That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.
An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.
Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
An unpaired thin ploughshare-shaped facial bone. It is situated in the median plane of the SKULL. The vomer forms the posterior and inferior border of the NASAL SEPTUM.
A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.

Functional identification and reconstitution of an odorant receptor in single olfactory neurons. (1/735)

The olfactory system is remarkable in its capacity to discriminate a wide range of odorants through a series of transduction events initiated in olfactory receptor neurons. Each olfactory neuron is expected to express only a single odorant receptor gene that belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family. The ligand-receptor interaction, however, has not been clearly characterized. This study demonstrates the functional identification of olfactory receptor(s) for specific odorant(s) from single olfactory neurons by a combination of Ca2+-imaging and reverse transcription-coupled PCR analysis. First, a candidate odorant receptor was cloned from a single tissue-printed olfactory neuron that displayed odorant-induced Ca2+ increase. Next, recombinant adenovirus-mediated expression of the isolated receptor gene was established in the olfactory epithelium by using green fluorescent protein as a marker. The infected neurons elicited external Ca2+ entry when exposed to the odorant that originally was used to identify the receptor gene. Experiments performed to determine ligand specificity revealed that the odorant receptor recognized specific structural motifs within odorant molecules. The odorant receptor-mediated signal transduction appears to be reconstituted by this two-step approach: the receptor screening for given odorant(s) from single neurons and the functional expression of the receptor via recombinant adenovirus. The present approach should enable us to examine not only ligand specificity of an odorant receptor but also receptor specificity and diversity for a particular odorant of interest.  (+info)

Chemoattraction and chemorepulsion of olfactory bulb axons by different secreted semaphorins. (2/735)

During development, growth cones can be guided at a distance by diffusible factors, which are attractants and/or repellents. The semaphorins are the largest family of repulsive axon guidance molecules. Secreted semaphorins bind neuropilin receptors and repel sensory, sympathetic, motor, and forebrain axons. We found that in rat embryos, the olfactory epithelium releases a diffusible factor that repels olfactory bulb axons. In addition, Sema A and Sema IV, but not Sema III, Sema E, or Sema H, are able to orient in vitro the growth of olfactory bulb axons; Sema IV has a strong repulsive action, whereas Sema A appears to attract those axons. The expression patterns of sema A and sema IV in the developing olfactory system confirm that they may play a cooperative role in the formation of the lateral olfactory tract. This also represents a further evidence for a chemoattractive function of secreted semaphorins.  (+info)

A novel 45 kDa secretory protein from rat olfactory epithelium: primary structure and localisation. (3/735)

cDNA clones encoding the 45 kDa protein were isolated from a rat olfactory epithelium cDNA library and their inserts were sequenced. The reconstructed protein sequence comprises 400 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46,026 Da. A homology was revealed between the amino acid sequence of the 45 kDa protein and the proteins involved in the transfer of hydrophobic ligands. Using in situ hybridisation, the 45 kDa protein mRNA expression was detected in the layer of supportive cells of olfactory epithelium, apical region of trachea, surface layer of the ciliated bronchial epithelium in lung and in skin epidermis.  (+info)

Localization and comparative toxicity of methylsulfonyl-2,5- and 2,6-dichlorobenzene in the olfactory mucosa of mice. (4/735)

Several methylsulfonyl (MeSO2) metabolites formed from chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have been identified in human milk, lung, and body fat, as well as in the tissues of Baltic grey seals and arctic polar bears. The tissue localization and nasal toxicity of two methylsulfonyl-substituted dichlorobenzenes (diCl-MeSO2-B), with the chlorine atoms in the 2,5-, and 2,6- positions, were investigated in female NMRI and C57B1 mice. Using tape-section autoradiography, animals dosed i.v. with 14C-labeled 2,5-, or 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) showed a preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa and the tracheobronchial epithelium. Histopathology showed that 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) is a potent toxicant that induces necrosis in the olfactory mucosa following a single dose as low as 4 mg/kg (i.p. injection), whereas 2,5-(diCl-MeSO2-B) induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa at doses as high as 130 mg/kg (i.p. injection). Necrosis of the Bowman's glands was the first sign of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B)-induced toxicity followed by degeneration of the neuroepithelium, which implies that the Bowman's gland may be the primary site of toxicity and degeneration of the neuroepithelium may be a secondary effect. Administration of the parent compounds, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, or the chlorinated analog 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (85, 85, and 105 mg/kg, respectively; i.p. injection), induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. These and previous results suggest that 2,6-positioned chlorine atoms and an electron withdrawing substituent in the primary position is an arrangement that predisposes for toxicity in the olfactory mucosa.  (+info)

Identification and localisation of glycoconjugates in the olfactory mucosa of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. (5/735)

Conventional histochemistry and the binding patterns of 22 biotinylated lectins were examined for characterisation of glycoconjugates in the components of the olfactory mucosa of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. The mucous lining the olfactory epithelium showed binding sites for DSL, WGA, STL, LEL, PHA-E and JAC. Only the basilar processes of the supporting cells stained for Con-A and S-Con A. The olfactory receptor neurons stained with LEL, LCA, Con A, S-Con A, JAC and PNA. The layer of basal cells did not react with any of the lectins studied. Bowman's glands in the lamina propria showed subpopulations of acinar cells reacting with SBA, S-WGA, WGA, STL, Con A, PSA, PNA, SJA, VVA, JAC and S-Con A, but in our optical studies with lectins we were unable to differentiate between mucous and serous cells in the way that is possible on electron microscopy. The ducts of Bowman's glands were labelled with S-WGA, STL, LEL, PHA-E, BSL-I and JAC. This histochemical study on the glycoconjugates of the olfactory mucosa in the order Xenarthra provides a basis for further experimental investigations.  (+info)

Evidence for site-specific bioactivation of alachlor in the olfactory mucosa of the Long-Evans rat. (6/735)

Alachlor (2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-[methoxymethyl]-acetanilide) is a restricted-use chloracetanilide herbicide which has been shown previously to produce a dose-dependent incidence of olfactory mucosal tumors in rats following chronic dietary exposure. However, the mechanism of alachlor carcinogenicity is poorly understood. Alachlor was administered i.p. to male Long-Evans rats for up to 28 days at doses that are carcinogenic in chronic studies in order to study olfactory lesion development and alterations in cell proliferation. Neither treatment-related olfactory mucosal lesions nor regenerative cell proliferation, as assessed with BrdU labeling, was detected. In vitro genotoxicity studies using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 showed that alachlor was non-mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation. When pre-incubated with an olfactory mucosal S9 activation system, alachlor induced a weak, dose-dependent mutagenic response at 500-1250 micrograms/plate, with toxicity at higher doses. In contrast, an S9 activation system derived from nasal respiratory mucosa, the tissue physically juxtaposed with the olfactory mucosa but reportedly not susceptible to alachlor-induced tumors, did not produce a mutagenic response for alachlor or the positive control. Thus, this result suggested site-specificity of alachlor activation consistent with the target site of carcinogenicity. The mutagenicity of alachlor to Salmonella, in the presence of an olfactory mucosal-activating system, was confirmed by a limited positive response in the mouse lymphoma assay. Here there were increases in small colony mutants (indicative of chromosomal effects) as well as large colony mutants (which reflect gene mutations). This study suggests that target tissue bioactivation of alachlor results in the formation of one or more mutagenic metabolite(s), which may be critical in alachlor-induced nasal tumorigenesis.  (+info)

An olfactory sensory neuron line, odora, properly targets olfactory proteins and responds to odorants. (7/735)

The site for interactions between the nervous system and much of the chemical world is in the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN). Odorant receptor proteins (ORPs) are postulated to mediate these interactions. However, the function of most ORPs has not been demonstrated in vivo or in vitro. For this and other reasons, we created a conditionally immortalized cell line derived from the OSN lineage, which we term odora. Odora cells, under control conditions, are phenotypically similar to the OSN progenitor, the globose basal cell. After differentiation, odora cells more closely resemble OSNs. Differentiated odora cells express neuronal and olfactory markers, including components of the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Unlike other cell lines, they also efficiently target exogenous ORPs to their surface. Strikingly, differentiated odora cells expressing ORPs respond to odorants, as measured by an influx of calcium. In particular, cells expressing one ORP demonstrate a specific response to only one type of tested odorant. Odora cells, therefore, are ideal models to examine the genesis and function of olfactory sensory neurons.  (+info)

Olfactory neurons expressing closely linked and homologous odorant receptor genes tend to project their axons to neighboring glomeruli on the olfactory bulb. (8/735)

We have characterized two separate odorant receptor (OR) gene clusters to examine how olfactory neurons expressing closely linked and homologous OR genes project their axons to the olfactory bulb. Murine OR genes, MOR28, MOR10, and MOR83, share 75-95% similarities in the amino acid sequences and are tightly linked on chromosome 14. In situ hybridization has demonstrated that the three genes are expressed in the same zone, at the most dorsolateral and ventromedial portions of the olfactory epithelium, and are rarely expressed simultaneously in individual neurons. Furthermore, we have found that olfactory neurons expressing MOR28, MOR10, or MOR83 project their axons to very close but distinct subsets of glomeruli on the medial and lateral sides of the olfactory bulb. Similar results have been obtained with another murine OR gene cluster for A16 and MOR18 on chromosome 2, sharing 91% similarity in the amino acid sequences. These results may indicate an intriguing possibility that olfactory neurons expressing homologous OR genes within a cluster tend to converge their axons to proximal but distinct subsets of glomeruli. These lines of study will shed light on the molecular basis of topographical projection of olfactory neurons to the olfactory bulb.  (+info)

