Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A polydnavirus /pɒˈlɪdnəvaɪərəs/ (PDV) is a member of the family Polydnaviridae of insect viruses. There are currently 53 ... and the virus. The full genome of the virus is integrated into the genome of the wasp and the virus only replicates in a ... The Insect Viruses. Plenum Publishing Corporation. pp. 105-139.. *^ Roossinck, M. J. (2011). "Changes in population dynamics in ... Virus like particles[edit]. Another strategy used by parasitoid Hymenoptera to protect their offspring is production of Virus ...
Polydnaviruses are a unique group of insect viruses that have a mutualistic relationship with some parasitic wasps. The ... ISBN 978-1-118-84615-5. Miller, Lois K.; Ball, Laurence Andrew (1998). The insect viruses. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-45881-1. ... Roossinck, M. J. (2011). "Changes in population dynamics in mutualistic versus pathogenic viruses". Viruses. 3 (12): 12-19. doi ... The Insect Viruses. Springer, Boston, MA. pp. 105-139. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5341-0_5. ISBN 9781461374374. ...
Plants and insects serve as natural hosts. There are currently 53 species in this family, divided among 8 genera. Viruses ... GF virus Banana streak IM virus Banana streak MY virus Banana streak OL virus Banana streak UA virus Banana streak UI virus ... virus Cauliflower mosaic virus Dahlia mosaic virus Figwort mosaic virus Horseradish latent virus Lamium leaf distortion virus ... UL virus Banana streak UM virus Banana streak VN virus Bougainvillea chlorotic vein banding virus Cacao swollen shoot virus ...
Sasaki J, Nakashima N, Saito H, Noda H (1998) An insect picorna-like virus, Plautia stali intestine virus, has genes of capsid ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Vision (7 August 2012). "Uganda's Top Expert on Insect Viruses". New Vision. Kampala. ... Upon graduation from the MMed program, he joined the East African Virus Research Institute (EAVRI), a department of the East ... African Community, which is now known as the Uganda Virus Research Institute. He served as a research officer before becoming ...
Theze, J.; Bezier, A.; Periquet, G.; Drezen, J.-M.; Herniou, E. A. (2011). "Paleozoic origin of insect large dsDNA viruses". ... Viruses portal Cypovirus BacMam The Cobra Event Pancrustacea - clade including natural hosts of the viruses Early 35 kDa ... The baculovirus life cycle involves two distinct forms of virus. Occlusion derived virus (ODV) is present in a protein matrix ( ... G-protein of Vesicular stomatitis virus. These substitutions will result in functional virons. Baculovirus expression in insect ...
Esau, Katherine (1961). Plants, Viruses, and Insects. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. Esau, Katherine (1969). The Phloem ... Her early work in plant anatomy focused on the effect of viruses on plants, specifically on plant tissue and development. Esau ... While teaching, she continued her research on viruses and specifically phloem, the food conducting tissue in plants. In the ... where Esau worked for the Spreckels Sugar Company on sugar beet resistance to curly top virus. Esau graduated from Berkeley in ...
"A Crystallizable Insect Virus" was published in the journal Nature. Known as the Tipula Iridescent Virus, from both square and ... Williams, Robley C.; Smith, Kenneth M. (1957). "A Crystallizable Insect Virus". Nature. 179 (4551): 119-20. Bibcode:1957Natur. ... these virus particles often organized themselves into highly ordered arrays. Rod-shaped particles in the tobacco mosaic virus ... The discovery by W.M. Stanley of the crystalline forms of the tobacco and tomato viruses provided examples of this. Using X-ray ...
Harris, K. F.; Smith, O. P.; Duffus, J. E. (2001). Virus-insect-plant interactions. Elsevier BV. ISBN 9780123276810. Crowe, A ... Disease: Cucumber mosaic virus Cucumber mosaic virus is a virus that has been infecting the Clematis paniculata plants in the ... The virus has been associated with a dramatic decrease in the number of individual Clematis paniculata. It is so lethal to ... This is what makes Cucumber mosaic virus so detrimental to crops, as the aphid can quickly and easily spread it from one plant ...
Picornalike Viruses of Insects, in: Miller, Lois K. et al. (1998). The Insect Virus. Springer. ISBN 0-306-45881-0. Fabre, Jean- ... Honey bees suffer from two related but different viruses - acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and chronic bee paralysis virus ( ... The virus was first isolated in Australia around 1970. The worst outbreak in Europe occurred in 2002. The cosmopolitan virus is ... 1996). Insect Musicians & Cricket Champions: A Cultural History of Singing Insects in China and Japan. China Books. ISBN 0-8351 ...
... www.livescience.com/16015-oldest-viruses-insects.html "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 ... The wasp injects one or more eggs into its lepidoptera host along with a quantity of virus. The virus does not replicate inside ... Bracovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Polydnaviridae. Bracoviruses are an ancient symbiotic virus contained in ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. Transmission routes are parental. The replication of the Bracovirus ...
"Insect Vector Interaction with Persistently Transmitted Viruses" (PDF). Annual Review of Phytopathology. 46: 327-359. doi: ... Portions of the virus that are believed to be critical for the spread of this virus, based on what is known for other members ... is a plant pathogenic virus of soybeans (Glycine max). SVNV is a relatively new virus, which was discovered in Tennessee in ... which is the only genus within this virus family that infects plants. Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is ...
Therefore, it can also be used to study the basis of plant virus transmission, host plant selection by insects and the way in ... Plant Viruses Epidemiology Aphididae Insect Tjallingii, W.F. (1988). Electrical recording of stylet penetration activities. In ... correlating with different insect/plant interaction events. The circuit connects to the insect via a 20 μm gold or platinum ... The electrical penetration graph or EPG is a system used by biologists to study the interaction of insects such as aphids, ...
The viruses are transmitted by insects. The genus was first proposed in the first report of the ICTV in 1971, as the 'Carnation ... Phlox virus B Phlox virus M Phlox virus S Poplar mosaic virus Potato latent virus Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S ... virus Butterbur mosaic virus Cactus virus 2 Caper latent virus Carnation latent virus Chrysanthemum virus B Cole latent virus ... virus Cowpea mild mottle virus Cucumber vein-clearing virus Dandelion latent virus Daphne virus S Elderberry symptomless virus ...
Hedges, Lauren; Brownlie, Jeremy; O'Neill, Scott; Johnson, Karyn (2008). "Wolbachia and Virus Protection in Insects". Science. ... flock house virus, cricket paralysis virus, chikungunya virus, and West Nile virus. In the common house mosquito, higher levels ... dengue virus], WNV [West Nile virus], YFV [yellow fever virus] and CHIKV [Chikungunya virus]....as adaption occurs these ... 2003). "14: Insect pest control using Wolbachia and/or radiation". Insect Symbiosis. p. 230. ISBN 9780849341946. Forsman M, ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insect aphid, leafhopper, planthopper, and insect). Transmission routes are vector. " ... Negative stranded rna virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Afonso, Claudio L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng ... Cytorhabdovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Plants serve as natural hosts. Table ...
"NGS Investigations for Novel Viruses in Insect Cell Substrates" (PDF). Retrieved June 9, 2015. "Some of the Active NGS ... and quite a few virus genomes. CD Genomics, is a next-generation sequencing provider that was established in 2004. Equipped ...
... yellow fever virus, Zika virus and several other viruses which may cause encephalitis, as well as insect-specific flaviviruses ... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... virus Aroa virus Bamaga virus Bagaza virus Banzi virus Bouboui virus Bukalasa bat virus Cacipacore virus Carey Island virus ... virus Jugra virus Jutiapa virus Kadam virus Kedougou virus Kokobera virus Koutango virus Kyasanur Forest disease virus Langat ...
It seems likely that the genus evolved in the Old World from an insect-borne plant virus. Sindbis virus may have originated in ... virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon ... Cabassou virus Everglades virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Paramana virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Trocara virus ... encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus ...
"A possible overwintering mechanism for bluetongue virus in the absence of the insect vector". The Journal of General Virology. ... The virus makes initial contact with the cell with VP2, triggering receptor-mediated endocytosis of the virus. The low pH ... Twenty-six serotypes are now recognised for this virus. The virus particle consists of ten strands of double-stranded RNA ... It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV). The virus is transmitted by the midge Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, ...
Hedges, Lauren; Brownlie, Jeremy; O'Neill, Scott; Johnson, Karyn (2008). "Wolbachia and Virus Protection in Insects". Science ... Nora virus, nodavirus Flock house, virus da parálise do grilo, virus Chikungunya, e virus do Nilo occidental.[18][19][20] No ... Kostas Bourtzis, Thomas A. Miller (ed.). "14: Insect pest control using Wolbachia and/or radiation". Insect Symbiosis. p. 230. ... As moscas infectadas pola bacteria son máis resistentes a virus de ARN como o virus de Drosophila C, ...
Much of his work was in the field of insect viruses. In 1984 Kelly joined the Ministry of Defence (MoD), as the head of the ... Kelly joined the Insect Pathology Unit at the University of Oxford in 1968, while a student of Linacre College. In 1971 he ... received his doctorate in microbiology for his thesis "The Replication of Some Iridescent Viruses in Cell Cultures". In the ...
External link in ,publisher= (help) "Uganda's top expert on insect viruses". New Vision. "DDT use would save many lives in ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Description of Plant Viruses Pringle CR. Virus Taxonomy - San Diego 1998. Virus ... Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral ... Viruses in Macluravirus are non-enveloped, with flexuous and Filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 12-15 nm, with a ...
The virus is transmitted by an insect vector. The particular species linked to the virus are the biting midges Culicoides ... The virus has been found in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and through eastern Australia. It is not found in ... The virus can be isolated from blood and can be identified by immunofluorescence and immunostaining. Rising levels of ... Chang, C. J.; Shih, W. L.; Yu, F. L.; Liao, M. H.; Liu, H. J. (2004). "Apoptosis Induced by Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus". ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... enamovirus 1 Birdsfoot trefoil enamovirus 1 Citrus vein enation virus Grapevine enamovirus 1 Pea enation mosaic virus 1 Viruses ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. Kreuze, JF; Vaira, AM; Menzel, ... Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by leaky scanning. The virus ... Alphaflexiviridae is a family of viruses in the order Tymovirales. Plants and fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently ... Recognized genera include: Allexivirus Botrexvirus Lolavirus Mandarivirus Platypuvirus Potexvirus Sclerodarnavirus Viruses in ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. The potyviruses evolved between ... Platycodon mild mottle virus Pleione virus Y Plum pox virus Pokeweed mosaic virus Potato virus A Potato virus V Potato virus Y ... virus Y Apium virus Y Araujia mosaic virus Arracacha mottle virus Asparagus virus 1 Banana bract mosaic virus Barbacena virus Y ... break virus Iris fulva mosaic virus Iris mild mosaic virus Iris severe mosaic virus Japanese yam mosaic virus Jasmine virus T ...
Other forms of diseases include sarcocystis and iridovirus in reptiles and amphibians; granulosus virus, chagas disease, and ... microsporidia in insects; stained prawn disease, white pot syndrome, helminthes and tapeworms in crustaceans and fish. ...
These insects suck the sap out of the plants, reducing growth. Mosaic virus is spread by greenfly, causing yellowing of leaves ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... No spread by mosquitos or other insects has been reported.[59] Other possible methods of transmission are being studied.[61] ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
The virus is transmitted from mother to calf during the gestation period or soon after birth.[23] ... They are often accompanied by cattle egrets, which pick out and consume the insects hidden in their coats or disturbed by their ... Like the blue wildebeest, the black wildebeest seems to act as a reservoir for the virus and all animals are carriers, being ...
Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ... "Insect Tolerant Transgenic Tomato Plants". Bio/Technology. 5 (8): 807-813. doi:10.1038/nbt0887-807.. ...
