A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
'Pyrans' are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms, which can be found in various natural substances and synthesized compounds, and may have potential applications in medicinal chemistry.
Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Toxins isolated from any species of the seaweed Lyngbya or similar chemicals from other sources, including mollusks and micro-organisms. These have been found to be potent tumor promoters. They are biosynthesized from TRYPTOPHAN; VALINE; and METHIONINE nonribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.

Neu differentiation factor stimulates phosphorylation and activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. (1/1378)

Neu differentiation factors (NDFs), or neuregulins, are epidermal growth factor-like growth factors which bind to two tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4. The transcription of several genes is regulated by neuregulins, including genes encoding specific subunits of the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we have examined the promoter of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit and delineated a minimal CA-rich sequence which mediates transcriptional activation by NDF (NDF-response element [NRE]). Using gel mobility shift analysis with an NRE oligonucleotide, we detected two complexes that are induced by treatment with neuregulin and other growth factors and identified Sp1, a constitutively expressed zinc finger phosphoprotein, as a component of one of these complexes. Phosphatase treatment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and an in-gel kinase assay indicated that Sp1 is phosphorylated by a 60-kDa kinase in response to NDF-induced signals. Moreover, Sp1 seems to act downstream of all members of the ErbB family and thus may funnel the signaling of the ErbB network into the nucleus.  (+info)

Karyotyping of human oocytes by chromosomal analysis of the second polar bodies. (2/1378)

This paper describes a method for obtaining metaphase chromosomes from human second polar bodies. The second polar body nucleus was injected into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte, which is activated shortly after injection. When the polar body nucleus is transformed into a haploid pronucleus, treatment with okadaic acid was used to induce premature chromosome condensation. A total of 25 analysable chromosome plates were obtained from 38 polar bodies karyotyped using this technique. Whole chromosome painting was used to detect second polar bodies (and respectively, oocytes) with unbalanced translocations. In combination with the first polar body analysis, this technique may be useful in preimplantation genetic diagnosis for patients carrying maternal translocations.  (+info)

A unique Na+/H+ exchanger, analogous to NHE1, in the chicken embryonic fibroblast. (3/1378)

We report the characterization of an Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) in embryonic fibroblasts (SL-29 cells) of the chicken, a terrestrial vertebrate, where Na+ conservation is important. This exchanger is electroneutral, has a single Na+ binding site, and is highly sensitive to amiloride (IC50 2 microM), dimethyl amiloride (350 nM), and ethyl-isopropyl amiloride (25 nM). It is stimulated by serum, transforming growth factor-alpha, hypertonicity, and okadaic acid. Although these features make it resemble mammalian NHE1, other characteristics suggest distinct differences. First, in contrast to mammalian NHE1 it is inhibited by cAMP and shows a biphasic response to phorbol esters and a highly variable response to increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Second, whereas full-length human and rat NHE1 cDNA probes recognize a 4.8-kb transcript in rat tissues, they recognize only a 3.9-kb transcript in chicken tissues. An antibody against amino acids 631-746 of human NHE1 sequence fails to recognize a protein in SL-29 cells. Rat NHE2 and NHE3 probes do not recognize any transcript in chicken fibroblasts. The SL-29 exchanger differs markedly from the previously characterized chicken intestinal apical exchanger in its amiloride sensitivity and regulation by phorbol esters. These results suggest that a modified version of mammalian NHE1 is present in chicken tissues and imply that another functionally distinct Na+/H+ exchanger is expressed in aves.  (+info)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and activation of human Cdc25-C at the G2/M phase transition in HeLa cells. (4/1378)

The human tyrosine phosphatase (p54(cdc25-c)) is activated by phosphorylation at mitosis entry. The phosphorylated p54(cdc25-c) in turn activates the p34-cyclin B protein kinase and triggers mitosis. Although the active p34-cyclin B protein kinase can itself phosphorylate and activate p54(cdc25-c), we have investigated the possibility that other kinases may initially trigger the phosphorylation and activation of p54(cdc25-c). We have examined the effects of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) on p54(cdc25-c). Our in vitro experiments show that CaM kinase II can phosphorylate p54(cdc25-c) and increase its phosphatase activity by 2.5-3-fold. Treatment of a synchronous population of HeLa cells with KN-93 (a water-soluble inhibitor of CaM kinase II) or the microinjection of AC3-I (a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase II) results in a cell cycle block in G2 phase. In the KN-93-arrested cells, p54(cdc25-c) is not phosphorylated, p34(cdc2) remains tyrosine phosphorylated, and there is no increase in histone H1 kinase activity. Our data suggest that a calcium-calmodulin-dependent step may be involved in the initial activation of p54(cdc25-c).  (+info)

The expression of casein kinase 2alpha' and phosphatase 2A activity. (5/1378)

Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity may be differentially regulated by the expression of proteins containing a related amino acid sequence motif such as the casein kinase 2alpha (CK2alpha) subunit or SV40 small t antigen (SVt). Expression of CK2alpha increases PP2A activity whereas SVt decreases its activity. In this work we have tested for the effect of the expression of a third protein containing a similar motif that could be involved in PP2A regulation, the catalytic casein kinase 2alpha' subunit. Our results show that despite the structural similarity of this protein with the other CK2 catalytic (alpha) subunit, the function of the two subunits with respect to the modulation of PP2A activity is quite different: CK2alpha increases whereas CK2alpha' slightly decreases PP2A activity.  (+info)

Differential effects of a calcineurin inhibitor on glutamate-induced phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (6/1378)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) are major multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in calcium-mediated signal transduction. To characterize their regulatory mechanisms in neurons, we compared glutamate-induced phosphorylation of CaM kinase IV and CaM kinase II in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We observed that dephosphorylation of these kinases followed different time courses, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms for each kinase. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, increased the phosphorylation of both kinases. In contrast, cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, showed different effects: the phosphorylation and activity of CaM kinase IV were significantly increased with this inhibitor, but those of CaM kinase II were not significantly increased. Cyclosporin A treatment of neurons increased phosphorylation of Thr196 of CaM kinase IV, the activated form with CaM kinase kinase, which was recognized with an anti-phospho-Thr196 antibody. Moreover, recombinant CaM kinase IV was dephosphorylated and inactivated with calcineurin as well as with PP1, PP2A, and PP2C in vitro. These results suggest that CaM kinase IV, but not CaM kinase II, is directly regulated with calcineurin.  (+info)

NHE2 contains subdomains in the COOH terminus for growth factor and protein kinase regulation. (7/1378)