Stem cell-based therapies critically rely on selective cell migration toward pathological or injured areas. We previously demonstrated that human olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs), derived from an adult olfactory lamina propria, migrate specifically toward an injured mouse hippocampus after transplantation in the cerebrospinal fluid and promote functional recoveries. However, the mechanisms controlling their recruitment and homing remain elusive. Using an in vitro model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and secretome analysis, we observed that OE-MSCs produce numerous proteins allowing them to cross the endothelial wall. Then, pan-genomic DNA microarrays identified signaling molecules that lesioned mouse hippocampus overexpressed. Among the most upregulated cytokines, both recombinant SPP1/ osteopontin and CCL2/MCP-1 stimulate OE-MSC migration whereas only CCL2 exerts a chemotactic effect. Additionally, OE-MSCs express SPP1 receptors but not the CCL2 cognate receptor, suggesting a ...
Se describe aquí un método para la biopsia de mucosa olfatoria de ratas y humanos cavidades nasales. Estas biopsias se pueden utilizar...
The objective of this study was to determine whether mechanical force generated by airflow can stimulate the MOE using EOG recordings and to directly assess the role of cAMP signaling using AC3−/− mice. Since the CNG responds to both cAMP and cGMP, the fact that CNG−/− mice lack fluid-generated airflow responses cannot be taken as direct evidence for a role of cAMP signaling. The drug MDL 12330A cannot be used to implicate adenylyl cyclase activity in the airflow response because it is not specific to adenylyl cyclases (Rampe et al., 1987; Gadea et al., 1999) and it did not inhibit EOG responses caused by airflow or odorants in our study.. We discovered that airflow stimulates the MOE with progressively higher EOG responses as airflow increased. This sensitivity to airflow was desensitized by prior increases in cAMP caused by odorants or by a combination of forskolin and IBMX suggesting that odorant and airflow sensitivity may both depend on cAMP signaling. Indeed, the MOE from ...
We have identified a replication-independent histone variant, Hist2h2be (referred to herein as H2be), which is expressed exclusively by olfactory chemosensory neurons. Levels of H2BE are heterogeneous among olfactory neurons, but stereotyped according to the identity of the co-expressed olfactory receptor (OR). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that changes in H2be expression affect olfactory function and OR representation in the adult olfactory epithelium. We show that H2BE expression is reduced by sensory activity and that it promotes neuronal cell death, such that inactive olfactory neurons display higher levels of the variant and shorter life spans. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of H2BE differ from those of the canonical H2B, consistent with a role for H2BE in altering transcription. We propose a physiological function for H2be in modulating olfactory neuron population dynamics to adapt the OR repertoire to the environment. The objective of generating this dataset was to
Synonyms for olfactory cell in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for olfactory cell. 24 synonyms for cell: room, chamber, lock-up, compartment, cavity, cubicle, dungeon, stall, unit, group, section, core, nucleus, caucus, coterie, electric cell. What are synonyms for olfactory cell?
The developmental expression of immunocytochemical reactivity to 3 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs Neu 4, Neu 5, and Neu 9) that were generated against adult rat olfactory epithelium was examined in olfactory tissues of embryonic rats. Tissues examined included the nasal olfactory epithelium, nerve, and olfactory bulb, as well as vomeronasal epithelium and nerve. Reactivity patterns of these Mabs in adult rats have been described previously (Hempstead and Morgan, 1985a). All 3 Mabs show reactivity on the cell surfaces of neurons, axons, and dendrites of the olfactory epithelium proper. Neu 5 alone shows reactivity on the dendritic knobs, site of transduction of the olfactory stimuli. These reactivities appear early, suggesting developmentally significant roles for the antigens to these Mabs. For Neu 5 and Neu 9 initial reactivity occurs on outgrowing olfactory axons at E13. Dendritic and perikaryal reactivities begin appearing at E14. For Neu 4 initial reactivity occurs simultaneously on olfactory ...
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Summary: Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are mediated by programs of adult stem cell renewal and differentiation. However, the mechanisms that regulate stem cell fates under such widely varying conditions are not fully understood. Using single-cell techniques, we assessed the transcriptional changes associated with stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and followed
Single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-Seq), which combines high-throughput single-cell extraction and sequencing capabilities, enables the transcriptomes of large numbers of individual cells to be assayed efficiently.
Whole-body autoradiography of 3H-labeled aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in adult C57BL mice pretreated with the glutathione (GSH)-depleting agent phorone showed accumulation of tissue-bound radioactivity in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa, the mucosa of the nasopharyngeal duct, and the tracheal and esophageal mucosa, which was not seen in unpretreated adult mice. The altered distribution pictures induced by the phorone are probably related to decreased tissue levels of GSH. The AFB1 is likely to be bioactivated locally in the extrahepatic tissues; in nonpretreated mice the reactive AFB1 metabolite formed is probably scavenged by GSH via the action of glutathione-S-transferase, whereas in the mice with depleted GSH levels a binding to tissue macromolecules will instead take place. The mechanism indicated above is supported by results of in vitro experiments in which the nasal olfactory mucosa and the esophageal mucosa were shown to have a capacity to form tissue-bound 3H-AFB1 metabolites. This ...
Stem cell-based therapy has been proposed as a potential means of treatment for a variety of brain disorders. Because ethical and technical issues have so far limited the clinical translation of research using embryonic/fetal cells and neural tissue, respectively, the search for alternative sources of therapeutic stem cells remains ongoing. Here, we report that upon transplantation into mice with chemically induced hippocampal lesions, human olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) - adult stem cells from human nasal olfactory lamina propria - migrated toward the sites of neural damage, where they differentiated into neurons. Additionally, transplanted OE-MSCs stimulated endogenous neurogenesis, restored synaptic transmission, and enhanced long-term potentiation. Mice that received transplanted OE-MSCs exhibited restoration of learning and memory on behavioral tests compared with lesioned, nontransplanted control mice. Similar results were obtained when OE-MSCs were injected into the ...
S-phase appears constant across the OE (Fig. 2E,F), suggesting longer cell cycles in ventral and lateral OE precursors reflect longer G1-S transitions. Therefore, we asked whether lateral OE cells are more likely to retain BrdU for long periods, a signal that is characteristic of slowly dividing, multipotent neural stem cells (Morshead et al., 1994). Following chronic BrdU exposure (E9-E11.5) and additional 5-day survival (E16.5), a significant proportion of Meis1-labeled (Fig. 2G,I-K) as well as Sox2-labeled (Fig. 2H,L-N) basal cells in the lateral OE are also heavily labeled with BrdU (29% Meis1 cells/87 total cells counted; 22% Sox2 cells/18 total cells counted; n=4 animals). We found no medial Sox2 or Ascl1 cells heavily BrdU-labeled (Fig. 2O,P); however, a small number were faintly labeled (Fig. 2O, inset; 4% Sox2 cells/104 total cells counted; 2% of Ascl1 cells/83 total cells counted; n=4 animals). By contrast, a significant proportion of OMP-labeled ORNs in the medial OE are heavily BrdU ...
s olfactory tissue through unique procedures that maximize the harvesting of that tissue and minimize the collection of closely associated nasal respiratory tissue. Although Lima s experience indicates that small amounts of contaminating respiratory tissue are innocuous, it nevertheless lacks olfactory tissue s regenerative components. Because olfactory tissue can diminish over time, patient age is important. In contrast to other researchers who have started to implant isolated OECs into patients with SCI, Lima uses whole olfactory tissue for transplantation without attempting to separate cellular components. He believes that more than one cell type is needed to maximize regeneration in the injured cord, including, in addition to OECs, neurons in different developmental stages, and precursor stem cells. Because the graft is taken from the patient, immunosuppressive drugs are not needed to avert tissue rejection. In addition, patients regain smelling ability within several weeks.. The ...
The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two
Olfactory Stem Cells and Neural Regeneration. In the vertebrate olfactory system, primary sensory neurons are continuously regenerated throughout adult life via the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells. This feature makes the olfactory system particularly amenable for studies on adult neurogenesis and the properties of neuronal stem cells. Olfactory sensory neurons normally turn over every 30-60 days and are replaced through the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells. Following injury that results in the destruction of mature cells in the olfactory epithelium, these adult tissue stem cells proliferate and differentiate to reconstitute all cellular constituents of this sensory epithelium. The regenerative capacity of the olfactory epithelium represents a powerful and experimentally accessible paradigm for understanding the regulation of neural stem cell function under normal conditions and during injury-induced regeneration. While ...
Our present data show, for the first time, that V-ATPase is expressed in the mouse OE. V-ATPase was detected in olfactory cells, nerve fiber cells, Bowmans glands, and the vomeronasal organ. The V-ATPase B1 subunit isoform, a marker of specialized proton-secreting cells (3, 28, 32, 36), was found to localize to the microvilli of the apical plasma membrane of sustentacular cells and to the lateral membrane in a subpopulation of olfactory sensory cells. On the other hand, V-ATPase holoenzymes containing the B2 subunit isoform were found to generally assume a more subapical localization in olfactory sustentacular cells. This is reminiscent of other proton-secreting epithelia, such as renal collecting duct A-type intercalated cells (ICs), in which the B1 isoform localizes to the apical membrane and subapical domain, whereas the B2 isoform localization is less polarized, covering the region between the apical membrane and the nucleus and, more generally, the cytosolic domain (32, 34). This is ...
Experimental design. We performed the ibotenate lesion on experimental day 1 followed by a control of the lesion efficiency, using MRI, at day 2. A functional control, using behavioral tests, was performed at week 3. Human OE-MSCs were transplanted at week 4, and animals were retested at week 8 before being sacrificed for either electrophysiological or immunohistological analyses. Anesthesia and surgical procedures were performed according to the French law on Animal Care Guidelines, and the Animal Care Committee of Aix-Marseille University approved our protocols. Human biopsies were obtained under a protocol that was approved by the local ethical committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes) of Marseille. Informed consent was given by each individual participating in the study, in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki convention and French law relating to biomedical research.. Animals. Adult male Balb/c mice (n = 77) and C57BL/6 (n = 40) (IFFA CREDO), 10 weeks old at the beginning of the ...
Researchers have studied the mechanisms by which the novel coronavirus can reach the brains of patients with COVID-19. The results show that SARS-CoV-2 enters the brain via nerve cells in the olfactory mucosa.. Using post-mortem tissue samples, a team of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have studied the mechanisms by which the novel coronavirus can reach the brains of patients with COVID-19, and how the immune system responds to the virus once it does. The results, which show that SARS-CoV-2 enters the brain via nerve cells in the olfactory mucosa, have been published in Nature Neuroscience*. For the first time, researchers have been able to produce electron microscope images of intact coronavirus particles inside the olfactory mucosa.. It is now recognized that COVID-19 is not a purely respiratory disease. In addition to affecting the lungs, SARS-CoV-2 can impact the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. More than one in three ...
Professor Alan Mackay-Sim is a leader in research in this field but he does not use embryonic stem cells, he uses adult nasal, or olfactory, stem cells, Mr Mitchell said. Olfactory cells are versatile with capabilities to make nerve, liver, heart and muscle cells. A major potential advantage of olfactory stem cells is they could be taken from the same person into whom they are later transplanted for therapy. ...
The sense of smell allows chemicals to be perceived as diverse scents. We used single neuron RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to explore developmental mechanisms that shape this ability as nasal olfactory neurons mature in mice. Most mature neurons expressed only one of the roughly 1000 odorant receptor genes (Olfrs) available, and that at high levels. However, many immature neurons expressed low levels of multiple Olfrs. Coexpressed Olfrs localized to overlapping zones of the nasal epithelium, suggesting regional biases, but not to single genomic loci. A single immature neuron could express Olfrs from up to seven different chromosomes. The mature state in which expression of Olfr genes is restricted to one per neuron emerges over a developmental progression that appears independent of neuronal activity requiring sensory transduction molecules.. ...
New research, published in the journal Development, by Dr. Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, professor of Pharmacology & Physiology and director of the newly formed GW Institute for Neuroscience, and his colleagues have identified the stem cells that generate three critical classes of nerve cells olfactory receptors (ORNs), vomeronasal (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that are responsible for enabling animals and humans, to eat, interact socially and reproduce.. This research is the first evidence identfying these stem cells. By studying mice at the earliest stages of embryonic development, LaMantia and his colleagues were able to identify the location of these cells, confirm that they divide slowly and symmetricallythus making more stem cells, have a distinct molecular identity, and give rise to all cell types in the tissueincluding ORNs, VRNs and GnRH neurons. These embryonic olfactory stem cells also are ultimately responsible for generating stem cells that remain in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning of a novel Olf-1/EBF-like gene, O/E-4, by Degenerate Oligo-based Direct Selection. AU - Wang, Song S.. AU - Betz, Alexander G.. AU - Reed, Randall R. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The Olf-1/EBF (O/E) family of transcription factors plays important roles in neural development and B-cell maturation. We have utilized a variation of the direct selection scheme (Degenerate Oligo-based Direct Selection, or DODS) to identify a fourth member of the O/E family (O/E-4). We demonstrated that, similar to previously identified mouse O/E proteins, O/E-4 is expressed in the neuronal and basal cell layers of mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike other O/E members, O/E-4 expression is absent in the vomeronasal organ. O/E-4 can partner with the other O/Es to form heterodimers that are capable of binding an Olf-1 consensus site in vitro. In contrast to other O/E family members, the O/E-4 protein only weakly activates transcription in a reporter assay. In summary, we have identified O/E-4 ...
