Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
Procedures for measuring a response to odorants.
Pads made of various materials used for personal hygiene usually for absorbing URINE or FECES. They can be worn as underpants or pants liners by various age groups, from NEWBORNS to the ELDERLY. Absorbent pads can be made of fluff wood pulp and HYDROGEL absorbent covered with viscose rayon, polyester, polypropylene, or POLYETHYLENE coverstock.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.

Dopamine receptor subtypes modulate olfactory bulb gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. (1/1923)

The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor is the predominant Cl- channel protein mediating inhibition in the olfactory bulb and elsewhere in the mammalian brain. The olfactory bulb is rich in neurons containing both GABA and dopamine. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are also highly expressed in this brain region with a distinct and complementary distribution pattern. This distribution suggests that dopamine may control the GABAergic inhibitory processing of odor signals, possibly via different signal-transduction mechanisms. We have observed that GABAA receptors in the rat olfactory bulb are differentially modulated by dopamine in a cell-specific manner. Dopamine reduced the currents through GABA-gated Cl- channels in the interneurons, presumably granule cells. This action was mediated via D1 receptors and involved phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase A. Enhancement of GABA responses via activation of D2 dopamine receptors and phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase C was observed in mitral/tufted cells. Decreasing or increasing the binding affinity for GABA appears to underlie the modulatory effects of dopamine via distinct receptor subtypes. This dual action of dopamine on inhibitory GABAA receptor function in the rat olfactory bulb could be instrumental in odor detection and discrimination, olfactory learning, and ultimately odotopic memory formation.  (+info)

Adult subventricular zone neuronal precursors continue to proliferate and migrate in the absence of the olfactory bulb. (2/1923)

Neurons continue to be born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles of adult mice. These cells migrate as a network of chains through the SVZ and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) into the olfactory bulb (OB), where they differentiate into mature neurons. The OB is the only known target for these neuronal precursors. Here, we show that, after elimination of the OB, the SVZ and RMS persist and become dramatically larger. The proportion of dividing [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled] or dying (pyknotic or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end-labeled) cells in the RMS was not significantly affected at 3 d or 3 weeks after bulbectomy (OBX). However, by 3 months after OBX, the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells in the RMS decreased by half and that of dying cells doubled. Surprisingly, the rostral migration of precursors continued along the RMS after OBX. This was demonstrated by focal microinjections of BrdU and grafts of SVZ cells carrying LacZ under the control of a neuron-specific promoter gene. Results indicate that the OB is not essential for proliferation and the directional migration of SVZ precursors.  (+info)

Modeling geriatric depression in animals: biochemical and behavioral effects of olfactory bulbectomy in young versus aged rats. (3/1923)

Geriatric depression exhibits biological and therapeutic differences relative to early-onset depression. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a paradigm that shares major features of human depression, in young versus aged rats to determine mechanisms underlying these differences. Young OBX rats showed locomotor hyperactivity and a loss of passive avoidance and tactile startle. In contrast, aged OBX animals maintained avoidance and startle responses but showed greater locomotor stimulation; the aged group also exhibited decreased grooming and suppressed feeding with novel presentation of chocolate milk, effects which were not seen in young OBX. These behavioral contrasts were accompanied by greater atrophy of the frontal/parietal cortex and midbrain in aged OBX. Serotonin transporter sites were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of young OBX rats, but were decreased in the aged OBX group. Cell signaling cascades also showed age-dependent effects, with increased adenylyl cyclase responses to monoaminergic stimulation in young OBX but no change or a decrease in aged OBX. These data indicate that there are biological distinctions in effects of OBX in young and aged animals, which, if present in geriatric depression, provide a mechanistic basis for differences in biological markers and drug responses. OBX may provide a useful animal model with which to test therapeutic interventions for geriatric depression.  (+info)

Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (4/1923)

The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.  (+info)

Vertebrate slit, a secreted ligand for the transmembrane protein roundabout, is a repellent for olfactory bulb axons. (5/1923)

The olfactory bulb plays a central role in olfactory information processing through its connections with both peripheral and cortical structures. Axons projecting from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon are guided by a repulsive activity in the septum. The molecular nature of the repellent is not known. We report here the isolation of vertebrate homologs of the Drosophila slit gene and show that Slit protein binds to the transmembrane protein Roundabout (Robo). Slit is expressed in the septum whereas Robo is expressed in the olfactory bulb. Functionally, Slit acts as a chemorepellent for olfactory bulb axons. These results establish a ligand-receptor relationship between two molecules important for neural development, suggest a role for Slit in olfactory bulb axon guidance, and reveal the existence of a new family of axon guidance molecules.  (+info)

Comparative anatomy of the vomeronasal organ complex in bats. (6/1923)

The morphology of the vomeronasal organ complex was histologically described in eight out of fourteen chiropteran species investigated. Of the six families examined, all except the family Pteropodidae (suborder Megachiroptera) were found to have at least one member possessing the organ. The organ is best developed in phyllostomatids. It is absent in vespertilionids (including a Myotis embryo) except in Miniopterus. An accessory olfactory bulb is reported for the first time in the latter. The organ is described for the first time in Rhinopoma, Megaderma, and Hipposideros. The organ in Rhinolophus is also described. Homologous anterior nasal cartilages and patent nasopalatine ducts are present in all species. The organ occupies the anterior ventral nasal septum region. In Megaderma and Hipposideros it is level with the nasal cavity floor. Areas of epithelium similar to olfactory epithelium have been observed in some organs. Epithelia, vascular sinuses, vomeronasal nerves, paravomeronasal ganglia, accessory olfactory bulbs, and vomeronasal glands have been investigated. In bats with regressed or rudimentary organs (Megaderma, Rhinopoma, Rhinolophus, Hipposideros) accessory olfactory bulbs could not be identified. Thus, presence of the organ does not necessarily indicate presence of the accessory olfactory bulb. Septal pockets located superior to the organ complex and lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium are described in Hipposideros and may play a part in nasophonation. A unique role is proposed for the organ in the feeding behaviour of Desmodus. The desirability of extending the useful terms 'diosmatic' and 'monosmatic' to all vertebrates in reference to their respective possession or lack of the vomeronasal organ is suggested.  (+info)

GABA(B) receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes of rat olfactory bulb. (7/1923)

Previous studies have shown that GABA(B) receptors facilitate cyclic AMP formation in brain slices likely through an indirect mechanism involving intracellular second messengers. In the present study, we have investigated whether a positive coupling of GABA(B) receptors to adenylyl cyclase could be detected in a cell-free preparation of rat olfactory bulb, a brain region where other Gi/Go-coupled neurotransmitter receptors have been found to stimulate the cyclase activity. The GABA(B) receptor agonist (-)-baclofen significantly increased basal adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes of the granule cell and external plexiform layers, but not in the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer. The adenylyl cyclase stimulation was therefore examined in granule cell layer membranes. The (-)-baclofen stimulation (pD2=4.53) was mimicked by 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid (pD2=4.60) and GABA (pD2=3.56), but not by (+)-baclofen, 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid, muscimol and isoguvacine. The stimulatory effect was counteracted by the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP 35348 (pA2=4.31), CGP 55845 A (pA2=7.0) and 2-hydroxysaclofen (pKi=4.22). Phaclofen (1 mM) was inactive. The (-)-baclofen stimulation was not affected by quinacrine, indomethacin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and staurosporine, but was completely prevented by pertussis toxin and significantly reduced by the alpha subunit of transducin, a betagamma scavenger. The betagamma subunits of transducin stimulated the cyclase activity and this effect was not additive with that produced by (-)-baclofen. In the external plexiform and granule cell layers, but not in the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer, (-)-baclofen enhanced the adenylyl cyclase stimulation elicited by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) 38. Conversely, the adenylyl cyclase activity stimulated by either forskolin or Ca2+/calmodulin-(Ca2+/CaM) was inhibited by (-)-baclofen in all the olfactory bulb layers examined. These data demonstrate that in specific layers of rat olfactory bulb activation of GABA(B) receptors enhances basal and neurotransmitter-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by a mechanism involving betagamma subunits of Gi/Go. This positive coupling is associated with a widespread inhibitory effect on forskolin- and Ca2+/CaM-stimulated cyclic AMP formation.  (+info)

Slit2-Mediated chemorepulsion and collapse of developing forebrain axons. (8/1923)

Diffusible chemorepellents play a major role in guiding developing axons toward their correct targets by preventing them from entering or steering them away from certain regions. Genetic studies in Drosophila revealed a novel repulsive guidance system that prevents inappropriate axons from crossing the CNS midline; this repulsive system is mediated by the Roundabout (Robo) receptor and its secreted ligand Slit. In rodents, Robo and Slit are expressed in the spinal cord and Slit can repel spinal motor axons in vitro. Here, we extend these findings into higher brain centers by showing that Robo1 and Robo2, as well as Slit1 and Slit2, are often expressed in complementary patterns in the developing forebrain. Furthermore, we show that human Slit2 can repel olfactory and hippocampal axons and collapse their growth cones.  (+info)