Usually organisms that have a higher rate of reproduction than their competitors have an evolutionary advantage. Consequently, organisms can evolve to become simpler and thus multiply faster and produce more offspring, as they require fewer resources to reproduce. A good example are parasites such as Plasmodium - the parasite responsible for malaria - and mycoplasma; these organisms often dispense with traits that are made unnecessary through parasitism on a host.[7] A lineage can also dispense with complexity when a particular complex trait merely provides no selective advantage in a particular environment. Loss of this trait need not necessarily confer a selective advantage, but may be lost due to the accumulation of mutations if its loss does not confer an immediate selective disadvantage.[8] For example, a parasitic organism may dispense with the synthetic pathway of a metabolite where it can readily scavenge that metabolite from its host. Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... Nguyen QD, Vu MN, Hebert AA (November 2018). "Insect repellents: an updated review for the clinician". J Am Acad Dermatol. doi: ... "Insect repellents. Environmental Protection Agency. 9 July 2013. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May ... "Insect repellents. Environmental Protection Agency. 15 July 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 21 May ...
Pea seed-borne mosaic virus Product[edit]. Processing[edit]. A combination of gravity, screens and air flow is used to clean ... Therefore, it is less vulnerable to frost, wind erosion, or insect attack.[3] ...
Insects in art. *Insects in literature. *Insects in medicine. *Insects in music ...
... are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein expression using insect-specific viruses called ... "F.A.W. PheroLure ® - Insect Science". Insect Science. Retrieved 2018-04-15.. ... Common predators include birds, rodents, beetles, earwigs, and other insects. It has been shown that direct predation can cause ...
Insect * sw:Insect. Internal combustion engine * sw:Internal combustion engine. International Court of Justice * sw: ... Virus * sw:Virusi. Vladimir Lenin * sw:Vladimir Lenin. Volcano * sw:Volkeno. Volga River * sw:Volga (mto). Voltaire * sw: ...
Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Use insect repellent when outdoors such as those containing DEET, picaridin, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (IR3535), or oil ... Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ...
Introduced birds (e.g. pigeons), rodents and insects (e.g. mosquito, flea, louse and tsetse fly pests) can serve as vectors and ... 1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening.[ ... Sparrows, which were brought to control insects upon the introduced grain crops, have displaced native birds as have rainbow ...
Larvicide (also larvacide) - an insecticide targeted against the larval life stage of an insect. Lupicide - The killing of ... Virucide (also viricide) - an agent capable of destroying or inhibiting viruses. Vulpicide (also vulpecide)- the killing of a ... Insecticide - an agent that kills unwanted insects. ...
Bees and other nectar-feeding insects also visit the flowers. Birds such as the goldfinch feed on the seeds. ... Apium virus Y. *List of culinary herbs and spices. *List of plants with edible leaves ...
Sun, Jian-Zhong; Scharf, Michael E. (2010). "Exploring and integrating cellulolytic systems of insects to advance biofuel ... There has also been substantial research into the technology of using the gut microbiomes of wood-feeding insects for the ... technology". Insect Science. 17 (3): 163-165. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01348.x.. ...
... viroplasms improve the virus transmission by the aphid vector. Viroplasms also control release of virons when the insect stings ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ... The viroplasm could also prevent virus degradation by proteases and nucleases. In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus ( ...
"Insect Vector Interaction with Persistently Transmitted Viruses". Annual Review of Phytopathology. 46: 327-359. doi:10.1146/ ... Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV, previously: Soybean vein necrosis associated virus SVNaV) is a plant pathogenic virus of ... Portions of the virus that are believed to be critical for the spread of this virus, based on what is known for other members ... which is the only genus within this virus family that infects plants. Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is ...
... plants are very liable to infestation by aphids, whitefly, and scale insects (e.g. California red scale). Also rather ... the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus ... The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like ...
Land A, Braakman I (August 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: implications for glycosylation and CD4 ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (March 1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... "Effect of a glucosidase inhibitor on the bioactivity and immunoreactivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope ...
It is the main immune system found in plants, fungi, insects, and in primitive multicellular organisms.[2][3] The system is not ... Instead, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells. It recognises such cells by a ... enveloped viruses, fungi and even transformed or cancerous cells.[10] ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... even though they may depend on transmission by insects or other vectors. ... Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ... Barmah Forest virus kangaroos, wallabies, opossums mosquito bite Bird flu Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, ...
"Flowers set more seeds when visited by wild insects, and the more plants that were visited by wild insects, the more likely ... including the Israeli acute paralysis virus and the black queen cell virus.[35] ... "Journal of Insect Behavior. 23 (6): 459-471. doi:10.1007/s10905-010-9229-5. ISSN 0892-7553. PMC 2955239. PMID 21037953.. ... A honey bee (or honeybee) is a eusocial, flying insect within the genus Apis of the bee clade. They are known for construction ...
... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... and its control by ecdysteroid hormones in the insect Manduca sexta". FEBS Letters. 400 (3): 345-9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96) ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... the 11S may play a role in degradation of foreign peptides such as those produced after infection by a virus.[16] ...
Although the exact pathogenic species vary with the infected species, bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and insects can all ... Some viruses evade this by producing molecules which interfere with IFN production. For example, the Influenza A virus produces ... Viruses[edit]. Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells,[22] play a central role in antiviral host defense ... RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ...
Kankolongo M, Hell K, Nawa I (June 2009). "Assessment for fungal, mycotoxin and insect spoilage in maize stored for human ... and synergistically with Hepatitis B virus) induce liver cancer.[49] Mycotoxin-contaminated grain and other food products have ... and insect damage. A number of common microfungi are important agents of post-harvest spoilage, notably members of the genera ...
The cotton-top tamarin has a diet of mainly fruit (40%) and animal material (40%).[14] This includes insects, plant exudates ... Up to 40,000 individuals were caught and exported for research into those diseases, as well as Epstein-Barr virus, for the ... Its diet includes insects and plant exudates, and it is an important seed disperser in the tropical ecosystem. ... Insectivory is common in the cotton-top and the species hunts for insects using a variety of methods: stealth, pouncing, ...
"Wiley: The Insects: An Outline of Entomology, 5th Edition - Gullan, P.J.; Cranston, P.S." www.wiley.com. Retrieved 11 November ... and the myxomatosis virus.[30]:73 They can carry Hymenolepiasis tapeworms[32] and Trypanosome protozoans.[30]:74 The chigoe ... Fleas are wingless insects, 1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) long, that are agile, usually dark colored (for example, the ... Unlike other insects, fleas do not possess compound eyes but instead only have simple eyespots with a single biconvex lens; ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... Studies of the metamorphosis of insects have shown cells undergoing a form of PCD that appears distinct from other forms; these ... A subset of viruses and bacteria subvert the autophagic pathway to promote their own replication.[63] Galectin-8 has recently ... "Subversion of cellular autophagosomal machinery by RNA viruses". PLoS Biol. 3 (5): e156. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030156. PMC ...
Their diets are mainly made up of bottom-dwelling benthic insects.[3] The favored habitat of a mottled sculpin is one rich in ... Males are known to eat their young if one contracts some kind of virus or fungus. The males also eat small females. Therefore, ... It feeds primarily on aquatic insect larvae, but will also eat crustaceans, small fish, fish eggs, and some plant material. In ... One study found that bottom dwelling aquatic insects make up 99.7% of the mottled sculpin's diet, with dipterous larvae and ...
The ages of the wasps were used to calibrate the virus phylogeny. Bayesian analyses revealed that insect dsDNA viruses first ... Paleozoic origin of insect large dsDNA viruses. Julien Thézé, Annie Bézier, Georges Periquet, Jean-Michel Drezen, Elisabeth A. ... Paleozoic origin of insect large dsDNA viruses. Julien Thézé, Annie Bézier, Georges Periquet, Jean-Michel Drezen, Elisabeth A. ... Paleozoic origin of insect large dsDNA viruses. Julien Thézé, Annie Bézier, Georges Periquet, Jean-Michel Drezen, and Elisabeth ...
To reduce the risk of students and staff being exposed to insect bites, schools are advised to inspect the grounds and work ... For further advice regarding insect bites and mosquito-borne viruses, contact 13 HEALTH (Ph.13 43 25 84) or your local ... Use of insect repellent at school During peak periods, schools may recommend that students use an insect repellent during ... A written authority for the supply and use of insect repellent template (DOC, 44KB) is available for schools to adopt or adapt ...
The combination of a virus and a fungus can lead to a condition called colony collapse disorder, but the two pathogens might ... Study Links Honeybee Deaths To Fungus, Insect Virus Researchers have a pair of new suspects in the mysterious collapse of ... Study Links Honeybee Deaths To Fungus, Insect Virus. Listen · 3:22 3:22 ... Study Links Honeybee Deaths To Fungus, Insect Virus. Listen · 3:22 3:22 ...
Insect Virus Could Spell Doom for Potato Pest. By Jan Suszkiw. August 25, 2006. The potato tuber moth is quickly earning a bad ... You are here: ARS Home / News & Events / News Articles / Research News / 2006 / Insect Virus Could Spell Doom for Potato Pest ... It wont come from fame, though, but from exposure to a type of insect pathogen called a granulovirus. In July, Agricultural ... Except for a few other potato-tuber-moth relatives, this highly specific pathogen doesnt infect other insects, or humans and ...
The best way to avoid becoming infected is to use insect repellent. ... The rapid spread of the Zika virus is a public health emergency. ... The Zika virus continues to spread quickly across the world. In ... There is no vaccine for the Zika virus and no drug to treat Zika infections. Health officials say the best way to prevent ... Officials fears the virus will spread quickly in southern states where the Aedes mosquitoes is most prevalent. ...
... are popular devices frequently used by homeowners and food handlers attempting to localize the control of flying insects, ... Electrocuting insect traps (EIT) are popular devices frequently used by homeowners and food handlers attempting to localize the ... Upon contact with the grids, the insects are disintegrated by the high voltage. As part of a systematic evaluation of EITs and ... Sprayed flies released one of every 10,000 of the added bacteria or viruses, and fed flies released one of every 1,000,000 of ...
This review presents current knowledge on the interaction dynamics of the baculovirus-insect system‚ which is relatively well ... While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. The ... Better understanding of how baculoviruses and insect cells interact would facilitate baculovirus-based production. ... have facilitated expression studies to generate a rich picture of insect gene responses to baculovirus infections. ...
Well-known examples of this are the Zika virus transmitted by mosquitoes, bird flu viruses, as well as the MERS virus which is ... In a current study, they have now discovered hundreds of novel viruses in insects. ... Universitätsmedizin Berlin are targeting their search at viruses in animals. ... New viruses which cause diseases often come from animals. ... hundreds_of_novel_viruses_discovered_in_insects/. Related ...
Well-known examples of this are the Zika virus transmitted by mosquitoes, bird flu viruses, as well as the MERS virus which is ... Universitätsmedizin Berlin are targeting their search at viruses in animals. ... New viruses which cause diseases often come from animals. ... Researchers discover hundreds of novel viruses in insects. * ... Well-known examples of this are the Zika virus transmitted by mosquitoes, bird flu viruses, as well as the MERS virus which is ...
A gene enabling an insect virus to enter new cells was likely stolen from a host cell and adapted for the virus s use, ... But the viruses would require tweaking to be effective since they kill insects more slowly than chemical insecticides. Studying ... Virologists have long thought of baculoviruses, a group of viruses that can liquefy their insect hosts in a matter of days but ... "Picking up the f gene may have caused a radical change in the pathology of this virus, because a virus that co-exists nicely ...
The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, ... Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative ... metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector ... Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global ...
This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant ... The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing ... Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other ... Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that ...
The virus, discovered by Gongyin Yes group of Zhejiang University, infects one species of a specific group of wasps known as ... Scientists have identified a previously unknown virus that decreases the number of female offspring of the wasps it infects, ... Newly discovered virus affects sex ratio of insect-killing wasps A higher proportion of male wasps could promote widespread ... Newly Discovered Virus Affects Sex Ratio of Insect-Killing Wasps (IMAGE) view more ...