Dr. Carlos Lima published his paper in the Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine last month on the treatment of patients with their own stem cells, derived from olfactory stem cells found in the nasal mucosa. These stem cells are easily obtained with minimal risk and reproduce readily, both in the body and in culture. In…
Two unique forms of cytochrome P-450 (P-450), designated NMa and NMb, were recently isolated in this laboratory from nasal microsomes of rabbits. In the present study, polyclonal antibodies to the purified nasal cytochromes were prepared. Immunochemical analysis with specific rabbit anti-NMa and sheep anti-NMb antibodies indicated that P-450 isozymes identical to or having a high structural homology with NMa are present in both olfactory and respiratory mucosa, as well as in liver, but NMb was detected only in the olfactory mucosa. Neither form was detected in other tissues examined, including brain, esophageal mucosa, heart, intestinal mucosa, kidney, and lung. The specific occurrence of NMb in the olfactory mucosa was further substantiated by the detection and specific inhibition by anti-NMb of the formation of unique NMb-dependent metabolites of testosterone in olfactory microsomes but not in microsomes from liver or respiratory mucosa. Similar experiments with antibodies to previously ...
Here, we present a protocol to stage and dissect developing olfactory tissue from Drosophila species. The dissected tissue can ...
The olfactory membrane is a thick yellow-brown structure, about one inch square, located in the upper part of each nasal cavity. It consists of about one hundred million smell receptor cells, which are surrounded by supporting cells. The smell receptor cells have an olfactory vesicle bearing cilia, which project into the mucus that covers the smell membrane. Chemicals in the air react with the cilia and stimulate the receptor cells. The smell information is passed by the receptor cell axons, which leave the membrane as the first cranial nerve, and which relay with mitral cell axons to the olfactory cortex. The supporting sustentacular cells contain a pigment that colors the membrane yellow. The membrane also contains Bowmans glands, which secrete mucus. Their function is to keep the membrane moist so that chemicals can dissolve and stimulate the cilia ...
The olfactory epithelium is an area inside the nose that intercepts odors and passes them on to the brain. Though its not totally...
(provided by candidate): The goal of this application is to provide a supervised training program that will promote the candidates development into an independ...
In order to clarify whether or not the electronegative olfactory mucosal potentials (EOG) are generator potentials, the effects of changed ionic enviroment were studied. The EOG decreased in amplitude and in some cases nearly or completely disappeared, when Na+ in the bathing Ringer solution was replaced by sucrose, Li+, choline+, tetraethylammonium+ (TEA), or hydrazine. In the K+-free Ringer solution, the negative EOGs initially increased and then decreased in amplitude. In Ringers solution with increased K+, the negative EOGs increased in amplitude. When K+ was increased in exchange for Na+ in Ringers solution, the negative EOGs decreased, disappeared, and then reversed their polarity (Fig. 6). Next, when the K+ was replaced by equimolar sucrose, Li+, choline+, TEA+, hydrazine, or Na+, the reversed potentials recovered completely only in Na+-Ringers solution, but never in the other solutions. Thus, the essential role of Na+ and K+ in the negative EOGs was demonstrated. Ba++ was found to ...
Olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) display significant clonogenic activity and may be easily propagated for Parkinsons disease therapies. group compared with the NI and HIR groups, as shown by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Furthermore, the level of dopamine was significantly increased in the HI group. A slow outward potassium current was recorded in differentiated cells after 21 d of induction using whole-cell voltage-clamp tests. A hypoxic environment thus promotes OM-MSCs to differentiate into DAergic neurons by increasing the expression of HIF-1 and by activating downstream target gene TH. This study indicated that OCM under hypoxic conditions could significantly upregulate key transcriptional factors involved in the development of DAergic neurons from OM-MSCs, mediated by HIF-1. Hypoxia promotes DAergic neuronal differentiation of OM-MSCs, and HIF-1 may play an important role in hypoxia-inducible pathways during DAergic lineage specification and differentiation in ...
J:171417 Henion TR, Faden AA, Knott TK, Schwarting GA, {beta}3GnT2 Maintains Adenylyl Cyclase-3 Signaling and Axon Guidance Molecule Expression in the Olfactory Epithelium. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 27;31(17):6576-86 ...
Morin, P. A., Foote, A. D., C. Baker, S., Hancock-Hanser, B. L., Kaschner, K., Mate, B., et al.. (2018). Demography or selection on linked cultural traits or genes? Investigating the driver of low mtDNA diversity in the sperm whale using complementary mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses. Molecular Ecology, 27(suppl. 1), 2604-2619. doi:10.1111/mec. ...
Transplantation of exogenous stem cells has been proposed as a treatment to prevent or reverse sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigate the effects of transplantation of adult human olfactory mucosa-derived stem cells on auditory function in A/J mice, a strain exhibiting early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Recent evidence indicates that these stem cells exhibit multipotency in transplantation settings and may represent a subtype of mesenchymal stem cell. Olfactory stem cells were injected into the cochleae of A/J mice via a lateral wall cochleostomy during the time period in which hearing loss first becomes apparent. Changes in auditory function were assessed 1 month after transplantation and compared against animals that received sham injections. Hearing threshold levels in stem cell-transplanted mice were found to be significantly lower than those of sham-injected mice (p | .05) for both click and pure tone stimuli. Transplanted cells survived within the perilymphatic
Transplants of cells obtained from the olfactory system are a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and a number of clinical trials are in progress. However, the extent to which transplants improve recovery of function remains unclear and there are contradictory reports on the extent to which they support axonal regeneration. Here, we have used anatomical and electrophysiological techniques to investigate the repair promoted by olfactory cell transplants after a dorsal column lesion. Since the use of olfactory cells of varying type and origin may contribute to the differing outcomes of previous studies, regeneration of dorsal column axons was compared following transplants of pure olfactory ensheathing cells from neonatal animals and mixed olfactory cells from both neonatal and adult rats. Two to three months after lesioning, numerous regenerating fibres could be seen in each type of transplant. However, tracing of ascending dorsal column fibres showed that few regenerated beyond the ...
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) accompany the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, which regenerate throughout life, from the olfactory mucosa into the olfactory bulb. OECs have shown widely varying efficacy in repairing the injured nervous system. Analysis of the transcriptome of OECs will help in understanding their biology and will provide tools for investigating the mechanisms of their efficacy and interactions with host tissues in lesion models. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profile of cultured OECs with that of Schwann cells (SCs) and astrocytes (ACs), two glial cell types to which OECs have similarities. Two biological replicates of RNA from cultured OECs, SCs, and ACs were hybridized to long oligo rat 5K arrays against a common reference pool of RNA (50% cultured fibroblast RNA and 50% neonatal rat brain RNA). Transcriptional profiles were analyzed by hierarchical clustering, Principal Components Analysis, and the Venn diagram. The three glial cell types had similarly
Naphthalene produces species and cell selective injury to respiratory tract epithelial cells of rodents. In these studies we determined the apparent K{sub m}, V{sub max}, and catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) for naphthalene metabolism in microsomal preparations from subcompartments of the respiratory tract of rodents and non-human primates. In tissues with high substrate turnover, major metabolites were derived directly from naphthalene oxide with smaller amounts from conjugates of diol epoxide, diepoxide, and 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones. In some tissues, different enzymes with dissimilar K{sub m} and V{sub max} appeared to metabolize naphthalene. The rank order of V{sub max} (rat olfactory epithelium , mouse olfactory epithelium , murine airways ≫ rat airways) correlated well with tissue susceptibility to naphthalene. The V{sub max} in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. The ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1jod: Crystal Structure of Murine Olfactory Marker Protein in Spacegroup P43212
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We have cloned and characterized a new member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. The cDNA clone, isolated from a rat olfactory cDNA library, has considerable homology to the family of receptors that includes the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, the c-kit proto-oncogene, and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors. Analysis of DNA sequence homology, ligand-binding, and ligand-stimulated phosphorylation data suggests that this clone encodes the rat PDGF-A/B or alpha-receptor. Comparison of its sequence to those of other receptors allows us to postulate a mechanism for receptor dimerization and activation. The expression of the rat alpha-PDGF receptor in nonneuronal cells of the olfactory epithelium and in the olfactory bulb is consistent with a role for PDGF in glial cell generation. ...
Olfactory receptor (OR) genes were discovered more than a decade ago, when Buck and Axel observed that, in rats, certain G-protein coupled receptors are expressed exclusively in the olfactory epithelium. Subsequently, protein sequence similarity was used to identify entire OR gene repertoires of a number of mammalian species, but only in mouse were these predictions followed up by expression studies in olfactory epithelium. To rectify this, we have developed a DNA microarray that contains probes for most predicted human OR loci and used that array to examine OR gene expression profiles in olfactory epithelium tissues from three individuals. We detected expression of 437 (76%) human OR genes in these olfactory epithelia. Interestingly, we detected widespread expression of OR pseudogenes, an observation that may shed light on the mechanism of OR gene choice in the olfactory sensory neurons. To address the hypothesis that OR genes may carry out additional functions, we also characterized the expression of
View more ,Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) proliferation and growth on Biosilicate and collagen bioscaffolds, and to determine whether the application of laser phototherapy would result in increased OEC proliferation on the scaffolds. The use of bioscaffolds is considered a promising strategy in a number of clinical applications where tissue healing is suboptimal. As in vitro OEC growth is a slow process, laser phototherapy could be useful to stimulate proliferation on bioscaffolds. Methods OEC cells were seeded on the Biosilicate and collagen scaffolds. Seeded scaffolds were irradiated with a single exposure of 830-nm laser. Nonirradiated seeded scaffolds acted as negative controls. Cell proliferation was assessed 7 days after irradiation. Results OECs were successfully grown on discs composed of a glass-ceramic and collagen composite. Laser irradiation produced a 32.7% decrease and a 13.2% increase in OEC proliferation on ...
Recombinant Human Olfactory Marker Protein/OMP is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 1 to 163 aa range, | 95% purity and validated in SDS-PAGE, MS.
Both the olfactory and vomeronasal pathways are neuronal systems in which the sensory neurons are thought to be capable of continuous replenishment and re-innervation of their central targets...
New research from the Max Planck Institute shows that mice can sense oxygen levels in the environment using specialized neurons in their noses that are present in the olfactory mucosa.. The genome of mice harbors more than 1000 odorant receptor genes, which enable them to smell myriad odors in their surroundings. Researchers at the Max Planck Research Unit for Neurogenetics in Frankfurt, the University of Saarland in Homburg, the University of Cambridge and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm have discovered that mice can also sense the oxygen level of the inhaled air using neurons in their nose. For this newly discovered sensory property, mice rely on two genes termed Gucy1b2 and Trpc2, but apparently not on odorant receptor genes.. The research team discovered that a specific type of chemosensory neuron in the mouse olfactory mucosa responds to oxygen decreases in the environment. Chemosensory cells typically detect an increase in the concentration of a substance. In mammals, a lack of ...
The first physiological measurements of the response of the olfactory epithelium to odorants were published in 1956 by Ottoson, who introduced the electro-olfactogram EOG, a negative-voltage transient that can be recorded from the epithelium after odor application. The EOG is believed to result from the summated activity of individual olfactory neurons. Prolonged application of odorant results in the appearance of a transient response, followed by a steady- state potential, the tonic response. Initial characterization of the EOG showed that it could be obtained only from olfactory and not from respiratory epithelium, that the amplitudes of both the phasic and the tonic responses were dependent on the concentration of odorant, and that the EOG was abolished after zinc sulfate lesions of the olfactory epithelium or removal of olfactory cilia by treatment with Triton X-100. Further studies on the EOG indicated that sodium and potassium are the main ions carrying the currents and that calcium is essential
The development of the respiratory and olfactory mucosae from the old world monkey, Macaca nemestrina, from fetal (F) 121 days to postnatal (P) 9.5 years, has been examined by light and electron microscopy. By F121 days, respiratory and olfactory mucosae appeared to be morphologically capable to carry out their required functions. Olfactory receptor cells were well developed with the presence of a ciliated olfactory knob and abundant dendritic microtubules. At the light and electron microscopic levels, prenatal receptor cells were differentiated into pale, intermediate and dark cells. The lightly stained receptor cells appeared to be young. They were sparsely ciliated and had dendritic centrioles and mitochondria. The receptor cells with intermediate staining appeared to be mature. The olfactory knobs contained mitochondria and basal bodies associated with the cilia. The nuclei of the darkly stained electron dense receptor cells were located distally in the olfactory epithelium. Although these receptor
Facial shape is the basis for facial recognition and categorization. Facial features reflect the underlying geometry of the skeletal structures. Here we reveal that cartilaginous nasal capsule (corresponding to upper jaw and face) is shaped by signals generated by neural structures: brain and olfactory epithelium. Brain-derived Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) enables the induction of nasal septum and posterior nasal capsule, whereas the formation of a capsule roof is controlled by signals from the olfactory epithelium. Unexpectedly, the cartilage of the nasal capsule turned out to be important for shaping membranous facial bones during development. This suggests that conserved neurosensory structures could benefit from protection and have evolved signals inducing cranial cartilages encasing them. Experiments with mutant mice revealed that the genomic regulatory regions controlling production of SHH in the nervous system contribute to facial cartilage morphogenesis, which might be a mechanism responsible ...