article{cd7f6278-687b-4a1d-9f0d-d122c28d5b7f, abstract = {Postnatal neurogenesis takes place in two brain regions, the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). The transcriptional cascade controlling hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in detail; however, the transcriptional control of olfactory bulb neurogenesis is still not well mapped. In this study, we provide insights into the molecular events controlling postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We first show the existence of diverse neural stem cell/progenitor populations along the SVZ-rostral migratory stream (RMS) axis, focusing on those expressing the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Mash1. We provide evidence that Mash1-derived progenies generate oligodendrocytic and neuronal precursors through the transient expression of the bHLH transcription factors Olig2 and neurogenin2 (Ngn2), respectively. Furthermore, we reveal that Ngn2-positive progenies express the T-box transcription factors Tbr2 and Tbr1, which ...
New olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are GABAergic interneurons continuously arising from neuronal progenitors and integrating into preexisting bulbar circuits. They receive both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs from olfactory bulb intrinsic neurons and centrifugal afferents. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamic of newborn GC synaptogenesis in adult mouse olfactory bulb. First, we established that GABAergic synapses onto mature GC dendrites contain the GABA(A) receptor alpha2 subunit along with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin. Next, we characterized morphologically and electrophysiologically the development of GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs onto newborn GCs labeled with eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) using lentiviral vectors. Already when reaching the GC layer (GCL), at 3 d post-vector injection (dpi), newborn GCs exhibited tiny voltage-dependent sodium currents and received functional GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses, recognized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Olfactory bulbectomy induced oxidative and cell damage in rat. T2 - Protective effect of melatonin. AU - Tasset, Inmaculada. AU - Medina, F. J.. AU - Peña, J.. AU - Jimena, I.. AU - muñoz, M. del Carmen. AU - Salcedo, M.. AU - Ruiz, C.. AU - Feijóo, M.. AU - Montilla, P.. AU - Túnez, I.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - In this study we analyzed the effects of melatonin (Mel, 1 mg/kgip) on behavioral changes as well as cell and oxidative damage prompted by bilaterally olfactory bulbectomy. Olfactory bulbectomy caused an increase in lipid peroxidation products and caspase-3, whereas it prompted a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidative enzymes activities. Additionally, olfactory bulbectomy induced behavioral changes characterized by the enhancement of immobility time in the forced swim test and hyperactivity in the open field test. All these changes were normalized by treatment of Mel (14 days). Our data show that Mel has a beneficial neuropsychiatric action ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in olfactory bulb mitral cell layer development pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
What triggered release from calcium stores in GC spines? Application of 50 μm APV and 100 μm Ni2+ completely blocked the synaptic Ca2+ transient in all spines examined [7 ± 10% of control; mean (ΔF/F)syn, 2 ± 3%; n = 5; p , 0.05; χ2 test] (Fig. 5B,D), although it had little effect on the corresponding EPSP amplitudes (80 ± 16% of control; p , 0.09) (Fig. 5B,C). Thus, internal stores are activated via calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) rather than via the metabotropic glutamate receptor/IP3 pathway. This manipulation also showed that other possible ligandgated sources of synaptically gated calcium, in particular calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, play no significant role.. For spines of cultured hippocampal neurons, it has been suggested that CICR carries most of the Ca2+ signal and is triggered by an NMDA-R-mediated Ca2+ signal too small for detection (Emptage et al., 1999). Could the APV-sensitive component of the Ca2+ transient in GC spines be attributable to NMDA-R triggered CICR ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differing phagocytic capacities of accessory and main olfactory ensheathing cells and the implication for olfactory glia transplantation therapies. AU - Nazareth, Lynnmaria. AU - Tello Velasquez, Johana. AU - Lineburg, Katie E.. AU - Chehrehasa, Fatemeh. AU - St John, James A.. AU - Ekberg, Jenny A K. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - The rodent olfactory systems comprise the main olfactory system for the detection of odours and the accessory olfactory system which detects pheromones. In both systems, olfactory axon fascicles are ensheathed by olfactory glia, termed olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which are crucial for the growth and maintenance of the olfactory nerve. The growth-promoting and phagocytic characteristics of OECs make them potential candidates for neural repair therapies such as transplantation to repair the injured spinal cord. However, transplanting mixed populations of glia with unknown properties may lead to variations in outcomes for neural repair. As the ...
In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic potential evoked in rat medial-amygdala neuron following olfactory bulbectomy. AU - Nakanishi, Hiroshi. AU - Ukai, Kiyoharu. AU - Nakagawa, Terutake. AU - Watanabe, Shigenori. AU - Kamata, Osamu. AU - Yamamoto, Kenji. PY - 1990/11/5. Y1 - 1990/11/5. N2 - Synaptic potentials evoked in the medial amygdala (m-AMG) neurons were studied in in vitro slice preparations obtained from normal and olfactory bulbectomized rats. Local stimulation induced a sequence of responses: a fast EPSP, a fast IPSP and a slow EPSP. The fast EPSP was suppressed by kynurenic acid (KYN) at a concentration of 1 mM but not by 3-[(±)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) at a concentrations up to 20 μM. The slow EPSP was reversibly blocked by both KYN (1 mM) and CPP (5-10 μM). Addition of bicuculline methiodide (50 μM) to the bath suppressed the fast IPSP and augmented both the fast and slow EPSPs leading to burst discharges. In a small ...
After bilateral olfactory bulbectomy in rats a significant increase of norepinephrine (NE) level in the hypothalamus was found. However, no difference was observed between hypothalamic NE turnover of bulbectomized and sham operated animals. In the amygdaloid cortex the NE level was not affected by bulbectomy. In this area, however, the ... read more NE turnover appeared to be decreased after bulbectomy. The latter finding may be related to the deficits in passive avoidance behaviour as found in bulbectomized rats. show less ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accumulation of stress-related proteins within the glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb following damage to olfactory receptor neurons. AU - Hirata, Kazuho. AU - Kanemaru, Takaaki. AU - Minohara, Motozumi. AU - Togo, Akinobu. AU - Kira, Jun Ichi. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - The expression of stress-responsive proteins, such as nestin and a 27-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP27), was immunohistochemically examined in order to demonstrate glial responses in the rat olfactory bulb following sensory deprivation. At 3 days to 1 week after sensory deprivation, numerous nestin-expressing cells appeared within the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. These cells were regarded as reactive astrocytes since they were immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and showed hypertrophic features. The glomeruli, in which nestin-immunoreactive astrocytes were localized, were filled with degenerating terminals of olfactory receptor neurons and migrated microglia. A small population of ...
By using biochemical, immunological and immunohistochemical techniques, we have investigated the expression and functional activity of protease-activated receptor (PARs) 1 and 2 in the rat olfactory system. Western blot analysis of microdissected main olfactory bulb indicated the presence of both PAR1 and PAR2 in olfactory nerve-glomerular cell layer (ON-GL), external plexiform layer (EPL) and granule cell layer (GRL). In functional assays, PAR1 and PAR2 selective peptides stimulated [35S]GTPyS binding and phosphoinositide hydrolysis and inhibited cyclic AMP formation in ON-GL but not in EPL and GRL, whereas they induced RhoA activation in both ON-GL and EPL+GRL. Olfactory bulb deafferentation by lesions of the olfactory mucosa elicited a significant decrease of PAR1 and PAR2 immunoreactivity in ON-GL and a reduced stimulation of [35S]GTPyS binding by PAR selective peptides. In primary cultures of olfactory neurons both PAR1 and PAR2 were detected by immunofluorescence and their activation by ...
Hyperosmia is an increased olfactory acuity (heightened sense of smell), usually caused by a lower threshold for odor. This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and the olfactory cortex. The causes of hyperosmia may be genetic, environmental or the result of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. When odorants enter the nasal cavity, they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. These receptors are bipolar neurons that connect to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, traveling through the cribriform plate. At the glomerular layer, axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with dendrites from intrinsic olfactory bulb neurons: mitrial/tufted cells and dopaminergic periglomerular cells. From the olfactory bulb, mitral/tufted cells send axons via the lateral olfactory tract (the cranial nerve I) to the olfactory cortex, which includes the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, and ...
The main olfactory bulb (OB) is made up of several concentric layers, forming circuitries often involving dendro-dendritic synapses. Important interactions between OB neurons occur in the external plexiform layer (EPL), where dendrites of tufted and Van Gehuchten cells form synapses with dendrites of deeper lying mitral, tufted, and granule cells. OB neurons display a variety of neurotransmitters. Here, the focus is on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a 37-amino acid neuropeptide transmitter that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. In the OB, CGRP-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were mostly observed in the mitral cell layer (MCL) of normal mice, and their number increased following colchicine treatment. Sparsely distributed CGRP-ir cell bodies were also found in the EPL and granular cell layer. Double-immunofluorescence experiments revealed a lack of co-localization between CGRP-like immunoreactivity (LI) and corticotropin-releasing factor- or galanin-LI, ...
The periglomerular region of the olfactory bulb, apart from containing the somata and stem dendrites of the cells contributing to the glomeruli, is the sole region of distribution of the periglomerular cell thin dendrites and the short-axon cell dendrites. It is also the major site of termination of all axons to the glomerular layer except the olfactory axons - i.e. tufted cell collaterals, periglomerular cell and short-axon cell axons and centrifugal fibres. Its characteristic neuropil has been studied with the electron microscope to define the cells of origin of the types of neuronal process and their synaptic relationships. Three types of axon terminals have been found: those with spherical, large flattened and small flattened vesicles, which are deduced to derive from tufted cell collaterals or centrifugal fibres, periglomerular cell and short axon-cell axons respectively; those with spherical vesicles are consistently associated with asymmetrical membrane thickenings and those with either ...
The mammalian brain maintains few developmental niches where neurogenesis persists into adulthood. One niche is located in the olfactory system where the olfactory bulb continuously receives functional interneurons. In vivo two-photon microscopy of lentivirus-labeled newborn neurons was used to directly image their development and maintenance in the olfactory bulb. Time-lapse imaging of newborn neurons over several days showed that dendritic formation is highly dynamic with distinct differences between spiny neurons and non-spiny neurons. Once incorporated into the network, adult-born neurons maintain significant levels of structural dynamics. This structural plasticity is local, cumulative and sustained in neurons several months after their integration. Thus, I provide a new experimental system for directly studying the pool of regenerating neurons in the intact mammalian brain and suggest that regenerating neurons form a cellular substrate for continuous wiring plasticity in the olfactory bulb.
I am interested in describing synaptic circuits in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station for odor processing in the brain. In the mammalian olfactory system, sensory inputs converge in the olfactory bulb in spatially segregated anatomical structure called glomeruli. Olfactory neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor project in specific glomeruli where they transmit sensory information to ~25 mitral and tufted cells, the principal output neurons of the bulb. Each glomerulus is surrounded by local juxtaglomerular neurons that shape the output of mitral and tufted cells. Juxtaglomerular cells include different types of neurons like inhibitory periglomerular cells, excitatory external tufted cells and mixed dopaminergic-GABAergic short axon cells.. My earlier work focused on intraglomerular excitatory interactions that amplify the complex and unique long-lasting synaptic response of mitral and tufted cells to an olfactory nerve input. I demonstrated the unexpected role of external tufted ...
The adult mouse subependymal zone (SEZ) harbors neural stem cells that are thought to exclusively generate GABAergic interneurons of the olfactory bulb. We examined the adult generation of glutamatergic juxtaglomerular neurons, which had dendritic arborizations that projected into adjacent glomeruli, identifying them as short-axon cells. Fate mapping revealed that these originate from Neurog2- and Tbr2-expressing progenitors located in the dorsal region of the SEZ. Examination of the progenitors of these glutamatergic interneurons allowed us to determine the sequential expression of transcription factors in these cells that are thought to be hallmarks of glutamatergic neurogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex and adult hippocampus. Indeed, the molecular specification of these SEZ progenitors allowed for their recruitment into the cerebral cortex after a lesion was induced. Taken together, our data indicate that SEZ progenitors not only produce a population of adult-born glutamatergic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low-dose curcumin stimulates proliferation, migration and phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells. AU - Velasquez, Johana Tello. AU - Watts, Michelle E.. AU - Todorovic, Michael. AU - Nazareth, Lynnmaria. AU - Pastrana, Erika. AU - Diaz-Nido, Javier. AU - Lim, Filip. AU - Ekberg, Jenny A K. AU - Quinn, Ronald J.. AU - St John, James A.. PY - 2014/10/31. Y1 - 2014/10/31. N2 - One of the promising strategies for neural repair therapies is the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) which are the glial cells of the olfactory system. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the behaviour of mouse OECs to determine if it could be of use to further enhance the therapeutic potential of OECs. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol compound found in the spice turmeric, is known for its anti-cancer properties at doses over 10 μM, and often at 50 μM, and it exerts its effects on cancer cells in part by activation of MAP kinases. In contrast, we found that low-dose curcumin ...
Sprague Dawley rats (21-29 d of age) of either gender were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and decapitated in accordance with Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and National Institutes of Health guidelines. The olfactory bulbs were removed and immersed in sucrose-artificial CSF (sucrose-aCSF) equilibrated with 95% O2-5% CO2, pH 7.38. The sucrose-aCSF had the following composition (in mm): 26 NaHCO3, 1 NaH2PO4, 2 KCl, 5 MgSO4, 0.5 CaCl2, 10 glucose, and 248 sucrose. Horizontal slices (400 μm thick) were cut with a microslicer (Ted Pella, Redding, CA). After a period of recovery at 30°C for 15 min, slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) in aCSF equilibrated with 95% O2-5% CO2 [composition (in mm): 124 NaCl, 26 NaHCO3, 3 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 2 MgSO4, 2 CaCl2, and 10 glucose] until they were used. For recording, a single slice was placed in a recording chamber and continuously perfused at the rate of 1.5 ml/min with normal aCSF equilibrated with 95% O2-5% CO2. All ...
The olfactory bulb (OB) receives and integrates newborn interneurons throughout life. This process is important for the proper functioning of the OB circuit and consequently, for the sense of smell. Although we know how these new interneurons are produced, the way in which they integrate into the pre-existing ongoing circuits remains poorly documented. Bearing in mind that glutamatergic inputs onto local OB interneurons are crucial for adjusting the level of bulbar inhibition, it is important to characterize when and how these inputs from excitatory synapses develop on newborn OB interneurons. We studied early synaptic events that lead to the formation and maturation of the first glutamatergic synapses on adult-born granule cells (GCs), the most abundant subtype of OB interneuron. Patch-clamp recordings and electron microscopy (EM) analysis were performed on adult-born interneurons shortly after their arrival in the adult OB circuits. We found that both the ratio of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)
In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced) the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1) males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2) males that were exposed to female odors, 3) males that mated for 1 h and could not
Previous research suggests that volatile body odourants detected by the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) are processed mainly by the main olfactory bulb (MOB) whereas nonvolatile body odourants detected by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) are processed via the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We asked whether urinary volatiles from males and females differentially activate the AOB in addition to the MOB in gonadectomized mice of either sex. Exposure to urinary volatiles from opposite-sex but not same-sex conspecifics augmented the number of Fos-immunoreactive mitral and granule cells in the AOB. Volatile urinary odours from male as well as female mice also stimulated Fos expression in distinct clusters of MOB glomeruli in both sexes. Intranasal administration of ZnSO4, intended to disrupt MOE function, eliminated the ability of volatile urinary odours to stimulate Fos in both the MOB and AOB. In ovariectomized, ZnSO4-treated females a significant, though attenuated, AOB Fos response occurred after ...
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) accompany the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, which regenerate throughout life, from the olfactory mucosa into the olfactory bulb. OECs have shown widely varying efficacy in repairing the injured nervous system. Analysis of the transcriptome of OECs will help in understanding their biology and will provide tools for investigating the mechanisms of their efficacy and interactions with host tissues in lesion models. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profile of cultured OECs with that of Schwann cells (SCs) and astrocytes (ACs), two glial cell types to which OECs have similarities. Two biological replicates of RNA from cultured OECs, SCs, and ACs were hybridized to long oligo rat 5K arrays against a common reference pool of RNA (50% cultured fibroblast RNA and 50% neonatal rat brain RNA). Transcriptional profiles were analyzed by hierarchical clustering, Principal Components Analysis, and the Venn diagram. The three glial cell types had similarly
Background: There is continuing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain which supplies interneurons to the olfactory bulb. There is also continuing neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE) supplying new olfactory sensory neurons whose axons terminate in the olfactory bulb. These axons synapse with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive periglomerular neurons, which are the product of subventricular zone neurogenesis. Hypothesis: SVZ neurogenesis is regulated coordinately with olfactory epithelial neurogenesis. Aims: The aim is to quantify the rate of cell proliferation in the SVZ after killing the olfactory sensory neurons, which upregulates neurogenesis in the OE. Methods: Adult mice were treated with methimazole, and the tissues were examined at different times after treatment. The survival of the olfactory sensory neurons within the OE was assessed together with their terminals within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. The loss of tyrosine hydroxylase periglomerular neurons ...
This study of the ventral olfactory bulb of larval Xenopus laevis shows for the first time the existence of a thermosensitive olfactory glomerulus. This thermosensitive olfactory glomerulus was found to be innervated by axons of olfactory sensory neurons emerging from the ipsilateral olfactory epithelium as well as from the contralateral olfactory epithelium. The perfusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral olfactory epithelium with cold, odor-free Ringer solution elicited a transient [Ca2+]i response within the axons of olfactory sensory neurons and in mitral cells. The activation of mitral cells demonstrated that the response to temperature stimulation is transmitted across the first olfactory synapse. The thermoreception was spatially restricted to this glomerulus, which did not respond to any of the tested odors. Adjacent olfactory glomeruli responded to olfactory and mechanical stimulation without showing any response to temperature changes. The spatially restricted, bilateral processing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of synaptic GABA(A) receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mouse cerebellar and olfactory bulb neurones. AU - Nusser, Zoltan. AU - Sieghart, Werner. AU - Mody, Istvan. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - 1. It has been demonstrated that the regulation of recombinant GABA(A) receptors by phosphorylation depends on the subunit composition. Here we studied the regulation of synaptic GABA(A) receptor function by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in neurones expressing distinct receptor subtypes. 2. Light microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that granule cells of the olfactory bulb express only the β3 as the β subunit variant, whereas cerebellar stellate and basket cells express only the β2 as the β subunit. 3. In cerebellar interneurones, intracellular application of 20 μM microcystin, a protein phosphatase 1/2A inhibitor, prolonged (63 ± 14%; mean ± S.E.M.) the decay time course of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) without significantly affecting ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[7] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[13] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[23] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
