Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Armadillos: Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Tin Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Benzene DerivativesSensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.ChlorobenzenesMouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLPyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Carnosine: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.Methyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Vomer: An unpaired thin ploughshare-shaped facial bone. It is situated in the median plane of the SKULL. The vomer forms the posterior and inferior border of the NASAL SEPTUM.Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.

Functional identification and reconstitution of an odorant receptor in single olfactory neurons. (1/735)

The olfactory system is remarkable in its capacity to discriminate a wide range of odorants through a series of transduction events initiated in olfactory receptor neurons. Each olfactory neuron is expected to express only a single odorant receptor gene that belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family. The ligand-receptor interaction, however, has not been clearly characterized. This study demonstrates the functional identification of olfactory receptor(s) for specific odorant(s) from single olfactory neurons by a combination of Ca2+-imaging and reverse transcription-coupled PCR analysis. First, a candidate odorant receptor was cloned from a single tissue-printed olfactory neuron that displayed odorant-induced Ca2+ increase. Next, recombinant adenovirus-mediated expression of the isolated receptor gene was established in the olfactory epithelium by using green fluorescent protein as a marker. The infected neurons elicited external Ca2+ entry when exposed to the odorant that originally was used to identify the receptor gene. Experiments performed to determine ligand specificity revealed that the odorant receptor recognized specific structural motifs within odorant molecules. The odorant receptor-mediated signal transduction appears to be reconstituted by this two-step approach: the receptor screening for given odorant(s) from single neurons and the functional expression of the receptor via recombinant adenovirus. The present approach should enable us to examine not only ligand specificity of an odorant receptor but also receptor specificity and diversity for a particular odorant of interest.  (+info)

Chemoattraction and chemorepulsion of olfactory bulb axons by different secreted semaphorins. (2/735)

During development, growth cones can be guided at a distance by diffusible factors, which are attractants and/or repellents. The semaphorins are the largest family of repulsive axon guidance molecules. Secreted semaphorins bind neuropilin receptors and repel sensory, sympathetic, motor, and forebrain axons. We found that in rat embryos, the olfactory epithelium releases a diffusible factor that repels olfactory bulb axons. In addition, Sema A and Sema IV, but not Sema III, Sema E, or Sema H, are able to orient in vitro the growth of olfactory bulb axons; Sema IV has a strong repulsive action, whereas Sema A appears to attract those axons. The expression patterns of sema A and sema IV in the developing olfactory system confirm that they may play a cooperative role in the formation of the lateral olfactory tract. This also represents a further evidence for a chemoattractive function of secreted semaphorins.  (+info)

A novel 45 kDa secretory protein from rat olfactory epithelium: primary structure and localisation. (3/735)

cDNA clones encoding the 45 kDa protein were isolated from a rat olfactory epithelium cDNA library and their inserts were sequenced. The reconstructed protein sequence comprises 400 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46,026 Da. A homology was revealed between the amino acid sequence of the 45 kDa protein and the proteins involved in the transfer of hydrophobic ligands. Using in situ hybridisation, the 45 kDa protein mRNA expression was detected in the layer of supportive cells of olfactory epithelium, apical region of trachea, surface layer of the ciliated bronchial epithelium in lung and in skin epidermis.  (+info)

Localization and comparative toxicity of methylsulfonyl-2,5- and 2,6-dichlorobenzene in the olfactory mucosa of mice. (4/735)

Several methylsulfonyl (MeSO2) metabolites formed from chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have been identified in human milk, lung, and body fat, as well as in the tissues of Baltic grey seals and arctic polar bears. The tissue localization and nasal toxicity of two methylsulfonyl-substituted dichlorobenzenes (diCl-MeSO2-B), with the chlorine atoms in the 2,5-, and 2,6- positions, were investigated in female NMRI and C57B1 mice. Using tape-section autoradiography, animals dosed i.v. with 14C-labeled 2,5-, or 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) showed a preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa and the tracheobronchial epithelium. Histopathology showed that 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) is a potent toxicant that induces necrosis in the olfactory mucosa following a single dose as low as 4 mg/kg (i.p. injection), whereas 2,5-(diCl-MeSO2-B) induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa at doses as high as 130 mg/kg (i.p. injection). Necrosis of the Bowman's glands was the first sign of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B)-induced toxicity followed by degeneration of the neuroepithelium, which implies that the Bowman's gland may be the primary site of toxicity and degeneration of the neuroepithelium may be a secondary effect. Administration of the parent compounds, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, or the chlorinated analog 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (85, 85, and 105 mg/kg, respectively; i.p. injection), induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. These and previous results suggest that 2,6-positioned chlorine atoms and an electron withdrawing substituent in the primary position is an arrangement that predisposes for toxicity in the olfactory mucosa.  (+info)