Cells taken from the nose may have great potential A woman in the US has developed a tumor-like growth eight years after a stem cell treatment to cure her paralysis failed. There have been a handful of cases of stem cell treatments causing growths but this appears to be the first in which the treatment was given at a Western hospital as part of an approved clinical trial.. At a hospital in Portugal, the unnamed woman, a US citizen, had tissue containing olfactory stem cells taken from her nose and implanted in her spine. The hope was that these cells would develop into neural cells and help repair the nerve damage to the womans spine. The treatment did not work - far from it. Last year the woman, then 28, underwent surgery because of worsening pain at the implant site.. The surgeons removed a 3-centimetre-long growth, which was found to be mainly nasal tissue, as well as bits of bone and tiny nerve branches that had not connected with the spinal nerves.. The growth wasnt cancerous, but it was ...
In mammals, the olfactory epithelium secretes odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), which are lipocalins found freely dissolved in the mucus layer protecting the olfactory neurons. OBPs may act as passive transporters of predominantly hydrophobic odorant molecules across the aqueous mucus layer, or they may play a more active role in which the olfactory neuronal receptor recognizes the OBP-ligand complex. To better understand the molecular events accompanying the initial steps in the olfaction process, we have performed molecular dynamics studies of rat and pig OBPs with the odorant molecule thymol. These calculations provide an atomic level description of conformational changes and pathway intermediates that remain difficult to study directly. A series of eight independent molecular dynamics trajectories of rat OBP permitted the observation of a consensus pathway for ligand unbinding and the calculation of the potential of mean force (PMF) along this path. Titration microcalorimetry confirmed the ...
The same three patients were exhibiting signs of sinusitis [13] also. trigeminal nerves FRP (olfactory ensheathing cells and trigeminal Schwann cells, respectively). Bacterias had been degraded by some cells but persisted in additional cells, which resulted in the forming of multinucleated huge cells (MNGCs), with olfactory ensheathing cells less inclined to type MNGCs than Schwann cells. Cap mutant bacteria Double, missing the protein BimA, didnt type MNGCs. These data claim that injuries towards the olfactory epithelium expose the principal olfactory anxious program to bacterial invasion, that may then bring about CNS disease with potential pathogenic outcomes for the glial cells. Writer summary Infections from the central anxious program (CNS), though unusual, are connected with serious mortality and morbidity. can enter the CNS via peripheral nerves increasing between the nose cavity and the mind (bypassing the blood-brain/blood-cerebrospinal Hydroxycotinine liquid barriers). In todays ...
Under the conditions of this study, inhalation exposure to MEKO at concentrations of 10, 30 or 100 ppm for 6 hours/day, 5 day/week for 13 weeks produced minimal to moderately severe olfactory epithelium degeneration in male CD-1 mice. The incidence and severity of the degeneration was concentration dependent and not progressive over time with continued exposure. The lesions were localized to the olfactory epithelium lining the dorsal meatus in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity. Large areas of olfactory epithelium laterally and posteriorly appeared unaffected. No effects to olfactory epiithelium were found at 30 ppm MEKO in > 50% of the animals, indicating that only the most sensitive animals responded at this relatively high level of exposure. The degeneration of the olfactory epithelium following exposure to MEKO is not widespread but limited primarily to cells in the dorsal anterior portion of the nasal cavity. This represents approximately 10% of the olfactory epithelium lining the ...
The olfactory epithelium is continuously exposed to exogenous chemicals, including odorants. During the past decade, the enzymes surrounding the olfactory receptors have been shown to make an important contribution to the process of olfaction. Mammalian xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, esterases and glutathione transferases (GSTs), have been shown to participate in odorant clearance from the olfactory receptor environment, consequently contributing to the maintenance of sensitivity toward odorants. GSTs have previously been shown to be involved in numerous physiological processes, including detoxification, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and amino acid catabolism. These enzymes ensure either the capture or the glutathione conjugation of a large number of ligands. Using a multi-technique approach (proteomic, immunocytochemistry and activity assays), our results indicate that GSTs play an important role in the rat olfactory process. First, proteomic analysis demonstrated the
The sense of smell in vertebrates is detected by specialized sensory neurons derived from the peripheral nervous system. Classically, it has been presumed that the olfactory placode forms all olfactory sensory neurons. In contrast, we show that the cranial neural crest is the primary source of microvillous sensory neurons within the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish embryos. Using photoconversion-based fate mapping and live cell tracking coupled with laser ablation, we followed neural crest precursors as they migrated from the neural tube to the nasal cavity. A subset that coexpressed Sox10 protein and a neurogenin1 reporter ingressed into the olfactory epithelium and differentiated into microvillous sensory neurons. Timed loss-of-function analysis revealed a critical role for Sox10 in microvillous neurogenesis. Taken together, these findings directly demonstrate a heretofore unknown contribution of the cranial neural crest to olfactory sensory neurons in zebrafish and provide important insights ...
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Nasal region of small mammal (mouse or rat), t.s. showing respiratory and olfactory epithelium, bone etc. prepared microscope slide. Product code: MSMA0211
Our research can be thematically organized into three broad components ranging from the microscopic to the macroscopic: molecular and cellular analysis of human olfactory tissue; in vivo electrophysiological analysis using intracranial EEG recordings in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; and systems-level analysis using functional MRI and olfactory psychophysical techniques in human subjects, and also in mouse subjects. Currently even the most well-founded research assumptions - the cellular organization of the peripheral olfactory system; the cortical projection pathways and centrifugal feedback connections; the physiological coding principles that underlie odor processing and memory consolidation - remain almost completely untested in humans. Together these different research strands support a consolidated research platform to investigate human olfaction with a neuroscientific breadth intended to connect the dots from molecules to mind, and from health to disease ...
Chapter 18 - Special Senses Olfaction (Smell) Chemicals that we perceive as smell are detected by olfactory organs that consist of: Olfactory epithelium - This epithelium consists of olfactory receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells (stem cells). Lamina propria - The lamina propria of olfactory epithelium
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A recent study from The Monell Center found the connection between the olfactory marker protein (OMP) and the detection of different scents after a 30-year-old mystery.
Neurons, Olfactory Receptor Neurons, Calcium, Kinase, Ability, Role, Cells, Sodium, Cell, Plays, Transient, Cilia, Epithelium, Olfactory Epithelium, G Protein, Phosphatidylinositol, Inhibition, Mediating, Rat, Invertebrates
The epidermis contains three types of cells. On the surface are flat cells, known as squamous cells. Under these are round cells called basal cells. In between the basal cells are melanocytes.. The dermis contains nerve endings, blood vessels, and oil and sweat glands. Its held together by a protein called collagen.. The hypodermis (subcutaneous fat and connective tissue) attaches the skin to bone and muscles, as well as supplying blood vessels and nerves.. ...
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Olfactory mucosa. Paranasal sinuses. *Maxillary sinus. *Sphenoidal sinuses. *Frontal sinus. *Ethmoid sinus ...
Olfactory mucosa. Paranasal sinuses. *Maxillary sinus. *Sphenoidal sinuses. *Frontal sinus. *Ethmoid sinus ...
Most of the respiratory system is lined with mucous membranes that contain mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, which produces ...
It is possible for humans to smell different olfactory inputs in the two nostrils and experience a perceptual rivalry akin to ...
Nasal mucosa. *Olfactory mucosa. Paranasal sinuses. *Maxillary sinus. *Sphenoidal sinuses. *Frontal sinus ...
Olfactory adult stem cells[edit]. Olfactory adult stem cells have been successfully harvested from the human olfactory mucosa ... June 2005). "Multipotent stem cells from adult olfactory mucosa". Developmental Dynamics. 233 (2): 496-515. doi:10.1002/dvdy. ... Olfactory stem cells hold the potential for therapeutic applications and, in contrast to neural stem cells, can be harvested ...
... ماهیچه مخاطی Muscularis mucosae) ... Nasal mucosa. *Olfactory mucosa. Paranasal sinuses. *Maxillary ...
There also have been pheromone receptor genes found in olfactory mucosa.[40] Unfortunately, there have been no experiments that ... The associated olfactory bulb is present in the fetus, but regresses and vanishes in the adult brain. There have been some ... In 2006, it was shown that a second mouse receptor sub-class is found in the olfactory epithelium. Called the trace amine- ... In addition, Colias eurytheme butterflies release pheromones, an olfactory cue important for mate selection.[24] ...
Behind the nose are the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses. Behind the nasal cavity, air next passes through the pharynx, shared ... The olfactory chamber is lined by olfactory epithelium on its upper surface and possesses a number of turbinates to increase ... The pouches are lined by olfactory epithelium, and commonly include a series of internal folds to increase the surface area. In ... These sacs contain a small amount of olfactory epithelium, which, in the case of caecilians, also lines a number of ...
Rodriguez I, Greer CA, Mok MY, Mombaerts P (Sep 2000). "A putative pheromone receptor gene expressed in human olfactory mucosa ... Vomeronasal receptors are a class of olfactory receptors that putatively function as receptors for pheromones. Pheromones have ... a receptor from goldfish olfactory epithelium has been reported to bind basic amino acids, which are odorants for fish. V1 ... but an apparently functional receptor has been identified that is expressed in the human olfactory system. The V2 receptors are ...
The protein encoded by this gene is similar to pheromone receptors and is primarily localized to the olfactory mucosa. An ... "A putative pheromone receptor gene expressed in human olfactory mucosa". Nature Genetics. 26 (1): 18-9. doi:10.1038/79124. PMID ...
"Transplantation of olfactory mucosa following spinal cord injury promotes recovery in rats". NeuroReport. 19 (13): 1249-52. doi ... Transplantation of tissues such as olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory bulbs has been shown to produce beneficial ... Trials have also begun to show success when olfactory ensheathing cells are transplanted into humans with severed spinal cords ... olfactory ensheathing cells, Schwann cells, activated macrophages, and induced pluripotent stem cells. When stem cells are ...
Gu J, Su T, Chen Y, Zhang QY, Ding X (Jun 2000). "Expression of biotransformation enzymes in human fetal olfactory mucosa: ...
The horse's olfactory receptors are located in the mucosa of the upper nasal cavity. Due to the length of the nasal cavity, ...
... expressed in olfactory mucosa". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 323 (2): 429-436. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc. ...
"Diagnosis of Human Prion Disease Using Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion Testing of Olfactory Mucosa and Cerebrospinal Fluid ... In 2014, a human study showed a nasal brushing method that can accurately detect PrP in the olfactory epithelial cells of ...
2000). "The expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synucleins in olfactory mucosa from patients with and without ... It is also detected in the brain, ovarian tumors, and in the olfactory epithelium. Gamma-synuclein is the least conserved of ...
N. fowleri invades the central nervous system via the nose, specifically through the olfactory mucosa of the nasal tissues. ... such as damage to the olfactory nerve through lysis of nerve cells and demyelination. Specifically, the olfactory nerve and ... There, it migrates to the olfactory bulbs and subsequently other regions of the brain, where it feeds on the nerve tissue. The ... It then migrates through the cribriform plate and into the olfactory bulbs of the forebrain, where it multiplies itself greatly ...
After nasal administration of microcystin-LR, the epithelium of nasal mucosa of both the olfactory and respiratory zones were ...
"Targeted Disruption of the Olfactory Mucosa-Specific Cyp2g1 Gene: Impact on Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Lateral Nasal Gland, ... Sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium (also called supporting cells) have been shown to be involved in the ... Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Masako; Farbman, Albert I. (1996). "Supporting cells as phagocytes in the olfactory epithelium after ... Implications in Olfactory Perireceptor Events: Odorant-Binding Proteins and Metabolizing Enzymes". The Anatomical Record. 296 ( ...
Moran, D. T.; Rowley, J. C.; Jafek, B. W.; Lovell, M. A. (1982-10-01). "The fine structure of the olfactory mucosa in man". ... the olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium, mitral cells, and olfactory pyramidal neurons. At the level of the ... The first stop in the olfactory system is the olfactory epithelium, or tissue resting on the roof of the nasal cavity which ... Each olfactory cell has a single type of receptor, but that receptor can be "broadly tuned" and odor molecules further interact ...
"Functional Morphology of the Olfactory Mucosa and Olfactory Bulb in Fossorial Rodents: The East African Root Rat ( Tachyoryctes ... Some researchers found that their olfactory systems have increased surface area and are highly complex, an evolved trait that ...
... s have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, ... Sommerville, B. A. (1998). "Olfactory Awareness". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 57 (3-4): 269-286. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591( ...
Apart from the Bowman's capsule, other anatomical structures named after him include: Bowman's glands - in the olfactory mucosa ...
... laryngeal mucosa MeSH A04.760.600 - nasal mucosa MeSH A04.760.600.640 - olfactory mucosa MeSH A04.760.600.640.640 - olfactory ... nasal mucosa MeSH A04.531.520.320 - goblet cells MeSH A04.531.520.573 - olfactory mucosa MeSH A04.531.520.573.580 - olfactory ... laryngeal mucosa MeSH A04.329.597.320 - goblet cells MeSH A04.329.604 - laryngeal muscles MeSH A04.411.125 - bronchi MeSH ...
Olfactory mucosa in the upper nasal cavity, contains a type of nasal gland called olfactory glands or Bowman's glands which ... Olfactory nerves are bundles of very small unmyelinated axons that are derived from olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory ... The area of olfactory epithelium, in the upper nasal cavity, contains specialised olfactory cells responsible for this function ... The nose also plays the major part in the olfactory system. It contains an area of specialised cells, olfactory receptor ...