When insects search for food, a sexual mate or the ideal place for laying eggs - somewhere where the hatching larvae have a good chance to survive - they have to rely on their sense of smell. They use their olfactory organs, the antennae, to detect odor molecules in their environment. These odors are processed in the so-called antennal lobe, the actual olfactory center of the insect brain, which consists of spherical structures: the olfactory glomeruli. Here, inside the olfactory glomeruli, different groups of olfactory neurons form conjunctions or synapses which enable different environmental odors to be processed.. Until now, scientists had assumed that olfactory glomeruli share a pretty homogeneous architecture and that particular functions of the different glomeruli can be attributed primarily to special olfactory receptors on the membranes of the olfactory sensory neurons. A research team of the Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology has now shown for the first time that the neuronal ...
There is ongoing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain which supplies interneurons to the olfactory bulb. There is also continuous neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE) supplying new olfactory sensory neurons whose axons terminate in the olfactory bulb. These axons synapse with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive periglomerular neurons within the olfactory bulb, which are the product of subventricular zone neurogenesis. We hypothesize that focal denervation of the olfactory sensory neurons and thereby lesioning of the presynaptic input to the Type 1 neurons would result in their degeneration, and a subsequent upregulation of subventricular zone neurogenesis. Adult mice (n=26) were treated with methimazole causing the ablation of the OE, and the tissues examined at multiple time-points after treatment. The survival of the olfactory sensory neurons within the OE was assessed together with their terminals within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. The loss of tyrosine ...
In sensory systems, peripheral organs convey sensory inputs to relay networks where information is shaped by local microcircuits before being transmitted to cortical areas. In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, to identify a novel population of glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT3+) in the glomerular layer of the adult mouse OB as well as several of their synaptic targets. Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3+ neurons firing. Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3+ neuron photostimulation in vivo strongly suppresses both spontaneous and odour-evoked firing of bulbar output neurons. In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early
The aim of this study is to analyzed the three nervi; terminalis, vomeronasalis and olfactorius emerging from the olfactory apparatus. The lizard Chacidessepoides was collected from Sinai and was undergone to permanent histological preparation. Through the examination of the olfactory apparatus of this species resulted in the vomeronasal organ is innervated by two correlating nerves: terminal and vomeronasal nerves that originating from its sensory epithelium. The terminal nerve bears the ganglion terminale. The olfactory nerve innervates the olfactory chamber. The three nerves leave the nasal capsule through the fenestra olfactoriaadvehens as separate bundles. They enter the cranial cavity through the fenestra olfactoriaevehens. The olfactory nerve connected with the main olfactory bulb. The terminal connects with the outer layer of the brain, while the vomeronasal one joins the accessory olfactory bulb. The three nerves are perspicuous special sensory.. ...
What is the role of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in olfactory processing? In this podcast, Editor-in-Chief Bill Yates talks with Thomas Heinbockel (Howard University) and Alex Straiker (Indiana University, Bloomington) about their recent study in mice, which revealed that CB1 is involved in the regulation of glomerular activity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Listen to learn about the endocannabinoid system, mitral cells, implications for olfactory behavior, and more!. Cannabinoid receptor-mediated modulation of inhibitory inputs to mitral cells in the main olfactory ...
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapses are thought to play pivotal roles in the processing of activity patterns in the olfactory bulb (OB), but their functions have been difficult to study during odor responses in the intact system. We pharmacologically manipulated GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor …
The gaseous radical nitric oxide (NO) is generated in the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Being a highly mobile free radical, NO reacts with a wide range of targets. This allows NO to modulate many and various biological functions, from its cardinal role as a potent vasodilator, to neuronal signalling. In mammals, the olfactory bulbs (OB) are the first brain structures to receive and process odour information from the olfactory epithelium (OE), and are among the most prominent nitrergic areas in the rodent brain. Despite this, the acute function of NO in mammalian OBs is unknown. In this thesis, I aim to test the acute electrophysiological effect of NO on the mouse OB in vitro. Hundreds of glomeruli, discrete odour specific neuropils, are the sites of synapses between odour specific axons from the OE and mitral cells (MCs), the principal OB neurons. Glomeruli comprise the circuitry necessary to drive OB output, and are thought to be ideally suited to ...
Glaucoma is the term used to describe a group diseases characterised by a specific type of damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) known as cupping and a characteristic type of visual field loss. This loss is associated with progressive atrophy and loss of the retinal ganglion cells. Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. This project was aimed at investigating olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), a population of radial glia proven to be neuroprotective in central and peripheral nerve injury models, and their potential to protect the retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. We studied the interactions of RGC and OEC in culture. We show that OEC can straighten, ensheath and bundle RGC neurites as well as support the survival of RGC and their synapses in culture. We also show that OEC endocytose dead RGC in culture. We modified a rat model of glaucoma (where paramagnetic microbeads are injected into the anterior chamber of the rat eyes) and characterised the early and late ...
Rhythmic patterns of neuronal activity have been found at multiple levels of various sensory systems. In the olfactory bulb or the antennal lobe, oscillatory activity exhibits a broad range of frequencies and has been proposed to encode sensory information. However, the neural mechanisms underlying …
The consequences of ongoing neurogenesis have long been the subject of speculation. New neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus seem to be added throughout juvenile and adult life, suggesting that they do not replace neurons that die (36). Alternatively, work in the song-control system of birds has shown that neuronal replacement occurs in some nuclei, perhaps to play a role in song learning (37). Concerning olfaction, one possibility is that new interneurons are simply added to the bulbs, as they are in the hippocampus. Yet, although increases in the number of interneurons have been reported in the adult, substantial granule cell death has also been observed, suggesting that newly generated neurons may replace dying ones (38).. This ongoing recruitment of interneurons may also open new opportunities to investigate the cellular basis for olfactory processing and its functional plasticity. The presence of a pool of new neurons accompanied by the emergence of new synapses could play a role ...
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a type of specialized glial cell currently considered as having a double function in the nervous system: one regenerative, and another immune. OEC cultures resulted in continuous NF-B activation. The IFN-induced increase of iNOS manifestation was reversed in infected OECs. OECs are susceptible to infection, which can suppress their cytotoxic mechanisms in order to survive. We suggest that, in contrast to microglia, OECs might serve as safe focuses on for pneumococci, providing a more stable environment for evasion of the immune system. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a type of specialized glial cell that accompany and ensheath the primary olfactory axons through the olfactory pathway, from your olfactory epithelium to Natamycin small molecule kinase inhibitor the olfactory tract. OECs are crucial for olfactory axonal assistance and outgrowth inside the developing and adult olfactory program1,2. This real estate of OECs makes them a superb candidate ...
The mammalian the olfactory bulb (OB) maintains a continuous inflow of new neurons to its circuitry throughout adulthood. The role of these newborn neurons in
Orthodromic stimulation of axons in the olfactory nerve from sensory receptor cells excites periglomerular neurons in the input layer of the bulb, modeled by a KIe set ( Figure 2, A), producing an excitatory bias. The root locus ( Figure 4, A, Mode 1e) is nearly parallel to the real axis, because the frequency is invariant, and the decay rate increases with increased amplitude, as does the PSTH of the periglomerular cells ( Figure 2, A). Antidromic stimulation of output axons from the bulb that monosynaptically excite bulbar inhibitory neurons but not periglomerular neurons produces an inhibitory bias. The amplitude of the AEP to single shock stimulation of the olfactory tract increases with input intensity, but the decay rate is unchanged, and the frequency decreases ( Figure 4, A, Mode 1i) because the excitatory bias is lacking. The effect of increasing intensity of antidromic stimuli to the bulb is to increase the AEP initial amplitude above the background activity. The same effect results by ...
In the present study, we have shown that Robo proteins are expressed in cultured OECs and exhibit enriched distribution at the leading edge. A Slit-2 gradient indeed strongly repelled the migration of these cultured OECs. To our knowledge, this is the first guidance factor discovered to repel OEC migration. Because Slit-2 is highly expressed in the apical cells of OE, it is likely that it might help Robo-expressing OECs and olfactory axons migrate out of the OE through chemorepulsion during early development. Slits expressing in the OB might also regulate the stop and scattering of OECs that have arrived at the surface of the OB. OECs have been reported to pioneer the olfactory sensory nerves and provide a conductive substrate for the growth of olfactory sensory axons during development (Tennent and Chuah, 1996; Tisay and Key, 1999). An intriguing possibility is that the guidance of OECs by Slits might contribute to the guidance of axons because of the close interaction between neurons and glia. ...
followed by humans, and is least in the goat, p , 0.05.. DISCUSSION. The present paper analyses the morphometric parameters of olfactory bulb, tract and stria in the human (primate), dog (carnivore) and goat (herbivore) in relation to differences in olfactory functional needs. In these species, a comparison is made on the volumes and linear dimensions of the olfactory bulbs, olfactory tracts and striae and the proportions of the sizes of these structures relative to the cerebrum and the whole brain.. We hypothesize that the sizes of these structures correlate with the olfactory functional needs and therefore the life-styles of these animals.. The olfactory bulb provides one of the direct links between the peripherally located olfactory receptors and the primary olfactory cortex and therefore offers connection between the brain and the environment (Turetsky et al., 2000). In a recent study (Kavoi et al., 2010), it was shown that the structure of the primary olfactory cells are structurally ...
Mitral cells, the principal output neurons of the olfactory bulb, receive direct synaptic activation from primary sensory neurons. Shunting inhibitory inputs delivered by granule cell interneurons onto mitral cell lateral dendrites are believed to influence spike timing and underlie coordinated field potential oscillations. Lateral dendritic shunt conductances delayed spiking to a degree dependent on both their electrotonic distance and phase of onset. Recurrent inhibition significantly narrowed the distribution of mitral cell spike times, illustrating a tendency towards coordinated synchronous activity. This result suggests an essential role for early mechanisms of temporal coordination in olfaction. The model was adapted from Davison et al, 2003, but include additional noise mechanisms, long lateral dendrite, and specific synaptic point processes ...
Mitral cells, the principal output neurons of the olfactory bulb, receive direct synaptic activation from primary sensory neurons. Shunting inhibitory inputs delivered by granule cell interneurons onto mitral cell lateral dendrites are believed to influence spike timing and underlie coordinated field potential oscillations. Lateral dendritic shunt conductances delayed spiking to a degree dependent on both their electrotonic distance and phase of onset. Recurrent inhibition significantly narrowed the distribution of mitral cell spike times, illustrating a tendency towards coordinated synchronous activity. This result suggests an essential role for early mechanisms of temporal coordination in olfaction. The model was adapted from Davison et al, 2003, but include additional noise mechanisms, long lateral dendrite, and specific synaptic point processes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter in developing mouse olfactory nerve layer marks a specialized subgroup of olfactory ensheathing cells. AU - Wang, Ya Zhou. AU - Molotkov, Andrei. AU - Song, Lanying. AU - Li, Yunhong. AU - Pleasure, David E. AU - Zhou, Chengji. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Wnt reporter TOPgal mice carry a β-galactosidase (βgal) gene under the control of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling responsive elements. We found that the intensely immunolabeled βgal+ cells were co-immunolabeled with Nestin and formed a tangentially oriented single-cell layer in the connecting or docking zone where the olfactory sensory axons attached to the brain surface during mid-gestation. During early postnatal development, βgal+ cells were located in the inner olfactory nerve layer (ONLi) and co-labeled with olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) markers S100β and NPY but not with lineage-specific markers for neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia, ...
Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons.[3] In vertebrates, ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium.[4] Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cells dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells express ORs which bind the same set of odors. The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.[5] ...
Multiple factors contribute to the onset and progress of PD, that initially targets few susceptible neuron types in motor nuclei of glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, and in the anterior olfactory nucleus [2, 3, 24]. Many animal models are available for mimicking PD landmarks, however none can reproduce in full the human pathology. The picture is even more complicated by the presence of both motor and non-motor symptoms, whose assessment in animal models may be difficult and need careful overall interpretation (for a review, see [25]). We choose the MPTP model because we were interested in olfactory dysfunctions, which are a hallmark of early PD stages. MPTP administered acutely in mice can reproduce early stages of PD [26], however, it is not sufficient for fully exploring PD, since MPTP-injected mice recover spontaneously, which precludes the study of pharmacological interventions. Moreover, various strains of mice show different sensitivity to MPTP.. PD implies a complex imbalance of the ...
The role of olfaction, that is to say of the main olfactory system, in sexual behavior is not much better known than that of the vomeronasal system. If, to make things easy, we start with its role in copulatory behavior, a review of existing data tells us that the importance of the main olfactory system is modest. We have already insinuated that the elimination of olfactory input has variable effects. Early studies (Stone, 1922) showed that anosmia did not modify the copulatory behavior of male rats, not even in their first encounter with a receptive female. This observation was confirmed about 50 years later (Cain and Paxinos, 1974). However, later studies have not always replicated this observation. For example, Bergvall et al. (1991) reported that peripheral anosmia reduced the intensity of male rat copulatory behavior when the subjects had been anosmic for a month. After one week, though, their behavior was unaffected. Anosmia-induced degeneration of neurons in the olfactory bulb may be the ...
The mammalian olfactory cortex is a complex structure located along the rostro-caudal extension of the ventrolateral prosencephalon, which is divided into several anatomically and functionally distinct areas: the anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex, olfactory tubercle, amygdaloid olfactory nuclei, and the more caudal entorhinal cortex. Multiple forebrain progenitor domains contribute to the cellular diversity of the olfactory cortex, which is invaded simultaneously by cells originating in distinct germinal areas in the dorsal and ventral forebrain. Using a combination of dye labeling techniques, we identified two novel areas that contribute cells to the developing olfactory cortices, the septum and the ventral pallium, from which cells migrate along a radial and then a tangential path. We characterized these cell populations by comparing their expression of calretinin, calbindin, reelin and Tbr1 with that of other olfactory cell populations.
Brain Regions (94): CTX (Cerebral cortex) MOB (Main olfactory bulb) AOB (Accessory olfactory bulb) AON (Anterior olfactory nucleus) TT (Taenia tecta) PIR (Piriform area) NLOT (Nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract) PAA (Piriform-amygdalar area) COA (Cortical amygdalar area) TR (Postpiriform transition area) CA (Ammons Horn) DG (Dentate gyrus) RHP (Retrohippocampal region) SUB (Subiculum) CP (Caudoputamen ) ACB (Nucleus accumbens ) FS (Fundus of striatum) OT (Olfactory tubercle ) LS (Lateral septal nucleus ) CEA (Central amygdalar nucleus ) AAA (Anterior amygdalar area) MEA (Medial amygdalar nucleus ) PALd (Pallidum_ dorsal region) PALv (Pallidum_ ventral region) BST (Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis ) PALm (Pallidum_ medial region) AM (Anteromedial nucleus) AV (Anteroventral nucleus of thalamus ) LD (Lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus) RT (Reticular nucleus of the thalamus) LAT (Lateral group of the dorsal thalamus) LP (Lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus) LGv (Ventral part of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneity of antigen expression and lectin labeling on microglial cells in the olfactory bulb of adult rats. AU - Wu, C. H.. AU - Chien, H. F.. AU - Chang, C. Y.. AU - Ling, E. A.. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. N2 - Microglia in different layers of the rat olfactory bulb expressed a variety of membrane antigens except for CD4 (OX-35). Bulb microglial cells bearing complement receptor type 3 (OX-42) were ubiquitous and their immunoreactivity varied considerably in different bulb layers. Although very few in number, labeled microglia in all layers also expressed major histocompatibility complex class I antigen (OX-18), leukocyte common antigen (OX-1) and unknown macrophage antigen (ED-2). The latter was localized in cells distributed almost exclusively in the perivascular spaces. The immunoreactivity of ED-1, an unknown cytoplasmic or lysosomal membrane antigen in macrophages, was localized in labeled microglia which were concentrated mainly in the granule cell layer and ...
Watzlawick R, Rind J, Sena ES, Brommer B, Zhang T, Kopp MA, Dirnagl U, Macleod MR, Howells DW, Schwab JM Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is …
Olfaction, also known as olfactics, is the sense of smell. This sense is mediated by specialized sensory cells of the nasal cavity of vertebrates, which can be considered analogous to sensory cells of the antennae of invertebrates. In humans, olfact... ion occurs when odorant molecules bind to specific sites on the olfactory receptors. These receptors are used to detect the presence of smell. They come together at the glomerulus, a structure which transmits signals to the olfactory bulb. Many vertebrates, including most mammals and reptiles, have two distinct olfactory systems-the main olfactory system, and the accessory olfactory system. For air-breathing animals, the main olfactory system detects volatile chemicals, and the accessory olfactory system detects fluid-phase chemicals. Olfaction, along with taste, is a form of chemoreception. The chemicals themselves that activate the olfactory system, in general at very low concentrations, are called odorants. Although taste and smell are separate ...
Synonyms for olfactory cell in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for olfactory cell. 24 synonyms for cell: room, chamber, lock-up, compartment, cavity, cubicle, dungeon, stall, unit, group, section, core, nucleus, caucus, coterie, electric cell. What are synonyms for olfactory cell?