Identification and localisation of glycoconjugates in the olfactory mucosa of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. (5/735)

Conventional histochemistry and the binding patterns of 22 biotinylated lectins were examined for characterisation of glycoconjugates in the components of the olfactory mucosa of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. The mucous lining the olfactory epithelium showed binding sites for DSL, WGA, STL, LEL, PHA-E and JAC. Only the basilar processes of the supporting cells stained for Con-A and S-Con A. The olfactory receptor neurons stained with LEL, LCA, Con A, S-Con A, JAC and PNA. The layer of basal cells did not react with any of the lectins studied. Bowman's glands in the lamina propria showed subpopulations of acinar cells reacting with SBA, S-WGA, WGA, STL, Con A, PSA, PNA, SJA, VVA, JAC and S-Con A, but in our optical studies with lectins we were unable to differentiate between mucous and serous cells in the way that is possible on electron microscopy. The ducts of Bowman's glands were labelled with S-WGA, STL, LEL, PHA-E, BSL-I and JAC. This histochemical study on the glycoconjugates of the olfactory mucosa in the order Xenarthra provides a basis for further experimental investigations.  (+info)

Evidence for site-specific bioactivation of alachlor in the olfactory mucosa of the Long-Evans rat. (6/735)

Alachlor (2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-[methoxymethyl]-acetanilide) is a restricted-use chloracetanilide herbicide which has been shown previously to produce a dose-dependent incidence of olfactory mucosal tumors in rats following chronic dietary exposure. However, the mechanism of alachlor carcinogenicity is poorly understood. Alachlor was administered i.p. to male Long-Evans rats for up to 28 days at doses that are carcinogenic in chronic studies in order to study olfactory lesion development and alterations in cell proliferation. Neither treatment-related olfactory mucosal lesions nor regenerative cell proliferation, as assessed with BrdU labeling, was detected. In vitro genotoxicity studies using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 showed that alachlor was non-mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation. When pre-incubated with an olfactory mucosal S9 activation system, alachlor induced a weak, dose-dependent mutagenic response at 500-1250 micrograms/plate, with toxicity at higher doses. In contrast, an S9 activation system derived from nasal respiratory mucosa, the tissue physically juxtaposed with the olfactory mucosa but reportedly not susceptible to alachlor-induced tumors, did not produce a mutagenic response for alachlor or the positive control. Thus, this result suggested site-specificity of alachlor activation consistent with the target site of carcinogenicity. The mutagenicity of alachlor to Salmonella, in the presence of an olfactory mucosal-activating system, was confirmed by a limited positive response in the mouse lymphoma assay. Here there were increases in small colony mutants (indicative of chromosomal effects) as well as large colony mutants (which reflect gene mutations). This study suggests that target tissue bioactivation of alachlor results in the formation of one or more mutagenic metabolite(s), which may be critical in alachlor-induced nasal tumorigenesis.  (+info)

An olfactory sensory neuron line, odora, properly targets olfactory proteins and responds to odorants. (7/735)

The site for interactions between the nervous system and much of the chemical world is in the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN). Odorant receptor proteins (ORPs) are postulated to mediate these interactions. However, the function of most ORPs has not been demonstrated in vivo or in vitro. For this and other reasons, we created a conditionally immortalized cell line derived from the OSN lineage, which we term odora. Odora cells, under control conditions, are phenotypically similar to the OSN progenitor, the globose basal cell. After differentiation, odora cells more closely resemble OSNs. Differentiated odora cells express neuronal and olfactory markers, including components of the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Unlike other cell lines, they also efficiently target exogenous ORPs to their surface. Strikingly, differentiated odora cells expressing ORPs respond to odorants, as measured by an influx of calcium. In particular, cells expressing one ORP demonstrate a specific response to only one type of tested odorant. Odora cells, therefore, are ideal models to examine the genesis and function of olfactory sensory neurons.  (+info)