These agents not only damage the olfactory epithelium, but they are likely to enter the brain via the olfactory mucosa.[35] ... Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory ... Most mammals and reptiles have a main olfactory system and an accessory olfactory system. The main olfactory system detects ... olfactory glands, olfactory neurons, and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves.[1] ...
These agents not only damage the olfactory epithelium, but they are likely to enter the brain via the olfactory mucosa.[28] ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory ... olfactory glands, olfactory neurons, and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves.[1] ...
The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity.[1] From ... the olfactory information is transmitted into the brain via the olfactory tract.[2] The fascicles of the olfactory nerve are ...
Irritant gases are those that, on inhalation, dissolve in the water of the respiratory tract mucosa and provoke an inflammatory ... Although ammonia has a pungent odor, it also causes olfactory fatigue or adaptation, reducing awareness of prolonged exposure. ... They damage the upper airway mucosa. Pulmonary edema rarely occurs because mustard rarely affects the lung parenchyma and ... Chlorine's odor provides early warning signs of exposure but causes olfactory fatigue or adaptations, reducing awareness of ...
... are thought to play an important role in immunoprotection in the mucosa, where neurons are directly exposed to the external ... Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), also known as olfactory ensheathing glia or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type ... Olfactory axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and ... New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be ...
The olfactory receptors are located on cell surfaces in the nose which bind to chemicals enabling the detection of smells. It ... Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. ... Most of the oral cavity is lined with oral mucosa, a mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucus, of which only a small ... The palate is hard at the front of the mouth since the overlying mucosa is covering a plate of bone; it is softer and more ...
2003). "Expression and localization of the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor in human nasal mucosa". Clin. Exp. Allergy. 32 (7 ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Primary olfactory cortex[edit]. Located in the temporal lobe, the primary olfactory cortex is the primary receptive area for ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ... Distance chemoreceptors are integral to receiving stimuli as gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor ...
ঘ্রাণ তন্ত্র (Olfactory system). *ঘ্রাণবহ আবরণী কলা (Olfactory epithelium). *ঘ্রাণজ উপঝিল্লি (Olfactory membrane) ... Gastric mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Gastric rugae. *Gastric pits. *Gastric gland. *Cardiac glands ...
Olfactory mucosa. Berîkên berdifnî. Maxillary sinus · Sphenoidal sinuses · Frontal sinus · Ethmoid sinus ...
Gordon Shepherd proposed that the retro-nasal route of olfaction (odorants introduced to the olfactory mucosa through the oral ... The olfactory bulb acts as a relay station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. Olfactory information is ... The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is a small patch of tissue at the back ... The olfactory system does not interpret a single compound, but instead the whole odorous mix. This does not correspond to the ...
... s on the lip and mucosa of the cheek, and on the genitalia, are known as Fordyce spots, and glands on the ... and also secrete volatile compounds that are thought to serve as an olfactory stimulus for the newborn. During pregnancy and ... Fordyce spots, or Fordyce granules, are ectopic sebaceous glands found on the genitals and oral mucosa. They show themselves as ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... the olfactory tubercle may play a role in behavior. Rats rely heavily on olfactory sensory input from olfactory receptors for ... suggest that the olfactory tubercle may be crucial in sorting out the sources of olfactory information.[13] This suggests that ... The olfactory tubercle has been shown to play a large role in behavior. Unilateral lesions in the olfactory tubercle have been ...
Olfactory mucosa. Berîkên berdifnî. Maxillary sinus · Sphenoidal sinuses · Frontal sinus · Ethmoid sinus ...
Olfactory system Olfactory (I) Olfactory cortex Olfactory perception, Gustatory perception (taste or flavor)[19] Smell ( ... Sensory receptors in pharynx mucosa, similar to touch receptors in the skin, sense foreign objects such as mucous and food that ... Olfactory system (smell)[edit]. Main article: Olfactory system. Like the sense of taste, the sense of smell, or the olfactiory ... In the brain, olfaction is processed by the olfactory cortex. Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from most other ...
the nasal lining - A thin layer of vascular mucosa that adheres tightly to the deep surface of the bones and the cartilages of ... through which pass sensory filaments of the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I); finally, below and behind (posteroinferior) the ... For a mucosa defect greater than 15 mm in diameter, the indicated correction is a superiorly based "trap door" septal mucosal ... The surgeon elevates the flap of septal mucosa to the roof of the nasal septum, and then traverses it into the contralateral ( ...
... and its axons project to the lacrimal glands and nasal mucosa. The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa, in particular the venous ... The pterygopalatine ganglion supplies the lacrimal gland, paranasal sinuses, glands of the mucosa of the nasal cavity and ...
Common infection of the skin or mucosa may affect the face and mouth (orofacial herpes), genitalia (genital herpes), or hands ( ... van Riel, Debby; Verdijk, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs (January 2015). "The olfactory nerve: a shortcut for influenza and other viral ...
... made up of the axons from approximately ten million olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory mucosa, a region of the nasal ... Therefore, the olfactory bulb plays this role for the olfactory system. Accessory olfactory bulb[edit]. The accessory olfactory ... As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory ... The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. The main olfactory ...
Within and behind the nose is the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses. Behind the nasal cavity, air next passes through the ...
Olfactory bulb projections[edit]. Schematic of the early olfactory system including the olfactory epithelium and bulb. Each ORN ... Main olfactory system[edit]. Main article: Olfactory system. In humans and other vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory ... which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[17] The axons from the olfactory ... Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking ...
The olfactory mucosa is located in the upper region of the nasal cavity and is made up of the olfactory epithelium and the ... are present in the sustentacular cells of the olfactory mucosa, in the periglomerular cells of the olfactory bulb, and in the ... Cells in the olfactory mucosa have been used in clinical trials for adult stem cell therapeutic treatments and successfully ... In vertebrates, the olfactory epithelium consists of a three basic cell types: bipolar olfactory receptor neurons; ...
The olfactory mucosa detects odor-producing chemicals. It includes specialized nerve cells and non-motile cilia to provide a ... An introduction to the Olfactory Mucosa:. *. Olfactory mucosa lines the roof of the nasal cavity and superior turbinates (= ... expanded view of the olfactory mucosa shows more detail about its layered composition. ... olfactory receptors. The odorant-sensitive tips of the receptors protrude into the nasal cavity from the free surface of the ...
The lamina propria shows bundles of olfactory axons, blood vessels and Bowman glands. ... High magnification light micrograph of the olfactory epithelium. ... The lamina propria shows bundles of olfactory axons, blood ... High magnification light micrograph of the olfactory epithelium. ...
The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to ... The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to ... Nasal Mucosa / radiation effects*. Smell / radiation effects*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library ... Olfactory detection thresholds for two odorants (amyl acetate and eugenol) were determined before the start of radiation ...
... J Comp Physiol A. 1987 Feb;160(2):155- ... in the vapor phase evoked monophasic negative slow voltage transients recorded from the surface of the olfactory mucosa. The ... When applied in the vapor phase, guaiacol elicited action potentials recorded from individual olfactory receptor neurons; the ... and moderate to extensive vacuolation in acinar cells of sBG and deep olfactory glands (dG). Topical application of 9.8 mg/ml ...
Since olfactory dysfunction is a common feature of these disorders and the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the olfactory ... The expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synucleins in olfactory mucosa from patients with and without neurodegenerative ... and gamma-synucleins to examine the olfactory mucosa of patients with PD, DLB, AD, MSA, and controls without a neurological ... in cells of the OE and respiratory epithelium and that alpha-synuclein is the most abundant synuclein in the olfactory mucosa, ...
The mouse olfactory mucosa is a complex chemosensory tissue composed of multiple cell types, neuronal and non-neuronal. We have ... Hierarchical deconstruction of mouse olfactory sensory neurons: from whole mucosa to single-cell RNA-seq. Saraiva, L.R., Ibarra ... "Hierarchical deconstruction of mouse olfactory sensory neurons: from whole mucosa to single-cell RNA-seq" Scientific Reports ( ... We show that 98.9% of intact olfactory receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mature OSNs. We uncover a hitherto unknown ...
CYP2G1 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase expressed uniquely in the olfactory mucosa (OM). We have generated Cyp2g1-null mice ... Targeted Disruption of the Olfactory Mucosa-Specific Cyp2g1 Gene: Impact on Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Lateral Nasal Gland, ... ABBREVIATIONS: OM, olfactory mucosa; DCBN, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile; P450, cytochrome P450; BAC, bacterial artificial ... Targeted Disruption of the Olfactory Mucosa-Specific Cyp2g1 Gene: Impact on Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Lateral Nasal Gland, ...
Uptake and Specific Binding of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Olfactory Mucosa of Mice and Rats. Mikael Gillner, ... Uptake and Specific Binding of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Olfactory Mucosa of Mice and Rats ... Uptake and Specific Binding of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Olfactory Mucosa of Mice and Rats ... Uptake and Specific Binding of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Olfactory Mucosa of Mice and Rats ...
14 Olfactory mucosa: neural stem and progenitor cells for nervous system repair and cell models of brain disease A. Mackay-Sim ... Olfactory stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells (the glia from the olfactory nerve) are therapeutic when transplanted into ... Olfactory mucosa: neural stem and progenitor cells for nervous system repair and cell models of brain disease. A. Mackay-Sim, ... This tissue is readily accessible without adverse outcome and the olfactory stem cells and neural progenitors can be grown from ...
Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa. PLOS ONE 9, e96333 (2014).. ... expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which populate the whole olfactory mucosa (WOM) (1). Most mature OSNs (mOSNs) ... Olfactory mucosae sample collection. Mouse (M. musculus). RNA-seq data for 8-week-old C57Bl/6J male mouse (n = 3) WOM samples ... Hierarchical deconstruction of mouse olfactory sensory neurons: From whole mucosa to single-cell RNA-seq. Sci. Rep. 5, 18178 ( ...
Both the olfactory and vomeronasal pathways are neuronal systems in which the sensory neurons are thought to be capable of ... Ontogeny of Carnosine, Olfactory Marker Protein and Neurotransmitter Enzymes in Olfactory Bulb and Olfactory Mucosa of the Rat ... Olfactory Marker Protein and Neurotransmitter Enzymes in Olfactory Bulb and Olfactory Mucosa of the Rat. In: Breipohl W., ... Chuah Ml, Farbman Al (1983) Olfactory bulb increases marker protein in olfactory receptor cells. J Neurosci 3: 2197-2205PubMed ...
Regulatory Mechanism of Nitric Oxide on Olfactory Mucosa Secretion-Elucidation of Olfactory Mucosa Secretion Abnormality at ... 4. An attempt was made at secondary culture of the olfactory mucosa of the rabbit by means of reconstitution of the olfactory ... 2. In patients who had undergone surgery for chronic sinusitis accompanied by olfactory disturbance, the olfactory mucosa ... At several months after the surgery, the olfactory mucosa of some of the patients in whom the chronic sinusitis had been cured ...
Relationship between asthmatic respiratory inflammation and abnormal secretion of olfactory mucosa-effect of olfactory ... Not only cilia damage of the respiratory sinus mucosa, but also olfactory cilia damage and highly secretion of Bowman gland ... Histopathological findings of olfactory mucosa in eosinophilic sinusitis showed eosinophil infiltration, growth of Bowman gland ... Therefore, olfactory dysfunction in eosinophilic sinusitis was thought to be affected by lower respiratory tract inflammation. ...
Comparative transcriptomics of olfactory mucosae offers clues into the putative functions of highly abundant ORs in mammals. ... Comparative transcriptomics of olfactory mucosae offers clues into the putative functions of highly abundant ORs in mammals. ... A transcriptomic atlas of mammalian olfactory mucosae reveals an evolutionary influence on food odor detection in humans ... A transcriptomic atlas of mammalian olfactory mucosae reveals an evolutionary influence on food odor detection in humans ...
2007) Towards an artificial olfactory mucosa for improved odour classification. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: ... which emulates the human olfactory mucosa. Our approach exploits the physical positioning of a series of broadly tuned sensors ... Our study demonstrates that this artificial mucosa is capable of generating both spatial and temporal signals which, when ... equivalent to the olfactory epithelium) along the length of a planar chromatographic channel (analogous to the thin mucus ...
Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory ... Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory ... Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory ... Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory ...
2007) Towards a truly biomimetic olfactory microsystem: an artificial olfactory mucosa. IET Nanobiotechnology, Vol.1 (No.2). pp ... Today, the capability of the human olfactory system is still, in many ways, superior to that of the electronic nose. Although ... Experimental studies on the mammalian olfactory system suggest that the nasal cavity, comprising of the mucous layer and the ... We believe such emulation of the olfactory system can lead to improved odour discrimination within the field of electronic ...
The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated ... That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. ... Olfactory Mucosa. That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each ... The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated ...
The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated ... That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. ... Olfactory Mucosa That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each ... Olfactory Receptor Neurons Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, ...
Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Samples. Ideal for Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Homogenization. Do you spend lots of time and effort ... Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Samples. Next Advance - Laboratory Instruments. , Homogenization. , ... No Cross Contamination No part of the Bullet Blender® ever touches the olfactory mucosa tissue samples - the sample tubes are ... Easy and Convenient to Use Just place beads and buffer along with your olfactory mucosa tissue sample in standard tubes, load ...