We have identified a replication-independent histone variant, Hist2h2be (referred to herein as H2be), which is expressed exclusively by olfactory chemosensory neurons. Levels of H2BE are heterogeneous among olfactory neurons, but stereotyped according to the identity of the co-expressed olfactory receptor (OR). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that changes in H2be expression affect olfactory function and OR representation in the adult olfactory epithelium. We show that H2BE expression is reduced by sensory activity and that it promotes neuronal cell death, such that inactive olfactory neurons display higher levels of the variant and shorter life spans. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of H2BE differ from those of the canonical H2B, consistent with a role for H2BE in altering transcription. We propose a physiological function for H2be in modulating olfactory neuron population dynamics to adapt the OR repertoire to the environment. The objective of generating this dataset was to
Field potential, patch-clamp and optical recordings were performed in accessory olfactory bulb slices of postnatal rats following single electrical stimulation of the vomeronasal nerve layer. On the basis of differences in the components of the field potential, postnatal days were divided into three periods: immature (until postnatal day 11), transitional (postnatal days P12-17) and mature periods (after postnatal day 18). During the immature period, vomeronasal nerve layer stimulation provoked a characteristic damped oscillatory field potential, and the field potential recorded in the glomerular layer consisted of a compound action potential followed by several periodic negative peaks superimposed on slow components. Reduction in [Mg2+] enhanced slow components but did not affect oscillation, whereas an NMDA receptor antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, depressed slow components but did not affect the oscillation. During the mature period, slow components and the periodic waves ...
In article ,30r5sl$g71 at portal.gmu.edu,, HARRY R. ERWIN ,herwin at mason1.gmu.edu, wrote: ,so. Walter Freeman indicates that no one who has studied the GABAergic ,synapse has investigated the effect of chloride concentration on its ,excitatory/inhibitory nature. Has there been any work done here? Im Barry Rhodes did his dissertation on the excitatory action of GABA on the periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulb, and another group (I dont have the reference on me) imaged Cl- and found that the distribution of Chloride in the olfactory bulb would also indicate that GABA has an excitatory action on the periglomerular cells. In the retina GABA has both actions (or so Im told), and Michaelson and Wong published some evidence that GABA is both excitatory and inhibitory in the Hippocampus. The most elementary thing one learns about neurotransmitters is that the action depends on the receptors and on the ion gradients, not on the neurotransmitter, but this is often ignored. Leslie Kay lmk2 at ...
Retrograde signaling from the brain to the olfactory sensory epithelium is important for neuronal survival, but the importance of the olfactory bulb in retrograde signaling during the naturally-induced, neuronal plasticity occurring during metamorphosis is unclear. The olfactory system of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) undergoes dramatic rearrangements during metamorphosis, making this an ideal system in which to examine interactions between the brain and the olfactory sensory epithelium. The main olfactory epithelium of larvae, located in the principal cavity (PC), changes at metamorphosis in function, receptor neuron morphology, biochemistry, and axon termination sites. A new,
Neodymium Incandescent Light Bulbs - Genesis Lamp offers a wide selection of incandescent light bulbs, including: A Shaped light bulbs, PS Shaped light bulbs, S Shaped light bulbs, 3-Way light bulbs, Krypton light bulbs, Long life light bulbs, Neodymium light bulbs, Rough Surface light bulbs, Silver bowl light bulbs, Tough skin light bulbs Well help you find the right light bulb for all of your lighting needs. Any questions? Call Genesis Lamp at: 1.800.685.5267
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are chemoreceptors that establish excitatory synapses within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. OSNs undergo continuous turnover throughout life, causing the constant replacement of their synaptic contacts. Using Xenopus tadpoles as an experimental system to investigate rewiring of glomerular connectivity, we show that novel OSN synapses can transfer information immediately after formation, mediating olfactory-guided behavior. Tadpoles recover the ability to detect amino acids 4 days after bilateral olfactory nerve transection. Restoration of olfactory-guided behavior depends on the efficient reinsertion of OSNs to the olfactory bulb. Presynaptic terminals of incipient synaptic contacts generate calcium transients in response to odors, triggering long lasting depolarization of olfactory glomeruli. The functionality of reconnected terminals relies on well-defined readily releasable and cytoplasmic vesicle pools. The continuous growth of non-compartmentalized axonal ...
Glomeruli are anatomical and possibly functional modules in the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We investigated the spatial arrangement of glomeruli in the olfactory bulbs of adult zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). A solution of the lipophilic tracer Dil was injected into the nasal cavities. Axons of sensory neurons projecting from the olfactory epithelium into the bulb were traced anterogradely, thus labeling the whole population of glomeruli. The glomerular distribution was analyzed in detail by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We find that a typical olfactory bulb contains a small number of about 80 glomeruli that have a stereotyped configuration in all animals investigated. All glomeruli exhibit bilateral symmetry. Twenty-two single glomeruli could be identified from animal to animal by their characteristic position and morphology. The remaining glomeruli either are embedded in glomerular plexus and therefore cannot be delineated reliably, or belong to a densely clustered subpopulation of on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts migrate and differentiate into mature neurons in the post-stroke adult striatum. AU - Yamashita, Toru. AU - Ninomiya, Mikiko. AU - Acosta, Pilar Hernández. AU - García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel. AU - Sunabori, Takehiko. AU - Sakaguchi, Masanori. AU - Adachi, Kazuhide. AU - Kojima, Takuro. AU - Hirota, Yuki. AU - Kawase, Takeshi. AU - Araki, Nobuo. AU - Abe, Koji. AU - Okano, Hideyuki. AU - Sawamoto, Kazunobu. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Recent studies have revealed that the adult mammalian brain has the capacity to regenerate some neurons after various insults. However, the precise mechanism of insult-induced neurogenesis has not been demonstrated. In the normal brain, GFAP-expressing cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles include a neurogenic cell population that gives rise to olfactory bulb neurons only. Herein, we report evidence that, after a ...
Modulation of sensory processing by corticofugal (CRTF) projections has been suggested to play a vital role during active sensing. Indeed retrograde CRTF projec...
Histopathology was used to characterize long-term toxic effects in the olfactory system following a single ip dose (4-65 mg/kg) of methylsulfonyl-2,6-dichlorobenzene, (2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B)), in female NMRI mice. The effects of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) and its 2,5-chlorinated isomer, (2,5-(diCl-MeSO2-B)), on the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; a biomarker for neurotoxicity) in different brain regions were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The histopathologic effects of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) were dose-, time-, and tissue-dependent. At the highest doses (16-65 mg/kg), the initial effect of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) was necrosis of the Bowmans glands, followed by a sequence of secondary events including degeneration of the olfactory neuroepithelium, repopulation of the basement membrane by a ciliated respiratorylike epithelium, fibrosis and ossification in the lamina propria, formation of bilateral polyps, angiogenesis, and disappearance of nerve bundles. Remodeling was most ...
0026] Electrical stimulation devices implanted in the stomach of obese patients have been reported to have variable positive effects on weight loss (Zhang C, Ng K L, Li J D, He F, Anderson D J, Sun Y E, and Zhou Q Y. Prokineticin 2 is a target gene of proneural basic helix-loop-helix factors for olfactory bulb neurogenesis. J Biol Chem 282: 6917-6921, 2007), with improvements in glucose control in T2D patients secondary to weight loss. This stimulation would not be expected to act directly on L-cells since these cells are absent from the stomach. Intestinal electrical stimulation studies in obese or diabetic patients are fewer in number and tend to report the resulting neural and motility effects. For example, in diabetic neuropathy, electrical stimulation of the duodenum, which is located at the oral end of the small intestine, results in nerve responses that are weaker than in control patients (Frokjaer J B, Andersen S D, Ejskaer N, Funch-Jensen P, Arendt-Nielsen L, Gregersen H, and Drewes A M ...
article{4e73d8d8-aee6-4a90-ac16-4f2d90df0295, abstract = {Neurons are continuously generated from stem cells in discrete regions in the adult mammalian brain. We found that ependymal cells lining the lateral ventricles were quiescent and did not contribute to adult neurogenesis under normal conditions in mice but instead gave rise to neuroblasts and astrocytes in response to stroke. Ependymal cell quiescence was actively maintained by canonical Notch signaling. Inhibition of this pathway in uninjured animals allowed ependymal cells to enter the cell cycle and produce olfactory bulb neurons, whereas forced Notch signaling was sufficient to block the ependymal cell response to stroke. Ependymal cells were depleted by stroke and failed to self-renew sufficiently to maintain their own population. Thus, although ependymal cells act as primary cells in the neural lineage to produce neurons and glial cells after stroke, they do not fulfill defining criteria for stem cells under these conditions and ...
Mice, Lead, Rodents, Olfactory Bulbs, Pheromones, Vomeronasal System, Amygdala, Accessory Olfactory Bulbs, Bedding, Communication, Reward, Roles, Sexual Pheromones, Sucrose, Urine, Vomeronasal Systems, Hypothalamus, L-arginine, Role, Behaviors
LED replacement bulbs are designed to fit RV front turn signal lights with clear lenses while also functioning as daytime running lights. This 7443 dual-contact, dual-function switchback bulb has 30 amber and 30 cool white LEDs with an output of 147 and 155 lumens respectively. The bulb shows white color when parking lights are on and signals amber when turn signals are in use. Tower-style design with a 16-mm wedge base for easy plug-and-play installation. The energy-efficient bulb has 12V DC operation and is designed to last 30,000 hours on your motorhome-25 times longer than incandescent bulbs. Not sold in pairs. Price per bulb. |br| |br| This type A bulb shows white color when parking lights are on and signals amber when turn signals are in use. Alternatively, a type B bulb shows white color when parking lights are on and alternates between amber and white when turn signals are in use. All products are instock and available to ship from Super Bright LEDs.
immune Uncategorized PD 166793, PSK-J3 Development of the adult olfactory program of the moth depends upon reciprocal connections between olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) PD 166793 axons developing in in the periphery and centrally-derived glial cells. recently fasciculated axon bundles will terminate in protoglomeruli the forming of which induces various other glial cells to migrate to surround them. Glial cells usually do not migrate PSK-J3 unless ORN axons can be found axons neglect to fasciculate and focus on correctly without enough glial cells and protoglomeruli arent maintained with out a glial surround. Weve proven previously that Epidermal Development Factor receptors as well as the IgCAMs Neuroglian and Fasciclin II are likely involved in the ORN replies to glial cells. In todays function we present proof for the need for glial Fibroblast Development Aspect receptors in glial migration proliferation and survival with this developing pathway. We also statement changes in growth ...
Zebrafish imprint on visual (at day 5 post fertilization) and olfactory (at day 6 post fertilization) cues coming from kin siblings.
Green LED Home Lighting. Theres an LED light bulb for every home lighting need, including ceiling lights, kitchen lighting, vanity lights, workshop lights, foyer lighting, closet lighting, stair lights, desk lights, basement lighting, and garage lights. LED lights range from common A19 LED globe bulbs, vintage LED bulbs, decorative light bulbs, and C7 bulbs to LED panel lights, T8 bulbs, flood light bulbs, spotlight bulbs, and LED can lights. All products are instock and available to ship from Super Bright LEDs.
In Cornwall, even in the darkest days of winter you can feel the mildness in the air, and anticipate the first daffodils coming into bloom in January! For over 100 years, Cornish-bred bulbs have been a symbol of vigour, quality, depth of colour and early flowering. Bulb size 12/14cm. (Bulb sizes quoted in centimetres refer to the circumference of bulbs. All bulbs are sourced from cultivated stocks.) Two collection of Cornish-bred daffodil bulbs available containing either 30 bulbs (10 of each variety) or 90 bulbs (30 of each variety):Treglisson (Trumpet) - The best, most robust, golden trumpet variety of all. Scented. Flowers January-February. Height 35cm.Trelawney Gold (Trumpet) - One of the most striking Cornish varieties, with a very robust texture and deep, golden colour. Flowers in March. Height 35cm.Rosemoor Gold (Trumpet) - A unique scented jonquil, and RHS award winner. One or two medium sized flowers on a strong stem, petals and fluted cup are deep gold with a hint of orange at the base.
Olfactory bulb projections[edit]. Schematic of the early olfactory system including the olfactory epithelium and bulb. Each ORN ... Leon, M; Johnson, BA (2003). "Olfactory coding in the mammalian olfactory bulb". Brain Research Reviews. 42 (1): 23-32. doi: ... Main olfactory system[edit]. Main article: Olfactory system. In humans and other vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory ... The anterior olfactory nucleus projects, via the anterior commissure, to the contralateral olfactory bulb, inhibiting it. The ...
Olfactory bulb granule cell[edit]. The main intrinsic granule cell in the vertebrate olfactory bulb lacks an axon (as does the ... Olfactory bulb granule cells. Inhibition generated by granule cells, the most common GABAergic cell type in the olfactory bulb ... This allows the granule cells to regulate the processing of the sensory input in the olfactory bulb.[20] The olfactory bulb ... For instance, olfactory bulb granule cells are GABAergic and axonless, while granule cells in the dentate gyrus have ...
Human olfactory system. 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor ... Olfactory bulb projectionsEdit. Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve ... Leon M, Johnson BA (2003). "Olfactory coding in the mammalian olfactory bulb". Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 42 (1): 23-32. doi: ... The anterior olfactory nucleus projects, via the anterior commissure, to the contralateral olfactory bulb, inhibiting it. The ...
Neurons from the VTA innervate the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, orbital and ... medial shell nucleus accumbens and medial olfactory tubercle. ... In the 1970s it was recognized that the olfactory tubercle ... Mesolimbic pathway: Ventral tegmental area → Nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle. *Nigrostriatal pathway: Substantia nigra ...
The olfactory bulb acts as a relay station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. Olfactory information is ... The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is a small patch of tissue at the back ... "Olfactory bulb habituation to odor stimuli". Behavioral Neuroscience. 124 (4): 490-99. doi:10.1037/a0020293. PMC 2919830. PMID ... which sends a signal traveling along the axon to the olfactory bulb, a part of the limbic system of the brain. Interpretation ...
Olfactory bulb - The olfactory bulbs are the first cranial nerves, located on the ventral side of the frontal lobe. They are ... "olfactory bulb". Archived from the original on 2009-11-16. Retrieved 2009-11-20.. ... Cousens, G.A.; Kearns, A.; Laterza, F.; Tundidor, J. (2012). "Excitotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala attenuate olfactory ...
From the olfactory bulb, mitral/tufted cells send axons via the lateral olfactory tract (the cranial nerve I) to the olfactory ... At the glomerular layer, axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with dendrites from intrinsic olfactory bulb ... In a study by Atianjoh et al., it has been found that amphetamines decrease levels of dopamine in the olfactory bulbs of ... These receptors are bipolar neurons that connect to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, traveling through the ...
... and Olfactory Bulb (OB) Neurogenesis". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 8 (5): a018820. doi:10.1101/cshperspect. ... and migrate in line order to the Olfactory Bulb 3. Slow Proliferating Cells (Type B): express Nestin and GFAP, and function to ... Adult SVZ neurogenesis takes the form of neuroblast precursors of interneurons that migrate to the olfactory bulb through the ... phenotyping that provided evidence for the migration of neuroblasts through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb ...
"Zinc and copper influence excitability of rat olfactory bulb neurons by multiple mechanisms". Journal of Neurophysiology. 86 (4 ...
Some areas of the middle turbinates are also innervated by the olfactory bulb. All three turbinates are innervated by pain and ... and serve to protect the olfactory bulb. The openings to the posterior ethmoidal sinuses exist under the superior meatus. The ... Olfactory turbinates are found in all living tetrapods,[citation needed] and respiratory turbinates are found in most mammals ... Bang, B.G. (1971). "Functional anatomy of the olfactory system in 23 orders of birds". Acta Anatomica. 79. 79: 1-76. PMID ...
Olfactory Receptor DataBase. Database, Data analysis service, Data repository Olfactory Bulb Odor Map DataBase (OdorMapDB). ...
Along these lines, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are useful in the signaling of the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex ... "Intrinsic conductances actively shape excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses in olfactory bulb external tufted cells" ... The basal ganglia in amphibians is very important in receiving visual, auditory, olfactory, and mechansensory inputs; the ...
"Number of mitral cells and the bulb volume in the aging human olfactory bulb: a quantitative morphological study". Anatomical ... "Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb.". The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society ... Witt M, Hummel T; Hummel (2006). "Vomeronasal versus olfactory epithelium: is there a cellular basis for human vomeronasal ... Hagino-Yamagishi K (December 2008). "Diverse systems for pheromone perception: multiple receptor families in two olfactory ...
Unlike the main olfactory bulb that sends neuronal signals to the olfactory cortex, the VNO sends neuronal signals to the ... "Number of mitral cells and the bulb volume in the aging human olfactory bulb: a quantitative morphological study". The ... The axons from these neurons project to the accessory olfactory bulb, which targets the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria ... Neuromodulatory systems can target the vomeronasal system to mediate sexual behaviors signaled by the accessory olfactory bulb ...
Infusion of BDNF into the lateral ventricles doubled the population of newborn neurons in the adult rat olfactory bulb and ... "Intraventricular administration of BDNF increases the number of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb". Molecular ... "Adenoviral brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces both neostriatal and olfactory neuronal recruitment from endogenous ...
The associated olfactory bulb is present in the fetus, but regresses and vanishes in the adult brain. There have been some ... In 2006, it was shown that a second mouse receptor sub-class is found in the olfactory epithelium. Called the trace amine- ... In addition, Colias eurytheme butterflies release pheromones, an olfactory cue important for mate selection.[24] ... In reptiles, amphibia and non-primate mammals pheromones are detected by regular olfactory membranes, and also by the ...
Lin, DaYu; Zhang, Shaozhong; Block, Eric; Katz, Lawrence C (2005). "Encoding social signals in the mouse main olfactory bulb". ... Lawrence C. Katz and co-workers showed that MTMT functioned as a semiochemical, activating certain mouse olfactory sensory ... A human olfactory receptor, OR2T11, has been identified which, in the presence of copper, is highly responsive to the gas ... neurons, attracting female mice.[15] Copper has been shown to be required by a specific mouse olfactory receptor, MOR244-3, ...
"Cholinergic modulation of neuronal excitability in the accessory olfactory bulb". Journal of Neurophysiology. 104 (6): 2963-74 ...
... accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells[18] and probably other neuron types.[19] This suggests that the pump might not simply be ... "Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells". PLOS Biology. 13 (12 ...
... left olfactory bulb; ob, olfactory bulb; ot, olfactory tract; pg, pituitary gland; pgll, pituitary gland lateral lobes; pf, ... right olfactory bulb; vc, vidian canal; vc=spa, vidian canal where the sphenopalatine artery passes; vcd, vena capitis dorsalis ... Gorgonopsians possessed a vomeronasal organ ("Jacobson's organ")-a part of the accessory olfactory system-which would have been ... Evolution of mammals Therocephalia ce, cerebellum; cnI, olfactory nerve; cnV +vcm-trigeminal nerve and vena capitis medialis; ...
... a structure in the olfactory bulb; see Glomerulus (olfaction). the contact between specific cells in the cerebellum; see ...