Olfactory neurons expressing closely linked and homologous odorant receptor genes tend to project their axons to neighboring glomeruli on the olfactory bulb. (8/735)

We have characterized two separate odorant receptor (OR) gene clusters to examine how olfactory neurons expressing closely linked and homologous OR genes project their axons to the olfactory bulb. Murine OR genes, MOR28, MOR10, and MOR83, share 75-95% similarities in the amino acid sequences and are tightly linked on chromosome 14. In situ hybridization has demonstrated that the three genes are expressed in the same zone, at the most dorsolateral and ventromedial portions of the olfactory epithelium, and are rarely expressed simultaneously in individual neurons. Furthermore, we have found that olfactory neurons expressing MOR28, MOR10, or MOR83 project their axons to very close but distinct subsets of glomeruli on the medial and lateral sides of the olfactory bulb. Similar results have been obtained with another murine OR gene cluster for A16 and MOR18 on chromosome 2, sharing 91% similarity in the amino acid sequences. These results may indicate an intriguing possibility that olfactory neurons expressing homologous OR genes within a cluster tend to converge their axons to proximal but distinct subsets of glomeruli. These lines of study will shed light on the molecular basis of topographical projection of olfactory neurons to the olfactory bulb.  (+info)

  • Olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem/stromal cells have been regarded as a promising tool in regenerative therapies because of their several favorable properties such as multipotency, high proliferation rate, helpful location, and few associated ethical issues. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present work a validation of a protocol for isolation, culture, expansion, freezing, and thawing of olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem/stromal cells was performed, applied to the rat model, as well as a biological characterization of these cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Changes in smell acuity induced by radiation exposure of the olfactory mucosa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As OECs of the olfactory mucosa can be obtained by simple biopsy in all individuals without affecting their smell sensation, OECs considered as a promising candidate for autologous transplantation in the nervous system injury, especially for spinal cord repair. (ac.ir)
  • METHODS Olfaction was assessed by: (1) The University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT, which uses microencapsulated odours that are released when scratched with a pencil) in 72 patients with multiple sclerosis and 96 controls, (2) olfactory evoked potentials (OEP) to 20 ppm H 2 S by volume, and 50% CO 2 in air for 45 patients with multiple sclerosis and 47 controls. (bmj.com)
  • Thereby in the current study OECs were cultured from olfactory mucosa of 7 days old rats' pups and their purity was examined by flow-cytometry after simultaneous double staining for p75 and GFAP markers. (ac.ir)
  • Then the nasal cavity was opened sagittally and the olfactory mucosa was separated from posterior part of nasal septum and at last OECs were obtained from lamina properia of olfactory mucosa and were cultured. (ac.ir)
  • Purity of cultured OECs in our study is probably more than 87.9% by flow- owing to p75+/S100+ and GFAP+/S100+ olfactory ensheathing cells were not counted. (ac.ir)
  • Azizi M, Bakhtiari M, Farahmand Ghavi F, Zandi M, Imani M, Joghataei M T. Purity determining of cultured OECs from olfactory mucosa of rats' pups. (ac.ir)
  • Debate has been ongoing on the relative merits of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells as candidates for transplant-mediate repair of CNS lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ii) calponin immunoreactivity was not expressed by embryonic or neonatal OECs in vitro and in vivo although connective tissue from the olfactory mucosa was strongly positive in neonatal rats but not embryonic rats, iii) calponin expression in the olfactory mucosa was heterogeneous, defining subpopulations of connective tissue cells iv) using functional confrontation assays between OECs or Schwann cells with astrocytes, calponin was expressed heterogeneously by astrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the glial cells of the primary olfactory system [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a type of specialized glial cell currently considered as having a double function in the nervous system: one regenerative, and another immune. (nih.gov)
  • Confocal microscopy images showing expression of the phenotypic marker p75 NRT in olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) infected by Streptococcus pneumoniae . (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the olfactory sensory neuron lineage is regulated at several steps by negative signals acting through different Hes genes and targeting the expression of different proneural gene homologs. (biologists.org)