A recent case report of a spinal mass in a patient with spinal cord injury who received an olfactory mucosa implant shows that ... olfactory mucosa grafts preserve the CSF environment, because CSF also bathes the olfactory mucosa through the olfactory route ... There are several potential advantages of olfactory mucosa transplants. The olfactory mucosa is a structural unit with ... This was a mass with mucus in it and tissue consistent with olfactory mucosa and thus deriving from the olfactory mucosa graft ...
The aim of the present study was to further characterize the expression of the CYP2A genes in human nasal mucosa. Fetal nasal ...
Olfactory mucosa. Paranasal sinuses. *Maxillary sinus. *Sphenoidal sinuses. *Frontal sinus. *Ethmoid sinus ...
Olfactory mucosa. Paranasal sinuses. *Maxillary sinus. *Sphenoidal sinuses. *Frontal sinus. *Ethmoid sinus ...
Salehi-Ashtiani, K., & Farbman, A. I. (1996). Expression of neu and Neu differentiation factor in the olfactory mucosa of rat. ... Expression of neu and Neu differentiation factor in the olfactory mucosa of rat. / Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Farbman, Albert I. ... Salehi-Ashtiani, K & Farbman, AI 1996, Expression of neu and Neu differentiation factor in the olfactory mucosa of rat, ... Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh ; Farbman, Albert I. / Expression of neu and Neu differentiation factor in the olfactory mucosa of rat ...
Olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem/stromal cells have been regarded as a promising tool in regenerative therapies because of ... In the present work a validation of a protocol for isolation, culture, expansion, freezing, and thawing of olfactory mucosa ... Rat Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (OM-MSCs): A Characterization Study ...
Olfactory Mucosa Transplant in Portugal Started by sucarr02, 10-05-2011 12:21 PM ...
an underlying inflammation of the olfactory mucosa, leading to possible neurodegeneration of olfactory sensory neurons, and ... the direct infection of olfactory sensory neurons or neural stem cells of the olfactory mucosa, ... Multiple measurements will be analyzed to characterize the immune and inflamatory status of the olfactory mucosa (presence of ... Olfactory dysfunction could result from infection of the olfactory system by SARS-CoV-2 or from inflammation induced by the ...
Olfactory Mucosa (Human). Oocytes. Oyster. Paramecium. Parotid Gland. Peritoneal Exudate Cells (Macrophage). Phage Particles. ...
  • The olfactory mucosa is located in the upper region of the nasal cavity and is made up of the olfactory epithelium and the underlying lamina propria, connective tissue containing fibroblasts, blood vessels, Bowman's glands and bundles of fine axons from the olfactory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus protects the olfactory epithelium and allows odors to dissolve so that they can be detected by olfactory receptor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • High magnification light micrograph of the olfactory epithelium. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Guaiacol and IBMP also had time- and concentration-dependent effects on the secretory activity of sustentacular cells in the olfactory epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Since olfactory dysfunction is a common feature of these disorders and the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the olfactory epithelium (OE) regenerate throughout the lifespan, we used antibodies specific for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synucleins to examine the olfactory mucosa of patients with PD, DLB, AD, MSA, and controls without a neurological disorder. (nih.gov)
  • More significantly, we show here for the first time that alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synucleins are differentially expressed in cells of the OE and respiratory epithelium and that alpha-synuclein is the most abundant synuclein in the olfactory mucosa, where it is prominently expressed in ORNs. (nih.gov)
  • Within the sensory organ of smell is a multipotent stem cell that is responsible for the normal regeneration and repair of the olfactory epithelium throughout life. (safaribooksonline.com)
  • Hinds JW, Hinds PL, McNelly NA (1984) An autoradiographic study of the mouse olfactory epithelium: Evidence for long-lived receptors. (springer.com)
  • 4. An attempt was made at secondary culture of the olfactory mucosa of the rabbit by means of reconstitution of the olfactory mucosa epithelium on a base of firoblasts and cerebral astroglia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our approach exploits the physical positioning of a series of broadly tuned sensors (equivalent to the olfactory epithelium) along the length of a planar chromatographic channel (analogous to the thin mucus coating of the nasal cavity) from which we extract both spatial (response magnitude) and temporal (retentive delay) sensor signals. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Experimental studies on the mammalian olfactory system suggest that the nasal cavity, comprising of the mucous layer and the olfactory epithelium, performs a degree of chromatographic separation of complex mixtures. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • We had shown previously, by immunohistochemistry, that transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor are present in the olfactory epithelium of untreated adult rats and that TGF-α is a potent mitogen of olfactory epithelium in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunohistochemical localization of p185(neu) and NDF indicates expression of these proteins in the olfactory epithelium of adult rats in regions where globose basal cells and immature sensory neurons are found, as well as in the ensheathing cells of the olfactory nerve. (elsevier.com)
  • The presence of neu and NDF transcripts in the olfactory tissue and the localization of their encoded polypeptides to proliferative regions of the epithelium suggest involvement of these gene products in the regulated proliferation/differentiation of the sensory neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. (chemcom.be)
  • This study is a case-control study to characterize the molecular and cellular anomalies of the olfactory epithelium of COVID-19 patients with isolated anosmia, by comparison with the olfactory epithelium of non-infected subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is therefore necessary to conduct a virological, cellular, immunological and inflammatory study of the olfactory epithelium from COVID-19 patients with isolated anosmia to identify the origin of these olfactory disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Nasal swab sampling for collection of epithelium cells and olfactory mucus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There are marked geographical differences between Pakistan and other countries where most of the research on olfactory epithelium has been conducted. (bvsalud.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium was morphologically pseudostraified columnar with a characteristic lamina propria containing numerous olfactory nerve fascicles and Bowman's glands, observed in the roof, medial and lateral walls of both nasal cavities . (bvsalud.org)
  • Olfactory mucosa was lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium . (bvsalud.org)
  • Fig. 3: Analysis of olfactory receptor expression in human olfactory epithelium. (nature.com)
  • Hinds, J. W., Hinds, P. L. & McNelly, N. A. An autoradiographic study of the mouse olfactory epithelium: evidence for long-lived receptors. (nature.com)
  • In vivo and in vitro neurogenesis in human olfactory epithelium. (nature.com)
  • Chen, M., Reed, R. R. & Lane, A. P. Acute inflammation regulates neuroregeneration through the NF-κB pathway in olfactory epithelium. (nature.com)
  • Schwob, J. E., Youngentob, S. L. & Mezza, R. C. Reconstitution of the rat olfactory epithelium after methyl bromide-induced lesion. (nature.com)
  • Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. (harvard.edu)
  • The olfactory epithelium is mostly populated by ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and surrounding sustentacular cells (SCs) with apical microvilli. (jneurosci.org)
  • The main olfactory epithelium (OE) comprises three main cell types, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), sustentacular cells (SCs) and basal cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • (A) OSN are defined by the expression of a unique odorant receptor, OSN expressing the same receptor (red, green, blue, or orange) are dispersed throughout the olfactory epithelium (OE) but the axons of these OSN converge to synapse in the same glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). (frontiersin.org)
  • One possible explanation is that this receptor is better at detecting chemicals than was a gene in the olfactory epithelium. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • We therefore screened a mouse olfactory epithelium cDNA library to obtain olfactory receptor expressed sequence tags, providing evidence of olfactory function for many additional olfactory receptors, as well as identifying gene structure and putative promoter regions. (nih.gov)
  • Using real-time PCR to confirm expression level differences suggested by our screen, we find that transcript levels in the olfactory epithelium can differ between olfactory receptors by up to 300-fold. (nih.gov)
  • The mammalian nasal passage is lined with four different epithelial populations: squamous, transitional (nonciliated cuboidal/columnar), respiratory, and olfactory epithelium. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Among these, the olfactory mucosa (i.e., the olfactory epithelium and its underlying lamina propria) contains four primary cells: the duct cells lining Bowman's glands, basal cells, olfactory receptor cells, and the sustentacular cells or olfactory supporting cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Neuroblastic tumors can originate from the central neuraxis, olfactory epithelium, adrenal medullary region or autonomous system. (scielo.br)
  • Nose, Olfactory epithelium - Hyperplasia, Basal cell in a male F344/N rat from a subchronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Nose, Olfactory epithelium - Hyperplasia, Basal cell in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Basal cell hyperplasia of the olfactory epithelium is characterized by a proliferation of basal cells along the basement membrane of the olfactory epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • The cells are bounded by the basement membrane and do not extend into the subjacent lamina propria (which is a feature of atypical olfactory epithelial hyperplasia - see Nose, Epithelium - Hyperplasia, Atypical ). (nih.gov)
  • Basal cell hyperplasia of the nasal olfactory epithelium should be diagnosed and given a severity grade when the proliferating basal cells do not extend beyond the basement membrane into the lamina propria. (nih.gov)
  • 1996 ) Neurogenesis and cell death in olfactory epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • 1994 ) Neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • b) A schematic of the olfactory epithelium (OE) showing the three major cell types. (els.net)
  • Through gene targetting experiments (see text) it is now clear that all the ORNs expressing the same receptor send their axons to the same glomerulus even though the cells are widely distributed on the olfactory epithelium. (els.net)
  • Ressler KJ, Sullivan SL, and Buck LB (1993) A zonal organization of odorant receptor gene expression in the olfactory epithelium. (els.net)
  • Vassar R, Ngai J, and Axel R (1993) Spatial segregation of odorant receptor expression in the mammalian olfactory epithelium. (els.net)
  • and basal cells, the stem cells that continuously give rise to new olfactory receptor neurons and sustentacular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have here applied RNA-seq hierarchically, in three steps of decreasing cellular heterogeneity: starting with crude tissue samples dissected from the nose, proceeding to flow-cytometrically sorted pools of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), and finally arriving at single mature OSNs. (fluidigm.com)
  • Alterations of the synaptic input of the primary olfactory neurons to their target neurons in the olfactory bulb has demonstrated that the afferent olfactory neurons can modulate the biochemical phenotype expressed by their juxtaglomerular target neurons (Baker et al. (springer.com)
  • Allen WK, Akeson R (1985) Identification of a cell surface glycoprotein family of olfactory receptor neurons with a monoclonal antibody. (springer.com)
  • Baker H, Kawano T, Albert V, Joh TH, Reis DJ, Margolis FL (1984) Olfactory bulb dopamine neurons survive deafferentation induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase. (springer.com)
  • Frosch MP, Dichter MA (1984) Physiology and pharmacology of olfactory bulb neurons in dissociated cell culture. (springer.com)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are the receptor cells for the sense of smell. (elsevier.com)
  • The growth and differentiation of olfactory sensory neurons are regulated tightly. (elsevier.com)
  • an underlying inflammation of the olfactory mucosa, leading to possible neurodegeneration of olfactory sensory neurons, and neural stem cells of the olfactory mucosa, by analogy with the respiratory viruses responsible for chronic rhinosinusitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Neurogenesis is critical to continuously replacie olfactory neurons but is impaired during chronic inflammatory rhinosinusitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • this process contributes to deficient replacement of olfactory sensory neurons. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There are numerous different odorant molecules in nature but only a relatively small number of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in brains. (pnas.org)
  • Schwob, J. E., Szumowski, K. E. & Stasky, A. A. Olfactory sensory neurons are trophically dependent on the olfactory bulb for their prolonged survival. (nature.com)
  • Adult c-Kit + progenitor cells are necessary for maintenance and regeneration of olfactory neurons. (nature.com)
  • Graziadei, P. P., Karlan, M. S., Graziadei, G. A. & Bernstein, J. J. Neurogenesis of sensory neurons in the primate olfactory system after section of the fila olfactoria. (nature.com)
  • Hirota, J. & Mombaerts, P. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx2 is required for complete development of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. (nature.com)
  • Olfactory Receptor Neurons" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Olfactory Receptor Neurons" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Olfactory Receptor Neurons" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Olfactory Receptor Neurons" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Since the olfactory system continuously incorporates new neurons into its circuitry and exhibits a tremendous capacity for reorganization, we sought to investigate its potential to recover from disruption caused by a temporary reduction in odorant-induced activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons chemosensory cilia are elongated, mucus embedded, fully exposed structures particularly amenable for a multidisciplinary study of this problem, as done here. (jneurosci.org)
  • Both modalities have many features in common, starting with signal detection by highly specialized primary sensory neurons-rod and cone photoreceptors (PR) for vision, and olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) for the smell. (frontiersin.org)
  • The sensory neurons that initiate olfaction and vision are olfactory sensory neurons (OSN), also referred to as olfactory receptor neurons (ORN), and photoreceptors (PR). (frontiersin.org)
  • Anatomy of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) and photoreceptors (PR). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ab36199 staining human CRMP1 in olfactory receptor neurons within the olfactory mucosa by immunohistochemistry. (abcam.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are the primary sensory cell in a system designed to detect and discriminate between a large and diverse array of chemical ligands called odours. (els.net)