The cloned epithelial cell-specific Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) isoform NHE2 is stimulated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), okadaic acid (OA), and fetal bovine serum (FBS) through a change in maximal velocity of the transporter. In the present study, we used COOH-terminal truncation mutants to delineate specific domains in the COOH terminus of NHE2 that are responsible for growth factor and/or protein kinase regulation. Five truncation mutants (designated by the amino acid number at the truncation site) were stably expressed in NHE-deficient PS120 fibroblasts. The effects of PMA, FGF, OA, FBS, and W-13 [a Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor] were studied. Truncation mutant E2/660, but not E2/573, was stimulated by PMA. OA stimulated E2/573 but not E2/540. FGF stimulated E2/540 but not E2/499. The most truncated mutant, E2/499, was stimulated by FBS. W-13 stimulated the basal activity of the wild-type NHE2. However, W-13 had no effect on E2/755. By monitoring the emission spectra of dansylated CaM fluorescence, we showed that dansylated CaM bound directly to a purified fusion protein of glutathione S-transferase and the last 87 amino acids of NHE2 in a Ca2+-dependent manner, with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a dissociation constant of 300 nM. Our results showed that the COOH terminus of NHE2 is organized into separate stimulatory and inhibitory growth factor/protein kinase regulatory subdomains. This organization of growth factor/protein kinase regulatory subdomains is very similar to that of NHE3, suggesting that the tertiary structures of the putative COOH termini of NHE2 and NHE3 are very similar despite the minimal amino acid identity in this part of the two proteins.  (+info)

Extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase, and c-Jun are involved in NF-kappa B-dependent IL-6 expression in human monocytes. (8/1378)

In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family members extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating IL-6 gene expression in human monocytes, in particular their role in enhancing NF-kappa B activity. Freshly isolated monocytes treated with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid secreted high levels of IL-6 protein, which coincided with enhanced binding activity of NF-kappa B as well as with phosphorylation and activation of the ERK1/2 and JNK proteins. The ERK pathway-specific inhibitor PD98059 inhibited IL-6 secretion from monocytes. Transient overexpression of inactive mutants of either Raf-1 or JNK1 showed that both pathways were involved in kappa B-dependent IL-6 promoter activity. By using PD98059, we demonstrated that the Raf1/MEK1/ERK1/2 pathway did not affect the DNA binding of NF-kappa B but, rather, acted at the level of transcriptional activity of NF-kappa B. Interestingly, it was shown that NF-kappa B-mediated gene transcription, both in the context of the IL-6 promoter as well as on its own, was dependent on both serine kinase activity and interaction with c-Jun protein. We conclude that okadaic acid-induced IL-6 gene expression is at least partly mediated through the ERK1/2 and JNK pathway-dependent activation of NF-kappa B transcriptional capacity. Our results suggest that the JNK pathway may regulate NF-kappa B-mediated gene transcription through its phosphorylation and activation of c-Jun.  (+info)

Okadaic acid is a type of toxin that is produced by certain species of marine algae, including Dinophysis and Prorocentrum. It is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, which are important enzymes that help regulate cellular processes in the body.

Okadaic acid can accumulate in shellfish that feed on these algae, and consumption of contaminated seafood can lead to a serious illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In severe cases, it can also cause neurological symptoms such as dizziness, disorientation, and tingling or numbness in the lips, tongue, and fingers.

It is important to note that okadaic acid is not only a marine toxin but also used in scientific research as a tool to study the role of protein phosphatases in cellular processes. However, exposure to this compound should be avoided due to its toxic effects.

Cyclic ethers are a type of organic compound that contain an ether functional group (-O-) within a cyclic (ring-shaped) structure. In a cyclic ether, one or more oxygen atoms are part of the ring, which can consist of various numbers of carbon atoms. The simplest example of a cyclic ether is oxirane, also known as ethylene oxide, which contains a three-membered ring with two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

Cyclic ethers have diverse applications in the chemical industry, including their use as building blocks for the synthesis of other chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and materials. Some cyclic ethers, like tetrahydrofuran (THF), are common solvents due to their ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds. However, some cyclic ethers can be hazardous or toxic, so they must be handled with care during laboratory work and industrial processes.

Phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPPs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes by removing phosphate groups from serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues on proteins. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that regulates protein function, localization, and stability, and dephosphorylation by PPPs is essential for maintaining the balance of this regulation.

The PPP family includes several subfamilies, such as PP1, PP2A, PP2B (also known as calcineurin), PP4, PP5, and PP6. Each subfamily has distinct substrate specificities and regulatory mechanisms. For example, PP1 and PP2A are involved in the regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, and cell cycle progression, while PP2B is involved in immune response and calcium signaling.

Dysregulation of PPPs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of PPPs is important for developing therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a type of serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and cell cycle progression. PP1 functions by removing phosphate groups from specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby reversing the effects of protein kinases and controlling protein activity, localization, and stability.

PP1 is a highly conserved enzyme found in eukaryotic cells and is composed of a catalytic subunit associated with one or more regulatory subunits that determine its substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and regulation. The human genome encodes several isoforms of the PP1 catalytic subunit, including PP1α, PP1β/δ, and PP1γ, which share a high degree of sequence similarity and functional redundancy.

PP1 has been implicated in various physiological processes, such as muscle contraction, glycogen metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and RNA processing. Dysregulation of PP1 activity has been associated with several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate PP1 function is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxazoles" is not a medical term, it is a chemical term. Oxazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring made up of one nitrogen atom, one oxygen atom, and three carbon atoms. They have the molecular formula C4H4NO.

Oxazoles do not have specific medical relevance, but they can be found in some natural and synthetic substances, including certain drugs and bioactive molecules. Some oxazole-containing compounds have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, these studies are primarily within the field of chemistry and pharmacology, not medicine itself.

Protein Phosphatase 2 (PP2A) is a type of serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and metabolism. PP2A is a heterotrimeric enzyme composed of a catalytic subunit (C), a regulatory subunit A (A), and a variable regulatory subunit B (B). The different combinations of the B subunits confer specificity to PP2A, allowing it to regulate a diverse array of cellular targets.

PP2A is responsible for dephosphorylating many proteins that have been previously phosphorylated by protein kinases. This function is essential for maintaining the balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cells, which is necessary for proper protein function and cell signaling. Dysregulation of PP2A has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Cantharidin is a toxic substance that is produced by several species of beetles, including the blister beetle. It has been used in medicine as a topical vesicant or blistering agent to treat warts and other skin conditions. Cantharidin works by causing irritation and inflammation of the skin, which leads to the formation of a blister. This can help to remove the affected skin and promote healing.

It is important to note that cantharidin is a potent toxic substance and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional. It can cause serious side effects if it is not used properly, including severe burns, scarring, and allergic reactions. Cantharidin is not approved for use in the United States, and its use is generally discouraged due to the risks associated with it.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

"Pyrans" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms. The name "pyran" comes from the fact that it contains a pyroline unit (two double-bonded carbons) and a ketone group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen).