In a new and novel study, scientists are looking to nature -- specifically, to ants, bees and viruses -- for ways to improve ... Insects, viruses could hold key for better human teamwork in disasters. Published Tuesday 1 March 2005 Published Tue 1 Mar 2005 ... "Insects, viruses could hold key for better human teamwork in disasters." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 1 Mar. 2005. ... Malden, T. (2005, March 1). "Insects, viruses could hold key for better human teamwork in disasters." Medical News Today. ...
Institute now Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe. In 1970, Kirya went on to become a consultant on yellow fever for the ... From research officer he became principal medical research officer, and head of arbovirology at the East African Virus Research ... a field related to the study of insects). ...
Given the high prevalence of viruses among insects, in a virus-host interaction or in a virus-vector relationship, viruses ... Subsequently, we discuss the virus-induced changes in insect behaviour from an ecological and evolutionary point of view.. ... This review first describes known examples of changes in insect behaviour upon virus infection. Although scarce, any known ... Increasing evidence shows that host behaviour often changes following infection by a variety of parasites, including viruses. ...
... virus, web icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by Chameleon Design found in the icon set Web, SEO and Development vol 2 ... Bug, fixing, insect, repair, seo, virus, web icon. * Basic license · Categories: Network & communications, SEO & web Styles: ...
... virus icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by Ivan Ryabokon found in the icon set Insect bug - Cartoon 2 ... Beetle, bug, cartoon, insect, mite, nature, virus icon. * Basic license · Categories: Animals, Agriculture, farming, & ... Insect bug - Cartoon 2 - 16 vector (SVG) icons Buy now $2 SVG PNG AI ...
... Author(s). Metz, S.W.H.; Geertsema, C.; Vlak, J.M.; ...
Dengue virus manipulates cellular processes to its advantage through specific interactions with the hosts protein interaction ... Mapping protein interactions between Dengue virus and its human and insect hosts PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Feb 15;5(2):e954. doi ... As with other viral pathogens, dengue virus is dependent on its host to perform the bulk of functions necessary for viral ... Protein-protein interactions between the virus and its host are one avenue through which dengue can connect and exploit these ...
Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, granulosis viruses, and pox-like viruses are viruses of the ... However it is likely that each individual virus particle is capable of establishing virus replication as the number of virus ... The enveloped virus particles are therefore available for the infection of cells and tissues in the host larva and the virus ... The virus capsid appears to connect those virus particles (or nucleocapsids) enveloped in bundles one to another as a result of ...
Brackney, Gregory Ebel, The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus, Viruses, 2013, ... Organ-specific transcriptome response of the small brown planthopper toward rice stripe virus, Insect Biochemistry and ... Semliki Forest virus strongly reduces mosquito host defence signaling. Authors. *. R. Fragkoudis,. * The Roslin Institute & ... Chang-Hyun Kim, Ephantus J. Muturi, Effect of larval density and Sindbis virus infection on immune responses in Aedes aegypti, ...
... the project involves using gene-editing techniques like CRISPR to infect insects with modified viruses that could supposedly ... Scientists are voicing their concerns over the Pentagons idea of making virus-spreading insects. Funded by the Defense ... Scientists Worried: Pentagon Wants To Make Virus-Spreading Insects. Mac Slavo. October 8th, 2018. SHTFplan.com. Comments (9) ... Scientists are voicing their concerns over the Pentagons idea of making virus-spreading insects. Funded by the Defense ...
... including types of insects, insecticides, biological control, and crop protection. ... This journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects, ... Zhongzheng Gui, Chengxiang Hou, Ting Liu, Guangxin Qin, Muwang Li, and Byungrae Jin "Effects of Insect Viruses and Pesticides ... Effects of Insect Viruses and Pesticides on Glutathione S-Transferase Activity and Gene Expression in Bombyx mori. ...
... proteins were also identified in two insect viruses and phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal movement from insect to virus ... of other insect and invertebrate transposases, which lends support to the HT occurring from the insect to the virus rather than ... Phantom, a New Subclass of Mutator DNA Transposons Found in Insect Viruses and Widely Distributed in Animals. Claudia P. ... Phantom, a New Subclass of Mutator DNA Transposons Found in Insect Viruses and Widely Distributed in Animals. Claudia P. ...
Viruses mobilize plant immunity to deter nonvector insect herbivores. By Pingzhi Zhao, Xiangmei Yao, Congxi Cai, Ran Li, Jie Du ... Viruses mobilize plant immunity to deter nonvector insect herbivores. By Pingzhi Zhao, Xiangmei Yao, Congxi Cai, Ran Li, Jie Du ... Viruses mobilize plant immunity to deter nonvector insect herbivores Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... 3Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China.. *. 4State Key Laboratory of Integrated ...
West Nile virus that comes from mosquito bites can be avoided by covering up, wearing insect repellant and ensuring there is no ... West Nile virus and 10 other diseases from insect bites we should worry about ... Insects also carry disease in their venom, saliva, blood and on their bodies; making it important to know what disease you ... 11 diseases from insects. Experts highlight the following 11 most important illnesses that can potentially lead to death that ...
E and F) Determination of the VP protein half-life in insect cells. Sf9 cells were infected with AAP2-depleted BEV-Rep2Cap2 and ... C) Time course of AAP2 and VP expression during AAV2 vector production in insect cells. Sf9 cells were coinfected with BEV-eGFP ... As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus-like particles composed solely of the major capsid protein VP3, AAPs role ... Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect ...
Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like ... Crude extracts of recombinant baculovirus expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 VLPs from both insect and rabbit cells ... Self-assembly of virus-like particles of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli and ... A recombinant canarypox virus protects rabbits against a lethal rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) challenge. Vaccine 15(1 ...
To perform the molecular functions required for invasion, replication, and spread of the virus, proteins encoded by DENV must ... we used a computational method based on protein structures to predict interactions between DENV and its human and insect hosts ... Author Summary Dengue virus (DENV) represents a major disease burden in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and has ...
  • Baculovirus-insect cell technologies are applied in the production of complex proteins, veterinary and human vaccines, gene delivery vectors‚ and biopesticides. (mdpi.com)
  • The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control. (mdpi.com)
  • Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. (nih.gov)
  • In nature, the dissemination of these viruses is dependent on arthropod vectors (genera Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus, and Tospovirus) or rodent vectors (genus Hantavirus). (k-state.edu)
  • In this dissertation, a modified viral metagenomics protocol was developed and utilized to effectively purify viruses from tissues, enabling the sequencing of novel viruses from animals, plants, and insect vectors. (usf.edu)
  • In addition to discovery of viruses in individual diseased animals, this dissertation pioneered a technique called vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to examine viruses present in insect vectors. (usf.edu)
  • VEM combines the power of metagenomics to sequence novel viruses with the ability of insect vectors to integrate viral diversity over space, time, and many host individuals and species. (usf.edu)
  • By enabling the discovery of virus in diseased organisms and in insect vectors, viral metagenomics is a powerful technique that will significantly enhance our fundamental scientific understanding of the diversity, transmission, biogeography, and emergence of viruses. (usf.edu)
  • These viruses are characterized by their competency to replicate in their vectors, while their replication are restricted in vertebrate cells. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The fellow will initially develop transgenic technology for selected insect vectors and then apply conditional lethal systems developed in the Scott Lab. (igtrcn.org)
  • Further research will be aimed at understanding the molecular basis of virus transmission by vectors. (igtrcn.org)
  • Other mechanisms include a role of invasive plants in the ecology of plant virus vectors. (wikisource.org)
  • Several species of mosquitoes, including the principle vectors of West Nile virus, thrive in fish-free water rich in algae and bacteria. (blogspot.com)
  • Alphabaculoviruses (Baculoviridae) are pathogenic DNA viruses of Lepidoptera that have applications as the basis for biological insecticides and expression vectors in biotechnological processes. (mines-ales.fr)
  • After these events, pooling water in the environment can create breeding grounds for mosquitoes and black flies and increase the potential for exposure to insect bites and mosquito-borne viruses. (qld.gov.au)
  • Officials fears the virus will spread quickly in southern states where the Aedes mosquitoes is most prevalent. (newschannel5.com)
  • Well-known examples of this are the Zika virus transmitted by mosquitoes, bird flu viruses, as well as the MERS virus which is associated with camels. (eurekalert.org)
  • But mosquitoes aren't the only insects that carry disease and can lead to illness. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In the present study, we identified partial viral genes of dengue virus (DENV), a novel circovirus (CCV), densovirus (DNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Wuhan mosquito virus (WMV) in mosquitoes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, numerous known viruses and some unknown viruses were also detected in mosquitoes from Yunnan province, China, which will be tested for propagation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mosquitoes are infected with viruses when consuming blood from hosts undergoing viremia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, metagenomic analysis of mosquitoes is likely to be of great value to avoid missing the detection of viruses with high infectivity and pathogenicity in different collection sites, and the detection of previously unknown viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study aimed to build a valid surveillance method to monitor the distribution of viruses from mosquitoes in Yunnan province, China and to provide useful insights into viral isolation, prevention, and control. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our lab investigates the ecology, evolution and genetics of insect-virus interactions to advance our basic understanding of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmission by mosquitoes. (pasteur.fr)
  • A major emphasis of the lab is to develop experimental approaches that account for the complexity of natural systems, where genetically diverse populations of mosquitoes interact with a wide variety of viruses, in a variable environment. (pasteur.fr)
  • We find that vDNA produced during RNA virus infection of Drosophila and mosquitoes is present in both linear and circular forms. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Besides mosquitoes, can you get West Nile virus directly from other insects or ticks? (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • Infected mosquitoes are the primary source for West Nile virus. (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • The first West Nile virus activity for the state was recently confirmed in mosquitoes collected in late May in Saginaw County. (thedailyreporter.com)
  • As summer temperatures rise, mosquitoes and the virus develop more quickly so it is important to protect yourself from mosquito bites as the weather warms. (thedailyreporter.com)
  • We performed virus isolation from the collected mosquitoes and obtained two flaviviruses: JEV and a novel insect-specific flavivirus, tentatively designated Yamadai flavivirus (YDFV). (deepdyve.com)
  • Both animal and plant viruses were represented in the mosquito viromes, which likely originate from animal blood and plant nectar that the mosquitoes feed on. (usf.edu)
  • The Wetzel-Tyler Health Department has been notified by the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Public Health (BPH) of a recent increase in West Nile virus activity among mosquitoes. (tylerstarnews.com)
  • There is no container too small when it comes to potential breeding grounds for mosquitoes that carry the West Nile virus. (tylerstarnews.com)
  • ISVs are also refereed to as mosquito-specific viruses as they are generally identified and discovered in mosquitoes. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • [ 28 ] In addition, ISVs such as Eilat virus (EILV) and Negev virus could be experimentally transmitted to adult mosquitoes via a high-titer of an infectious blood meal. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Liao ning virus (LNV) was first isolated in 1996 from mosquitoes in China, and has been shown to replicate in selected mammalian cell lines and to cause lethal haemorrhagic disease in experimentally infected mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Furthermore, high rates of virus detection in progeny reared from infected adult female mosquitoes, coupled with visualization of the virus within the ovarian follicles by immunohistochemistry, suggest that LNV is transmitted transovarially. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Because the Aedes species mosquitoes that spread Zika virus are found throughout the world," reports the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), "it is likely that outbreaks will spread to new countries. (emagazine.com)
  • Viruses cause many infectious diseases, and insects, such as mosquitoes, often carry these viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He uses genetic approaches to elucidate how genetic variation in mosquitoes can modify a mosquito's ability to be infected by, and transmit, virus, primarily studying Culex mosquitoes and their susceptibility to infection by West Nile virus. (wadsworth.org)
  • She recently asked the CDC to look into the possibility that the foreclosure crisis and vacant homes on Long Island, NY are leaving pools of stagnant water where the virus-carrying mosquitoes breed. (blogspot.com)
  • To protect yourself against diseases spread by mosquitoes, CDC and EPA recommend using an EPA-registered insect repellent. (cdc.gov)
  • Mosquitoes were screened for viruses in 65 pools where fifteen (23.1%) were reactive. (wordpress.com)
  • Mosquitoes can transmit viruses to susceptible humans during blood-feeding. (wordpress.com)
  • The scientist is a specialist for virus discovery and diagnostics at the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF). (eurekalert.org)