The olfactory bulb acts as a relay station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. Olfactory information is ... is mediated by the olfactory nerve. The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is ... Chaudhury, D; Manella, L; Arellanos, A; Escanilla, O; Cleland, T. A.; Linster, C (2010). "Olfactory bulb habituation to odor ... which sends a signal traveling along the axon to the olfactory bulb, a part of the limbic system of the brain. Interpretation ...
Neurons from the VTA innervate the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, orbital and ... medial shell nucleus accumbens and medial olfactory tubercle. ... In the 1970s it was recognized that the olfactory tubercle ...
... in the rat olfactory bulb. RECA-1-positive blood vessels - blue color. ...
"Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb". The Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (30): 10773-85. doi:10.1523/ ...
... of odors is concentrated more centrally around the olfactory bulb rather than on the periphery where the olfactory receptor ... Longer photostimulation of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb led to observations of longer lasting neuronal activity in the ... Patterson MA, Lagier S, Carleton A (August 2013). "Odor representations in the olfactory bulb evolve after the first breath and ... were stimulated with a 473 nm laser transcranially positioned over the dorsal section of the olfactory bulb. ...
"Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb". The Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (30): 10773-85. doi:10.1523/ ...
"Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb". Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (30): 10773-85. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI. ... Mups activate olfactory sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a subsystem of the nose known to detect pheromones via ...
"Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb". The Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (30): 10773-85. doi:10.1523/ ... Vagally-induced bronchoconstriction Mediating olfactory behaviors (e.g. aggression, mating) Delirium hallucinations (the M1 ...
"Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb". The Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (30): 10773-85. doi:10.1523/ ... Mediating olfactory guided behaviors (e.g. odor discrimination, aggression, mating). M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type ...
1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal Epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor cells ...
Functionally, it shares some similarities with the olfactory bulb in vertebrates.. In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at ... In Drosophila, each olfactory sensory neuron generally expresses a single olfactory receptor gene,[5] and the neurons ... The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the ... Luca Turin (1996). "A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception". Chemical Senses. 21 (6): 773-791. doi:10.1093/ ...
... is not recommended and can damage the lungs and olfactory bulb cells directly.[9] ...
Olfactory axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and ... New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be ... Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), also known as olfactory ensheathing glia or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type ... and genetic profiling of subpopulations of olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory bulb". Glia. 60 (3): 404-13. doi: ...
From the accessory olfactory bulb, information is sent to the amygdala, which handles emotions, and then to the hypothalamus, ... while olfactory receptors of the main olfactory system lining the ethmoturbinals detect airborne smells.[47][101] The olfactory ... relatively large olfactory bulbs, and smaller brains. The toothcomb is a synapomorphy (shared, derived trait) seen among ... and information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb, which is relatively large in strepsirrhines.[110] ...
De Morsier and Gauthier reported the partial or complete absence of the olfactory bulb in the brains of men with hypogonadism.[ ... These neurons originate in an area of the developing head, the olfactory placode, that will give rise to the olfactory ... MRI to rule out any structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus or pituitary and to check for presence of olfactory bulbs. ... Any problems with the development of the olfactory nerve fibres will prevent the progression of the GnRH releasing neurons ...
The olfactory receptors are located on cell surfaces in the nose which bind to chemicals enabling the detection of smells. It ... The first receptacle for this chyme is the duodenal bulb. From here it passes into the first of the three sections of the small ... It starts at the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum. The attachment of the suspensory muscle to the ... It was the findings in 1991, describing the first olfactory receptors that helped to prompt the research into taste. ...
... the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb, there is strong evidence for substantial numbers of new neurons.[2][3] ...
Lewy bodies first appear in the olfactory bulb, medulla oblongata and pontine tegmentum; individuals at this stage may be ...
The brain has well-developed olfactory bulbs and its cerebellum is the most ornamented and complex of any member of its ...
Stimulation of the olfactory sensory neurons in the periphery activates neurons in the olfactory bulb of a sea lamprey[68] ... "A novel neural substrate for the transformation of olfactory inputs into motor output". PLOS Biology. 8 (12): e1000567. doi ...
de Olmos J, Hardy H, Heimer L (Sep 1978). "The afferent connections of the main and the accessory olfactory bulb formations in ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... the olfactory bulbs are not cross-hemispheric; the right bulb connects to the right hemisphere and the left bulb connects to ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ... Primary olfactory cortex[edit]. Located in the temporal lobe, the primary olfactory cortex is the primary receptive area for ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... The info for these processes comes from the vomeronasal organ indirectly via the olfactory bulb.[15] The main olfactory bulb's ... "The Differential Projections of the Olfactory Bulb and Accessory Olfactory Bulb in Mammals." Wiley Online Library. 01 May 1975 ... The anterior olfactory nucleus distributes reciprocal signals between the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex.[22] The anterior ...
olfactory. *Nuclei *Anterior olfactory nucleus. *Course *olfactory bulb. *olfactory tract. optic. *Nuclei *Lateral geniculate ...
... including missing olfactory tracts and bulbs and absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum. ...
嗅球(Olfactory bulb)是一個特殊的結構,它負責處理嗅覺信息,然後將其輸出傳
The olfactory bulb acts as a relay station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. Olfactory information is ... The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is a small patch of tissue at the back ... "Olfactory bulb habituation to odor stimuli". Behavioral Neuroscience. 124 (4): 490-99. doi:10.1037/a0020293. PMC 2919830. PMID ... which sends a signal traveling along the axon to the olfactory bulb, a part of the limbic system of the brain. Interpretation ...
Anterior olfactory nucleus. *Anterior perforated substance. *Olfactory bulb. White matter. *Olfactory tract *Medial olfactory ...
... had very large olfactory bulbs and olfactory nerves relative to their brain size, the organs responsible for a ... Tyrannosaurs had large olfactory bulbs and olfactory nerves (relative to their brain size). These suggest a highly developed ... Research on the olfactory bulbs has shown that Tyrannosaurus rex had the most highly developed sense of smell of 21 sampled non ... Research on the olfactory bulbs of dinosaurs has shown that Tyrannosaurus had the most highly developed sense of smell of 21 ...
... and also secrete volatile compounds that are thought to serve as an olfactory stimulus for the newborn. During pregnancy and ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Even though it is part of the olfactory cortex and receives direct input from the olfactory bulb, it has not been shown to play ... Patients with MDD have been shown to have reduced olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex[11] as compared to normal people. In ... Second, it is considered to be part of the olfactory cortex because it receives direct input from the olfactory bulb. Third, it ...
Kallmann syndrome can also be shown through MRI imaging with irregular morphology or aplasia of the olfactory bulb and ... CHH is divided into 2 subtypes depending on the condition of the olfactory system, anosmic HH (Kallman syndrome) and normosmic ... GnRH neurons are derived from the olfactory placode and migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) during embryonic ... is a lack of a sense of smell due to the altered migration of GnRH neurons on the olfactory placode. ...
Olfactory. *Nuclei *anterior olfactory nucleus. *Course *olfactory bulb. *olfactory tract. Optic. *Nuclei *lateral geniculate ...
"Intraventricular administration of BDNF increases the number of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb". Mol. Cell ... "Adenoviral brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces both neostriatal and olfactory neuronal recruitment from endogenous ...
... the olfactory bulb plays this role for the olfactory system. Accessory olfactory bulb[edit]. The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB ... The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. The main olfactory ... the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. Layers[edit]. The main olfactory bulb has a multi-layered cellular ... The accessory olfactory bulb resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb and forms a parallel pathway. ...
Activity Patterns Elicited by Airflow in the Olfactory Bulb and Their Possible Functions Ruiqi Wu, Yue Liu, Li Wang, Bo Li and ... A Pool of Postnatally Generated Interneurons Persists in an Immature Stage in the Olfactory Bulb Nuria Benito, Elodie Gaborieau ... History-Dependent Odor Processing in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb Amit Vinograd, Yoav Livneh and Adi Mizrahi ... Quantitative Association of Anatomical and Functional Classes of Olfactory Bulb Neurons Andrej Tavakoli, Anja Schmaltz, Daniel ...
In the adult olfactory bulb, adult neurogenesis produces less pronounced, but continuously ongoing synapse turnover. To test ... an odor-enriched environment or olfactory-based learning, M/T cell dendrites remained highly stable. Thus, in a context of ... Figure 1: Two-photon imaging of M/T cells and their apical dendrites in the olfactory bulb of a YFP-G mouse.. ... Shepherd, G.M. & Greer, C.A. Olfactory bulb in The Synaptic Organization of the Brain (ed. Shepherd, G.M.) 159-203 (Oxford Univ ...
... olfactory bulb im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen, ... ... olfactory. olfactory acuity. olfactory aura. olfactory brain. • olfactory bulb. olfactory cell. olfactory center. olfactory ... olfactory cognition. olfactory communication. olfactory dysfunction. olfactory epithelium. olfactory function. olfactory glands ... olfactory bulb [Bulbus. olfactorius]. olfaktorischer Bulbus {m}. [Riechkolben]. anat.. biol.. olfactory bulb [Bulbus. ...
... we wanted to see whether the olfactory deficit typically found in TLE... ... The study aimed to investigate the volume of the olfactory bulb (OB) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). ... Olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume in patients with postinfectious olfactory loss. Laryngoscope 116:436-439PubMed ... Association of olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson disease. Am ...
Olfactory bulbs retain the ability to acquire new neurons throughout life. Unilateral olfactory deprivation during the first ... To examine the regenerative capacity of the juvenile olfactory bulb, we developed a technique for reversible olfactory ... Olfactory bulb recovery after early sensory deprivation.. Cummings DM1, Henning HE, Brunjes PC. ... Recovery of bulb size occurs after 40 d of normal stimulation. Rats injected with a thymidine analog to label dividing cells ...
We found that overlapping odor-evoked input patterns to the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) were dynamically reformatted in the ... Gschwend and colleagues show that the olfactory bulb network acts as a pattern separator, increasing slight differences between ... In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and ... In conclusion, we propose that the OB network can act as a pattern separator facilitating olfactory stimulus distinction, a ...
The size of the olfactory bulb depends on... ... The olfactory bulb is a structure in the brain that processes ... the olfactory bulb is relatively large. Animals with less olfactory capacity, including humans, tend to have a smaller bulb in ... The olfactory bulb is a part of the limbic system. Within the brain, the bulb is located in the forebrain, though in humans it ... The olfactory bulb is a structure found in the brains of vertebrates that processes information about odors, and is a key part ...
Characterization of olfactory bulb glomeruli in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2005;77:229-239.. *PubMed , CrossRef ... Bedard A, Parent A. Evidence of newly generated neurons in the human olfactory bulb. Brain Res Dev. Brain Res 2004;151:159-168. ... 2007). Human neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb via a lateral ventricular extension. Science 2007: E-pub 2007 Feb. 15.. ... In the rodent brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) generates thousands of new olfactory bulb neurons every day. Three years ago ...
Multifocal microvascular injury in the brain and olfactory bulbs may be another possible COVID-19 outcome, new imaging research ... In order to scan the olfactory bulb, the scanner was set at a resolution of 25 µm; for the brain, it was set at 100 µm. ... This is "suggestive of neuronophagia in the olfactory bulb, substantial nigra, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve, and the ... Multifocal microvascular injury in the brain and olfactory bulbs is another possible adverse outcome from COVID-19, new ...
In vivo imaging of juxtaglomerular neuron turnover in the mouse olfactory bulb. Adi Mizrahi, Jing Lu, Ryan Irving, Guoping Feng ... Newborn neurons in the adult mammalian brain continuously migrate into the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb (OB) (1, 2). In ... As a consequence of adult neurogenesis, the olfactory bulb (OB) receives a continuous influx of newborn neurons well into ... In vivo imaging of juxtaglomerular neuron turnover in the mouse olfactory bulb ...
Scale bars, 100 μm and 10 μm (for higher magnification pictures). AOB: accessory olfactory bulb; MOB: main olfactory bulb; SVZ ... Then, we will focus on the accessory olfactory bulb of adult female mice [12, 19] to discuss the role of AN as a mediator of a ... A. Sahay, D. A. Wilson, and R. Hen, "Pattern separation: a common function for new neurons in hippocampus and olfactory bulb," ... D. K. Ma, W. R. Kim, G. L. Ming, and H. Song, "Activity-dependent extrinsic regulation of adult olfactory bulb and hippocampal ...
As the first transfer station of the olfactory system, olfactory bulb plays an important role in processing olfactory ... J. Tan and M. Luo, "Olfactory information processing by the olfactory bulb," Journal of Biological Physics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp ... Olfactory bulb plays an important part in signal encoding of olfactory system. The interaction between excitatory mitral cell ( ... In the olfactory bulb, MC has an excitatory effect on GC, while GC has an inhibitory effect on MC. Cells coupled by synaptic ...
Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and ... In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of ... particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, ... axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re- ...
Laminar Width in Main Olfactory Bulbs.. All mice bulb slices showed the six well-described olfactory bulb layers: nerve, ... The olfactory bulb has been implicated in certain types of olfactory learning and memory (see review in ref. 44). One theory ... The olfactory bulb is one of the few structures in the mammalian central nervous system in which there is a continued supplied ... Thus, the adult olfactory bulb should comprise neurons with a wide range of maturity levels, given the continual arrival of new ...
... and the olfactory bulbs were dissected. Thin slices (170-250 μm) were obtained by cutting the olfactory bulb in the horizontal ... stimulation of the olfactory nerve indicated that GFP+ PG cells formed functional synapses within the olfactory bulb circuitry ... 1b, 4a). A prominent A-current was then added once cells reached the olfactory bulb, left the migratory stream, and began their ... Electrophysiological Differentiation of New Neurons in the Olfactory Bulb. Ottorino Belluzzi, Mascia Benedusi, James Ackman, ...
Faucette JR (1969) Accessory olfactory bulbs and lateral telecephalic wall of the ratfish. J Comp Neurol 137:407-431PubMed ... Bang BG, Cobb S (1968) Size of olfactory bulb in 108 species of birds. Auk 85:55-61Google Scholar ... Suggested design mechanisms for the olfactory bulb. Acta Anat 91:272-282PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Fuller C, Yettaw H, Byrd C (2006) Mitral cells in the olfactory bulb of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): morphology and ...
Multidimensional chemotopic responses to n-aliphatic acid odorants in the rat olfactory bulb.. Johnson BA1, Woo CC, Hingco EE, ... They also support the notion that analyses of the spatial relationships among odorant responses in the olfactory bulb can ... of some bulb lesions to interfere with behavioral olfactory responses and the success of other lesions in blocking olfactory ... we exposed rats to a homologous series of n-aliphatic acids and mapped the response of the entire olfactory bulb glomerular ...
The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, ... The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, ... The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up ... Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of ...
The olfactory bulb principal neurons show complex responses during olfactory stimulation that are characterized by periods of ... The olfactory bulb principal neurons show complex responses during olfactory stimulation that are characterized by periods of ... Neural circuit computation: complex patterns in the olfactory bulb Brain Res Bull. 1992 Jul;29(1):111-7. doi: 10.1016/0361-9230 ...
In the olfactory bulb, the processing units for odor discrimination are believed to involve dendrodendritic synaptic ... Keywords: active dendrites; dendrodendritic synapses; non-Hebbian learning; olfactory bulb; olfactory glomeruli; olfactory maps ... Learning mechanism for column formation in the olfactory bulb Front Integr Neurosci. 2007 Dec 30;1:12. doi: 10.3389/neuro. ... In the olfactory bulb, the processing units for odor discrimination are believed to involve dendrodendritic synaptic ...
... on the indisputable role of the olfactory bulb in mammal brains ability ... ... The basic units of the olfactory system in the fly brain provide references to their function and ecological relevance. ... have now quantified and mapped the functional units of the olfactory center in the brains of vinegar flies responsible for the ...
It is widely held that odorant chemical features are mapped onto the olfactory epithelium (1, 2) and bulb (3), such that ... After applying ultra-high-resolution calcium-indicator dependent imaging to the olfactory bulb, Ma et al. (4) failed to ... "Odorant Similarity in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (43) (August 22): E2916- ...
Input dependent modulation of olfactory bulb activity by HDB GABAergic projections. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, ... Input dependent modulation of olfactory bulb activity by HDB GABAergic projections.. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 01; 10(1):10696.SR ... Böhm E, Brunert D, Rothermel M. Input Dependent Modulation of Olfactory Bulb Activity By HDB GABAergic Projections. Sci Rep. ... Böhm E, Brunert D, Rothermel M. Input dependent modulation of olfactory bulb activity by HDB GABAergic projections. Sci Rep. ...
Moreover, the nature of interactions between the olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex at early ... of the olfactory bulb central projections is able to proceed independently of the olfactory sensory axons from the olfactory ... The challenge that now remains is to consider the validity of the olfactory bulb as an independent development domain. In the ... The formation of the olfactory bulb involves differentiation of several populations of cells and the initiation of the central ...
... and lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb (OB), and this local inhibition is critical for odor discrimination. We may gain ... development of the MC-GC reciprocal synapse using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from MCs and GCs in acute olfactory bulb ... development of the MC-GC reciprocal synapse using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from MCs and GCs in acute olfactory bulb ... in olfaction by correlating the functional development of the autoinhibition with the postnatal development of olfactory ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in olfactory bulb mitral cell layer development pathways, according to their Panther/Gene ... Antibodies for proteins involved in olfactory bulb mitral cell layer development pathways; according to their Panther/Gene ...
N. Kang, E.A. McCarthy, J.A. Cherry, M.J. Baum, A sex comparison of the anatomy and function of the main olfactory bulb-medial ... Sexually dimorphic activation of the accessory, but not the main, olfactory bulb in mice by urinary volatiles. Authors. *. ... Repeated paced mating promotes the arrival of more newborn neurons in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs of adult female ... Parallel Odor Processing by Two Anatomically Distinct Olfactory Bulb Target Structures, PLoS ONE, 2012, 7, 4, e34926. CrossRef ...
Two types of inhibitory interneurons, periglomerular and granule cells, act at two different levels within the olfactory bulb ... which are the principal output neurons of the olfactory bulb. In this work we introduce a reduced compartmental model of the ... Interneurons in the olfactory bulb are key elements of odor processing but their roles have not yet being fully understood. ... Olfactory bulb Is the Subject Area "Olfactory bulb" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