While pyrans are not directly related to medical definitions, some of their derivatives have been studied for potential medicinal applications. For example, certain pyran derivatives have shown anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities in laboratory experiments. However, more research is needed before these compounds can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

Shellfish poisoning refers to illnesses caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated with harmful toxins produced by certain types of microscopic algae. These toxins can accumulate in various species of shellfish, including mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific type of toxin involved.

There are several types of shellfish poisoning, each caused by different groups of algal toxins:

1. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP): Caused by saxitoxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium spp., Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense. Symptoms include tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by weakness, difficulty swallowing, and potentially paralysis and respiratory failure in severe cases.
2. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP): Caused by domoic acid produced by diatoms such as Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, memory loss, disorientation, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death.
3. Diarrheal Shellfish Poisoning (DSP): Caused by okadaic acid and its derivatives produced by dinoflagellates such as Dinophysis spp. and Prorocentrum spp. Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and occasionally chills and fever.
4. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP): Caused by brevetoxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis. Symptoms include reversible neurological symptoms like tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as respiratory irritation, coughing, and chest tightness in severe cases.
5. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP): Caused by azaspiracids produced by dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spp. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

It is essential to note that shellfish contaminated with these toxins may not show visible signs of spoilage or illness-causing bacteria; therefore, it is crucial to avoid consuming them during harmful algal blooms (HABs) or red tide events. Public health authorities often issue warnings and close shellfish beds when HABs are detected in the water. Always check local advisories before consuming shellfish, especially if you have harvested them yourself. Cooking does not destroy these toxins, so they remain harmful even after cooking.

Microcystins are a type of toxin produced by certain species of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) that can contaminate freshwater bodies. They are cyclic peptides consisting of seven amino acids, and their structure varies among different microcystin variants. These toxins can have negative effects on the liver and other organs in humans and animals upon exposure through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact with contaminated water. They are a concern for both public health and environmental safety, particularly in relation to drinking water supplies, recreational water use, and aquatic ecosystems.

Marine toxins are toxic compounds that are produced by certain marine organisms, including algae, bacteria, and various marine animals such as shellfish, jellyfish, and snails. These toxins can cause a range of illnesses and symptoms in humans who consume contaminated seafood or come into direct contact with the toxin-producing organisms. Some of the most well-known marine toxins include:

1. Saxitoxin: Produced by certain types of algae, saxitoxin can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of PSP include tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by muscle weakness, paralysis, and in severe cases, respiratory failure.
2. Domoic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, domoic acid can cause amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of ASP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, and memory loss.
3. Okadaic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, okadaic acid can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.
4. Ciguatoxin: Produced by certain types of dinoflagellates, ciguatoxin can cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans who consume contaminated fish. Symptoms of CFP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as reversal of hot and cold sensations.
5. Tetrodotoxin: Found in certain types of pufferfish, tetrodotoxin can cause a severe form of food poisoning known as pufferfish poisoning or fugu poisoning. Symptoms of tetrodotoxin poisoning include numbness of the lips and tongue, difficulty speaking, muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.

Prevention measures for these types of seafood poisoning include avoiding consumption of fish and shellfish that are known to be associated with these toxins, as well as cooking and preparing seafood properly before eating it. Additionally, monitoring programs have been established in many countries to monitor the levels of these toxins in seafood and issue warnings when necessary.

Lyngbya toxins refer to a group of potentially harmful compounds produced by certain species of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) belonging to the genus Lyngbya. These toxins can have various chemical structures and biological activities, with some being potent irritants, others causing skin rashes or allergic reactions, and yet others affecting the liver, nervous system, or respiratory system in more severe cases.

The most well-known Lyngbya toxin is probably lyngbyatoxin A, a potent irritant that can cause skin rashes, blisters, and allergic reactions upon contact. Another notable toxin produced by some Lyngbya species is aplysiatoxin, which has similar effects on the skin but is also known to be a tumor promoter.

It's important to note that not all species of Lyngbya produce these toxins, and even those that do may only produce them under certain conditions, such as in response to environmental stressors. Additionally, exposure to these toxins can occur through various routes, including skin contact, ingestion, or inhalation, and can have a range of health effects depending on the dose, duration, and individual susceptibility.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Porifera, also known as sponges, is a phylum of multicellular aquatic organisms characterized by having pores in their bodies. These pores allow water to circulate through the body, bringing in food and oxygen while expelling waste products. Sponges do not have true tissues or organs; instead, they are composed of specialized cells that perform specific functions. They are generally sessile (non-mobile) and live attached to rocks, coral reefs, or other underwater structures. Some species can be quite large, while others are microscopic in size. Sponges have a long fossil record dating back over 500 million years and play important roles in marine ecosystems as filter feeders and habitat providers for many other marine organisms.

Staurosporine is an alkaloid compound that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus. It is a potent and broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitor, which means it can bind to and inhibit various types of protein kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and tyrosine kinases.

Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in cell signaling by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, thereby modulating their activity. The inhibition of protein kinases by staurosporine can disrupt these signaling pathways and lead to various biological effects, such as the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) and the inhibition of cell proliferation.

Staurosporine has been widely used in research as a tool to study the roles of protein kinases in various cellular processes and diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammation. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited due to its lack of specificity and high toxicity.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

"Spiro compounds" are not specifically classified as medical terms, but they are a concept in organic chemistry. However, I can provide a general definition:

Spiro compounds are a type of organic compound that contains two or more rings, which share a single common atom, known as the "spiro center." The name "spiro" comes from the Greek word for "spiral" or "coiled," reflecting the three-dimensional structure of these molecules.

The unique feature of spiro compounds is that they have at least one spiro atom, typically carbon, which is bonded to four other atoms, two of which belong to each ring. This arrangement creates a specific geometry where the rings are positioned at right angles to each other, giving spiro compounds distinctive structural and chemical properties.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding spiro compounds can be essential in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research since these molecules often exhibit unique biological activities due to their intricate structures.

Ionophores are compounds that have the ability to form complexes with ions and facilitate their transportation across biological membranes. They can be either organic or inorganic molecules, and they play important roles in various physiological processes, including ion homeostasis, signal transduction, and antibiotic activity. In medicine and research, ionophores are used as tools to study ion transport, modulate cellular functions, and as therapeutic agents, especially in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. They are often found in plants, and are known for their complex ring structures and diverse pharmacological activities. Many alkaloids have been used in medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and therapeutic properties. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, quinine, nicotine, and caffeine.

Cyclic peptides are a type of peptides in which the N-terminus and C-terminus of the peptide chain are linked to form a circular structure. This is in contrast to linear peptides, which have a straight peptide backbone with a free N-terminus and C-terminus. The cyclization of peptides can occur through various mechanisms, including the formation of an amide bond between the N-terminal amino group and the C-terminal carboxylic acid group (head-to-tail cyclization), or through the formation of a bond between side chain functional groups.