  • The mouse olfactory mucosa is a complex chemosensory tissue composed of multiple cell types, neuronal and non-neuronal. (fluidigm.com)
  • In microautoradiograms of solvent extracted sections of the skulls of mice given injections of [ 3 H]TCDD, no radioactivity was observed in the olfactory mucosa, suggesting that TCDD is not covalently bound in this tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By administration of β-naphthoflavone (5,6-benzoflavone) 16 h before killing, mRNA coding for cytochrome P-450 d but not for cytochrome P-450 c was induced to detectable levels in the mucosa of the ethmoturbinal tissue of the rat. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When an immunohistochemical study by means of NOS was carried out in relation to the two cases of the presence or absence of olfactory disturbance, the cilia, goblet cells and glandular tissue were positive when iNOS antibody was used, while perivascular positivity was observed when cNOS antibody was employed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Because of this direct and short connection from this peripheral tissue to the CNS, the olfactory system has attracted attention as a port-of-entry for environmental toxicants that may cause neurological dysfunction. (elsevier.com)
  • Do you spend lots of time and effort homogenizing olfactory mucosa tissue samples? (nextadvance.com)
  • No Cross Contamination No part of the Bullet Blender ® ever touches the olfactory mucosa tissue samples - the sample tubes are kept closed during homogenization. (nextadvance.com)
  • Easy and Convenient to Use Just place beads and buffer along with your olfactory mucosa tissue sample in standard tubes, load tubes directly in the Bullet Blender, select time and speed, and press start. (nextadvance.com)
  • The olfactory system is comprised of both PNS and CNS tissue and known for its ability to support neurogenesis throughout life [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results demonstrate that olfactory XME can be modulated by chemicals and that the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these enzymes are tissue-specific. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ), a nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) was recently described as a diffuse network of myeloid and lymphoid cells located in the olfactory organ of fish. (jimmunol.org)
  • For a number of species, including nonhuman primates, nasal tissue, especially olfactory mucosa, contains high concentrations of P450s. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Liadi M, Collins A, Li Y, Li D. The impact of tissue storage conditions on rat olfactory ensheathing cell yield and the future clinical implications. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Here, we investigate possible optimal olfactory coding strategies by maximizing mutual information between odor mixtures and ORNs' responses with respect to the bipartite odor-receptor interaction network (ORIN) characterized by sensitivities between all odorant-ORN pairs. (pnas.org)
  • Odorant receptor expressed sequence tags demonstrate olfactory expression of over 400 genes, extensive alternate splicing and unequal expression levels. (nih.gov)
  • Kurahashi T and Menini A (1997) Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell. (els.net)
  • Low to moderate concentrations of IBMP delivered in the vapor phase evoked monophasic negative slow voltage transients recorded from the surface of the olfactory mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • A focal area of proliferation of basal epithelial cells (arrow) is present in the olfactory mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • A localized aggregate of proliferative basal cells (arrows) is present in the olfactory mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory mucosa lines the roof of the nasal cavity and superior turbinates (= nasal conchae ) and is structurally modified to detect odor-producing chemicals (= odorants). (getbodysmart.com)
  • Olfactory detection thresholds for two odorants (amyl acetate and eugenol) were determined before the start of radiation therapy, within a week of termination of therapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Differential detection of conspecific-derived odorants by the two olfactory epithelia of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). (ualg.pt)
  • After using oral steroid, eosinophil infiltration and growth of Boman gland were suppressed and most cases with olfactory dysfunction were improved. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Olfactory dysfunction could result from infection of the olfactory system by SARS-CoV-2 or from inflammation induced by the virus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dr. Patel has published widely in topics such as avoiding complications in endoscopic sinus surgery, chronic rhinosinusitis in the immunosuppressed patient population, new devices and techniques for endoscopic skull base surgery, and olfactory dysfunction. (stanford.edu)