  • This includes patients who display all the symptoms of a viral infection, however no virus can be identified in the case in question. (eurekalert.org)
  • These viruses actually generate two types of infectious particles, Blissard explains: one type specialized to infect gut cells, and another that spreads infection in other parts of the insect. (innovations-report.com)
  • Increasing evidence shows that host behaviour often changes following infection by a variety of parasites, including viruses. (wur.nl)
  • This review first describes known examples of changes in insect behaviour upon virus infection. (wur.nl)
  • However, it is liable to infection by a number of viruses and chemical agents that can contaminate its food and growing environment. (bioone.org)
  • Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus- derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. (wiley.com)
  • Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. (wiley.com)
  • In this study we compared two different codon usages of RHDV2-VP1 to improve the expression of recombinant VP1 of RHDV2 by recombinant baculoviruses after infection of insect SF9 cells or transduction of mammalian RK13 cells in order to gain high protein yields. (springer.com)
  • Purification of DENV-2 particles from insect cells and infection of MDDC. (nih.gov)
  • Infection by multiple genotypes results in the production of virus occlusion bodies (OBs) with greater pathogenicity than those of any genotype alone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • By contrast, insects that consumed multiple OBs experienced higher mortality and infection frequencies did not differ significantly from those of the non-associated model. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Virus populations are renowned for their diversity, and many viruses adopt infection strategies to ensure that part of that diversity is present in individual infected hosts ( Hurst 2000 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Later in the cell infection cycle, nucleocapsids that remain in the nucleus are enveloped singly or in multiples to form virions that are occluded in a protein matrix, the occlusion body (OB), which is responsible for insect-to-insect transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • People who work in outdoor occupations or like to spend time outdoors are at increased risk for West Nile virus infection from mosquito bites. (thedailyreporter.com)
  • The absence of N. capensis laboratory colonies and tissue culture cell lines susceptible to virus infection have limited research on the biology of N β V and N ω V because the availability of infectious virus is dependent upon sporadic outbreaks in the wild N. capensis populations. (scielo.org.za)
  • The insect molecules associated with virus infection and transmission by the thrips vector remain unidentified to date. (k-state.edu)
  • The aim of this work was to identify F. occidentalis larval thrips proteins that are differentially expressed during TSWV infection of the insect vector and those that directly interact with TSWV. (k-state.edu)
  • Novel features of the morphology of principal (PSGs) and tubular salivary glands (TSGs) of the insect vector F. occidentalis and of their infection with TSWV were described. (k-state.edu)
  • Pathogen persistence in migratory insects : high levels of vertically-transmitted virus infection in field populations of the African armyworm. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This study provides an insight into mechanisms of pathogen persistence in migratory populations where hosts are unpredictable and indicates that covert infection may be more common and more relevant in disease dynamics of insects than had previously been thought. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In a present study by cooperation with research group led by Prof. ZOU Zhen in Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the research group led by Prof. HU Zhihong in Wuhan Institute of Virology showed that a DNA virus baculovirus infection of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, reduced the levels of most cascade members in the host hemolymph and PO activity. (cas.ac.cn)
  • Moreover, serpin-5/9-depleted insects showed resistance to baculovirus infection. (cas.ac.cn)
  • This mechanism, which involves baculovirus induced serpin-5 and serpin-9 and then inactivates the host immune system, suggests that these two negative regulators of immune response are important for baculovirus infection in insects. (cas.ac.cn)
  • Addition of amantadine to Sf9 cells as late as 72 h after infection with the recombinant virus increased the production of M2 protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • But a Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly-where the fetal head doesn't develop to the proper size, leading to other severe brain defects. (emagazine.com)
  • Somatic Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) levels in Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and resistance to West Nile Virus infection. (wadsworth.org)
  • The native Wolbachia endosymbionts of Drosophila melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus increase host resistance to West Nile virus infection. (wadsworth.org)
  • West Nile virus infection of Drosophila melanogaster induces a protective RNAi response. (wadsworth.org)
  • Nicotiana benthamiana infected with either Plum pox virus (PPV) or Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV) showed leaf chlorosis, implying that chloroplast functions might have been impaired by infection with the viruses ( Dardick, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These results indicate that similarity in disease symptoms may not result from the similarity in gene responses to virus infection, and that the gene responses associated with particular symptoms may depend on the virus species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Behavioural changes of insects associated with baculovirus infection secure optimal dissemination of progeny virus in the environment. (wur.nl)
  • There they die from the virus infection and 'spray' the progeny virus over the foliage, thereby increasing the chance of establishing a new round of infection in other insects. (wur.nl)
  • Conclusions We present the first experiment to measure genome-wide gene expression in an insect after infection with a natural DNA virus. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The infection does not lead to replication of new viruses, rather it affects the caterpillar's immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Without the virus infection, phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg and larvae but the immune suppression caused by the virus allows for survival of the wasp egg and larvae, leading to hatching and complete development of the immature wasp in the caterpillar. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists. (mdpi.com)
  • Given the high prevalence of viruses among insects, in a virus-host interaction or in a virus-vector relationship, viruses might have a huge impact on insect behaviour. (wur.nl)
  • We implemented a computational approach to predict interactions between Dengue virus (DENV) and both of its hosts, Homo sapiens and the insect vector Aedes aegypti. (nih.gov)
  • To use insects as a vector to spread diseases is a classical bioweapon. (shtfplan.com)
  • Here, we show that Begomovirus , the largest genus of plant viruses and transmitted exclusively by whitefly, reprogram plant immunity to promote the fitness of the vector and suppress performance of nonvector insects (i.e., cotton bollworm and aphid). (sciencemag.org)
  • Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells. (nih.gov)
  • 1. A baculoviral vector for the production of an exogenous gene product in insect host cells wherein said host cells are incapable of permitting replication of an unmodified baculovirus which comprises an exogenous DNA sequence encoding the gene product wherein transcription of said DNA sequence is controlled by a promoter of an LTR selected from the group consisting of retroviral LTRs and transposable element LTRs. (patents.com)
  • The work presented here provides new insights on the molecular basis of this virus-vector interaction and describes new tools to conduct functional genomic assays to study gene function and design control strategies of F. occidentalis. (k-state.edu)
  • Like many animal-infecting viruses, TSWV replicates in the cells of its insect vector. (k-state.edu)
  • The aim of this work was to develop novel control strategies against TSWV through a better understanding of the virus-vector interaction. (k-state.edu)
  • Previously, the TSWV GN protein was shown to be the viral attachment protein, a molecule mediating attachment of virus particles to the midgut epithelial cells of vector thrips. (k-state.edu)
  • The specific goals of my research were to further examine the utility of disrupting the virus-vector interaction for effective virus control by exploiting GN properties, and to track the route of TSWV in thrips using confocal microscopy. (k-state.edu)
  • The transgenic plants and the new knowledge of the virus vector interaction are promising tools to control TSWV and a model approach for the control of other vector-borne viruses. (k-state.edu)
  • The authors examined the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and its transmission vector, the aphid. (pnas.org)
  • The fellow will study cereal aphids and barley yellow dwarf viruses to characterize vector transmission dynamics, viruliferous vector dispersal in monoculture and mixed host populations under controlled environments, and plant host specificity using quantitative ecological and transcriptomics tools. (igtrcn.org)
  • For the postdoctoral positions on the plant virus, a Ph.D. in Entomology or Plant Pathology with an emphasis in Plant Virology/Vector Interactions is desirable. (igtrcn.org)
  • Determining the extent to which mosquito genetics contributes to traits that determine vector competence in field populations of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens . (wadsworth.org)
  • 4 . Jones, L.D., Davies, C.R., Williams, T. , Cory J.S. & Nuttall, P.A. (1990) Non-viremic transmission of Thogoto virus: vector efficiency of Rhipacephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum . (trevorwilliams.info)
  • 9 . Jones, L.D., Hodgson, E., Williams, T. , Higgs, S. & Nuttall, P.A. (1992) Saliva activated transmission (SAT) of Thogoto virus: relationship with vector potential of different haematophagous arthropods. (trevorwilliams.info)
  • One study showed that an invasive grass species resulted in increased populations of the aphid vector for plant viruses that was detrimental to a native grass species [11] . (wikisource.org)
  • Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between virus and vector are crucial for virus transmission by vector insects. (aminer.org)
  • The production of VLPs has been strongly linked with the use of insect cells and the baculovirus expression vector system, especially those particles composed of two or more structural viral proteins. (unl.pt)
  • In the type member of the Tospovirus genus (TSWV), acquisition of the virus by the thrips vector can only occur during the larval stage of development by the thrips. (wikipedia.org)
  • A known vector of the virus is Sericothrips variablilis (soybean thrips). (wikipedia.org)
  • Personal insect repellents should only be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations noted on the product. (qld.gov.au)
  • Consumer Reports tested a number of insect repellents for their effectiveness against the Aedes mosquito, the type of mosquito known to transmit Zika. (newschannel5.com)
  • Consumer Reports recommends three insect repellents, Sawyer Fisherman's Formula Picaridin, Natrapel 8 Hour and Off Deepwoods VIII. (newschannel5.com)
  • Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding can safely use the three insect repellents if they are applied properly following the directions on their labels. (newschannel5.com)
  • In addition to using insect repellents, Consumer Reports also recommends wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants when outdoors. (newschannel5.com)
  • Precautions include: Use EPA-registered insect repellents with one of the following ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus or paramenthanediol and 20undecanone. (thedailyreporter.com)
  • Sawyer's Entire Line of Insect Repellents has been tested against and are effective on the Aedes Aegypti species which transmits the Zika Virus, Yellow Fever, and Dengue Fever. (sawyer.com)
  • When used as directed, these insect repellents are proven safe and effective even for pregnant and breastfeeding women. (cdc.gov)
  • When used as directed, EPA-registered insect repellents are proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know the effectiveness of non-EPA registered insect repellents, including some natural repellents. (cdc.gov)
  • During peak periods, schools may recommend that students use an insect repellent during school hours to protect them from bites. (qld.gov.au)
  • Prior to a student applying insect repellent at school, parental consent must be obtained and the school must ensure the student has used the repellent previously with no adverse reactions. (qld.gov.au)
  • A written authority for the supply and use of insect repellent template (DOC, 44KB) is available for schools to adopt or adapt for this purpose. (qld.gov.au)
  • Teachers are not required to apply insect repellent to all students. (qld.gov.au)
  • However, school staff should supervise younger students and can provide assistance to students who may be experiencing difficulty in applying the insect repellent. (qld.gov.au)
  • Parents should be notified immediately if any adverse reaction to insect repellent occurs after application. (qld.gov.au)
  • Parents should not let young children apply insect repellent themselves. (newschannel5.com)
  • The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has recommended insect repellent as a preventative step. (1010data.com)
  • Recently, SC Johnson, who makes the well-known insect repellent "Off! (1010data.com)
  • In the 3 months ending April 2016, total dollar sales of insect repellent online were up 323% compared to the 3 months ending a year ago, April 2015. (1010data.com)
  • Use insect repellent to prevent mosquito bites when outdoors," said Dr. Eden Wells, MDHHS chief medical executive. (thedailyreporter.com)
  • Sawyer 20% Picaridin Topical Insect Repellent gear safe and is safe for use on kids as young as six months of age and even during pregnancy [ 1 ] . (sawyer.com)
  • Our Odorless Permethrin is a synthetic version of the Chrysanthemum flower's natural insect repellent and is designed for use on clothing and gear which lasts for 6 weeks or 6 washings, making it one of the most versatile and easiest ways to maximize your protection from Lyme Disease and the Zika Virus. (sawyer.com)
  • Picaridin is a fantastic topical insect repellent for the whole family and considered to be the repellent of first choice by the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Advisory Committee on Tropical Medicine and Travel for travelers six months to 12 years of age. (sawyer.com)
  • Sawyer® Permethrin Insect Repellent is odorless, non-greasy and non-staining after it dries. (sawyer.com)
  • For more information and assistance in choosing the right insect repellent for you and your employees, check out the highly useful repellent calculator developed by the National Pesticide Information Center . (blogspot.com)