Cyclic peptides have unique structural and chemical properties that make them valuable in medical and therapeutic applications. For example, they are more resistant to degradation by enzymes compared to linear peptides, which can increase their stability and half-life in the body. Additionally, the cyclic structure allows for greater conformational rigidity, which can enhance their binding affinity and specificity to target molecules.

Cyclic peptides have been explored as potential therapeutics for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. They have also been used as tools in basic research to study protein-protein interactions and cell signaling pathways.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric monoesters into alcohol and phosphate. This class of enzymes includes several specific enzymes, such as phosphatases and nucleotidases, which play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and regulation of cellular processes.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are classified under the EC number 3.1.3 by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). The enzymes in this class share a common mechanism of action, which involves the nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus atom of the substrate by a serine or cysteine residue in the active site of the enzyme. This results in the formation of a covalent intermediate, which is then hydrolyzed to release the products.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are important therapeutic targets for the development of drugs that can modulate their activity. For example, inhibitors of phosphoric monoester hydrolases have been developed as potential treatments for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Isoquinolines are not a medical term per se, but a chemical classification. They refer to a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. This structure is similar to that of quinoline, but with the nitrogen atom located at a different position in the ring.

Isoquinolines have various biological activities and can be found in some natural products, including certain alkaloids. Some isoquinoline derivatives have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. However, specific medical definitions related to isoquinolines typically refer to the use or effects of these specific drugs rather than the broader class of compounds.

Indole alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compound that contain an indole structural unit, which is a heterocyclic aromatic ring system consisting of a benzene ring fused to a pyrrole ring. These compounds are produced by various plants and animals as secondary metabolites, and they have diverse biological activities. Some indole alkaloids have important pharmacological properties and are used in medicine as drugs or lead compounds for drug discovery. Examples of medically relevant indole alkaloids include reserpine, which is used to treat hypertension, and vinblastine and vincristine, which are used to treat various types of cancer.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Dinoflagellida is a large group of mostly marine planktonic protists, many of which are bioluminescent. Some dinoflagellates are responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as "red tides," which can produce toxins that affect marine life and human health.

Dinoflagellates are characterized by two flagella, or whip-like structures, that they use for movement. They have complex cell structures, including a unique structure called the nucleomorph, which is the remnant of a former endosymbiotic event where another eukaryotic cell was engulfed and became part of the dinoflagellate's cell.

Dinoflagellates are important contributors to the marine food chain, serving as both primary producers and consumers. Some species form symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as corals, providing them with nutrients in exchange for protection and other benefits.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Protein kinases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, a process known as phosphorylation. This modification can activate or deactivate the target protein's function, thereby regulating various signaling pathways within the cell. Protein kinases are essential for numerous biological functions, including metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormal regulation of protein kinases has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. They are activated by the binding of calcium ions and calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, to their regulatory domain.

Once activated, CAMKs phosphorylate specific serine or threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, localization, or stability. This post-translational modification is essential for various cellular processes, including synaptic plasticity, gene expression, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation.

There are several subfamilies of CAMKs, including CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIII (also known as CaMKIV), and CaMK kinase (CaMKK). Each subfamily has distinct structural features, substrate specificity, and regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of CAMK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases, also known as protein kinase A (PKA), are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds to the regulatory subunits, it causes a conformational change that leads to the dissociation of the catalytic subunits. The freed catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity.

The cAMP-dependent protein kinases are activated in response to a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). These signals lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The resulting increase in intracellular cAMP levels triggers the activation of PKA and the downstream phosphorylation of target proteins.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinases are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes and play a critical role in maintaining normal physiology and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

"Mytilus" is not a medical term itself, but it is a genus of marine bivalve mollusks commonly known as mussels. While there are no direct medical applications or definitions associated with "Mytilus," it's worth noting that various species of mussels have been used in scientific research and can have implications for human health.

For instance, mussels can serve as bioindicators of environmental pollution and contamination since they filter water to feed and may accumulate pollutants such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within their tissues. This information is valuable in monitoring the health of aquatic ecosystems and potential human exposure through seafood consumption.

Moreover, mussels produce byssal threads, which are strong, adhesive proteins used to attach themselves to surfaces. These proteins have been studied for their potential applications in biomaterials science, wound healing, and tissue engineering. However, these uses are still primarily within the realm of research and not yet widely adopted as medical treatments or interventions.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Threonine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3. Threonine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, immune function, and fat metabolism. It is particularly important for maintaining the structural integrity of proteins, as it is often found in their hydroxyl-containing regions. Foods rich in threonine include animal proteins such as meat, dairy products, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like lentils and soybeans.

Serine is an amino acid, which is a building block of proteins. More specifically, it is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, and it does not need to be obtained through diet. Serine plays important roles in the body, such as contributing to the formation of the protective covering of nerve fibers (myelin sheath), helping to synthesize another amino acid called tryptophan, and taking part in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is also involved in the production of muscle tissues, the immune system, and the forming of cell structures. Serine can be found in various foods such as soy, eggs, cheese, meat, peanuts, lentils, and many others.