  • Degeneration and reconstitution of the olfactory sensory neurons after axotomy. (els.net)
  • Firestein, Stuart J(Apr 2001) Olfactory Receptor Neurons. (els.net)
  • Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 receptors) are present in the sustentacular cells of the olfactory mucosa, in the periglomerular cells of the olfactory bulb, and in the anterior olfactory nucleus and olfactory cortices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell proliferation and migration in the anterior forebrain, with special reference to persisting neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Baker H, Kawano T, Margolis FL, Joh TH (1983) Transneuronal regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in olfactory bulb of mouse and rat. (springer.com)
  • Barbaro D, Fisher DE, Strumeyer DH, Fisher H (1978) Developmental changes and dietary histidine manipulation: Effect on rat olfactory bulb and leg muscle components. (springer.com)
  • Brunjes P, Smith-Crafts LK, McCarty R (1985) Unilateral odor deprivation: Effects on the development of olfactory bulb catecholamines and behavior. (springer.com)
  • Chuah Ml, Farbman Al (1983) Olfactory bulb increases marker protein in olfactory receptor cells. (springer.com)
  • Gonzales-Estrada MT, Freeman WJ (1980) Effects of carnosine on olfactory bulb EEC, evoked potentials and DC potentials. (springer.com)
  • Halasz N, Shepherd GM (1983) Neurochemistry of the vertebrate olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Hinds JW (1972) Early neuron differentiation in the mouse olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Horinishi H, Crillo M, Margolis FL (1978) Purification and characterization of carnosine synthetase from mouse olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Kawano T, Margolis FL (1982) Transsynaptic regulation of olfactory bulb catecholamines in mice and rats. (springer.com)
  • Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory bulb (OB) that is a component of the central nervous system (CNS). (elsevier.com)
  • Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. (chemcom.be)
  • Induction of smell through transethmoid electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • It is believed that the role of OECs in the olfactory system is to direct the newly generated axons to their correct position in the CNS environment of the olfactory bulb [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN. (harvard.edu)
  • Mitral and tufted cells (MTCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb are connected via dendrodendritic synapses with inhibitory interneurons in the external plexiform layer. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the mammalian brain each olfactory bulb contains two mirror-symmetric glomerular maps linked through a set of reciprocal intrabulbar projections. (jneurosci.org)
  • This convergence of OSN axons produces a mirror-symmetric organization of isofunctional glomerular pairs on the surface of the olfactory bulb (OB) known as the "glomerular map. (jneurosci.org)
  • The basal compartment of OSN narrows to a long, unmyelinated axon that exits the OE to synapse in the olfactory bulb (OB). (frontiersin.org)
  • In mice inhaling para -xylene, methylhippurate accumulated in the nasal mucosa and olfactory bulb. (inchem.org)
  • Three possible ways in which ORN axons could be wired to their glomerular targets in the olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • Cellular circuitry of the olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • Imamura K, Mataga N, and Mori K (1992) Coding of odor molecules by mitral/tufted cells in rabbit olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • Shepherd GM and Greer CA (1998) Olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • Collins A, Li D, Liadi M, Tabakow P, Fortuna W, Raisman G, Li Y. Partial recovery of proprioception in rats with dorsal root injury following human olfactory bulb cell transplantation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Binding of the odorants causes the olfactory receptors to generate electro-chemical impulses (= action potentials). (getbodysmart.com)
  • Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. (chemcom.be)
  • Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set. (chemcom.be)
  • Additionally, we detailed the expression of 140 olfactory receptors. (nature.com)
  • Horio N, Murata K, Yoshikawa K, Yoshihara Y, Touhara K. Contribution of individual olfactory receptors to odor-induced attractive or aversive behavior in mice. (harvard.edu)
  • In the nasal cavity, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses one of ∼1300 odorant receptors (ORs) ( Buck and Axel, 1991 ) and responds to a distinct set of odorants ( Zhuang and Matsunami, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In the mouse, vomeronasal receptors are structurally distinct from odorant receptors in the main olfactory system, suggesting that human counterparts would be recognizable. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Most of these genes were previously annotated as olfactory receptors based solely on sequence similarity.Our finding that different olfactory receptors have different expression levels is intriguing given the one-neuron, one-gene expression regime of olfactory receptors.We provide 5' untranslated region sequences and candidate promoter regions for more than 300 olfactory receptors, valuable resources for computational regulatory motif searches and for designing olfactory receptor microarrays and other experimental probes. (nih.gov)
  • Previous computational analyses have identified approximately 1,500 mouse olfactory receptors, but experimental evidence confirming olfactory function is available for very few olfactory receptors. (nih.gov)
  • At least two-thirds of olfactory receptors exhibit multiple transcriptional variants, with alternative isoforms of both 5' and 3' untranslated regions. (nih.gov)
  • Most atypical transcripts encode nonfunctional olfactory receptors, but can occasionally increase receptor diversity. (nih.gov)
  • Our cDNA collection confirms olfactory function of over one-third of the intact mouse olfactory receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Most of these genes were previously annotated as olfactory receptors based solely on sequence similarity. (nih.gov)
  • Our finding that different olfactory receptors have different expression levels is intriguing given the one-neuron, one-gene expression regime of olfactory receptors. (nih.gov)
  • We provide 5' untranslated region sequences and candidate promoter regions for more than 300 olfactory receptors, valuable resources for computational regulatory motif searches and for designing olfactory receptor microarrays and other experimental probes. (nih.gov)
  • Above the bar, the jagged line plots information content [51] for each alignment position, with higher values representing residues conserved across more olfactory receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The uppermost two cDNAs encode potentially functional olfactory receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The lamina propria shows bundles of olfactory axons, blood vessels and Bowman glands. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Patients treated for spinal cord injury (SCI) using olfactory mucosa lamina propria (OLP) transplants demonstrated modest improvements, according to research published in Cell Transplantation. (spinalcordinjuryzone.com)
  • Olfactory stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells (the glia from the olfactory nerve) are therapeutic when transplanted into animal models of brain injury and disease. (safaribooksonline.com)
  • That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. (centralx.com)
  • Ovoid body resting on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone where the olfactory nerve terminates. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The red cells are the actual olfactory nerve cells that detect odors. (masseyeandear.org)
  • The researchers commented that high levels of nerve growth factor and neurotrpohic receptor expression are typically demonstrated by autologous olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs). (spinalcordinjuryzone.com)
  • Characterisation of cell types obtained from mixed cell cultures of the human olfactory mucosa for the application of central nerve repair. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Cells in the olfactory mucosa have been used in clinical trials for adult stem cell therapeutic treatments and successfully harvested for future applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tissue is readily accessible without adverse outcome and the olfactory stem cells and neural progenitors can be grown from all adults. (safaribooksonline.com)
  • The mass turned out to be an olfactory mucosa stem cell tumor. (respectfulinsolence.com)
  • Olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem/stromal cells have been regarded as a promising tool in regenerative therapies because of their several favorable properties such as multipotency, high proliferation rate, helpful location, and few associated ethical issues. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present work a validation of a protocol for isolation, culture, expansion, freezing, and thawing of olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem/stromal cells was performed, applied to the rat model, as well as a biological characterization of these cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent studies explore the use of adult stem cells, bone marrow cells (BMC) and olfactory mucosa (OM), as possible SCI treatments. (kzoo.edu)
  • Smelling Danger: Olfactory Stem Cells Control Immune Defense during Chronic Inflammation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To obtain olfactory bulbs from brain stem dead patients who undergo organ donation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Leung, C. T., Coulombe, P. A. & Reed, R. R. Contribution of olfactory neural stem cells to tissue maintenance and regeneration. (nature.com)
  • Deconstructing olfactory stem cell trajectories at single-cell resolution. (nature.com)
  • We describe here a new cell model based on patient-derived cells from the human olfactory mucosa, the organ of smell, which regenerates throughout life from neural stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells have many advantages over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells as models for brain diseases. (biologists.org)
  • we hypothesized that olfactory mucosal stem cells derived from SZ and PD patients would provide an accessible, proliferating population to investigate the cellular bases of these diseases ( Mackay-Sim and Silburn, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • Isolation of putative stem cells present in human adult olfactory mucosa. (abcam.com)
  • Human olfactory mucosa mesenchymal-like stem cells (hOM-MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that may exert a protective effect on the cerebral ischemia. (dovepress.com)
  • the former vessel chiefly supplied the respiratory portion of the nasal mucosa, while the latter was distributed to the olfactory region. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mammalian olfactory system displays species-specific adaptations to different ecological niches. (sciencemag.org)
  • To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) subtypes across mammalian evolution, we applied RNA sequencing of whole olfactory mucosa samples from mouse, rat, dog, marmoset, macaque, and human. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mammalian olfactory system detects chemical information from the external environment and translates that information into neural signals that are conveyed directly to the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • The olfactory receptor gene family is one of the largest in the mammalian genome. (nih.gov)
  • 1989 ) Analysis of neurogenesis in a mammalian neuroepithelium: proliferation and differentiation of an olfactory neuron precursor in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Mori K and Yoshihara Y (1995) Molecular recognition and olfactory processing in the mammalian olfactory system. (els.net)
  • Receptor axons carry the impulses through the holes in the cribiform plate to the olfactory bulbs at the base of the brain. (getbodysmart.com)
  • A thin layer of watery mucus made by the supporting cells and Bowman's (olfactory) glands covers the receptor cilia and microvilli. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Topical application of the odorants guaiacol (10(-3) mol/l, 1-30 min) and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP, 10(-5)-10(-3) mol/l, 15 min) caused time- and concentration-dependent reductions in the secretory granule content of acinar cells of the superficial Bowman's glands (sBG) and moderate to extensive vacuolation in acinar cells of sBG and deep olfactory glands (dG). (nih.gov)
  • 2. In patients who had undergone surgery for chronic sinusitis accompanied by olfactory disturbance, the olfactory mucosa showed strong positivity for MAA on the cell surface and Bowman glands. (nii.ac.jp)
  • At several months after the surgery, the olfactory mucosa of some of the patients in whom the chronic sinusitis had been cured showed reduced positivity (I.e., fainter staining intensity) for MAA, PNA and UEA-1 in bowman glands. (nii.ac.jp)
  • and the associated olfactory glands. (centralx.com)
  • To study morphology and quantitative analysis of Bowman's glands in human olfactory mucosa in Pakistani population . (bvsalud.org)
  • A large-scale quantitative EM study on activation of olfactory glands shows no effect of cholinergic agents. (nih.gov)
  • Bowman's g's olfactory glands . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bronchial g's seromucous glands in the mucosa and submucosa of the bronchial walls. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cobelli's g's mucous glands in the esophageal mucosa just above the cardia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • fundic g's ( fundus g's ) numerous tubular glands in the mucosa of the fundus and body of the stomach that contain the cells that produce acid and pepsin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aquaporin pathways and mucin secretion of Bowman's glands might protect the olfactory mucosa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • On the other hand, histopathological eosinophilic infiltration in anterior portion of sinus respiratory mucosa significantly increased more than those in posterior portion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Oral respiratory Nitric acid (FeNO) was found high concentrations in respiratory mucosa with remarkable infiltrative eosinophils and high FeNO concentration was imaged to flow from choana into nasal cavity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Not only cilia damage of the respiratory sinus mucosa, but also olfactory cilia damage and highly secretion of Bowman gland were suggested to be relationship with FeNO. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Therefore, olfactory dysfunction in eosinophilic sinusitis was thought to be affected by lower respiratory tract inflammation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Usually, there are concurrent olfactory epithelial changes, such as degeneration or respiratory metaplasia. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemical characterization of CYP2A expression in human olfactory mucosa. (wizdom.ai)
  • The mouse olfactory mucosa is a complex chemosensory tissue composed of multiple cell types, neuronal and non-neuronal. (fluidigm.com)
  • In microautoradiograms of solvent extracted sections of the skulls of mice given injections of [ 3 H]TCDD, no radioactivity was observed in the olfactory mucosa, suggesting that TCDD is not covalently bound in this tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By administration of β-naphthoflavone (5,6-benzoflavone) 16 h before killing, mRNA coding for cytochrome P-450 d but not for cytochrome P-450 c was induced to detectable levels in the mucosa of the ethmoturbinal tissue of the rat. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When an immunohistochemical study by means of NOS was carried out in relation to the two cases of the presence or absence of olfactory disturbance, the cilia, goblet cells and glandular tissue were positive when iNOS antibody was used, while perivascular positivity was observed when cNOS antibody was employed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Because of this direct and short connection from this peripheral tissue to the CNS, the olfactory system has attracted attention as a port-of-entry for environmental toxicants that may cause neurological dysfunction. (elsevier.com)