  • The olfactory bulb is supported and protected by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone , which in mammals separates it from the olfactory epithelium , and which is perforated by olfactory nerve axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory epithelium), and one output (mitral cell axons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arnold SE, Smutzer GS, Trojanowski JQ, Moberg PJ (1998) Cellular and molecular neuropathology of the olfactory epithelium and central olfactory pathways in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. (springer.com)
  • These odorant receptors are expressed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is widely held that odorant chemical features are mapped onto the olfactory epithelium (1, 2) and bulb (3), such that similar odorants activate common receptors and glomeruli. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, the nature of interactions between the olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex at early developmental stages is currently of great interest. (csic.es)
  • From our studies in the pax6 mutant mice (SeyNeu/SeyNeu), it was concluded that the initial establishment of the olfactory bulb central projections is able to proceed independently of the olfactory sensory axons from the olfactory epithelium. (csic.es)
  • Mitral and tufted cells receive excitatory input from the olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium and project their axons to the olfactory cortex and other higher brain regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous research suggests that volatile body odourants detected by the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) are processed mainly by the main olfactory bulb (MOB) whereas nonvolatile body odourants detected by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) are processed via the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). (wiley.com)
  • We show in the Xenopus tadpole system that the γ-glomerulus, which receives input from olfactory neurons, is highly sensitive to temperature drops at the olfactory epithelium. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • Temperature drops at the contralateral olfactory epithelium also induced responses in the γ-glomerulus and in mitral cells. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • At the highest doses (16-65 mg/kg), the initial effect of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO 2 -B) was necrosis of the Bowman's glands, followed by a sequence of secondary events including degeneration of the olfactory neuroepithelium, repopulation of the basement membrane by a ciliated respiratorylike epithelium, fibrosis and ossification in the lamina propria, formation of bilateral polyps, angiogenesis, and disappearance of nerve bundles. (diva-portal.org)
  • This implies the occurrence of very dynamic morphogenetic and metabolic changes within the epithelium where the cell bodies reside, as well as in the bulb where synaptogenesis takes place. (springer.com)
  • Hinds JW, Hinds PL, McNelly NA (1984) An autoradiographic study of the mouse olfactory epithelium: Evidence for long-lived receptors. (springer.com)
  • In humans and other vertebrates , smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium . (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium is made up of at least six morphologically and biochemically different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] The proportion of olfactory epithelium compared to respiratory epithelium (not innervated, or supplied with nerves) gives an indication of the animal's olfactory sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have about 10 cm 2 (1.6 sq in) of olfactory epithelium, whereas some dogs have 170 cm 2 (26 sq in). (wikipedia.org)
  • A dog's olfactory epithelium is also considerably more densely innervated, with a hundred times more receptors per square centimeter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus overlying the epithelium contains mucopolysaccharides , salts, enzymes , and antibodies (these are highly important, as the olfactory neurons provide a direct passage for infection to pass to the brain ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the nasal cavity , the turbinates or nasal conchae serve to direct the inspired air toward the olfactory epithelium in the upper posterior region. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory epithelium consists of 3 cell types: basal, supporting, and olfactory receptor cells. (medscape.com)
  • As previously mentioned, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) sends fibers to the olfactory epithelium to detect caustic chemicals, such as ammonia. (medscape.com)
  • In vertebrates the main olfactory system detects odorants that are inhaled through the nose where they come to contact with the olfactory epithelium, which contains the olfactory receptors. (wikibooks.org)
  • Similar to other sensory modalities, olfactory information must be transmitted from peripheral olfactory structures, like the olfactory epithelium, to more central structures, meaning the olfactory bulb and cortex. (wikibooks.org)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are continuously replaced by mitotic division of the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium. (wikibooks.org)
  • In mammals, the olfactory bulbs (OB) are the first brain structures to receive and process odour information from the olfactory epithelium (OE), and are among the most prominent nitrergic areas in the rodent brain. (otago.ac.nz)
  • A biologically-detailed model of the mammalian olfactory bulb, incorporating the mitral and granule cells and the dendrodendritic synapses between them. (yale.edu)
  • For interneurons in the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) - the first area of the brain to process olfactory stimuli - being "a normal neuron" is almost unheard of and the exception has somehow become the rule. (harvard.edu)
  • Fleischer J., Breer H., Strotmann J. Mammalian olfactory receptors. (jle.com)
  • In the mammalian olfactory bulb, the inhibitory axonless granule cells (GCs) feature reciprocal synapses that interconnect them with the principal neurons of the bulb, mitral, and tufted cells. (yale.edu)
  • During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The anatomy and physiology of mammalian olfactory system was investigated in order to develop an organotypic in vitro sensory system to increase our understanding of sensory processing at a neural network level. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • While the mammalian olfactory system has been shown to have a remarkable capability for undergoing experience-dependent plasticity, how such odor memories are imprinted in the adult olfactory neural circuit remains unclear. (grantome.com)
  • The spatial map of the glomeruli layer may be used for perception of odor in the olfactory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although pharmacologically increased activity could elicit morphological changes, under natural conditions such as ongoing neurogenesis, an odor-enriched environment or olfactory-based learning, M/T cell dendrites remained highly stable. (nature.com)
  • Twenty patients, and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent olfactory testing by means of the Sniffin′ Sticks testing device (measurement of odor threshold, and identification abilities). (springer.com)
  • We found that overlapping odor-evoked input patterns to the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) were dynamically reformatted in the network on the timescale of a single breath, giving rise to separated patterns of activity in an ensemble of output neurons, mitral/tufted (M/T) cells. (nature.com)
  • Friedrich, R.W. & Laurent, G. Dynamics of olfactory bulb input and output activity during odor stimulation in zebrafish. (nature.com)
  • Patterson, M.A., Lagier, S. & Carleton, A. Odor representations in the olfactory bulb evolve after the first breath and persist as an odor afterimage. (nature.com)
  • Cells located in the nose that process odor input send signals directly to the olfactory bulb. (wisegeek.com)
  • When an odor enters the nasal cavity, it interacts with the millions of olfactory receptors located there. (wisegeek.com)
  • In contrast, both the detection thresholds for odors and short-term olfactory memory were unaltered, demonstrating that a critical number of bulbar granule cells is crucial only for odor discrimination but not for general olfactory functions. (pnas.org)
  • We found that the dramatic reduction in granule cells in knockout mice was accompanied by impaired odor discrimination but not by impairments in olfactory detection level or memory, indicating a specific role for this cell population for downstream coding of odorant information. (pnas.org)
  • They also support the notion that analyses of the spatial relationships among odorant responses in the olfactory bulb can demonstrate aspects of the mechanism for odor chemical coding. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the olfactory bulb, the processing units for odor discrimination are believed to involve dendrodendritic synaptic interactions between mitral and granule cells. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to cholinergic projections, which consistently increased MTC firing, activation of GABAergic fibers from basal forebrain to the olfactory bulb leads to differential modulation effects: while spontaneous MTC activity is mainly inhibited, odor-evoked firing is predominantly enhanced. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The mitral-granule cell (MC-GC) reciprocal synapse is an important source of auto- and lateral-inhibition in the olfactory bulb (OB), and this local inhibition is critical for odor discrimination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Olfactory bulb coding of odors, mixtures and sniffs is a linear sum of odor time profiles. (ncbs.res.in)
  • The olfactory system receives intermittent and fluctuating inputs arising from dispersion of odor plumes and active sampling by the animal. (ncbs.res.in)
  • These results show that the olfactory bulb linearly processes fluctuating odor inputs, thereby simplifying downstream decoding of stimulus identity and temporal dynamics. (ncbs.res.in)
  • 1 . Davison AP, Feng J, Brown D (2003) Dendrodendritic inhibition and simulated odor responses in a detailed olfactory bulb network model. (yale.edu)
  • Olfactory sensitivity and odor structure-activity relationships for aliphatic ketones in CD-1 mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Olfactory fingerprints for major histocompatibility complex-determined body odors II: relationship among odor maps, genetics, odor composition, and behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brunjes P, Smith-Crafts LK, McCarty R (1985) Unilateral odor deprivation: Effects on the development of olfactory bulb catecholamines and behavior. (springer.com)
  • Using two-photon calcium imaging to monitor the odor responses of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axon terminals in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb during a discrimination task, we found that OSN inputs to the bulb are stable during discrimination learning. (eneuro.org)
  • Odor representations in the rodent olfactory bulb have been demonstrated to undergo dynamic changes during a variety of olfactory experiences. (eneuro.org)
  • In particular, odor representations in mitral cells, the primary projection neurons of the olfactory bulb, become more different (pattern separation) when mice are trained to distinguish between two similar odor mixtures. (eneuro.org)
  • Odor representations in the early olfactory system are highly dynamic and have been shown to be modulated by various types of olfactory experience. (eneuro.org)
  • Newborn neurons in the adult olfactory bulb: unique properties for specific odor behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [2] It occurs when an odor binds to a receptor within the nose, transmitting a signal through the olfactory system . (wikipedia.org)
  • These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing (Yuan et al. (neuronbank.org)
  • In this proposal we test the hypothesis that mitral cell odor responses in the olfactory bulb are modulated by behavioral context, mediated by CRTF projections from piriform cortex. (grantome.com)
  • [7] As the Epicurean and atomistic Roman philosopher Lucretius (1st century BCE) speculated, different odors are attributed to different shapes and sizes of "atoms" (odor molecules in the modern understanding) that stimulate the olfactory organ [1] . (wikipedia.org)
  • A modern demonstration of that theory was the cloning of olfactory receptor proteins by Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel (who were awarded the Nobel Prize in 2004), and subsequent pairing of odor molecules to specific receptor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] In mammals, each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main olfactory bulb (MOB) is richly targeted by LC fibers and noradrenaline profoundly influences MOB circuitry and odor-guided behavior. (meta.org)
  • The ends of the axons cluster in spherical structures known as glomeruli such that each glomerulus receives input primarily from olfactory receptor neurons that express the same olfactory receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • The glomeruli layer of the olfactory bulb is the first level of synaptic processing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous interneuron types exist in the olfactory bulb including periglomerular cells which synapse within and between glomeruli, and granule cells which synapse with mitral cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A separate sensory organ located in the nose, the vomeronasal organ, detects pheremones and passes the signal via axons to the glomeruli in the accessory bulb. (wisegeek.com)
  • The axons of olfactory sensory neurons make synapses in the glomerular layer (GL), consisting of spherical structures called glomeruli. (frontiersin.org)
  • The periglomerular region of the olfactory bulb, apart from containing the somata and stem dendrites of the cells contributing to the glomeruli, is the sole region of distribution of the periglomerular cell thin dendrites and the short-axon cell dendrites. (biologists.org)
  • We found that both species show uniform expression of Gαi2-protein throughout AOB glomeruli, while Gαo expression is restricted to main olfactory glomeruli only. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we investigate whether a neuronal trace of temperature stimulation can be observed in the glomeruli and mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, using calcium imaging and fast line-scanning microscopy. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • Smad4 loss of function in immature bVSNs compromises dendritic knob formation, pheromone induced activation, correct glomeruli formation in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and survival. (biologists.org)
  • thus different odorants are represented at this early stage in olfactory encoding by unique combinations of activated glomeruli. (eneuro.org)
  • [3] Glomeruli aggregate signals from these receptors and transmit them to the olfactory bulb , where the sensory input will start to interact with parts of the brain responsible for smell identification, memory , and emotion . (wikipedia.org)
  • The glomerular layer is the most superficial layer, consisting of mitral cell dendritic arborizations (glomeruli), olfactory nerve fibers, and periglomerular cells. (medscape.com)
  • The glomeruli, in which nestin-immunoreactive astrocytes were localized, were filled with degenerating terminals of olfactory receptor neurons and migrated microglia. (elsevier.com)
  • Glomeruli comprise the circuitry necessary to drive OB output, and are thought to be ideally suited to encapsulate NO. In vitro stimulation of the olfactory nerves entering glomeruli mimics odour input, generating long lasting-depolarisations (LLDs) in all MCs associated with the stimulated glomeruli. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron can express a specific odorant receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • To address this question, we used neural cell adhesion molecule-deficient mice that have documented deficits in the migration of olfactory-bulb neuron precursors, leading to about 40% size reduction of this structure. (pnas.org)
  • Because each olfactory sensory neuron expresses only a single odorant receptor, different odorants can activate distinct subsets of olfactory sensory neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we directly compare optogenetic manipulation effects of two major basal forebrain subpopulations on principal neuron activity in an early sensory processing area, i.e. mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) in the olfactory bulb. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This entry contains a link to a full HD version of movie 1 and the NEURON code of the paper: 'Distributed organization of a brain microcircuit analysed by three-dimensional modeling: the olfactory bulb' by M Migliore, F Cavarretta, ML Hines, and GM Shepherd. (yale.edu)
  • Hinds JW (1972) Early neuron differentiation in the mouse olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • Principal neuron located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. (neuronbank.org)
  • This one uses an olfactory receptor neuron the same thing as I mentioned as olfactory sensory neuron. (coursera.org)
  • As a neural circuit , the glomerular layer receives direct input from afferent nerves , made up of the axons from approximately ten million olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory mucosa , a region of the nasal cavity . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] The next level of synaptic processing in the olfactory bulb occurs in the external plexiform layer, between the glomerular layer and the mitral cell layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order from surface to the center the layers are: Glomerular layer External plexiform layer Mitral cell layer Internal plexiform layer Granule cell layer The olfactory bulb transmits smell information from the nose to the brain, and is thus necessary for a proper sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an effort to understand the means by which similar chemical odorants are encoded in the mammalian brain, we exposed rats to a homologous series of n-aliphatic acids and mapped the response of the entire olfactory bulb glomerular layer by using a high-resolution [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake technique. (nih.gov)
  • It is also the major site of termination of all axons to the glomerular layer except the olfactory axons - i.e. tufted cell collaterals, periglomerular cell and short-axon cell axons and centrifugal fibres. (biologists.org)
  • At the glomerular layer, OSNs provide input onto mitral/tufted cells, the primary projection neurons of the olfactory bulb, which in turn send their axons to higher brain areas ( Price and Powell, 1970 ). (eneuro.org)
  • Central region of the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. (zfin.org)
  • Mitral cells are second-order neurons contacted by the olfactory nerve fibers at the glomerular layer of the bulb. (medscape.com)
  • We further analyzed adult neurogenesis in the granular cell layer and the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, the physiological target region of subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although this process most likely involves changes at multiple stages in the olfactory pathway, one interesting site for plasticity is the olfactory glomerular layer. (grantome.com)
  • It sends olfactory information to be further processed in the amygdala , the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the hippocampus where it plays a role in emotion, memory and learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main olfactory bulb connects to the amygdala via the piriform cortex of the primary olfactory cortex and directly projects from the main olfactory bulb to specific amygdala areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does not contain many cell bodies , rather mostly dendrites of mitral cells and GABAergic granule cells [3] are also permeated by dendrites from neurons called mitral cells , which in turn output to the olfactory cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • There, mitral cells also pick up the information, but instead of sending it to the olfactory cortex, they send it to the amygdala and hypothalamus . (wisegeek.com)
  • Then the information will be the information will be transmitted to the entorhinal cortex of the brain by olfactory bulb, resulting in the sense of smell. (hindawi.com)
  • Many scholars are discussing how the information processed by olfactory bulb is transferred synchronously to the entorhinal cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • In this way, it can be more reliable to activate neurons of following olfactory cortex [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the olfactory bulb, multiple types of neurons form sophisticated networks to process information before transmitting it further to the olfactory cortex. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the course of evaluating these ideas, we will review the orchestra of molecular cues involved in the formation of the projection from the OB to the olfactory cortex. (csic.es)
  • Interestingly, it is well established that the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit, a key pathway for learning and memory, exhibits early neuropathology in AD, and that olfactory information is relayed to the hippocampus via the entorhinal cortex. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Here we propose to unravel the mechanisms by which olfactory information is conveyed to the entorhinal cortex and the adaptations that precede olfactory dysfunction in naturally aging mice and in a transgenic mouse model of AD. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Here, we propose to determine the mechanisms by which olfactory information is conveyed to the entorhinal cortex (EC), a key component of brain circuits important for learning and memory, which also exhibits early neuropathology in AD. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • In olfaction, sensory input activity is initially processed in the olfactory bulb (OB), serving as the first central relay before being transferred to the olfactory cortex. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here, we describe a novel mechanism to gate glutamatergic feedback selectively from the anterior olfactory cortex (AOC) to the OB. (pasteur.fr)
  • The signal then goes forth to the olfactory cortex where it will be recognized and compared with known odorants (i.e. olfactory memory) involving also an emotional response to the olfactory stimuli. (wikibooks.org)
