A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.
Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic compounds with a naphthalene ring fused to a pyridine ring, with potential applications in the medical field as drugs and dyes.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
A synthetic broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Aza compounds are a class of organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom, with potential applications in the medical field.
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that have been used in the medical field as antimalarial drugs and antibiotics.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA GYRASE.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Anaerobic bacteria are microorganisms that do not require oxygen to survive and can cause infections in oxygen-poor environments.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Aerobic bacteria are microorganisms that require oxygen to survive and carry out metabolic processes.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Bites inflicted by humans.

Comparison of efficacies of oral levofloxacin and oral ciprofloxacin in a rabbit model of a staphylococcal abscess. (1/1104)

Oral levofloxacin was compared to oral ciprofloxacin in a Staphylococcus aureus subcutaneous abscess model in rabbits. Rabbits were surgically prepared with subcutaneous wiffle balls (43 mm in diameter) and allowed to recover for 4 to 6 weeks. Rabbits were infected by direct injection into the capsule with S. aureus ATCC 29213 (5 x 10(5) CFU) and were allowed to remain infected for 8 days before the initiation of anti-infective treatment. Efficacy was determined by assessing the bacterial load within the capsule over a 10-day treatment period. In single-dose pharmacokinetic studies in infected rabbits, similar area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratios were obtained in the plasma and abscess fluid for levofloxacin at 45 mg/kg of body weight and ciprofloxacin at 200 mg/kg of body weight. Similar efficacies were seen with levofloxacin at 45 mg/kg/day and ciprofloxacin 400 mg/kg/day by day 10. In this model, levofloxacin was significantly more efficacious than ciprofloxacin (P < 0.01).  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic comparisons of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro model of infection. (2/1104)

The increasing frequency of penicillin-resistant pneumococcus continues to be of concern throughout the world. Newer fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as levofloxacin, have shown enhanced in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, the bactericidal characteristics and pharmacodynamic profiles of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin against four isolates of S. pneumoniae were compared by using an in vitro model of infection. Standard antibiotic dosing regimens which simulated the pharmacokinetic profile observed in humans were used. Control and treatment models were sampled for bacterial CFU per milliliter over the duration of each 24- or 48-h experiment. In addition, treatment models were sampled for MIC determinations and drug concentration. Regrowth of all isolates as well as an increase in MICs throughout the study period was observed in the ciprofloxacin experiments. A limited amount of regrowth was noted during levofloxacin therapy for one isolate; however, no change in MIC was detected for any isolate. Ampicillin showed rapid and sustained bactericidal activity against all isolates. In this study, ratios of effective fluoroquinolone area under the concentration-time curve (AUC):MIC values ranged from 30 to 55. Levofloxacin, owing to its larger AUC0-24 values, has excellent and sustained activity against different pneumococcal strains superior to that of ciprofloxacin.  (+info)

Immune response to Yersinia outer proteins and other Yersinia pestis antigens after experimental plague infection in mice. (3/1104)

There is limited information concerning the nature and extent of the immune response to the virulence determinants of Yersinia pestis during the course of plague infection. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response of mice that survived lethal Y. pestis aerosol challenge after antibiotic treatment. Such a model may replicate the clinical situation in humans and indicate which virulence determinants are expressed in vivo. Immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting were performed by using purified, recombinant antigens including F1, V antigen, YpkA, YopH, YopM, YopB, YopD, YopN, YopE, YopK, plasminogen activator protease (Pla), and pH 6 antigen as well as purified lipopolysaccharide. The major antigens recognized by murine convalescent sera were F1, V antigen, YopH, YopM, YopD, and Pla. Early treatment with antibiotics tended to reduce the immune response and differences between antibiotic treatment regimens were noted. These results may indicate that only some virulence factors are expressed and/or immunogenic during infection. This information may prove useful for selecting potential vaccine candidates and for developing improved serologic diagnostic assays.  (+info)

In vitro activities of ketolides HMR 3647 [correction of HRM 3647] and HMR 3004 [correction of HRM 3004], levofloxacin, and other quinolones and macrolides against Neisseria spp. and Moraxella catarrhalis. (4/1104)

In vitro activities of the ketolides HMR 3647 [corrected] and HMR 3004 [corrected] against pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, saprophytic Neisseria isolates, and Moraxella catarrhalis were determined. The comparison of ketolide activities with those of the other macrolides shows a much better activity in the majority of species, with macrolide MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited between 8- and 10-fold higher.  (+info)

