the 1st cranial nerve, the olfactory nerve. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Once the axon penetrates through the basement membrane, it joins other non-myelinated processes to form the fila olfactoria (bundles of olfactory axons). (com.ng)
  • The basal surfaces of these neurons give rise to central processes - or axons - that are collected into bundles to form approximately 20 olfactory nerves on each side, that, together, we call the right and left olfactory nerves. (osmosis.org)
  • Importantly, we have previously determined that the cells of the immune system, macrophages, are largely excluded from olfactory nerve bundles. (edu.au)
  • By confocal microscopy, we found that TOPgal activated processes extended along the developing glomerulus and formed multiple tunnel-like structures that ensheathe and bridge olfactory sensory axonal bundles from ONLi to the glomerulus, which may play a key role in glomerulus formation and convergent sorting of the peripheral olfactory axons. (elsevier.com)
  • In their course they either assemble in a unique olfactory nerve (the olfactory nerve of lower vertebrates) or maintain their arrangement in several discrete bundles (the fila olfactoria of mammals) that penetrate into the cranial cavity through the lamina cribrosa. (springer.com)
  • In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the olfactory nerve - its structure, anatomical course and clinical relevance. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Some nanoparticles entering the nose are transported to the brain via olfactory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • To simply test the function of the olfactory nerve, each nostril is tested with a pungent odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, many clinical tests confound the function of the olfactory nerve with that of the trigeminal nerve ('pungency' as from ammonia). (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The sensory function of the olfactory nerve is achieved via the olfactory mucosa . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The lateral olfactory striae project to uncus, but the medial olfactory striae project to hypothalamus and brainstem nuclei. (anatomynext.com)
  • The abducens nerve starts in the pons of the brainstem, enters an area called Dorello's canal, travels through the cavernous sinus, and ends at the lateral rectus muscle within the bony orbit. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • olfactory neuroepithelium 2. (edoctoronline.com)
  • We therefore investigated this, using outbred mice that were intranasally inoculated with B. pseudomallei, with or without methimazole-induced injury to the olfactory neuroepithelium. (edu.au)
  • An important gene associated with Olfactory Nerve Neoplasm is ENO2 (Enolase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Neuroscience . (malacards.org)
  • The olfactory system consists of the primary olfactory nerves in the nasal cavity, the olfactory bulbs and tracts, and numerous intracranial connections and pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Damage to the olfactory nerve can result in three different disorders. (study.com)
  • 698, 482 S.E.2d 26 (1997) held that the injured worker was entitled to compensation for permanent damage to the olfactory organ but not for compensation for two separate compensable injuries. (workersadvisor.com)
  • [2] The fascicles of the olfactory nerve are not visible on a cadaver brain because they are severed upon removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nerve is located in the head and originates from olfactory mucosa present in the upper region of the nasal cavity. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Diffuse disease affecting the peripheral nerves may have a greater impact on either motor or sensory fibres, or it may affect both to an equal degree. (britannica.com)
  • It derives from the olfactory placode during embryonic development. (diva-portal.org)
  • While the differentiation and migration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-expressing neurons from the olfactory placode has been well documented, the TNG has been neglected in birds and mammals, and its development is less well described. (diva-portal.org)
  • A description of any one of these nerves would naturally begin with the formation of the olfactory placode. (edu.au)
  • The general plan of the development of the olfactory placode has been given in a number of the recent text-books of em- bryology. (edu.au)
  • It is diflicult to determine at just what period neuroblasts begin to develop in the olfactory placode of human embryos. (edu.au)
  • Bipolar cells which resemble olfactory nerve cells were observed in the olfactory placode of a 9.5 mm. human embryo. (edu.au)
  • Although this embryo was not stained with a neurological stain, a few nerve fibers could be traced from the placode into the mesoderm. (edu.au)
  • Embryological it is obtained from the olfactory placode, which is thickening of ectoderm layer. (knowyourbody.net)
  • afferent nerve any nerve that transmits impulses from the periphery toward the central nervous system, such as a sensory nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • excitor nerve one that transmits impulses resulting in an increase in functional activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • inhibitory nerve one that transmits impulses resulting in a decrease in functional activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Where fatigue and weakness are the symptoms, the underlying cause of disease may be a failure of motor nerve impulses to cross to the muscle end plate at the neuromuscular junction . (britannica.com)
  • Within the medulla are vital ascending and descending nerve tracts along with important brainstem nuclei. (associazione-experience.it)
  • Despite being a component of the nervous system, the olfactory nerve does not link the brainstem. (knowyourbody.net)
  • [1] Ten of the cranial nerves originate in the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numbering of the cranial nerves is based on the order in which they emerge from the brain, front to back ( brainstem ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The brainstem, with deeper cranial nerve nuclei and tracts inside the brain-stem shaded red. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of many of the neurons of most of the cranial nerves are contained in one or more nuclei in the brainstem . (wikipedia.org)
  • and Aim 3 - Test the hypotheses that odorant receptor mRNAs and the translational components are locally compartmentalized in the olfactory nerve/sensory axons. (grantome.com)
  • Our environment is filled with odorant molecules, and our emotions, moods, and even behaviors can be controlled by olfactory stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each pair of cranial nerves is numbered from one to twelve Roman numerals) and designated as CN. (healthhype.com)
  • These specialized epithelial cells give rise to the olfactory vesicles containing kinocilia, which serve as sites of stimulus transduction. (medscape.com)
  • The cells there, called olfactory epithelial cells, are very specialized. (study.com)
  • Depending on definition in humans there are twelve or thirteen cranial nerves pairs, which are assigned Roman numerals I-XII, sometimes also including cranial nerve zero . (wikipedia.org)

No images available that match "olfactory nerve"