  • Find the right insect repellent for you by using EPA's search tool external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • Adults: Spray insect repellent onto your hands and then apply to a child's face. (cdc.gov)
  • Reapply insect repellent as directed. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen first and insect repellent second. (cdc.gov)
  • Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses, granulosis viruses, and 'pox-like' viruses are viruses of the occluded type in which the virus particles are embedded in a large crystalline inclusion which may be either polyhedral or capsular in shape. (bl.uk)
  • Suspensions of polyhedra were subjected to various alkaline treatments to solubilize the crystalline matrix of protein and to liberate the occluded virus particles. (bl.uk)
  • Samples of virus particles and aggregated polyhedron protein were examined electron microscopically and used for the production of antisera. (bl.uk)
  • Antisera were also produced to polyhedron protein solutions obtained, by precipitation, from dissolutions of polyhedra from which virus particles and aggregated polyhedron protein had been removed by centrifugation. (bl.uk)
  • Serological tests showed no relationship between virus particles and polyhedron protein but the polyhedron proteins from the two viruses were related but not identical. (bl.uk)
  • Virus particles extracted from polyhedra were either enveloped, naked, or empty. (bl.uk)
  • In A. urticae polyhedra the virus envelope (or outer membrane) surrounds a single virus particle whereas in L. dispar polyhedra bundles of virus particles are surrounded by the envelope. (bl.uk)
  • The virus capsid appears to connect those virus particles (or nucleocapsids) enveloped in bundles one to another as a result of 'pinching' of the capsid. (bl.uk)
  • However it is likely that each individual virus particle is capable of establishing virus replication as the number of virus particles within an envelope varies considerably. (bl.uk)
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are particles that lack the infectious genome of the parent virus but retain the ability to self-assemble. (jic.ac.uk)
  • As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus-like particles composed solely of the major capsid protein VP3, AAP's role in and relevance for assembly of genuine AAV capsids have remained largely unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Especially, after codon usage optimization high amounts of recombinant viral proteins can be obtained which can assemble to virus like particles (VLPs) spontaneously. (springer.com)
  • Expression of the complete ORF2 of human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1) in the baculovirus system led to the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) of around 38 nm. (asm.org)
  • The expression of the genomes encoding the capsid proteins of a great number of RNA viruses giving rise to the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) has been accomplished in different heterologous expression systems, including the expression of the complete ORF2 of HAstV-2 in the vaccinia system ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The production of infectious virus particles of the newly isolated virus YunnanJEV2017-4 increased after passage from the BHK-21 cell line to the Vero cell line. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study characterized the structures of envelope protein N-linked glycans on mature DENV-2 particles derived from insect cells via an integrated method that used both lectin microarray and MALDI-TOF-MS. By combining these methods, a high heterogeneity of DENV N-glycans was found. (nih.gov)
  • For the first time, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the N-linked glycan profile of whole DENV-2 particles derived from insect cells. (nih.gov)
  • The study of HCV has been hampered by the low level of viral particles in infected individuals, the inability to propagate efficiently the virus in cultured cells, and the lack of a convenient animal model. (asm.org)
  • In this report, we describe a model for the production and purification of HCV-like particles in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus containing the cDNA of the HCV structural proteins. (asm.org)
  • In insect cells, expressed HCV structural proteins assembled into enveloped viruslike particles (40 to 60 nm in diameter) in large cytoplasmic cisternae, presumably derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. (asm.org)
  • The synthesis of HCV-like particles in insect cells may provide an important tool to determine the structural requirements for HCV particle assembly as well as to study viral genome encapsidation and virus-host interactions. (asm.org)
  • The levels of viral particles present in infected patient plasma or liver tissues are very low, making it difficult to visualize the virus. (asm.org)
  • The ordinary Raman scattering (ORS) spectra of virion protein of Granulosis Virus of Cabbage Butterfly Preris rapae (PrGV-VP) and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra adsorbed on the surface of silver colloid particles have been found that the Raman signal in the SERS spectra was enhanced by a factor of about 8 X 10 2 . (spie.org)
  • First the virus particles must be present in the blood of the reservoir (human or other animal) in sufficient quantity to be acquired by a female mosquito. (wordpress.com)
  • The cuticular lining is relatively impermeable to both nutrients and virus particles. (wordpress.com)
  • A sufficient number of virus particles must enter the host with the mosquito saliva to have a high enough probability that some will escape the host's defenses. (wordpress.com)
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multiprotein structures that resemble the conformation of native viruses but lack a viral genome, potentiating their application as safer and cheaper vaccines. (unl.pt)
  • If insects are intact, they enclose virus particles preventing these particles to reach humans. (beds.ac.uk)
  • If insects deteriorate, virus particles are set free, and humans are infected. (beds.ac.uk)
  • So, according to season and insect biomass, a flow of virus particles is ping-ponged between humans and insects. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Generation of Influenza non-replicating virus-like particles (VLP) in baculoviral expression system is an attractive method for achieving this goal. (org.ir)
  • Protein-protein interactions between the virus and its host are one avenue through which dengue can connect and exploit these host cellular pathways and processes. (nih.gov)
  • Additional predictions suggest specific interactions between virus and host proteins relevant to interferon signaling, transcriptional regulation, stress, and the unfolded protein response. (nih.gov)
  • Dengue virus manipulates cellular processes to its advantage through specific interactions with the host's protein interaction network. (nih.gov)
  • Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. (wiley.com)
  • The fellow will initially focus on the basic biology of leafhopper and planthopper-borne virus-plant interactions. (igtrcn.org)
  • The fellow will initially focus on the basic biology of aphid borne virus-plant interactions. (igtrcn.org)
  • Ultimately, a better understanding of how mosquito-virus interactions impact disease emergence will improve assessment of disease risk and the timely deployment of preventive interventions. (wadsworth.org)
  • Virus ecology looks at the more complex issues of virus-host-environment interactions. (wikisource.org)
  • Viruses may impact any of these interactions [1] . (wikisource.org)
  • Arthropods and viruses predate humans, and held and hold manifold interactions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Besides the granulovirus, which is now being field-tested under a federal experimental-use permit, Lacey's group is also examining the biological control potential of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis , two species of insect-specific nematodes, and the fungus Muscodor albus . (usda.gov)
  • While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. (mdpi.com)
  • The release of the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella genomes, the accumulation of EST sequences for several Lepidopteran species, and especially the availability of two genome-scale analysis tools, namely oligonucleotide microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS), have facilitated expression studies to generate a rich picture of insect gene responses to baculovirus infections. (mdpi.com)
  • In a total of 1.243 insect species, the researchers discovered viruses that can be classified in at least 20 new genera. (eurekalert.org)
  • The virus, discovered by Gongyin Ye's group of Zhejiang University, infects one species of a specific group of wasps known as parasitoid wasps. (eurekalert.org)
  • While studying a parasitoid wasp species known as Pteromalus puparum , Ye's team discovered signs of a virus among products of the wasp's transcriptome. (eurekalert.org)
  • The tetraviruses are the only viruses that exclusively infect insects, with a remarkably narrow host range limited to closely related species of the order Lepidoptera. (scielo.org.za)
  • Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), the type species of the Tospovirus genus, is one of the ten most devastating plant viruses known. (k-state.edu)
  • It is defined as the ability of a particular virus to productively infect and replicate in a specific cell type, tissue, or species. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Zika virus, first discovered in Uganda's Zika Forest in 1947, is transmitted to humans and other mammals through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito, and typically causes only a mild and short-term illness (fever, rash, joint pain, conjunctivitis) that likely immunizes the victim from future infections. (emagazine.com)
  • The most recent report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses, a group that approves scientific names for viruses, lists only about 900 species of plant viruses [5] . (wikisource.org)
  • Invasive species of plants can be aided in their invasions by plant viruses in a number of different ways. (wikisource.org)
  • Here, we infect a commercially important pest moth species Plodia interpunctella with its naturally infecting DNA virus. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • APSE-2 genomes were consistently abundant in infected pea aphids, and related phages were found in all tested isolates of H. defensa, from numerous insect species. (auburn.edu)
  • Research needs to be done to verify if this is the only thrips species capable of transmitting this new and widespread virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza virus crosses species barriers from time to time and persists in the species (e.g. humans, dogs, horses) for a certain time in a seasonal manner, and is then eventually lost. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Insects serve as a reservoir for viruses and are able to transport different viral species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that coinfection of a susceptible insect by two different alphabaculovirus species results in the production of mixed-virus occlusion bodies containing the parental viruses. (mines-ales.fr)
  • We demonstrate that in caterpillars infected with particular mixtures of viruses, the genomes of different baculovirus species, can be enveloped together within individual virions and occluded within proteinaceous occlusion bodies. (mines-ales.fr)
  • This results in the transmission of mixed-virus populations to the caterpillar stages of moth species. (mines-ales.fr)
  • Mixed-virus production technology opens the way to the development of custom-designed insecticides for control of different combinations of caterpillar pest species. (mines-ales.fr)
  • Arboviral #screening of invasive #Aedes species in northeastern #Turkey: #WNV circulation and detection of insect-only viruses (PLoS Negl Trop Dis. (wordpress.com)
  • Parasitoid wasps range from some of the smallest species of insects to wasps about an inch long. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, unlike viral genomic fossils, they have retained functional machineries homologous to those of large dsDNA viruses pathogenic to arthropods. (pnas.org)
  • Prior studies have also linked colony collapse to different viruses and pathogens, but one researcher says viral sicknesses may be just one of the threats that bees face. (npr.org)
  • In order to identify new viral diseases quickly and prevent possible epidemics, DZIF scientists at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin are targeting their search at viruses in animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • As part of the DZIF project "Virus detection and preparedness", the scientists at Charité will continue to focus on anticipating and detecting future viral threats. (eurekalert.org)
  • As with other viral pathogens, dengue virus is dependent on its host to perform the bulk of functions necessary for viral survival and replication. (nih.gov)
  • Transient expression of viral coat proteins in a variety of systems can be used to synthesize VLPs that are morphologically indistinguishable from the virus from which they have been derived. (jic.ac.uk)
  • IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Bertagnoli S, Gelfi J, Le Gall G, Boilletot E, Vautherot JF, Rasschaert D, Laurent S, Petit F, Boucraut-Baralon C, Milon A (1996) Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein. (springer.com)
  • Although the characterization of the viral genome organization has been described in detail ( 35 ), analysis of the structural features of HCV has been hampered by the inability to propagate the virus efficiently in cultured cells. (asm.org)
  • Virus-specific siRNA responses are amplified via the reverse transcription of viral RNA to viral DNA (vDNA). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Past vaccine strategies against viral pathogens comprise of live-attenuated viruses that were passaged in animal hosts or cell lines before immunization, however these vaccines are not always sufficiently immunogenic, and there are safety concerns associated with the use of live-attenuated vaccines in some populations, particularly the young, old, pregnant or immunocompromised. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The possible role of the TYLCV capsid protein (CP), the only known component of the viral coat, in virus transport into the host cell nucleus was investigated by monitoring its specific nuclear accumulation in plant and insect cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Viral metagenomics, consisting of viral particle purification and shotgun sequencing, is a powerful technique for discovering viruses in a wide variety of sample types. (usf.edu)
  • Viral metagenomics performed directly on tissue samples enabled the discovery of novel vertebrate, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. (usf.edu)
  • From a sea turtle fibropapilloma, viral metagenomics revealed a novel tornovirus STTV1, which is only the second single-stranded DNA virus known in reptiles and is extremely different from any previously described viruses. (usf.edu)
  • The STTV1 and ZcAV genomes were highly divergent from known viruses, to a degree that they could not have been detected by degenerate PCR assays or microarrays, demonstrating viral metagenomics as an effective method for characterizing novel viruses. (usf.edu)