However, the unique function of okadaic acid upon cells maintained biological interest in the molecule. Okadaic acid has been ... okadaic acid has shown promise in the world of medicine for numerous potential uses. During its initial discovery, okadaic acid ... was compared to and shown to be very chemically similar to okadaic acid several years later, and okadaic acid itself was ... several studies have been performed toward the synthesis of okadaic acid and its derivatives. 3 total syntheses of okadaic acid ...
The main chemical toxins were identified in 2006 as okadaic acid and pectenotoxins. They can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts ... In 2004, the presence of okadaic acid esters was reported. Further identification and the importance of these compounds as ... Suzuki, T.; Beuzenberg, V.; Mackenzie, L.; Quilliam, M. A. (2004). "Discovery of okadaic acid esters in the toxic ... "Isolation and identification of a cis-C8-diol-ester of okadaic acid from Dinophysis acuta in New Zealand". Toxicon. 48 (2): 195 ...
Tansey, M.G.; Hori, M.; Karaki, H.; Kamm, K.E.; Stull, J.T. (17 September 1990). "Okadaic acid uncouples myosin light chain ...
Brevetoxin Domoic acid Okadaic acid Saxitoxin Tetrodotoxin Swift AE, Swift TR (2008). "Ciguatera". Journal of Toxicology. ...
"EP 2770058 A1 20140827 - Ligand and method for detection of okadaic acid". data.epo.org. Retrieved 2020-07-16. Fleming, ... "A novel approach for measuring sphingosine-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid binding to carrier proteins using monoclonal ...
The causative poison is okadaic acid, which inhibits intestinal cellular de-phosphorylation. This causes the cells to become ...
Chin LS, Singh SK, Wang Q, Murray SF (2000). "Identification of okadaic-acid-induced genes by mRNA differential display in ... Nucleic Acids Res. 35 (17): 5874-85. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm505. PMC 2034479. PMID 17726058. v t e (Articles with short description ...
2004). "Irod/Ian5: an inhibitor of gamma-radiation- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis". Mol. Biol. Cell. 14 (8): 3292-304. doi ... Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (6): 1308-16. doi:10.1093/nar/29.6.1308. PMC 29751. PMID 11238997. Stamm O, Krücken J, Schmitt-Wrede HP, ...
Chin LS, Singh SK, Wang Q, Murray SF (2000). "Identification of okadaic-acid-induced genes by mRNA differential display in ...
Chin LS, Singh SK, Wang Q, Murray SF (2000). "Identification of okadaic-acid-induced genes by mRNA differential display in ...
In support of this conjecture, the known dinoflagellate toxin okadaic acid was isolated from the same species of sponge. Hirata ... "Okadaic acid, a cytotoxic polyether from two marine sponges of the genus Halichondria". Journal of the American Chemical ...
A protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor (PP2A inhibitor) - okadaic acid (OA) - is known to increase tau phosphorylation, Aβ ... "Activation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 α-kinases in okadaic acid-treated neurons". Neuroscience. 169 (4): 1831-1839. doi: ... Nucleic Acid Sensing and Immunity - Part B. Academic Press. 345: 35-136. doi:10.1016/bs.ircmb.2018.08.002. ISBN 9780128159811. ... Matz KM, Guzman RM, Goodman AG (2019-01-01). Vanpouille-Box C, Galluzzi L (eds.). "The Role of Nucleic Acid Sensing in ...
Møller MT, Samari HR, Fengsrud M, Strømhaug PE, øStvold AC, Seglen PO (July 2003). "Okadaic acid-induced, naringin-sensitive ... at the amino acid level. All GNMTs are 130 kDa tetramers consisting of four identical subunits, each having a Mr of 32 kDa. The ...
Biotoxins accumulated in fish/shellfish include brevetoxins, okadaic acid, saxitoxins, ciguatoxin and domoic acid. Except for ... Both domoic acid and ciguatoxine can be deadly to humans; the others will only cause diarrhea, dizziness and a (temporary) ... Increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids may slightly reduce the risk of a fatal heart attack, but likely has little effect on ... Eating about 140 grams (4.9 oz) of oily fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids once per week is a recommended consumption amount. ...
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 85, 465 (2013). H. C. Schröder et al., Okadaic Acid, an Apoptogenic Toxin for Symbiotic/Parasitic ... Symbiotic bacteria produce toxins, such as okadaic acid, which defend them from colonization by parasitic annelids. Expression ...
Okadaic acid is a complex fatty acid polyether and a potent CAPP inhibitor (Hannun, 1996). Okadaic acid is mainly used as a ... Okadaic acid is commonly used for producing cellular models without CAPP activity (Hannun, 1996). I2PP2A does not inhibit CAPP ... CAPP was first linked to carcinogenesis when it was noticed that okadaic acid acted as a tumor promoter and it was postulated ... Treatment of neuronal cells with okadaic acid has been shown to cause tau neurofibrillary tangles, indicating that disruptions ...
Toxic Dinophysis produce okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins, and pectenotoxins, which inhibit protein phosphatase and cause ... Toxic Dinophysis produce okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins, and pectenotoxins, which inhibit protein phosphatase and produce ... "Does the marine biotoxin okadaic acid cause DNA fragmentation in the blue mussel and the pacific oyster?". Marine Environmental ...
Okadaic acid produced by the dinoflagellate assists the sponge to survive when Lake Baikal is iced over in winter, and the ... Role of okadaic acid produced by symbiotic dinoflagellates". FEBS J. 274 (1): 23-36. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05559.x. PMID ...
System of okadaic acid. Epoxidation of alkenes is a common reaction because epoxides can be derivatized in a number of useful ... System of Okadaic Acid". Org. Lett. 1 (3): 451-3. doi:10.1021/ol9906615. PMID 10822585. Malgesini, Beatrice; Forte, Barbara; ... Oxaziridines have been found to be useful for the formation of highly acid sensitive epoxides. (−)-Chaetominine was synthesized ... A general approach to the synthesis of enantiomerically pure .alpha.-hydroxy carboxylic acid synthons". Journal of the American ...
"Detection of the marine toxins okadaic acid and domoic acid in shellfish and phytoplankton in the Gulf of Mexico". Toxicon. 30 ... She has also worked on diatoms that produce domoic acid. The standard author abbreviation G.A.Fryxell is used to indicate this ... Villac, M.C.; Roelke, D.L.; Villareal, T.A.; Fryxell, G.A. (1993). "Comparison of two domoic acid-producing diatoms: a review ... a domoic acid producer, from Monterey Bay, California" (PDF). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 84: 293-302. Bibcode:1992MEPS... ...
Algal bloom Red tide Ciguatoxin Domoic acid Okadaic acid Saxitoxin Tetrodotoxin Watkins SM, Reich A, Fleming LE, Hammond R ( ... Attention was turned to the citric acid cycle to solve the problem. Acetate can be used in the polyketide synthetic pathway or ... Previous studies of the citric acid pathway revealed three and four carbon units that can potentially explain the atypical ... modified by the citric acid cycle. Intermediate products of this cycle can then be reintroduced to the polyketide synthetic ...
Potential inhibitors include a variety of naturally occurring toxins including okadaic acid, a diarrhetic shellfish poison, ... Cantharidic acid is also an inhibitor of PP1. PP1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood-glucose levels in the liver ... "Cantharidic Acid , CAS 28874-45-5". Berg JM, Stryer L, Tymoczko JL (2010-12-24). Biochemistry (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman ... These metal ions have been identified as Mn and Fe and their coordination is provided by three histidines, two aspartic acids, ...
is the official reference method used to analyse for YTX and lipophilic toxins including okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins (DSPs ... toxins along the lines of okadaic acid and azaspiracids. These type of toxins can cause extreme gastrointestinal upset and ... The original Yasumoto MBA is subject to interferences from paralytic shellfish toxins and free fatty acids in solution, which ...
Canadian Reference Materials Pseudo-nitzschia Quisqualic acid Brevetoxin Ciguatoxin Okadaic acid Saxitoxin Maitotoxin Clayden J ... Domoic acid (DA) is a kainic acid-type neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). It is produced by algae and ... In addition domoic acid was used to poison a witness in the Elementary Season 1 Episode 13: "The Red Team". Domoic acid ... Domoic acid is an excitatory amino acid analogue of glutamate; a neurotransmitter in the brain that activates glutamate ...
"Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mediated phosphorylation of JunD and FosB is required for okadaic acid-induced ... Lee SK, Kim JH, Lee YC, Cheong J, Lee JW (April 2000). "Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors, as a ... c-Fos is a 380 amino acid protein with a basic leucine zipper region for dimerisation and DNA-binding and a transactivation ... Nichols CD, Sanders-Bush E (May 2002). "A single dose of lysergic acid diethylamide influences gene expression patterns within ...
First, the toxic compound lyngbyatoxin from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscule, and second the toxin okadaic acid - a ...
... as they produce okadaic acid which can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Okadiac acid is taken up by shellfish and ...
Mouratidou T, Kaniou-Grigoriadou I, Samara C, Kouimtzis T (August 2006). "Detection of the marine toxin okadaic acid in mussels ...
PCP-2 mRNA is regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or calcium ionophore, okadaic acid, the Ras inhibitor manumycin, and ...
... okadaic acid]. PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 have a similar domain structure, which includes a putative Ras association domain, a ...
However, the unique function of okadaic acid upon cells maintained biological interest in the molecule. Okadaic acid has been ... okadaic acid has shown promise in the world of medicine for numerous potential uses. During its initial discovery, okadaic acid ... was compared to and shown to be very chemically similar to okadaic acid several years later, and okadaic acid itself was ... several studies have been performed toward the synthesis of okadaic acid and its derivatives. 3 total syntheses of okadaic acid ...
The mussels contained high levels of heat-stable okadaic acid (OA)-group toxins. Without a validated…. Continue Reading Six ... okadaic acid. Subscribe to okadaic acid. Six sick after eating mussels in United Kingdom. By Joe Whitworth on September 4, 2019 ...
Okadaic acid [Wiki] More... (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-{(. 2S,5R,6R,8S)-5-hydr. oxy-8-[(2R,3E)-4-((. 2R,4aR,5R,6S,8R,. 8aS)-8- ... noic acid 1,7-Dioxaspiro[5.5]. undec-10-ene-2-prop. anoic acid, α,5-dih. ydroxy-α,10-dimethy. l-8-[(1R,2E)-1-meth. yl-3-[(2R, ... Okadaic Acid, Proro. centrum sp. - CAS 7. 8111-17-8 - Calbioc. hem ... noic acid (2R)-3-[(2S,5R,6R,8. S)-8-[(2R,3E)-4-[(2. R,4aR,5R,6S,8R,8. aS)-8-hydroxy-6-. [(1S,3S)-1-hydroxy-. 3-[(2S,3R,6S ...
... in early July we finished a relatively large new lot of bulk O-2220 Okadaic Acid, Free Acid.  However, for the past three ... Okadaic Acid, Potassium Salt, ,98%, CAS#209266-79-5, ,strong,July 30, 2023:  ... July 30, 2023: in early July we finished a relatively large new lot of bulk O-2220 Okadaic Acid, Free Acid. However, for the ... The salt form of okadaic acid has somewhat greater stability than the free acid when stored in organic solvents. See notes on ...
Salt form of okadaic acid (Prod. No. ALX-350-003), with slightly greater stability than the free acid after it is put into ... A graphene-based electrochemical competitive immunosensor for the sensitive detection of okadaic acid in shellfish: S. Eissa, ... Selection and identification of DNA aptamers against okadaic acid for biosensing application: S. Eissa, et al.; Anal. Chem. 85 ... Okadaic acid . sodium salt (high purity) - ALX-350-011 ... Okadaic acid . ammonium salt (high purity) Inhibitor of PP1 and ...
Okadaic acid [Wiki] More... (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-{(. 2S,5R,6R,8S)-5-hydr. oxy-8-[(2R,3E)-4-((. 2R,4aR,5R,6S,8R,. 8aS)-8- ... noic acid 1,7-Dioxaspiro[5.5]. undec-10-ene-2-prop. anoic acid, α,5-dih. ydroxy-α,10-dimethy. l-8-[(1R,2E)-1-meth. yl-3-[(2R, ... Okadaic Acid, Proro. centrum sp. - CAS 7. 8111-17-8 - Calbioc. hem ... noic acid (2R)-3-[(2S,5R,6R,8. S)-8-[(2R,3E)-4-[(2. R,4aR,5R,6S,8R,8. aS)-8-hydroxy-6-. [(1S,3S)-1-hydroxy-. 3-[(2S,3R,6S ...
... Manfrin C;Dreos R;Battistella S;Beran A;Gerdol M ... In this paper we present the first gene expression analysis performed on Mediterranean mussels exposed to okadaic acid. The ... In this paper we present the first gene expression analysis performed on Mediterranean mussels exposed to okadaic acid. The ... Commonly produced by Dinophysis and Prorocentrum spp., okadaic acid (OA) and its analogues are responsible for the Diarrheic ...
Okadaic acid. *Saxitoxin. *Dinophysistoxin. Did you know? Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico are caused by the dinoflagellate ... Domoic Acid Poisoning and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning. *. Foods likely to be contaminated: Shellfish, primarily scallops, ... California sea lions can be poisoned by a toxin called domoic acid from blooms of the diatom (single-celled organism) Pseudo- ...
Self-Association of Okadaic Acid upon Complexation with Potassium Ion * Daranas, A.H. ...
Okadaic acid binds to intestinal epithelial cells and increases their permeability. This toxin is made by dinoflagellates of ... Domoic acid binds to and stimulates the kainic acid glutamate receptor, [4] which allows sodium influx and a small amount of ... Domoic acid has been associated with necrosis of the glutamate-rich hippocampus and amygdala in autopsied cases. Domoic acid is ... Common marine HAB toxins found in shellfish include brevetoxins, azaspiracid, domoic acid, okadic acid, saxitoxin. [1] ...
This results in the production of acid, which lowers the pH and causes a change in the pH indicator placed in the medium. ... The alkaline slant and acid butt (K/A) indicates an organism that ferments glucose only (not lactose or sucrose). The middle ... The MacConkey medium is commonly used and differentiates lactose fermenters, which produce acid, decrease the pH, and cause the ...
Okadaic acid (OA) is a type of marine biotoxin produced by some species of dinoflagellates in marine environments. Consumption ... Antibody-free and selective detection of okadaic acid using an affinity peptide-based indirect assay. ... Antibody-free and selective detection of okadaic acid using an affinity peptide-based indi ...
Occurrence of okadaic acid, a major diarrheic shellfish toxin, in natural populations of Dinophysis spp. from the eastern coast ... First US report of shellfish harvesting closures due to confirmed okadaic acid in Texas Gulf Coast oysters. Toxicon. 2010;55: ... Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning and okadaic acid. In: Medical toxicology of natural substances: foods, fungi, medicinal herbs, ... is an acute gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalve mollusks that have accumulated okadaic acid (OA) or ...
We pretreated neurons with high concentrations of the serine/threonine PPs inhibitor okadaic acid (OA, 500 nM) to inhibit PP1 ... Okadaic acid (OA), 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1,1-dimethylethyl) 1-H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-amine (PP2), DL-2-amino-5- ... g Neurons were exposed for 1 h to okadaic acid (OA; 500 nM), to inhibit serine/threonine phosphatase PP1, or pervanadate (PV; 1 ... α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), and kainic acid (KA) receptors, overexcites neurons and triggers ...
Okadaic acid influences xenobiotic metabolism in HepaRG cells. Wuerger LTD, Hammer HS, Hofmann U, Kudiabor F, Sieg H, Braeuning ... Interruption of bile acid uptake by hepatocytes after acetaminophen overdose ameliorates hepatotoxicity. Ghallab A, Hassan R, ...
okadaic acid. MG-132. carbobenzyoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal. EMSA. electrophoretic mobility shift assay. HA. hemagglutinin ... or okadaic acid (OA) causes the development of resistance to the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide. The mechanism of ...
One of these marine biotoxins is okadaic acid. ... "The question is whether and how okadaic acid reaches the blood ... Since algae are the main source of food for water filtering mussels, this means that marine biotoxins such as okadaic acid too ... Apart from these acute effects, it is also known that okadaic acid can, in animal experiments, harm the intestine and liver. In ... There are currently great gaps in our knowledge about the extent to which okadaic acid is converted into more toxic substances ...