The antibacterial efficacy of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa assessed by combining antibiotic exposure and bacterial susceptibility. (5/1104)

Ciprofloxacin has a four-fold greater in-vitro activity than levofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but levofloxacin has a four-fold higher area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for an equivalent dose. It has been proposed that the AUC/MIC ratio is a general predictor of antibacterial efficacy for quinolones. Using an in-vitro kill curve technique, performed in quadruplicate, with nine antibiotic concentrations and three strains of P. aeruginosa with varying quinolone susceptibility, we constructed sigmoidal dose-response curves for AUC(0-6.5)/MIC and area under the bacterial kill curve (AUBKC) or AUC(0-24)/MIC and log change in viable count at 24 h (delta24). For levofloxacin the log AUC(0-6.5)/MIC ratio to produce 50% of the maximal effect was 0.74 +/- 0.13 (r2 = 0.9435) for levofloxacin and 0.82 +/- 0.06 (r2 = 0.7935) for ciprofloxacin. The log AUC(0-24)/MIC ratio to produce 50% maximal effect was 1.58 +/- 0.13 (r2 = 0.7788) for levofloxacin and 1.37 +/- 0.12 (r2 = 0.7207) for ciprofloxacin. An AUC(0-24)/MIC ratio of 125 produced 85.4% of the maximal response with levofloxacin and 81.5% with ciprofloxacin. These data suggest that levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have equivalent activity against P. aeruginosa at equivalent AUC/MIC ratios.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of T-3811ME, a novel des-F(6)-quinolone. (6/1104)

The in vitro and in vivo activities of T-3811ME, a novel des-F(6)-quinolone, were evaluated in comparison with those of some fluoroquinolones, including a newly developed one, trovafloxacin. T-3811, a free base of T-3811ME, showed a wide range of antimicrobial spectra, including activities against Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In particular, T-3811 exhibited potent activity against various gram-positive cocci, with MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of 0.025 to 6.25 microgram/ml. T-3811 was the most active agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). T-3811 also showed potent activity against quinolone-resistant gram-positive cocci with GyrA and ParC (GrlA) mutations. The activity of T-3811 against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative gram-negative rods was comparable to that of trovafloxacin. In common with other fluoroquinolones, T-3811 was highly active against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Legionella sp., with MIC90s of 0.0125 to 0.1 microgram/ml. T-3811 showed a potent activity against anaerobic bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium difficile. T-3811 was the most active agent against C. trachomatis (MIC, 0.008 microgram/ml) and M. pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.0313 microgram/ml). The activity of T-3811 against M. tuberculosis (MIC90, 0.0625 microgram/ml) was potent and superior to that of trovafloxacin. In experimental systemic infection with a GrlA mutant of S. aureus and experimental pneumonia with PRSP in mice, T-3811ME showed excellent therapeutic efficacy in oral and subcutaneous administrations.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamics of trovafloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model. (7/1104)

An in vitro pharmacokinetic model was used to simulate the pharmacokinetics of trovafloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in human serum and to compare their pharmacodynamics against eight Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. The MICs of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin ranged from 1 to 2 micrograms/ml. Trovafloxacin was 8- to 32-fold more potent, with MICs of 0.06 to 0.12 microgram/ml. Logarithmic-phase cultures were exposed to peak concentrations of trovafloxacin, ofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin achieved in human serum after 200-, 400-, and 750-mg oral doses, respectively. Trovafloxacin was dosed at 0 and 24 h, and ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were dosed at 0, 12, and 24 h. Human elimination pharmacokinetics were simulated, and viable bacterial counts were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 36 h. Trovafloxacin was rapidly and significantly bactericidal against all eight strains evaluated, with viable bacterial counts decreasing at least 5 logs to undetectable levels. Times to 99.9% killing were only 1 to 3 h. Although the rate of killing with ofloxacin was substantially slower than that with trovafloxacin, ofloxacin was also able to eradicate all eight strains from the model, despite a simulated area under the inhibitory curve/MIC ratio (AUC/MIC) of only 49. In contrast, ciprofloxacin eradicated only five strains (AUC/MIC = 44) from the model. Against the other three strains (AUC/MIC = 22), the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin was substantially diminished. These data corroborate clinical data and suggest that trovafloxacin has a pharmacodynamic advantage over ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against S. pneumoniae in relation to its enhanced antipneumococcal activity.  (+info)

Primary Shewanella alga septicemia in a patient on hemodialysis. (8/1104)