  • VEM allows for the investigation of viral diversity among the broad range of hosts that the insects feed on, providing an unprecedented snapshot of the viral diversity in natural reservoirs. (usf.edu)
  • Mosquito viromes contained a diverse range of viruses, including vertebrate, insect, plant, and bacterial viruses, and almost all the viral sequences were novel, suggesting the pan-animal virome is largely uncharacterized. (usf.edu)
  • The viral metagenomic approach described here has implications for surveillance of emerging viruses, prediction of viral epidemics, and proactive control of diseases. (usf.edu)
  • Noncirculative virus transmission by insects is a common way for viruses to travel between different host plants, but little is known about the molecular details of this viral spread. (pnas.org)
  • The aims are (i) to identify the viral genes responsible for altered insect behaviour (PhD student) and (ii) to unravel the pathways that transduce the virus-encoded signal in the insect and explain the changes in behaviour (PhD student Stineke van Houte and post-doc Vera Ros). (wur.nl)
  • Many viral studies have used a metagenomic approach for studying biodiversity, where environmental samples are analyzed for virus sequences after some enrichment for viruses, but plant virologists have used a different approach, where individual plants have been sampled [4] . (wikisource.org)
  • Furthermore, the large proportion of genes that were downregulated after viral exposure suggests that this virus is actively manipulating the insect immune response. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The virus and wasp are in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship: expression of viral genes prevents the wasp's host's immune system from killing the wasp's injected egg and causes other physiological alterations that ultimately cause the parasitized host to die. (wikipedia.org)
  • GP is a class I fusion protein which assembles as trimers on viral surface and plays an important role in virus entry and attachment. (sinobiological.com)
  • the mucin domain having N- and O-linked glycans enhances the viral attachment to cellular hMGL, and participates in shielding key neutralization epitopes, which helps the virus evades immune elimination. (sinobiological.com)
  • Biochemical and structural characterization of cathepsin L-processed Ebola virus glycoprotein: implications for viral entry and immunogenicity. (sinobiological.com)
  • A model of viral flow is described and specified to explain influenza virus seasonality, which, in temperate climate, usually evolves when insects have mostly disappeared. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Humans provide them warmness and nutrition, otherwise this proximity fosters viral transmission from insects to humans. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Vertebrate cells did not support the replication of either chimeric virus although trace to modest amounts of viral antigen were produced, consistent with suboptimal viral entry. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximately half the virions present in proteinaceous viral occlusion bodies produced following coinfection of insects with a mixture of two alphabaculoviruses contained both viruses, indicating that the viruses coinfected and replicated in a single cell, and were co-enveloped within the same virion. (mines-ales.fr)
  • Coinfection by viruses that differed in genome size had unexpected results on the length of viral nucleocapsids, which differed from those of both parental viruses. (mines-ales.fr)
  • Better understanding of how baculoviruses and insect cells interact would facilitate baculovirus-based production. (mdpi.com)
  • Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other organisms are also present in insect. (mdpi.com)
  • A gene enabling an insect virus to enter new cells was likely stolen from a host cell and adapted for the virus s use, researchers at Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) at Cornell University report. (innovations-report.com)
  • Given the fact that insect cells did not present this difficulty, we used them to make the VLPs for cryo-EM analysis of intermediates in the process of maturation. (jic.ac.uk)
  • However, in insect cell line SF9 higher rates of recombinant VP1 were measured in comparison to the transduction of mammalian cells RK13. (springer.com)
  • Finally, both RHDV-VP1 VLPs derived from mammalian and insect cells were able to induce a protective humoral immune response in rabbits against RHDV2. (springer.com)
  • Cells and viruses. (asm.org)
  • Characterization of N-Glycan Structures on the Surface of Mature Dengue 2 Virus Derived from Insect Cells. (nih.gov)
  • Addition of amantadine or rimantadine at 2 µg/ml to cultures of Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant baculoviruses increased the yield of the M2 protein from the amantadine-sensitive virus approximately 10-fold, but did not increase the yield of the M2 protein from the amantadine-resistant virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Liao ning virus, a new Chinese seadornavirus that replicates in transformed and embryonic mammalian cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The virus must then find a path through or around the midgut cells. (wordpress.com)
  • In the hemolymph, the virus must travel to the salivary glands and cross more cell membranes to enter salivary gland cells. (wordpress.com)
  • Many successful mosquito transmitted viruses are capable of infecting and reproducing in cells of the mosquito salivary gland. (wordpress.com)
  • The virus particle must be able to leave the salivary gland cells and enter the mosquito saliva. (wordpress.com)
  • Additionally, the virus must be able to replicate in cells of the mosquito. (wordpress.com)
  • Special attention is given to entry mechanisms of baculoviruses into gut and insect body cells (PhD student Qiushi Wang), determination of structural proteins of iridoviruses (PhD student Agah Ince). (wur.nl)
  • The virus is injected along with the wasp egg into the body cavity of a lepidopteran host caterpillar and infects cells of the caterpillar. (wikipedia.org)
  • This EBOV Ebola virus Glycoprotein overexpression lysate was created in Baculovirus-Insect Cells and intented for use as a Western blot (WB) positive control. (sinobiological.com)
  • Because these are insect cells, they do not require serum (animal products) to grow. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Influenza wants nothing to do with insect cells. (scienceblogs.com)
  • So how do you grow influenza proteins in insect cells? (scienceblogs.com)
  • but how does growing the vaccine in insect cells affect the glycosylation? (scienceblogs.com)
  • Materials and Methods: In this study, the NA coding region amplified from the human influenza virus [A/New Caledonia 20/1999/ (H1N1)] was used to construct the NA recombinant bacmid into E.coli DH10Bac cells. (org.ir)
  • The expression of NA in insect cells was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. (org.ir)
  • Moreover, the NA protein expressed in insect cells might be fully glycosylated and therefore is appropriate to be use in influenza vaccinology projects. (org.ir)
  • Najafi S, Behzadian F, Fotouhi-Chahooki F, Tavasoti-Kheiri M, Fallah-Mehrabadi J. Baculoviral Expression of Influenza A Virus (H1N1 New Caledonia) Neuraminidase in Insect Cells. (org.ir)
  • Of the four chimeras produced, one (the prM-E swap) yielded virus that replicated in mosquito cells. (cdc.gov)
  • These data suggest that dual-host affiliated insect-specific flaviviruses cannot replicate in vertebrate cells due to entry and post-translational restrictions. (cdc.gov)
  • Once established, mixed-virus populations persist by coinfection of insect cells during several rounds of insect-to-insect transmission. (mines-ales.fr)
  • free the multiplication of viruses virus inclusions in plant cells virus inclusions in insect cells antibiotika issues you can view with units. (wisepro.com)
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  • Interestingly three Phantom proteins were also identified in two insect viruses and phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal movement from insect to virus, providing a new line of evidence for the role of viruses in the horizontal transfer of DNA transposons in animals. (genetics.org)
  • Parasites and bacteria have evolved to produce specific proteins or antibiotic to suppress the melanization response of host insects for survival. (cas.ac.cn)
  • Our results indicate that cuticle proteins might be key genes underpinning the response to DNA viruses. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • To address the chikungunya fever (CHIKF) pandemic, we used an EILV cDNA clone to design a chimeric virus containing the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) structural proteins. (utmb.edu)
  • Baculovirus infects an insect cell and is just all 'HERP DERPY I A MAKING MAH PROTEINS LALALALA! (scienceblogs.com)
  • Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is enveloped and has a negative sense single-stranded RNA (−ssRNA) genome composed of three genomic segments (S, M, and L). It encodes proteins on the M and S segments in an ambisense manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus codes proteins from the M and S segments in an ambisense manner, meaning that proteins are translated from both positive and negative sense RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic characterization of YDFV revealed that the full genome RNA (10,863 nucleotides) showed homology with the Culex-associated insect-specific flaviviruses Quang Binh virus (79 % identity) and Yunnan Culex flavivirus (78 % identity), indicating that YDFV is a novel insect-specific flavivirus. (deepdyve.com)
  • The goal of the NSF-funded Insect Genetic Technologies RCN is to connect insect scientists for the purpose of disseminating advanced technologies for genome modification of insects through symposia, technical workshops, and training fellowships. (igtrcn.org)
  • The full genome of the virus is integrated into the genome of the wasp and the virus only replicates in a particular part of the ovary, called the calyx, of pupal and adult female wasps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of SVNV is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus (Group V) that has three segments (S, M, and L segments). (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of positive-stranded RNA viruses of insects, however, lacks an AUG translation initiation codon for their capsid protein gene, which is located at the downstream part of the genome. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Chimeras were initially created by replacing select regions of the Zika virus genome, including the premembrane and envelope protein (prM-E) genes, with the corresponding regions of the LPKV genome. (cdc.gov)
  • The strain is provisionally called "AEFV-Turkey", and functional analysis of the genome revealed several conserved motifs and regions associated with virus replication. (wordpress.com)
  • The full genome of the virus is endogenous, dispersed among the genome of the wasp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alternative proposal suggests that ancestral wasps developed a beneficial association with an existing virus that eventually led to the integration of the virus into the wasp's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the capsids were (eventually) no longer included in the PDV genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. (mdpi.com)
  • Novel circovirus-related genes were identified and as being related to an unnamed gene of a mosquito circovirus (MCCV) sequence from the USA isolated in 2011, with at least 41% nt identity: this distant relationship suggests that the parent virus might belong to a novel circovirus genus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exogenous genes under the control of a promoter which promotes expression in "non-permissive" hosts are thus used to expand the host range of the virus thus allowing production of polypeptides, including polypeptides which are toxic to the target host. (patents.com)
  • To our knowledge this is the first study to describe gap junction genes in any virus. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant baculoviruses that express the M2 protein from the genes of either the amantadine-sensitive, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 virus or a laboratory-derived, amantadine-resistant mutant of this virus were constructed. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The central hypothesis of this project is that baculoviruses, besides known genes for virus replication and virion structure, contain genes to modulate their host, including genes that alter host behaviour. (wur.nl)
  • The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another chimeric virus with a mosquito replication-competent phenotype was created by inserting the prM-E genes of Lammi virus into a Zika virus genetic background. (cdc.gov)
  • In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have identified a previously unknown virus that decreases the number of female offspring of the wasps it infects, according to a PLOS Pathogens study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Simon Käfer et al, Re-assessing the diversity of negative strand RNA viruses in insects, PLOS Pathogens (2019). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Insect pathogenic viruses can be divided into five groups. (bl.uk)
  • This group of RNA viruses includes important pathogenic viruses-these cause Ebola and measles, as well as rabies and lung infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In viruses, an f gene codes for a fusion (F) protein, which enables the virus to penetrate the host cell s membrane and infect it. (innovations-report.com)
  • Viruses can accomplish membrane fusion with a one-protein machine. (innovations-report.com)
  • These virus particle and an aggregated form of the polyhedron protein were separated and purified most effectively by density gradient centrifugation. (bl.uk)
  • I used insect cell and plant-based transient expression of the NωV coat protein to produce procapsids and showed that reduction in pH results in cleavage of the coat protein and the concomitant decrease in particle diameter. (jic.ac.uk)
  • This movie provides, for the first time, high-resolution information about the large conformational changes and protein rearrangements occurring during the maturation of this virus. (jic.ac.uk)
  • The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. (nih.gov)
  • We performed a Phase 1 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein nanoparticle vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • report on a protein that plant viruses attach to as they hitch an insect ride between plants. (pnas.org)
  • The virus' P2 protein binds to a nonglycosylated protein embedded deep in the aphid's chitin matrix. (pnas.org)
  • If the P2 protein were mutated, or if this precise area of the stylet were damaged, the virus might be unable to bind to the stylet. (pnas.org)
  • Virion associated protein (VAP) binds to the icosahedral capsid of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) - a plant pararetrovirus. (unibas.ch)
  • Purification of Ebola virus Glycoprotein protein (Cat: 40442-V08B) from the overexpression lysate was verified. (sinobiological.com)