i ,Gimap4,/i, and ,i ,Gimap1,/i, each had one amino acid substitution of unlikely significance for lymphopenia. Quantitative RT ... radiation- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis," Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 3292-3304, 2003. ... These include protection against plant pathogens [26] and okadaic acid and gamma radiation [16]. Gimap family members have also ... that produced an amino acid change in rats as compared to the (Table 2). The SNP produced a methionine (M) to threonine (T) ...
Synonyms: Okadaic acid, anthryl methyl ester, CID4461890, CID 4461890 Molecular Formula: C59H78O13. Molecular Weight: ... Synonyms: SODIUM NITRITE, 7632-00-0, Nitrite, sodium, Nitrous acid, sodium salt, Sodium nitrite solution, Erinitrit, Filmerine ...
The PP2A inhibitor Okadaic acid (OKA) effect was evaluated using an astrocytic cell model of AD. The data suggests that ... To examine cell cycle modulation, T98G cells were treated with the protein phosphatase inhibitor Okadaic Acid (OKA; 0.14-50 nM ...
We also showed that shear stress, like the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, increased the transcriptional activity of Sp1. ... NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and amino acid analyses revealed this band was located between the 6th and 287th amino acid ... Basal plasma leucine and branched-chain amino acids were reduced in LTx-5, LTx-13, and LTx-26 when compared with CU and CON (P ... Dual role of protein kinase C in the regulation of cPLA2-mediated arachidonic acid release by P2U receptors in MDCK-D1 cells: ...
The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA), a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the primary cause of acute DSP ... The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA), a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the main responsible of acute DSP ... The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA), a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the main responsible of acute DSP ... Okadaic Acid (OA) constitutes the main active principle in Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins produced during Harmful ...
SKP1-deficient spermatocytes show sharply reduced MPF activity and fail to enter MI despite treatment with okadaic acid. ...
Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP or domoic acid). *Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison (DSP or okadaic acid) ...
... with 1 μm okadaic acid and 10 kIU/ml aprotinin) by 30 gentle strokes using glass-Teflon tissue homogenizers (Pyrex). The ... l-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid to ACSF (30 ± 1°C, saturated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2), which was continually perfused at a ...
... and no toxins from the okadaic acid group were detected. PTX2 seems to be transformed to PTX2 seco-acid [...] Read more. ... and no toxins from the okadaic acid group were detected. PTX2 seems to be transformed to PTX2 seco-acid (PTX2sa), which was ... To reveal the molecular mechanisms triggered by okadaic acid (OA)-exposure in the detoxification and immune system of bay ... To reveal the molecular mechanisms triggered by okadaic acid (OA)-exposure in the detoxification and immune system of bay ...
The rapid cofilin dephosphorylation in platelets was mediated by an okadaic-acid insensitive phosphatase. The activation of the ... The rapid cofilin dephosphorylation in platelets was mediated by an okadaic-acid insensitive phosphatase. The activation of the ... The physiological agonist thrombin and the pathophysiological relevant agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is the main ... The physiological agonist thrombin and the pathophysiological relevant agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is the main ...
Furthermore, blocking phosphatases with okadaic acid resulted in less GSK3β activity in young p25 mice, which supports the ... Additionally, incubation of cortical neurons with the non-specific phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid increased phosphorylation ...
  • One of the primary causes of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, okadaic acid is a potent inhibitor of specific protein phosphatases and is known to have a variety of negative effects on cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, treatment of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells with hypoxia or the chemical stress agents brefeldin A (BFA) or okadaic acid (OA) causes the development of resistance to the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA), a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the primary cause of acute DSP intoxications. (researchgate.net)
  • The induction of the LTDs of both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSPs was blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5- phosphonopentanoic acid and by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. (jneurosci.org)
  • Antibody-free and selective detection of okadaic acid using an affinity peptide-based indirect assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • Unlike Okadaic Acid, which only acts on protein phosphatase PP2A, Calyculin A inhibits both PP1 and PP2A. (abcam.com)
  • Okadaic acid, C44H68O13, is a toxin produced by several species of dinoflagellates, and is known to accumulate in both marine sponges and shellfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid, it is one of the primary causes of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). (chemspider.com)
  • okadaic acid (OA) and its analogues are responsible for the Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) syndrome in humans. (ogs.it)
  • The toxins responsible for most shellfish poisonings are water-soluble, are heat and acid-stable, and are not inactivated by ordinary cooking methods. (medscape.com)
  • Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is an acute gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalve mollusks that have accumulated okadaic acid (OA) or related dinophysistoxins through filter feeding. (cdc.gov)
  • The mussels contained high levels of heat-stable okadaic acid (OA)-group toxins. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • In this paper we present the first gene expression analysis performed on Mediterranean mussels exposed to okadaic acid. (ogs.it)
  • Since algae are the main source of food for water filtering mussels, this means that marine biotoxins such as okadaic acid too are ingested and accumulate in the flesh of the mussels. (bund.de)
  • When humans eat mussels containing high levels of okadaic acid, this results in the typical diarrhoeic mussel poisoning which predominantly causes problems of the intestinal tract. (bund.de)
  • Okadaic acid (OA) is a type of marine biotoxin produced by some species of dinoflagellates in marine environments . (bvsalud.org)
  • It is hoped that an understanding of the molecular connections of detoxification and activation of additional toxic properties will contribute to the identification of unknown toxicity mechanisms of okadaic acid which play a relevant role for the reaction of the body following the consumption of larger doses of this marine biotoxin. (bund.de)
  • Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and lipid peroxidation was assayed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • One of these marine biotoxins is okadaic acid. (bund.de)
  • The salt form of okadaic acid has somewhat greater stability than the free acid when stored in organic solvents. (lclabs.com)
  • No. ALX-350-003), with slightly greater stability than the free acid after it is put into stock solution (in organic solvents). (enzolifesciences.com)
  • In part, this occurs because of the mitochondria's continual burning of fatty acids to produce energy. (lifeextension.com)
  • in diabetic ketoacidosis, when the conversion of fatty acids to ketones increases. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • California sea lions can be poisoned by a toxin called domoic acid from blooms of the diatom (single-celled organism) Pseudo-nitzchia and experience neurologic effects, including seizures and unusual behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • Domoic acid (DA) is structurally similar to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. (medscape.com)
  • Domoic acid has been associated with necrosis of the glutamate-rich hippocampus and amygdala in autopsied cases. (medscape.com)
  • Domoic acid is produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens . (medscape.com)
  • 2021. Persistent Domoic Acid in Marine Sediments and Benthic Infauna along the Coast of Southern California. (usc.edu)