  • Due to phylogeny, olfactory sensory activity is transferred directly from the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex, without a thalamic relay. (wikibooks.org)
  • Axons of the mitral cells transfer information to a number of areas in the brain, including the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, olfactory tubercle, and amygdala (Shepherd, 1). (neuronbank.org)
  • Indeed retrograde CRTF projections from upstream cortical areas (such as auditory, visual and anterior piriform cortex - aPC) to early structures (the thalamus and the olfactory bulb - OB) often outnumber axons carrying information in the anterograde, """"""""upstream"""""""" direction and a variety of studies reveal effects of cortical feedback on upstream transmission of information from olfactory bulb/thalamus to cortex. (grantome.com)
  • Bilateral increases in the levels of GFAP, indicating activation of astrocytes, were detected in primary olfactory cortical projection areas, including the piriform cortex, and also in the basolateral amygdala and dentate gyrus, suggesting that these regions may be functionally altered during the kindling process. (ku.dk)
  • The axons extend through the cribiform plate and directly into the main olfactory bulb, and actually make up a portion of the structure. (wisegeek.com)
  • The olfactory system is a good model to study the mechanisms underlying guidance of growing axons to their appropriate targets. (csic.es)
  • The small, unmyelinated axons of the olfactory receptor cells form the fine fibers of the first cranial nerve and travel centrally toward the ipsilateral olfactory bulb to make contact with the second-order neurons. (medscape.com)
  • Liberia T, Blasco-Ibáñez JM, Nácher J, Varea E, Lanciego JL, Crespo C. Synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the olfactory bulb of the cynomolgus monkey. (unav.edu)
  • The electrical signal proceeds through the olfactory nerve's axons to the olfactory bulbs. (wikibooks.org)
  • Each mitral cell is characterized usually by a single primary dendrite that traverses the external plexiform layer and terminates within an olfactory glomerulus in a tuft of branches where they receive input from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons. (neuronbank.org)
  • abstract = "Background: Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are olfactory disorders caused by inflammation of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Kindling of the olfactory bulb using a novel fast protocol (within 24 h) was studied in rats. (ku.dk)
  • These receptors pass the odour information to olfactory bulb. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we have investigated the involvement of the two delta receptors in the opioid stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rat olfactory bulb. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moreover, pretreatment of olfactory bulb membranes with the nonequilibrium antagonist naltrindole 5'-isothiocyanate, which irreversibly blocks the delta 2 subtype, reduced the stimulatory effects of both DELT and DPDPE, whereas pretreatment with [D-Ala2, Leu5, Cys6]enkephalin, which binds covalently to delta 1 receptors, failed to affect the response to the agonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Olfaction occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules of odorants passing through the superior nasal concha of the nasal passages dissolve in the mucus that lines the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory sensory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons that use trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) to detect odors use the same second messenger signaling cascade as do the canonical olfactory sensory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory receptors. (medscape.com)
  • It is also interesting to note that the human genome has about 600 - 700 genes (~2% of the complete genome) specialized in characterizing the olfactory receptors, but only 350 are still used to build the olfactory system . (wikibooks.org)
  • The weak-shape theory, known as the odotope theory , suggests that different receptors detect only small pieces of molecules, and these minimal inputs are combined to form a larger olfactory perception (similar to the way visual perception is built up of smaller, information-poor sensations, combined and refined to create a detailed overall perception) [ citation needed ] . (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory bulb (Latin: bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory bulb is a structure found in the brains of vertebrates that processes information about odors, and is a key part of the neural system responsible for the sense of smell. (wisegeek.com)
  • Three years ago, a paper in Nature announced the existence of adult neural stem cells in the SVZ lining the lateral ventricles of the human brain, but the authors could find no evidence of a pathway linking the SVZ to the olfactory bulb as in the rodent brain, so they concluded that this phenomenon was unique to the human brain (2004;427:740-744). (lww.com)
  • The tangential migration of precursors from the cells in the subventricular zone into the olfactory bulb is associated with the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in its highly polysialylated form ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The adult mouse subependymal zone (SEZ) harbors neural stem cells that are thought to exclusively generate GABAergic interneurons of the olfactory bulb. (uzh.ch)
  • Postnatal construction of neural circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have undertaken a quantitative analysis of the mouse olfactory bulb to address several major questions concerning the development of neural circuitry in the postnatal mammalian brain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Importantly, we will determine the neural components of the olfactory bulb-EC circuit, and how the function of this circuit is affected in normal aging and in an animal model of AD. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Neural activity in these circuits is regulated by sensory processing in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first central station of the vomeronasal system. (uu.nl)
  • Neural integration and analysis of olfactory stimuli may not involve topographic organization beyond the olfactory bulb, meaning that spatial or frequency axis are not needed to project the signal. (wikibooks.org)
  • According to a new study, researchers have found that a functional relationship exists between molecular volume of odorants and the olfactory neural response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general goal of this grant is to understand the neural basis of olfactory processing which could help in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. (grantome.com)
  • In most vertebrates, the olfactory bulb is the most rostral (forward) part of the brain, as seen in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unilateral olfactory deprivation during the first postnatal month in rats results in a dramatic reduction in the size of the experimental olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated this by recording spike trains from the olfactory bulb in awake, behaving rats. (harvard.edu)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Comparison of the number nerve cells in the olfactory bulbs of domesticated albino and wild Norway rats from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Kawano T, Margolis FL (1982) Transsynaptic regulation of olfactory bulb catecholamines in mice and rats. (springer.com)
  • Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice During Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and β-Adrenoceptor Activation. (neuronbank.org)
  • The process is similar for the accessory olfactory bulb, except the input being processed is pheremones instead of odors. (wisegeek.com)
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, have now quantified and mapped the functional units of the olfactory center in the brains of vinegar flies responsible for the perception of odors. (phys.org)
  • The main olfactory system of some mammals also contains small subpopulations of olfactory sensory neurons that detect and transduce odors somewhat differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signals, which are not detected consciously as odors by the olfactory system, mediate human autonomic, psychological, and endocrine responses. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory bulb mitral cell is involved in the processing of information pertaining to odors and the sense of smell. (neuronbank.org)
  • Olfactory perception, including being able to identify and distinguish different types of odors, is a feature often reported to be impaired in FM patients. (fibromyalgianewstoday.com)
  • Animals perceive their olfactory environment not only from odors originating in the external world (orthonasal route), but also from odors released in the oral cavity while eating food (retronasal route). (ismrm.org)
  • Kosaka, K., Aika, Y., Toida, K. & Kosaka, T. Structure of intraglomerular dendritic tufts of mitral cells and their contacts with olfactory nerve terminals and calbindin-immunoreactive type 2 periglomerular neurons. (nature.com)
  • This is "suggestive of neuronophagia in the olfactory bulb, substantial nigra, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve, and the pre-Bötzinger complex in the medulla, which is involved in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic breathing," write the investigators. (medscape.com)
  • When nerve signals coming from the depths of nasal get to the olfactory bulb, it will generate corresponding spatial and temporal coding [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We also show that these "newcomers" express functional GABA and glutamate receptor channels, respond synaptically to stimulation of the olfactory nerve, and may establish both axodendritic and dendrodendritic synaptic contacts within the olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we have addressed these questions by directly examining interspecific variation in the size of the olfactory bulbs (OB), the region of the brain that receives the primary sensory projections from the olfactory nerve, in 58 species of cartilaginous fishes. (springer.com)
  • The team looked at the response of about 50 nerve cells in a specialised part of the mouse brain called the accessory olfactory bulb, which deals with pheromonal information. (newscientist.com)
  • Head anatomy with olfactory nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, separated at the midline by the crista galli, contains multiple small foramina through which the olfactory nerve fibers, or fila olfactoria, traverse. (medscape.com)
  • Each mitral cell is contacted by at least 1000 olfactory nerve fibers. (medscape.com)
  • Human skull showing the Cribriform Plate in green and Olfactory nerve in yellow. (wikibooks.org)
  • The cribriform plate's perforations provide conduits for olfactory nerve processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glutamate Some studies have suggested that endogenous glutamate tonically modulates mitral cell excitability and responsiveness to olfactory nerve input,and hence the operation of the mitral olfactory bulb circuitry, via activation of mGluR1. (neuronbank.org)
  • Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. (neuronbank.org)
  • Using retrograde tract tracing with various dextrans and live tissue culture, we were able to label several types of output neurons in the olfactory bulb including mitral cells, ruffed cells, and ganglion cells of the terminal nerve. (wmich.edu)
  • Another focus of this study was to examine the structural integrity of mitral cells following generation of the olfactory nerve. (wmich.edu)
  • Multidimensional chemotopic responses to n-aliphatic acid odorants in the rat olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • We found that these similar odorants evoked spatially clustered but distinct responses in the bulb that changed systematically with carbon chain length. (nih.gov)
  • Previous work has suggested that the olfactory transduction machinery and excitatory-inhibitory olfactory bulb circuitry generate nonlinear population trajectories of neuronal activity that differ across odorants. (ncbs.res.in)
  • We delivered odorants via the orthonasal and retronasal routes and measured whole olfactory bulb (OB) glomerular activity responses by fMRI. (ismrm.org)
  • The olfactory bulb (OB) of Gfra1 knock-out mice shows significant reductions in the number of olfactory sensory neurons, mitral and tufted cells, as well as all major classes of OB GABAergic interneurons. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, if granule cells produced in adulthood are necessary for olfactory bulb function, then a defect in the rostral migration leading to a reduction of the recruitment of new bulbar interneurons should alter olfactory behavioral responses. (pnas.org)
  • The focal glomerular responses were mirrored by responses in deeper bulb layers. (nih.gov)
  • The observed spatial pattern of response also may explain both the failure of some bulb lesions to interfere with behavioral olfactory responses and the success of other lesions in blocking olfactory responses. (nih.gov)
  • The olfactory bulb principal neurons show complex responses during olfactory stimulation that are characterized by periods of profound suppression, temporal patterns of activity, and nonmonotonic intensity response functions. (nih.gov)
  • The same impulse responses convolved with the respiratory airflow predict the classical respiration-locked firing of olfactory bulb neurons and several other reported response properties of M/T cells. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Scott JW(1977)A measure of extracellular unit responses to repeated stimulation applied to observations of the time course of olfactory responses. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we explored whether changes in the sensory inputs to the bulb underlie the observed changes in mitral cell responses. (eneuro.org)
  • These results suggest that the adaptive changes of mitral cell responses during perceptual learning are ensured by mechanisms downstream of OSN input, possibly in local circuits within olfactory bulb. (eneuro.org)
  • The expression of stress-responsive proteins, such as nestin and a 27-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP27), was immunohistochemically examined in order to demonstrate glial responses in the rat olfactory bulb following sensory deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • The granule cell layer is the deepest layer in the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the main olfactory bulb, they ascend radially into the granule and periglomerular cell layers, where they differentiate mainly into local interneurons. (pnas.org)
  • The granule cells of the olfactory bulb of the rat have been studied in material prepared by the Golgi-Kopsch method for examination with the light microscope, and in material examined with the electron microscope. (biologists.org)
  • With the Golgi method, the granule cells are found to have no process which can be identified as a typical axon, but from the superficial aspect of the somata stout peripheral processes arise and pass into the overlying external plexiform layer, while from the opposite side of the cell body several thinner deep dendntes extend towards the deeper parts of the bulb. (biologists.org)
  • New olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are GABAergic interneurons continuously arising from neuronal progenitors and integrating into preexisting bulbar circuits. (uzh.ch)
  • 1 . Aghvami SS, Müller M, Araabi BN, Egger V (2019) Coincidence Detection within the Excitable Rat Olfactory Bulb Granule Cell Spines. (yale.edu)
  • In the olfactory bulb, cell bodies are arranged in a thin mitral cell body layer between the granule cell layer and the external plexiform layer. (neuronbank.org)
  • Located in the layer between the granule cell layer and the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb. (neuronbank.org)
  • Morphological recovery of the granule cells from the olfactory bulb after the cessation of acute ozone exposure. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the possible morphological recovery of the granule cells in the olfactory bulb as a consequence of oxidative stress after an acute ozone exposure. (bvsalud.org)
  • The granule cells of the olfactory bulb disclosed less dendritic spine density at 2, 24 h, and 10 days after the exposure compared with controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inhibitory synapses of such local interneurons from the olfactory bulb and the antennal lobe in insects (the analogue of the vertebrate olfactory bulb) shape the temporal patterns of output neurons, namely, the mitral cells in vertebrates and the projection neurons in insects ( 15 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • This presentation will deal with the issue of how we can evaluate those signals when we observe them as trains of spikes in the vertebrate olfactory bulb or other central nervous structures. (springer.com)
  • Halasz N, Shepherd GM (1983) Neurochemistry of the vertebrate olfactory bulb. (springer.com)
  • We will point out that newborn interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) represent a privileged cellular target for social stimuli that elicit reproductive behaviors and that such cues modulate adult neurogenesis at two different levels increasing both proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the germinative regions and integration of newborn neurons into functional circuits. (hindawi.com)
  • Our environment is filled with odorant molecules, and our emotions, moods, and even behaviors can be controlled by olfactory stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1. Single-unit activity was recorded from olfactory bulb neurones driven by odorous stimuli. (unh.edu)
  • Representation of natural stimuli in the rodent main olfactory bulb. (mendeley.com)
  • In the rodent brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) generates thousands of new olfactory bulb neurons every day. (lww.com)
  • In adult rodents, neurons are continually generated in the subventricular zone of the forebrain, from where they migrate tangentially toward the olfactory bulb, the only known target for these neuronal precursors. (pnas.org)
  • Hence, NCAM-knockout mice, which also have been shown to be almost totally devoid of polysialic acid, show a defect in the rostral migration of subventricular zone precursors, resulting in an accumulation of precursors along the pathway and finally in a size reduction of the olfactory bulb ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Intracellular huntingtin aggregates are present in neurons of distinct brain areas, among them regions of adult neurogenesis including the hippocampus and the subventricular zone/olfactory bulb system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alterations of the synaptic input of the primary olfactory neurons to their target neurons in the olfactory bulb has demonstrated that the afferent olfactory neurons can modulate the biochemical phenotype expressed by their juxtaglomerular target neurons (Baker et al. (springer.com)
  • Ferriero D, Margolis FL (1975) Denervation in the primary olfactory pathway of mice. (springer.com)
  • Their progeny can undergo cell death ( 6 ) or give rise to neuronal progenitors that migrate through a tangential pathway, called the rostral migratory stream, into the core of the main olfactory bulb ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • This study was designed to distinguish Mn effect on the critical stage of adult neurogenesis, ie, proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB). (iupui.edu)
  • The latter fibers pass through the contralateral bulb, cross the anterior commissure, and then run to the ipsilateral olfactory bulb, where they target the γ-glomerulus. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • At 3 days to 1 week after sensory deprivation, numerous nestin-expressing cells appeared within the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. (elsevier.com)
  • Even mitral cells with multiple dendrites appeared to contact a single glomerulus, a finding that suggests olfactory coding in these teleosts may be more similar to mammals than previously suggested. (wmich.edu)
  • Graziadei PPC, Monti Graziadei GA (1978) The olfactory system: A model for the study of neurogenesis and axon regeneration in mammals. (springer.com)
  • The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals. (medscape.com)
  • The accessory olfactory bulbs (AOBs), to which VN nerves normally project in mammals, have not been clearly identified in humans, raising additional questions about human VNO function. (angelfire.com)
  • The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals receives cholinergic afferents from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB). (unav.edu)
  • 3) these synapses may be able to store the olfactory memory. (hindawi.com)
  • These early olfactory abilities manifest well before the number of GCs and the number of MC-GC reciprocal synapses approach adult levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the light of observations on the olfactory bulb, it is suggested that dendrites may be divided into 2 major classes: those that only receive synapses (Class A) and those that make synaptic contacts as well as receiving them (Class B). Further comparisons with the deep layers of the bulb and physiological implications are discussed. (biologists.org)
  • Together, our findings unravel rapid synaptic integration of newborn GCs in adult mouse olfactory bulb, with GABAergic and glutamatergic influences being established proximally before formation of output synapses by apical GC dendrites onto mitral/tufted cells. (uzh.ch)
  • The main olfactory bulb (OB) is made up of several concentric layers, forming circuitries often involving dendro-dendritic synapses. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the olfactory bulb, inhibition is imbedded in the local connectivity at dendrodendritic synapses between mitral cells and interneurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Reversible blockade from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P20 or P30 results in reduced bulb volume and tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining, and decreased depth in the olfactory mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • Remodeling was most pronounced in the dorsal meatus of the olfactory mucosa and persisted for the duration of the experiment (46 weeks). (diva-portal.org)
  • The 2,5-substituted isomer (65 mg/kg) did not induce GFAP in the olfactory bulb and or toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. (diva-portal.org)