  • The polypeptides include short polypeptides which are related to a neutralizing and fusion epitope of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus fusion protein. (google.co.uk)
  • The vaccine, developed by a small company called Protein Sciences, is made with a process that does not require the virus to be grown in chicken eggs, as is now generally done. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Portions of the virus that are believed to be critical for the spread of this virus, based on what is known for other members of the genus Tospovirus are the movement protein (NSm) and the glycoproteins (GC/GN). (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid protein of one of these viruses, Plautia stali intestine virus, is synthesized by internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Here we report that methionine is not the initiating amino acid in the translation of the capsid protein in this virus. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Sasaki, J & Nakashima, N 2000, ' Methionine-independent initiation of translation in the capsid protein of an insect RNA virus ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 1512-1515. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • One approach is developing new biological techniques based on attacking pests with insect diseases, according to university researcher David Gryzwacz . (gre.ac.uk)
  • He adds that a holistic approach using a range of biologically based and environmentally acceptable techniques, including using insect viruses to tackle crop pests, is key. (gre.ac.uk)
  • He has already demonstrated the feasibility of using viruses to control some of the most significant global pests such as the pod borer caterpillar, Helicoverpa and African Armyworm. (gre.ac.uk)
  • The lecture, Killing insects without chemicals - can we use insect diseases to control pests without harming our environment, will be held in Ward Room, Pembroke Building, from 6.30pm. (gre.ac.uk)
  • To do this, DARPA would have to colonize crop pests, infect them with viruses, and unleash them into the environment. (intellihub.com)
  • Planthoppers are the most notorious rice pests, because they transmit various rice viruses in a persistent-propagative manner. (aminer.org)
  • These results have unique implications for the development of alphabaculoviruses as biological control agents of insect pests. (mines-ales.fr)
  • In the study, reported in the July 1 issue of the Journal of Virology, BTI researchers Gary Blissard and Oliver Lung investigated whether a fruit fly gene, called an f gene, had originally moved from an insect to a virus or the other way around. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the current study, the research team has made use of the largest international transcriptome database on insects, a kind of catalog of gene activity, and investigated the data it contains with regard to virus genomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Viruses with negative strand RNA genomes have been systematically investigated. (eurekalert.org)
  • In support of a large multi-investigator DARPA-funded initiative to develop vectored plant viruses that could edit plant genomes, four postdoctoral positions are available at North Carolina State University. (igtrcn.org)
  • These viruses have a characteristic physical structure that facilitates the transmission of groups of genomes. (mines-ales.fr)
  • The Bunyaviridae is a family of animal and plant viruses that pose a threat to human, animal, and plant health worldwide. (k-state.edu)
  • In contrast, only plant viruses were observed in the whitefly viromes because whiteflies feed solely on plants. (usf.edu)
  • About 15 years ago I heard a prominent plant virologist declare that surely we had discovered most, if not all of the plant viruses in the world by now! (wikisource.org)
  • Persistent plant viruses, which have been poorly studied and have very few known phenotypes (see point 5), make up about half of all viruses found in wild plants. (wikisource.org)
  • In addition, while relatives of known acute plant viruses are found, they generally do not cause any apparent disease in wild plants, even though they may cause disease in experimental plants [6] , or nearby crop plants. (wikisource.org)
  • Many of the viruses from these environments are known plant viruses, and probably entered the environment through animal ingestion of plants and subsequent passing of the viruses through the gut. (wikisource.org)
  • No matter how the original f gene moved from the fruit fly into viruses, it had to change a lot to win its current starring role in infectivity, Blissard says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Picking up the f gene may have caused a radical change in the pathology of this virus, because a virus that co-exists nicely with its host will function a lot differently than one that s trying to use all the tissues of the animal. (innovations-report.com)
  • Funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the project involves using gene-editing techniques like CRISPR to infect insects with modified viruses that could supposedly help make America's crops more resilient . (shtfplan.com)
  • The so-called "Insect Allies" project, hatched by the Pentagon and funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), would utilize gene-editing techniques like "CRISPR" to deliberately weaponize insects with man-made viruses that officials say would somehow make America's food crops more resilient. (fourwinds10.com)
  • We then tested for differential gene expression between moths that were exposed to the virus and controls. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Results: After verification of the new recombinant bacmid, it was transfected into the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cell line to generate recombinant baculovirus expressing the NA gene. (org.ir)
  • To understand how extant viruses interact with their hosts, we need a historical framework of their evolutionary association. (pnas.org)
  • These results imply ancient coevolution by resource tracking between several insect dsDNA virus families and their hosts, dating back to 310 Mya. (pnas.org)
  • Virologists have long thought of baculoviruses, a group of viruses that can liquefy their insect hosts in a matter of days but don t induce so much as a sneeze in mammals, as potential pesticides. (innovations-report.com)
  • The scientists hypothesize that this could help the virus by giving wasps more time to transmit the virus to more hosts. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an economically important plant virus dependent on insects (thrips) for transmission to plant hosts. (k-state.edu)
  • and viruses that provide a clear benefit to their plant hosts (mutualists). (wikisource.org)
  • However, the study of viruses in non-crop hosts is only now being done, and the results are showing that contrary to the learned opinion of some scientists, we know very little about the viruses in plants [3] . (wikisource.org)
  • Parasitoid wasps serve as hosts for the virus, and Lepidoptera serve as hosts for these wasps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many parasitoid wasps use larval Lepidoptera as hosts, but some groups parasitize different host life stages (egg, larva or nymph, pupa, adult) of nearly all other orders of insects, especially Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and other Hymenoptera. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a current study, they have now discovered hundreds of novel viruses in insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our primary model is the transmission of dengue viruses by the mosquito Aedes aegypti . (pasteur.fr)
  • The first ISV identified is cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV), which was isolated from an Aedes aegypti ( Ae . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The Aedes aegypti mosquito can infect humans with the Zika virus when it takes a blood meal. (emagazine.com)
  • Durland Fish, a professor of microbial diseases, forestry and environmental studies at Yale University, isn't surprised Zika has spread widely, given the proclivity of the Aedes mosquito (which is also responsible for spreading dengue fever and chikungunya virus) for inhabiting artificially human-made habitats like tires, cans, plastic containers and rain barrels. (emagazine.com)
  • Zika-virus and Aedes albopictus . (beds.ac.uk)
  • In 4 (6.2%) and 6 (9.2%) pools, respectively, cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) and Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) sequences were characterized. (wordpress.com)
  • Only because of these mass relations, an interaction of viruses with arthropods seems plausible and is found in numerous examples e.g. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Some attack arthropods other than insects: for instance, the Pompilidae specialise in catching spiders: these are quick and dangerous prey, often as large as the wasp itself, but the spider wasp is quicker, swiftly stinging her prey to immobilise it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination of a virus and a fungus can lead to a condition called colony collapse disorder, but the two pathogens might not tell the whole story. (npr.org)
  • But what we don't know is why they become susceptible to this host of pathogens, viruses and fungus. (npr.org)
  • For virus pathogens (microparasites) of multicellular organisms, transmission occurs in two phases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In summary, their findings have enriched the understanding of molecular mechanisms by which pathogens suppress the melanization response of host insect for survival. (cas.ac.cn)
  • Mosquito-borne diseases caused by Dengue, Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses are reported annually in Queensland, with some diseases being more prevalent in North Queensland. (qld.gov.au)
  • For further advice regarding insect bites and mosquito-borne viruses, contact 13 HEALTH (Ph.13 43 25 84) or your local Queensland Health Public Health Unit . (qld.gov.au)
  • West Nile virus that comes from mosquito bites can be avoided by covering up, wearing insect repellant and ensuring there is no standing water near your home. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This preliminary exploration of the metagenomes of mosquito-borne viruses lays the foundation for further research on the territorial distribution, diversity, and surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses in China and other countries. (frontiersin.org)
  • In April 2015, an outbreak of the mosquito-borne virus started in Brazil. (1010data.com)
  • LANSING - Now that warmer weather is here, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services is reminding residents that the best way to protect against West Nile virus and other mosquito-borne illnesses is to prevent mosquito bites. (thedailyreporter.com)
  • West Nile virus is transmitted through the bite of a mosquito that has picked up the virus by feeding on an infected bird. (thedailyreporter.com)
  • Most people who contract the virus have no clinical symptoms of illness, but some may become ill three to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito. (thedailyreporter.com)
  • Distinct viromes were found amongst the three mosquito samples as well as between the two whitefly samples, demonstrating the diverse and dynamic nature of the viruses in plant and animal reservoirs. (usf.edu)
  • Currently, mosquito surveillance data shows that 41 of 200 (20.5 percent) collected mosquito pools have tested positive for West Nile virus. (tylerstarnews.com)
  • In comparison, by the same time last year one of 70 (1.4 percent) mosquito pools was positive for West Nile virus. (tylerstarnews.com)
  • Since the discovery of CFAV, wild mosquito populations have been shown to act as a reservoir for a wide variety of ISVs, which suggests a significant heterogeneity among these viruses. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence identities between ISVs and other mosquito-borne viruses suggest strong evidence that ISVs may be ancestral to arboviruses. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Viruses must pass a number of barriers to be transmitted by a mosquito. (wordpress.com)
  • The complex process of virus navigation through the mosquito is being explored by scientists hoping to find ways to improve the barriers to transmission. (wordpress.com)
  • There is no vaccine for the Zika virus and no drug to treat Zika infections. (newschannel5.com)
  • There is no specific medicine or vaccine for Zika virus. (cdc.gov)
  • To overcome these tradeoffs, we developed the insect-specific alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), as a vaccine platform. (utmb.edu)
  • Our EILV platform represents the first structurally native application of an insect-specific virus in preclinical vaccine development and highlights the potential application of such viruses in vaccinology. (utmb.edu)
  • Some folks figured out a way to make The Flu Vaccine (a mix of three different influenza variants) in an insect cell line. (scienceblogs.com)
  • There are no aborted insect babies in the new influenza vaccine. (scienceblogs.com)
  • therefore a flu vaccine from a GMO virus is against their derply held religious beliefs. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Every new virus we find could be a cause of illnesses that was previously unknown, both in humans and in livestock," explains Prof. Dr. Christian Drosten, Director of the Institute of Virology on Campus Charité Mitte. (eurekalert.org)
  • With DARPA researching ways to weaponize insects with viruses, the U.S. could indeed be violating the BWC, a treaty that banned countries from developing, producing, and stockpiling biological weapons. (intellihub.com)
  • Projects in this category concentrate on the functional genomics of baculoviruses and insect iridoviruses. (wur.nl)
  • The virus, dubbed PpNSRV-1 represents a novel genus of the taxonomic order Mononegavirales, making it the first virus of that genus to be found in parasitoid wasps. (eurekalert.org)
  • The genus Tospovirus is the only one within this virus family that is composed of plant-infecting viruses transmitted by thrips. (k-state.edu)
  • It is a member of the order Bunyavirales, family Tospoviridae and genus Orthotospovirus, which is the only genus within this virus family that infects plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus is believed to have a transmission cycle similar to other members of the Tospovirus genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many parasitoid wasps have symbiotic relationships with viruses that enable wasps to produce substances that weaken the host insect immune defense and help the wasps survive. (eurekalert.org)
  • None of us are immune to bug bites because insects are everywhere. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In the host, several mechanisms of the insect immune system can be triggered when the wasp lays its eggs and when the parasitic wasp is developing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some endoparasitic wasps of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea have a mutualistic relationship with polydnaviruses, the viruses suppressing the host's immune defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of a systematic evaluation of EITs and their role in infectious disease spread, we quantitated spread of bacteria and a bacterial virus during electrocution of house flies. (springer.com)