  • Do you spend lots of time and effort homogenizing olfactory mucosa tissue samples? (nextadvance.com)
  • No Cross Contamination No part of the Bullet Blender ® ever touches the olfactory mucosa tissue samples - the sample tubes are kept closed during homogenization. (nextadvance.com)
  • Easy and Convenient to Use Just place beads and buffer along with your olfactory mucosa tissue sample in standard tubes, load tubes directly in the Bullet Blender, select time and speed, and press start. (nextadvance.com)
  • ii) calponin immunoreactivity was not expressed by embryonic or neonatal OECs in vitro and in vivo although connective tissue from the olfactory mucosa was strongly positive in neonatal rats but not embryonic rats, iii) calponin expression in the olfactory mucosa was heterogeneous, defining subpopulations of connective tissue cells iv) using functional confrontation assays between OECs or Schwann cells with astrocytes, calponin was expressed heterogeneously by astrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The olfactory system is comprised of both PNS and CNS tissue and known for its ability to support neurogenesis throughout life [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results demonstrate that olfactory XME can be modulated by chemicals and that the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these enzymes are tissue-specific. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ), a nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) was recently described as a diffuse network of myeloid and lymphoid cells located in the olfactory organ of fish. (jimmunol.org)
  • For a number of species, including nonhuman primates, nasal tissue, especially olfactory mucosa, contains high concentrations of P450s. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Liadi M, Collins A, Li Y, Li D. The impact of tissue storage conditions on rat olfactory ensheathing cell yield and the future clinical implications. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Bipolar Neuron in shape, Olfactory cell, that stick out the mucosa in the nasal cavitiy thru the cribiform plate to the brain. (studystack.com)
  • Therefore, the olfactory sensory neuron lineage is regulated at several steps by negative signals acting through different Hes genes and targeting the expression of different proneural gene homologs. (biologists.org)
  • These data from the olfactory neuroepithelium niche provide evidence that neuron production may continue for decades in humans. (nature.com)
  • 1997 ) Mash1 activates a cascade of bHLH regulators in olfactory neuron progenitors. (biologists.org)
  • Graziadei GAM and Graziadei PPC (1979) Neurogenesis and neuron regeneration in the olfactory system of mammals. (els.net)
  • Shepherd GM (1994) Discrimination of molecular signals by the olfactory receptor neuron. (els.net)
  • Firestein S, Picco C and Menini A (1993) The relation between stimulus and response in olfactory receptor cells of the tiger salamander. (els.net)
  • Here, we investigate possible optimal olfactory coding strategies by maximizing mutual information between odor mixtures and ORNs' responses with respect to the bipartite odor-receptor interaction network (ORIN) characterized by sensitivities between all odorant-ORN pairs. (pnas.org)
  • Odorant receptor expressed sequence tags demonstrate olfactory expression of over 400 genes, extensive alternate splicing and unequal expression levels. (nih.gov)
  • Kurahashi T and Menini A (1997) Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell. (els.net)
  • We show that 98.9% of intact olfactory receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mature OSNs. (fluidigm.com)
  • Low to moderate concentrations of IBMP delivered in the vapor phase evoked monophasic negative slow voltage transients recorded from the surface of the olfactory mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • A focal area of proliferation of basal epithelial cells (arrow) is present in the olfactory mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • A localized aggregate of proliferative basal cells (arrows) is present in the olfactory mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in smell acuity induced by radiation exposure of the olfactory mucosa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As OECs of the olfactory mucosa can be obtained by simple biopsy in all individuals without affecting their smell sensation, OECs considered as a promising candidate for autologous transplantation in the nervous system injury, especially for spinal cord repair. (ac.ir)
  • There is low-quality evidence for olfactory mucosal autograft surgery in patients with spinal cord injury. (cmaj.ca)
  • Sagittal (A) T 2 -weighted, (B) T 1 -weighted and (C) proton density magnetic resonance images of an intramedullary cervical spinal mass in a 38-year-old man 12 years after olfactory mucosal autograft surgery. (cmaj.ca)
  • Iwamura H, Kondo K, Kikuta S, Nishijima H, Kagoya R, Suzukawa K, Ando M, Fujimoto C, Toma-Hirano M, Yamasoba T. Caloric restriction reduces basal cell proliferation and results in the deterioration of neuroepithelial regeneration following olfactotoxic mucosal damage in mouse olfactory mucosa. (harvard.edu)
  • This study concludes that 1) the incidence of acute nasal injury from systemic and inhaled NA correlates with the rates of regional microsomal NA metabolism and that 2) the nasal airflow pattern determines the pattern of olfactory mucosal injury from inhaled NA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Influence of patients' age on functional recovery after transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells into injured spinal cord injury. (rutgers.edu)
  • Repair of spinal cord injury by transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Whole-body autoradiography of mice and rats after i.v. administration of 2,3,7,8-[ 14 C]tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin ([ 14 C]TCDD) showed a selective localization of radioactivity in the liver and nasal olfactory mucosa. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The amount of specific [ 3 H]TCDD binding sites in cytosol from the ethmoturbinates of rats (33 fmol/mg cytosolic protein) was comparable to that of the liver cytosol as estimated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide concentration gradient gel, and therefore probably too low to explain the retention of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thereby in the current study OECs were cultured from olfactory mucosa of 7 days old rats' pups and their purity was examined by flow-cytometry after simultaneous double staining for p75 and GFAP markers. (ac.ir)
  • Azizi M, Bakhtiari M, Farahmand Ghavi F, Zandi M, Imani M, Joghataei M T. Purity determining of cultured OECs from olfactory mucosa of rats' pups. (ac.ir)
  • For this reason we have examined calponin expression in the peripheral olfactory system of embryonic and neonatal rats in vivo and from cells in vitro to assess if calponin is expressed in a developmental manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus [DM] on the olfactory mucosa , an experimental study was performed with 60 albino rats from the same colony and age. (bvsalud.org)
  • How well does real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) analysis of olfactory mucosa brushings discriminate between patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and controls? (enttoday.org)
  • Specifically, this paper describes the design and fabrication of a novel sensor system, based upon the principle of 'nasal chromatography', which emulates the human olfactory mucosa. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Today, the capability of the human olfactory system is still, in many ways, superior to that of the electronic nose. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. (chemcom.be)
  • On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. (chemcom.be)
  • Efficiency of human olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation into spinal cysts to improve mobility of the hind limbs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We focused attention to the human olfactory neuroepithelium, an extracranial site supplying input to the olfactory bulbs of the brain. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Aggregate analysis of 28,726 single cells from human olfactory cleft mucosa. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 2: Gene expression analysis of human olfactory neuroepithelium. (nature.com)
  • We describe here a method for biopsying olfactory mucosa from rat and human nasal cavities. (jove.com)
  • Now the door is open to reconsidering the functional organization of the human olfactory system. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Development of a Primary Human Co-Culture Model of Inflamed Airway Mucosa. (abcam.com)
  • The above image is a section through human olfactory mucosa. (masseyeandear.org)
  • a) Sagittal section of human head showing nasal cavity and olfactory mucosa lining the turbinates. (els.net)
  • GMP production of human olfactory ensheathing cells. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Using a nasal approach, the surgical team harvested an olfactory mucosa graft that was transplanted to his spinal cord lesion on the next day. (respectfulinsolence.com)
  • To develop a method of repair for spinal cord injuries using transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells cultured from the olfactory system. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Olfactory mucosa lines the roof of the nasal cavity and superior turbinates (= nasal conchae ) and is structurally modified to detect odor-producing chemicals (= odorants). (getbodysmart.com)
  • Anatomy of the olfactory system. (els.net)
  • Farbman Al, Margolis FL (1980) Olfactory marker protein during ontogeny: Immunohistochemical localization. (springer.com)
  • After using oral steroid, eosinophil infiltration and growth of Boman gland were suppressed and most cases with olfactory dysfunction were improved. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Olfactory dysfunction could result from infection of the olfactory system by SARS-CoV-2 or from inflammation induced by the virus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results of this study suggested, that olfactory dysfunction with DM is a complicated process and the integrity of olfactory mucosa represents a part of its dilemma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr. Patel has published widely in topics such as avoiding complications in endoscopic sinus surgery, chronic rhinosinusitis in the immunosuppressed patient population, new devices and techniques for endoscopic skull base surgery, and olfactory dysfunction. (stanford.edu)
  • Then the nasal cavity was opened sagittally and the olfactory mucosa was separated from posterior part of nasal septum and at last OECs were obtained from lamina properia of olfactory mucosa and were cultured. (ac.ir)
  • Purity of cultured OECs in our study is probably more than 87.9% by flow- owing to p75+/S100+ and GFAP+/S100+ olfactory ensheathing cells were not counted. (ac.ir)
  • Debate has been ongoing on the relative merits of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells as candidates for transplant-mediate repair of CNS lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the glial cells of the primary olfactory system [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a type of specialized glial cell currently considered as having a double function in the nervous system: one regenerative, and another immune. (nih.gov)
  • Confocal microscopy images showing expression of the phenotypic marker p75 NRT in olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) infected by Streptococcus pneumoniae . (nih.gov)
  • However, tactile, thermal, and nociceptive sensory input from the oral mucosa contributes to food quality. (tmc.edu)
  • Taste buds are also found on the oral mucosa of the palate and epiglottis. (tmc.edu)
  • Here we report on the development of an artificial olfactory microsystem that replicates this basic structure. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Graziadei PPC, Monti Graziadei GA (1978) The olfactory system: A model for the study of neurogenesis and axon regeneration in mammals. (springer.com)
  • Brann, J. H. & Firestein, S. J. A lifetime of neurogenesis in the olfactory system. (nature.com)
  • We have characterised the functions of the bHLH transcriptional repressors HES1 and HES5 in neurogenesis, using the development of the olfactory placodes in mouse embryos as a model. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in Hes1 and Hes5 also have distinct consequences on olfactory placode neurogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Together, our results suggest that Hes1 regulates Mash1 transcription in the olfactory placode in two different contexts, initially as a prepattern gene defining the placodal domain undergoing neurogenesis and, subsequently, as a neurogenic gene controlling the density of neural progenitors in this domain. (biologists.org)
  • The histology of olfactory mucosa has been previously studied under light and electron microscope. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, olfactory placodes that are double mutant for Hes1 and Hes5 upregulate Ngn1, a neural bHLH gene activated downstream of Mash1, and show a strong and rapid increase in neuronal density. (biologists.org)
  • By utilizing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodology, we have detected the messenger RNA encoding the protein of the neu gene (p185(neu)) and Neu differentiation factor (NDF) isoforms in the olfactory mucosa. (elsevier.com)
  • Salehi-Ashtiani, K & Farbman, AI 1996, ' Expression of neu and Neu differentiation factor in the olfactory mucosa of rat ', International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience , vol. 14, no. 7-8, pp. 801-811. (elsevier.com)
  • Olfactory detection thresholds for two odorants (amyl acetate and eugenol) were determined before the start of radiation therapy, within a week of termination of therapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. (biomedsearch.com)
  • If V1RL1 really is a vomeronasal receptor, how did it end up in the main olfactory system? (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Pigs that lack a functional VNO can detect pheromones through the main olfactory system, for example. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • and they seem to have normal olfactory ability. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results reveal that returning normal olfactory experience can indeed drive the re-refinement of intrabulbar projections but requires 9 weeks. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ferriero D, Margolis FL (1975) Denervation in the primary olfactory pathway of mice. (springer.com)
  • She treats patients with a wide variety of rhinologic complaints, including chronic sinus infection or inflammation, sinus disease that has failed medical therapy, sinus disease that has failed prior surgical therapy, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, benign and and malignant sinus and skull base tumors, as well as olfactory disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • Moreover, FeLV has oncogenic potential and causes various tumors in cats, such as lymphoma, leukemia, osteochondroma and olfactory neuroblastoma ( HARTMANN, 2006 ). (scielo.br)
  • The bar at the top represents an alignment of all olfactory receptor proteins, with transmembrane (TM) regions shaded gray and intracellular (IC) and extracellular (EC) loops in white. (nih.gov)
  • The olfactory mucosa was observed in the roof, medial and lateral walls of both nasal cavities . (bvsalud.org)
  • A study in 2008 in mice has shown, that the level of CB1 expression in various brain regions, including the olfactory nucleus, is modulated by diet-induced obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the term olfactory discrimination also includes the discrimination of different intensities of the same odor, it most generally refers to qualitative discriminations among different odors. (springer.com)