  • 4 While proteins can be phosphorylated on nine amino acids, serine, threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation are by far the most predominant in eukaryotic cells. (ac.be)
  • The enzymes that dephosphorylate these three amino acids are classified into four groups on the basis of specific catalytic signatures/domain sequences and substrate preference. (ac.be)
  • Using EBNA3C amino acids 365-545 in a yeast two hybrid screen, we found an interaction with the Growth Arrest and DNA-damage protein, Gadd34. (scienceopen.com)
  • Amino acids 483-610 of Gadd34, including the two PP1a interaction, and the HSV-1 ICPγ34.5 homology domains, are required for the interaction. (scienceopen.com)
  • ABBR: AHA Any of a class of water-soluble acids derived from fruit or milk, having a hydroxyl moiety in the first position in the molecule. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives, the dinophysistoxins (DTX), are members of a group of molecules called polyketides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Okadaic acid and its derivatives are some of the most well studied of these polyketides, and research on these molecules via isotopic labeling has helped to elucidate some of those modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, several studies have been performed toward the synthesis of okadaic acid and its derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Independent estimates of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and the N- methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated components of the field EPSP were obtained in parallel using early and late measurements of a dual-component EPSP in a low-magnesium solution. (jneurosci.org)
  • 3 total syntheses of okadaic acid have been achieved, along with many more formal syntheses and several total syntheses of the other dinophysistoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiological agonist thrombin and the pathophysiological relevant agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is the main platelet-activating lipid in atherosclerotic plaque, were used as platelet stimuli to address these questions. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a prototypical ligand for G protein coupled receptors, and Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1), a transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide array of genes involved in cancer initiation and progression, are two important oncogenic signaling molecules in human epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC). (oncotarget.com)
  • More than 1,000 labs worldwide have purchased Okadaic Acid or its salts from LC Labs, either directly from us or from our distributors and resellers (the latter resell under their own labels). (lclabs.com)
  • Any of the complex acids that occur as salts in bile, e.g., cholic, glycocholic, and taurocholic acids. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Interruption of bile acid uptake by hepatocytes after acetaminophen overdose ameliorates hepatotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Okadaic acid binds to intestinal epithelial cells and increases their permeability. (medscape.com)
  • In the research project, the scientists investigated how the intestinal wall protects the body from okadaic acid in low concentrations and why in the presence of high concentrations in the intestine this barrier fails. (bund.de)
  • With the help of cell cultures made up of cells from the human intestinal wall, the changes in the barrier properties of a specific layer of the intestinal mucosa under the influence of okadaic acid and the detoxification mechanism of the intestine are studied. (bund.de)
  • A polyketide, polyether derivative of a C38 fatty acid, okadaic acid and other members of its family have shined light upon many biological processes both with respect to dinoflagellete polyketide synthesis as well as the role of protein phosphatases in cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because polyketide synthesis is similar to fatty acid synthesis, during chain extension the molecule may undergo reduction of the ketone, dehydration, and reduction of the olefin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first total synthesis of okadaic acid was completed in 1986 by Isobe et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • C 10 H 18 N 4 O 6 , a compound intermediate in the synthesis of arginine, formed from citrulline and aspartic acid. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Partial blockade of LTD by okadaic acid resulted in equal partial blockade of the LTDs of the AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components. (jneurosci.org)
  • Whether this actually occurs depends on the quantity of ingested okadaic acid. (bund.de)
  • The acid is a known carcinogen, and its use has been associated with and may cause end-stage renal disease and cancers of the urinary tract that may occur many years after usage has stopped. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • One of the toxic culprits of DSP, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), named for one of the organisms implicated in its production, Dinophysis fortii, was compared to and shown to be very chemically similar to okadaic acid several years later, and okadaic acid itself was implicated in DSP around the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently great gaps in our knowledge about the extent to which okadaic acid is converted into more toxic substances which can cause damage to cells. (bund.de)
  • Boric acid is toxic and should be used only rarely. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • July 30, 2023: in early July we finished a relatively large new lot of bulk O-2220 Okadaic Acid, Free Acid. (lclabs.com)
  • The beads were washed and incubated for the indicated times at room temperature with no addition (yellow lines), TAP-purified PP2A Cdc55 (blue lines), or PP2A Cdc55 and okadaic acid (OA) (red lines). (figshare.com)
  • Corticosteroids inhibit formation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids when cell membranes are damaged. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It is a building block of proteins, participates in the citric acid and urea cycles, and is a neurotransmitter. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Apart from these acute effects, it is also known that okadaic acid can, in animal experiments, harm the intestine and liver. (bund.de)
  • C 20 H 32 O 2 , an omega-6 fatty acid formed by the action of enzymes on phospholipids in cell membranes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Okadaic acid sparked research both for its cytotoxic feature and for being the first reported marine ionophore. (wikipedia.org)
  • expects the results of this research project to supply additional data on the oral bioavailability, toxicokinetics and metabolism of okadaic acid in order to be able to assess the health risks it poses to humans more accurately. (bund.de)
  • Research now shows that the amino acid carnitine can forestall and even reverse many well-known factors of aging. (lifeextension.com)
  • Carbon deletion and addition at the alpha and beta position comprise the other transformations present in the okadaic acid biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • C 4 H 8 O 3 , any of the acids present in the urine, esp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • H 3 BO 3 , a white crystalline acid that in water forms a very weak acid solution poisonous to plants and animals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • What is less well researched are the carcinogenic and highly embryotoxic properties of okadaic acid. (bund.de)
  • Glacial (highly purified) acetic acid contains at least 99.5% acetic acid by weight. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Failure to perform one of more of these three steps, combined with several unusual reactions is what allows for the formation of the functionality of okadaic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dulbecco s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), Foetal Calf Serum (FCS), Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA), Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS), alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and trypsine-EDTA mixture were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Lyon, France). (scialert.net)
  • Okadaic acid is formed from a starter unit of glycolate, found at carbons 37 and 38, and all subsequent carbons in the chain are derived from acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acid is found in many foods. (unboundmedicine.com)