  • In conclusion, a single dose of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO 2 -B) results in persistent metaplasia and remodeling of the olfactory mucosa, and a long-lasting but transient induction of GFAP in the olfactory bulb. (diva-portal.org)
  • Assuming that the olfactory deficit in TLE patients is due to the central nervous epileptic focus it appears that the OB volume is not only subject to changes in the periphery of the olfactory system, but also changes as a consequence to changes at a cortical level. (springer.com)
  • In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. (nature.com)
  • Friedrich, R.W. Neuronal computations in the olfactory system of zebrafish. (nature.com)
  • The olfactory bulb is a part of the limbic system . (wisegeek.com)
  • Also, because the human forebrain is enlarged and rotated forward compared to the rodent brain, and the olfactory system lies beneath it, there is an S-shaped bend in the human RMS, which has made the structure difficult to track. (lww.com)
  • The loss of smell that many PD patients experience may seem logical at first, since both disorders - anosmia and PD - result from the degeneration of neurons, but the occurrence of both together poses a paradox: while the neurons in the midbrain that produce dopamine deteriorate in PD, dopamine neurons in the olfactory system proliferate ( Mov Disord 2004;19:687-692). (lww.com)
  • Some researchers suspect that the extra dopamine produced by these cells may inhibit transmission in the olfactory system, but the mechanism that produces anosmia is unknown. (lww.com)
  • The authors demonstrate that everything we have learned about the olfactory system in rodents showing how new neurons are born, migrate, take up positions in the olfactory bulb, and start getting integrated into sensory experience, is probably transferable to humans," he said. (lww.com)
  • Olfactory bulb plays an important part in signal encoding of olfactory system. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, the current situation of synchronous oscillation in the network of olfactory system is firstly introduced. (hindawi.com)
  • Olfactory system is an important part in sensory nervous system. (hindawi.com)
  • As the first transfer station of the olfactory system, olfactory bulb plays an important role in processing olfactory information. (hindawi.com)
  • On the concept of many-are-equal (MAE), Brody and Hopfield [ 6 ] further checked that olfactory system can identify odour by the synchronization of spikes of MCs. (hindawi.com)
  • 7 ] studied the encoding mechanism of locust olfactory system through space-time coding model. (hindawi.com)
  • The olfactory bulb is one of the few structures in the mammalian central nervous system in which there is a continued supplied of newly generated neurons ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Allison A, Warwick R (1949) Quantitative observations on the olfactory system of rabbit. (springer.com)
  • To explore these questions more fully, the present review aims to correlate recent data from different developmental studies, to gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the specification and development of the olfactory system. (csic.es)
  • Listen to learn about the endocannabinoid system, mitral cells, implications for olfactory behavior, and more! (podbean.com)
  • However, in recent years several studies brought evidence that temperature perception also takes place in the olfactory system of rodents. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • Temperature thus appears to be a relevant physiological input to the Xenopus olfactory system. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • Histopathology was used to characterize long-term toxic effects in the olfactory system following a single ip dose (4-65 mg/kg) of methylsulfonyl-2,6-dichlorobenzene, (2,6-(diCl-MeSO 2 -B)), in female NMRI mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • It is proposed that methylsulfonyl-2,6-dichlorobenzene may serve as an experimental tool with a unique ability to produce persistent primary and/or secondary lesions in the olfactory system of mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • GFRα1, a receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), is critical for the development of the main olfactory system. (biologists.org)
  • [8] The sensory olfactory system integrates with other senses to form the perception of flavor . (wikipedia.org)
  • As a chemical sensor, the olfactory system detects food and influences social and sexual behavior. (medscape.com)
  • The continuous turnover and new supply of these neurons are unique to the olfactory system. (medscape.com)
  • Within the olfactory system, information flow from the periphery onto output mitral cells (MCs) of the olfactory bulb (OB) has been thought to be mediated by direct synaptic inputs from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). (elsevier.com)
  • Probably the oldest sensory system in the nature, the olfactory system concerns the sense of smell. (wikibooks.org)
  • The olfactory system is physiologically strongly related to the gustatory system, so that the two are often examined together. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this article we will first focus on the organs composing the olfactory system , then we will characterize them in order to understand their functionality and we will end explaining the transduction of the signal and the commercial application such as the eNose. (wikibooks.org)
  • They really have evidence for this kind of coding scheme, in the olfactory system. (coursera.org)
  • The present study suggests that reactive astrocytes may be involved in axonal regeneration and synaptic remodeling in the olfactory system, through the recapitulation of developmentally regulated proteins, such as nestin and HSP27. (elsevier.com)
  • This information provides further background for olfactory coding and processing studies in this key model system. (wmich.edu)
  • In another experiment, normal stimulation was restored for varying periods of time, and experimental and control bulb volumes were measured. (nih.gov)
  • Recovery of bulb size occurs after 40 d of normal stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, cells born after the return of normal levels of environmental stimulation can replace some of the neurons and glia that are lost during olfactory deprivation. (nih.gov)
  • Participation of delta opioid receptor subtypes in the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rat olfactory bulb. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Samanen, D.W. & Forbes, W.B. Replication and differentiation of olfactory receptor neurons following axotomy in the adult hamster: a morphometric analysis of postnatal neurogenesis. (nature.com)
  • We may gain insight into the role of MC autoinhibition in olfaction by correlating the functional development of the autoinhibition with the postnatal development of olfactory function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Role of serotonin in olfactory recognition was tested by depleting the olfactory bulb serotonin during postnatal day (PND)1- 4 following administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. (niscair.res.in)
  • Involvement of Ngn2, Tbr and NeuroD proteins during postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis. (lu.se)
  • In this study, we provide insights into the molecular events controlling postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis. (lu.se)
  • Taken together, our data illustrate that Ngn2, neuroD and Tbr transcription factors are involved in postnatal neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb. (lu.se)
  • By immunohistofluorescence analysis with a monoclonal antibody to PTPRO, we show that PTPRO is widely expressed throughout the mouse brain from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 1, while expression is largely confined to the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory tubercle in the adult brain. (elsevier.com)
  • Figure 1: Two-photon imaging of M/T cells and their apical dendrites in the olfactory bulb of a YFP-G mouse. (nature.com)
  • The scientists found evidence of the stream by staining human brain specimens with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and using a high-powered microscope to follow cells that took up the stain from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb in the base of the forebrain. (lww.com)
  • They had dissected the olfactory bulb from cancer patients who, before they died, had received bromodeoxyuridine to detect the presence of rapidly dividing cancer cells. (lww.com)
  • Combining retroviral-mediated labeling of newly generated neurons with patch-clamp electrophysiology, we demonstrated that soon after new cells enter the layers of the olfactory bulb, they display voltage-dependent currents typical of more mature neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data provide a basic description of the physiology of newly generated cells in the OB and show that such new cells are functional neurons that synaptically integrate into olfactory bulb circuitry soon after their arrival. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. (frontiersin.org)
  • The formation of the olfactory bulb involves differentiation of several populations of cells and the initiation of the central projections, all under the temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression. (csic.es)
  • We previously reported the isolation of stem cells from the mouse olfactory bulb neuroepithelium. (csic.es)
  • In the present study, we analysed whether olfactory bulb stem cells (OBSC) can generate cells with hematopoietic features. (csic.es)
  • Cells were prepared from the olfactory bulbs of transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). (csic.es)
  • These results suggest that embryonic olfactory bulb stem cells are not endowed with the potential to produce hematopoiesis. (csic.es)
  • These regenerating cells include a well-defined group of interneurons that co-release GABA and dopamine at the level of the first synapse from olfactory sensory neurons to bulbar principal cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Chuah Ml, Farbman Al (1983) Olfactory bulb increases marker protein in olfactory receptor cells. (springer.com)
  • Repeated paced mating increases the number of cells in the accessory olfactory bulb. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we address whether similar changes occur in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which provide input onto mitral cells. (eneuro.org)
  • The specialized olfactory epithelial cells characterize the only group of neurons capable of regeneration. (medscape.com)
  • This area (only a few centimeters wide) contains more than 100 million olfactory receptor cells. (medscape.com)
  • These specialized epithelial cells give rise to the olfactory vesicles containing kinocilia, which serve as sites of stimulus transduction. (medscape.com)
  • Basal cells are stem cells that give rise to the olfactory receptor cells (seen in the image below). (medscape.com)
  • The receptor cells are actually bipolar neurons, each possessing a thin dendritic rod that contains specialized cilia extending from the olfactory vesicle and a long central process that forms the fila olfactoria. (medscape.com)
  • An OB circuit with tufted cells intermediate between OSNs and MCs suggests that considerable processing of olfactory information occurs before its reaching MCs. (elsevier.com)
  • Olfactory sensitivity is directly proportional to the area in the nasal cavity near the septum reserved to the olfactory mucous membrane, which is the region where the olfactory receptor cells are located. (wikibooks.org)
  • In humans there are about 10 million olfactory cells, each of which have 350 different receptor types composing the olfactory mucous membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • The olfactory bulb mitral cells are apical, sparsely branching and 300-500 um length. (neuronbank.org)
  • Using bromodeoxyuridine to label proliferating cells, we observed in both neurogenic regions of the olfactory bulb a reduction in newly generated neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitral cells were the most numerous output neurons in the olfactory bulb. (wmich.edu)
  • Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamic of newborn GC synaptogenesis in adult mouse olfactory bulb. (uzh.ch)
  • Here we use temporally and spatially discrete in vivo electroporation, combined with transgenic lines of zebrafish, to induce expression of a GFP transgene specifically in neurons of the developing olfactory bulb. (jove.com)
  • This categorization provides us with a basic model of the olfactory bulb network (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Basic model of the olfactory bulb network. (frontiersin.org)
  • ModelDB: 3D model of the olfactory bulb (Migliore et al. (yale.edu)
  • The study aimed to investigate the volume of the olfactory bulb (OB) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). (springer.com)
  • Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) may have reduced volume of the olfactory bulb, a key structure in how we perceive and distinguish smell, a study found. (fibromyalgianewstoday.com)
  • The volume of the olfactory bulb is known to be reduced in other diseases, too, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. (fibromyalgianewstoday.com)
  • To determine the volume of the olfactory bulb in a group of FM patients, researchers used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (fibromyalgianewstoday.com)
  • Both (D-Ala2, Glu4) deltorphin (DELT), a delta 2 agonist, and [D-Pen2, D-Pen5] enkephalin (DPDPE), a delta 1 agonist, stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in rat olfactory bulb in a concentration-dependent manner, DELT being 25-fold more potent than DPDPE. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cell proliferation and migration in the anterior forebrain, with special reference to persisting neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb. (nature.com)
  • That same year, Andreanne Bedard and Andre Parent discovered newly generated neurons in the human olfactory bulb, but they could not find the path they took to get there ( Brain Res Dev Brain 2004;151:159-168). (lww.com)
  • From this site of origin, "newly generated" neurons migrate to their final destination, the olfactory bulb (OB), where they differentiate into a variety of cell types. (jneurosci.org)
  • In humans, however, the olfactory bulb is on the inferior (bottom) side of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory bulb transmits smell information from the nose to the brain, and is thus necessary for a proper sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the olfactory bulb also receives "top-down" information from such brain areas as the amygdala , neocortex , hippocampus , locus coeruleus , and substantia nigra . (wikipedia.org)
  • Shepherd, G.M. & Greer, C.A. Olfactory bulb in The Synaptic Organization of the Brain (ed. (nature.com)
  • By analogy to similar parts of the brain such as the retina, many researchers have focused on how the olfactory bulb filters incoming information from receptor neurons in space, or how it filters incoming information in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multifocal microvascular injury in the brain and olfactory bulbs is another possible adverse outcome from COVID-19, new research suggests. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Microvascular Injury of Brain, Olfactory Bulbs Seen in COVID-19 - Medscape - Dec 31, 2020. (medscape.com)
  • Within the brain, the bulb is located in the forebrain , though in humans it sits at the bottom while in other vertebrates it sits at the very front. (wisegeek.com)
  • Animals with less olfactory capacity, including humans, tend to have a smaller bulb in proportion to their brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • uniqturtl - from what I've read, about 2 million people have anosmia, or lack of smell but I don't know if that means that they have no sense of smell due to illness, disease or injury or if they were born without the function of the olfactory bulb in their brain or possibly, without an olfactory bulb at all. (wisegeek.com)
  • Despite the relatively protected location of the olfactory bulb in the human brain (which is on the bottom of the brain), many common ailments can effect the olfactory bulb, such as upper-respiratory tract infections, head trauma, and nasal or sinus diseases. (wisegeek.com)
  • Now, scientists in New Zealand and Sweden have identified the path by which new neurons travel from the SVZ of the human brain, where they are born, to the olfactory bulb, demonstrating that this type of neurogenesis, so vigorous in rodents, occurs in humans, too. (lww.com)
  • Newborn neurons in the adult mammalian brain continuously migrate into the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb (OB) ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • This important function is achieved through a continuous supply of new neurons into the circuits of the olfactory bulb (OB) and dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, two key regions exerting an important control on brain circuits critical for survival of individuals and species [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Olfactory bulb synucleinopathy density scores correlated significantly with synucleinopathy scores in all other brain regions (Spearman R values between 0.46 and 0.78) as well as with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination and Part 3 of the unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (Spearman R −0.27, 0.35, respectively). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is concluded that olfactory bulb LTS accurately predicts the presence of LTS in other brain regions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 . Migliore M, Cavarretta F, Hines ML, Shepherd GM (2014) Distributed organization of a brain microcircuit analyzed by three-dimensional modeling: the olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • As such, Maurice and I developed a project to further our understanding of disease processes in the olfactory bulb, utilising one key resource we have in the Centre for Brain Research, The Neurological Foundation Human Brain Bank. (neurological.org.nz)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Olfactory dysfunction precedes symptoms of dementia and memory loss, making olfactory tests a useful tool in early detection of brain neuropathology, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • The proposal utilizes optogenetic techniques in recordings from awake, behaving animals and brain slices to examine olfactory CRTF modulation. (grantome.com)
  • They receive both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs from olfactory bulb intrinsic neurons and centrifugal afferents. (uzh.ch)
  • Niessing, J. & Friedrich, R.W. Olfactory pattern classification by discrete neuronal network states. (nature.com)
  • We have tested this hypothesis, first, by quantifying the level of migration and the size of interneuron populations in NCAM-mutant mice and, second, by investigating their olfactory performance. (pnas.org)
  • In this podcast, Editor-in-Chief Bill Yates talks with Thomas Heinbockel (Howard University) and Alex Straiker (Indiana University, Bloomington) about their recent study in mice, which revealed that CB 1 is involved in the regulation of glomerular activity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). (podbean.com)
  • A dose-dependent induction of GFAP in the olfactory bulb of mice treated with 2,6-(diCl-MeSO 2 -B) was observed at all doses examined (16-65 mg/kg). (diva-portal.org)
  • Objective: Repeated intranasal administration of LPS that induced persistent nasal inflammation in mice caused a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and gliosis and synaptic loss in the OBs within 3 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • Olfactory and auditory social communication in mice. (mendeley.com)
  • Haehner A, Rodewald A, Gerber JC, Hummel T (2008) Changes of the volume of the human olfactory bulb with olfactory function. (springer.com)
  • This activity pattern can be visualized in vivo using a newly-developed transgenic mouse with a GFP-based calcium indicator (G-CaMP2) expressed exclusively in olfactory bulb output neurons immediately postsynaptic to receptor input. (grantome.com)
  • Coronal image of mouse main olfactory bulb cell nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accessory olfactory bulb resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb and forms a parallel pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main olfactory bulb has a multi-layered cellular architecture . (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to rodent olfactory bulbs previously reported, many TH-LI neurons were seen not only in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) but also in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the cape hyrax expresses Gαi2 but not Gαo.Similar to S. beecheyi, the AOB of Procavia capensis is located dorsocaudal to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) as shown in sagittal sections. (nih.gov)
  • 2. NeuroLex: Olfactory_bulb_main_mitral_cell 3. (neuronbank.org)
  • Frosch MP, Dichter MA (1984) Physiology and pharmacology of olfactory bulb neurons in dissociated cell culture. (springer.com)
  • Arisi GM, Foresti ML, Mukherjee S, Shapiro LA (2012) The role of olfactory stimulus in adult mammalian neurogenesis. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, we propose that the OB network can act as a pattern separator facilitating olfactory stimulus distinction, a process that is sculpted by synaptic inhibition. (nature.com)
  • Early scientific study of olfaction includes the extensive doctoral dissertation of Eleanor Gamble , published in 1898, which compared olfactory to other stimulus modalities , and implied that smell had a lower intensity discrimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eskenazi B, Cain WS, Novelly RA, Friend KB (1983) Olfactory functioning in temporal lobectomy patients. (springer.com)
  • Olfactory bulb and tract and temporal lobe volumes. (arclab.org)
  • To ascertain whether the volumes of the olfactory bulbs and tracts (OBTs) and the temporal lobes (TL) declined in parallel to smell function, we examined 36 individuals from ages 22 to 78 who did not complain of any loss of the sense of smell using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. (arclab.org)
  • Chen C., Shih Y.H., Yen D.J. Olfactory auras in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. (jle.com)
  • Desai M., Agadi J.B., Karthik N., Praveenkumar S., Netto A.B. Olfactory abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. (jle.com)
  • [Andy, 1967] Andy O.J. The amygdala and hippocampus in olfactory aura. (jle.com)