  • CONCLUSION These findings confirm the existence of olfactory dysfunction in multiple sclerosis and validate a new evoked potential technique. (bmj.com)
  • doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00167-9, PMID 11058764 Schwob, James E. (2002), "Neural Regeneration and the Peripheral Olfactory System", The Anatomical Record, 269 (1): 33-49, doi:10.1002/ar.10047, PMID 11891623 Baig AM. Designer's microglia with novel delivery system in neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason we have examined calponin expression in the peripheral olfactory system of embryonic and neonatal rats in vivo and from cells in vitro to assess if calponin is expressed in a developmental manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, tactile, thermal, and nociceptive sensory input from the oral mucosa contributes to food quality. (tmc.edu)
  • Taste buds are also found on the oral mucosa of the palate and epiglottis. (tmc.edu)
  • Whole-body autoradiography of mice and rats after i.v. administration of 2,3,7,8-[ 14 C]tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin ([ 14 C]TCDD) showed a selective localization of radioactivity in the liver and nasal olfactory mucosa. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The amount of specific [ 3 H]TCDD binding sites in cytosol from the ethmoturbinates of rats (33 fmol/mg cytosolic protein) was comparable to that of the liver cytosol as estimated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide concentration gradient gel, and therefore probably too low to explain the retention of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Iwamura H, Kondo K, Kikuta S, Nishijima H, Kagoya R, Suzukawa K, Ando M, Fujimoto C, Toma-Hirano M, Yamasoba T. Caloric restriction reduces basal cell proliferation and results in the deterioration of neuroepithelial regeneration following olfactotoxic mucosal damage in mouse olfactory mucosa. (harvard.edu)
  • This study concludes that 1) the incidence of acute nasal injury from systemic and inhaled NA correlates with the rates of regional microsomal NA metabolism and that 2) the nasal airflow pattern determines the pattern of olfactory mucosal injury from inhaled NA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Graziadei PPC, Monti Graziadei GA (1978) The olfactory system: A model for the study of neurogenesis and axon regeneration in mammals. (springer.com)
  • We have characterised the functions of the bHLH transcriptional repressors HES1 and HES5 in neurogenesis, using the development of the olfactory placodes in mouse embryos as a model. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in Hes1 and Hes5 also have distinct consequences on olfactory placode neurogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Together, our results suggest that Hes1 regulates Mash1 transcription in the olfactory placode in two different contexts, initially as a prepattern gene defining the placodal domain undergoing neurogenesis and, subsequently, as a neurogenic gene controlling the density of neural progenitors in this domain. (biologists.org)
  • She treats patients with a wide variety of rhinologic complaints, including chronic sinus infection or inflammation, sinus disease that has failed medical therapy, sinus disease that has failed prior surgical therapy, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, benign and and malignant sinus and skull base tumors, as well as olfactory disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • Moreover, FeLV has oncogenic potential and causes various tumors in cats, such as lymphoma, leukemia, osteochondroma and olfactory neuroblastoma ( HARTMANN, 2006 ). (scielo.br)
  • The bar at the top represents an alignment of all olfactory receptor proteins, with transmembrane (TM) regions shaded gray and intracellular (IC) and extracellular (EC) loops in white. (nih.gov)
  • The olfactory mucosa was observed in the roof, medial and lateral walls of both nasal cavities . (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the term olfactory discrimination also includes the discrimination of different intensities of the same odor, it most generally refers to qualitative discriminations among different odors. (springer.com)
  • Salehi-Ashtiani, K & Farbman, AI 1996, ' Expression of neu and Neu differentiation factor in the olfactory mucosa of rat ', International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience , vol. 14, no. 7-8, pp. 801-811. (elsevier.com)
  • 1996) Visualizing an olfactory sensory map. (els.net)
  • Buck LB (1996) Olfactory information coding. (els.net)
  • However, olfactory placodes that are double mutant for Hes1 and Hes5 upregulate Ngn1, a neural bHLH gene activated downstream of Mash1, and show a strong and rapid increase in neuronal density. (biologists.org)