  • instead DARPA wishes to disperse infectious genetically modified viruses into insects so the bugs can edit crop chromosomes directly in the fields, non-stop. (intellihub.com)
  • Viruses have generally been studied either as disease-causing infectious agents that have a negative impact on the host (most eukaryote-infecting viruses), or as tools for molecular biology (especially bacteria-infecting viruses, or phage). (wikisource.org)
  • The clock-like consistency of the winter incidence peaks of influenza virus in temperate climatic regions represents a strong example of seasonality in infectious disease [ 2 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. (mdpi.com)
  • Fractions from the gradients were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and dengue virus was mainly found in fractions4, 5 and 6 after centrifugation (upper panel). (nih.gov)
  • The federal government is determined to bio-engineer artificial insects, having demonstrated a willingness to say just about anything in order to justify it - including by claiming that fake bugs bearing genetically-modified (GM) viruses are necessary to save our food supply. (fourwinds10.com)
  • Although ticks infected with West Nile virus have been found in Asia and Africa, their role in the transmission and maintenance of the virus is uncertain. (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • We repeat for emphasis that acquisition does not imply transmission, basically the virus is in the bug after feeding on the vine. (avf.org)
  • Few insects died following inoculation with an experimental two-genotype mixture at a dose of one OB per insect, but a high proportion of multiple infections were observed (50%), which differed significantly from the frequencies predicted by a non-associated transmission model in which genotypes are segregated into distinct OBs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We conclude that co-occlusion of genotypically distinct virions in each OB is an adaptive mechanism that favours the maintenance of virus diversity during insect-to-insect transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Transmission electron microscopy and serological characterization indicate that all three are tetra-like virus isolates. (scielo.org.za)
  • Insect baculoviruses can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically, although much of the work on baculovirus transmission has focussed on horizontal transmission that can be effective at high host densities. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The finding may lead to methods for disrupting this common insect-to-plant transmission chain, which is used by dozens of viruses to infect many economically valuable plants and crops. (pnas.org)
  • These changes have also created environments that better suit the transmission of viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If virus survives the digestive enzymes and environment of the gut it faces further barriers to transmission. (wordpress.com)
  • 11. Labuda, M., Jones, L.D., Williams, T. & Nuttall, P.A. (1993) Enhancement of tick borne encephalitis virus transmission by tick salivary gland extracts. (trevorwilliams.info)
  • Moreover, both viruses persisted in the mixed-virus population by coinfection of insects during several rounds of insect-to-insect transmission. (mines-ales.fr)
  • During peak periods, staff and students should take appropriate steps to avoid insect bites, and if unwell following exposure to insect bites, seek prompt medical attention. (qld.gov.au)
  • This project concentrates on behavioural changes of insects after virus infections. (wur.nl)
  • Viruses were titrated by plaque assays and stored at 4°C. (asm.org)
  • Both assays demonstrated that TYLCV CP is transported into plant‐and insect‐cell nuclei by an active process of nuclear import via a nuclear localization signal (NLS)‐specific pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • In a current study, scientists discovered hundreds of new viruses in insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • Whilst scientists have previously concentrated on mosquitos and other blood-feeding insects, this study includes all groups of insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a new and novel study, scientists are looking to nature -- specifically, to ants, bees and viruses -- for ways to improve human collaboration during disaster relief efforts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists are voicing their concerns over the Pentagon's idea of making virus-spreading insects. (shtfplan.com)
  • Astroviruses are nonenveloped viruses whose capsid is around 28 to 41 nm in diameter and contains a plus-sense single-stranded RNA of around 6.9 kb organized in three open reading frames (ORFs) ( 20 , 32 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • The Tetraviridae are a family of small insect RNA viruses consisting of one or two single-stranded, positive sense genomic RNAs encapsidated in an icosahedral capsid of approximately 40 nm in diameter, with T = 4 symmetry. (scielo.org.za)
  • All of the viruses found in these places are from genera with very stable capsid structures, such as Tobamoviruses . (wikisource.org)
  • Sprayed flies released one of every 10,000 of the added bacteria or viruses, and fed flies released one of every 1,000,000 of the consumed bacteria or viruses. (springer.com)
  • Wild plants are almost always colonized by a number of microbes, including fungi, bacteria and viruses. (wikisource.org)
  • However, insect bites can open wounds which can serve as the "door" for the opportunistic bacteria . (flesheatingvirus.org)
  • Information on Zika virus and its current status in Queensland is available from Queensland Health. (qld.gov.au)
  • The Zika virus continues to spread quickly across the world. (newschannel5.com)
  • Pregnant women who have become infected with the Zika virus have given birth to babies with abnormally small heads and permanent brain damage. (newschannel5.com)
  • The Zika Virus that was discovered almost 70 years ago. (1010data.com)
  • Zika Virus: An Environmental Problem? (emagazine.com)
  • Dear EarthTalk: Can we ward off the spread of the Zika virus with better environmental management? (emagazine.com)
  • Zika virus has spread far and wide as a result of human mismanagement of the environment. (emagazine.com)
  • Many people infected with Zika virus won't have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 and is named after the Zika Forest in Uganda. (cdc.gov)
  • The insect viruses studied in our Laboratory are the baculoviruses, which cause fatal diseases in insects. (wur.nl)
  • These results indicate that leafhoppers can acquire the virus by feeding on infected vines, but does not provide evidence that they can transmit GRBaV. (avf.org)
  • Adult thrips are then able via feeding to transmit the virus to the plant host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Glaser's expertise is in insect genetics and medical entomology. (wadsworth.org)
  • Consideration has also been given to the compliance of these properties with current thinking on virus structure and replication. (bl.uk)
  • Granados, "Replication Phenomena of Insect Viruses", in Miltenburger at pp. 163-184 (1978). (patents.com)
  • Yet the recombinant virus remained completely defective for productive replication, providing a high degree of safety. (utmb.edu)
  • But the viruses would require tweaking to be effective since they kill insects more slowly than chemical insecticides. (innovations-report.com)
  • For this reason they have great potential for the biocontrol of pest insects (Lepidopteran and Hymenopteran) in agriculture and forestry thereby replacing chemical insecticides. (wur.nl)
  • Except for a few other potato-tuber-moth relatives, this highly specific pathogen doesn't infect other insects, or humans and other mammals, according to Lawrence Lacey . (usda.gov)
  • Every new virus we find could be a cause of illnesses that was previously unknown, both in humans and in livestock. (news-medical.net)
  • A prevalent virus in waste water is Pepper mild mottle virus [7] , a virus also found in human feces, and reported to be associated with intestinal distress in humans [8] , although, since this virus is also found in most preparations of hot peppers, it seems more likely that the intestinal distress is caused by the ingestion of hot peppers. (wikisource.org)
  • Insects are regularly habited by viruses as well as humans, humans are further inhabited via insects. (beds.ac.uk)
  • When influenza virus has reached humans and persists there, it disappears during off-season but re-emerges regularly. (beds.ac.uk)
  • If this scenario is truth, it may be speculated, that virus is retransmitted from humans to insects (where virus eventually proliferates), and the circle would be closed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this model, insects serve as a connecting transmitter from and to humans to coordinate regular epidemics. (beds.ac.uk)
  • When the cold season starts, insects may have, because of the flyaway of many birds, eventually an interest to come in proximity to humans. (beds.ac.uk)
  • There is a 3fold biomass of virus compared to humans. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This strategy would allow for horizontal transfer of genetic modification, allowing insects to infect crops with viruses that can change the plant's chromosomes after they are attacked. (intellihub.com)
  • The virus is an emergent disease threatening food and fiber crops worldwide. (k-state.edu)
  • To reduce the risk of students and staff being exposed to insect bites, schools are advised to inspect the grounds and work with their neighbouring landholders and local councils to remove potential breeding sites. (qld.gov.au)
  • A recent report in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) highlights 11 diseases you can get from insect bites and stings. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The effect of insect bites can range from painful to severe, causing tissue loss that requires medical intervention. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Ticks, 'kissing bugs', fleas and flies can also cause illness, making it important to know how to treat insect and bug bites and which ones are most important to avoid. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This does not mean, of course, that insect bites can give you this deadly disease. (flesheatingvirus.org)
  • however, surveys of novel viruses are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses. (usf.edu)
  • 12 The release of the gamma peptide results in the stabilization of the mature virus particle, which is proposed to be important for infectivity. (scielo.org.za)
  • A panel of human and animal sera collected from regions where the virus was found in high prevalence also showed no evidence of LNV-specific antibodies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Background and Aims: Each year, the influenza virus causes moderate to severe infections with a high prevalence throughout the world. (org.ir)
  • It is likely that the surface layer and the peplomers are virus-coded structures which become attached to a host cell membrane. (bl.uk)
  • Viruses were harvested from the culture medium by centrifugation at 1,000 × g , and the cell debris was discarded. (asm.org)
  • Baculovirus-Insect Cell Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), (strain MP12) glycoprotein / Gn transfected / overexpressed for Western blot (WB) positive control. (bioon.com.cn)
  • Human ITK Kinase Insect Cell Lysate (WB positive control) [ Ӧ? (bioon.com.cn)
  • Cynomolgus / Rhesus CD39 Insect Cell Lysate (WB positive control) [ Ӧ? (bioon.com.cn)
  • An infective virus must pass through the peritrophic matrix and access the cell layer of the midgut that separates the lumen from the hemolymph of the insect. (wordpress.com)
  • The successful virus particle must survive a mix of digestive enzymes and be able to interact with cell receptors in way that allow the virus to move from midgut to salivary gland. (wordpress.com)
  • The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-line was made from ovary tissue from the insects. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Viruses in positive pools were identified by product sequencing, cell culture inoculation and next generation sequencing (NGS) in selected specimens. (wordpress.com)
  • The ages of the wasps were used to calibrate the virus phylogeny. (pnas.org)
  • Parasitoid wasps lay their eggs inside the bodies of the host insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • After the eggs hatch, the young wasps spend the first part of their life cycle feeding on the host insect until it dies. (eurekalert.org)
  • They compared wasps infected by PpNSRV-1 with non-infected wasps and found that the virus lengthens the lifespan of the wasps. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is because both males and female wasps appear to be able to pass PpNSRV-1 to offspring, and since males can mate with multiple females, a higher ratio of males could spread the virus farther. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is first reported that the virus associated with parasitoid wasps has the key role in regulating wasp offspring sex ratio before which only bacterial symbionts such as Wolbachia are considered to be related to regulate its host wasp sex ratio. (eurekalert.org)
  • Better understanding of parasitoid wasps in general is useful since their insect-killing tendencies make some of them valuable for insect control in agriculture. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ichnoviruses belong to the virus family Polydnaviridae, whose members are obligately associated with certain endoparasitoid wasps. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years). (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus only replicates in a particular part of the ovary, called the calyx, of pupal and adult female wasps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Host insects have evolved a range of defences against parasitoid wasps, including hiding, wriggling, and camouflage markings. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this hypothesis a coherent description of regular seasonal influenza and other seasonal respiratory virus infections in temperate climates is possible. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The incidence of influenza under different circumstances e.g. temperature, humidity, or tropical conditions and different aspects like synchronicity of infections or in respect to evolutionary conditions do sustain this hypothesis if the behaviour of insects is considered. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The reservoir of influenza virus are aquatic birds [ 3 ] which have usually enteral infections often without clinical signs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this model, insects serve as a buffer for influenza virus. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Seasonality of influenza is explainable using this insect-compartment model in temperate climate conditions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The prevalence of Pepper mild mottle virus in human feces, and its stability in the environment, led to a proposal to use it as an easily assayed indicator of groundwater contamination [7] . (wikisource.org)
  • 4 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this work two nuclear polyhedrosis viruses have been investigated, largely by electron microscopic methods, in order to determine how the structural and dynamic properties of the viruses can be correlated. (bl.uk)