We report the first Japanese case of primary septicemia with Shewanella alga and also describe the bacteriological characteristics of and results of antibiotic susceptibility tests of the isolate. S. alga was repeatedly isolated, at times simultaneously with Escherichia coli, from the blood of a 64-year-old female undergoing hemodialysis. The isolated organism was determined to be S. alga based on recently published identification criteria, such as hemolysis on sheep blood agar, no acid production from carbohydrates, and growth on agar containing 6. 5% NaCl. Results of antibiotic susceptibility tests demonstrated that the isolate was sensitive to levofloxacin and cefpirome (MICs, 128, 64, and 8 microg/ml, respectively). Although the role of S. alga as a human pathogen has not been fully determined, accumulating data suggest that this organism may be a potential pathogen, especially in compromised hosts.  (+info)

Ofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolones. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. Ofloxacin works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to replicate. It is available in oral and injectable forms and is generally well-tolerated, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and headache. Ofloxacin is not effective against viral infections and should not be used to treat such conditions.

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections. It is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and intravenous forms, and it is typically prescribed for a specific duration of time, depending on the type and severity of the infection. It is important to take the medication exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, as stopping the medication too early can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Common side effects of ciprofloxacin include nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and skin rash. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as tendonitis or tendon rupture, and central nervous system problems. It is important to inform a healthcare provider of any other medications or medical conditions that may interact with ciprofloxacin.

Norfloxacin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections. It is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to replicate. Norfloxacin is available in both oral and intravenous forms, and it is typically taken for a duration of 7 to 14 days, depending on the type and severity of the infection. It is important to note that norfloxacin should only be used to treat bacterial infections and should not be used to treat viral infections, such as the flu or a cold. Additionally, norfloxacin may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are currently taking before starting norfloxacin.

Quinolones are a class of synthetic antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. They work by inhibiting the enzyme DNA gyrase, which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. This leads to the death of the bacteria and the resolution of the infection. Quinolones are available in both oral and injectable forms and are used to treat a wide range of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. They are also commonly used to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, it is important to note that quinolones can have side effects, including nausea, diarrhea, headache, and skin rash. In some cases, they can also cause more serious side effects, such as tendonitis or tendon rupture, and an increased risk of developing certain types of infections, such as Clostridium difficile colitis. Therefore, it is important to use quinolones only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any side effects that occur.

Enoxacin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolones. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and bone and joint infections. Enoxacin works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to replicate and multiply. It is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. However, it is important to note that like all antibiotics, enoxacin can only be used to treat bacterial infections and is not effective against viral infections. It is also important to follow the prescribed dosage and duration of treatment to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Naphthyridines are a class of organic compounds that contain a naphthalene ring fused to a pyridine ring. They are commonly used in the medical field as drugs and as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. Some examples of drugs that contain naphthyridine moieties include the antihistamine cetrizine, the antipsychotic drug risperidone, and the antiviral drug tenofovir. Naphthyridines have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antihistaminic, antipsychotic, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. They are also used as dyes and as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds.

Levofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and bone and joint infections. It is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to replicate. Levofloxacin is available in oral and intravenous forms and is generally well-tolerated by most people. However, like all antibiotics, it can cause side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It is important to take levofloxacin exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Pefloxacin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Pefloxacin is typically used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and bone and joint infections. It is usually taken by mouth, although it can also be given intravenously in severe cases. Pefloxacin is generally considered to be effective and well-tolerated, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It is important to take pefloxacin exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider in order to ensure that it is effective and to minimize the risk of side effects.

Oxazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. They are commonly used as dyes, pigments, and intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, oxazines have been studied for their potential use as antiviral agents, anti-inflammatory agents, and as inhibitors of certain enzymes involved in cancer. Some specific examples of oxazines that have been studied in the medical field include oxazepam (a benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety and insomnia), oxazepam (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain and inflammation), and oxazolone (an antiviral agent used to treat herpes simplex virus infections).

4-Quinolones are a class of synthetic antibiotics that are commonly used to treat bacterial infections. They are derived from the chemical structure of quinoline, a naturally occurring compound found in plants. The most commonly used 4-quinolones in the medical field include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and norfloxacin. These antibiotics work by inhibiting the enzyme DNA gyrase, which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. By blocking this enzyme, 4-quinolones prevent bacteria from dividing and multiplying, thereby killing them or preventing further growth. 4-Quinolones are effective against a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. They are also commonly used to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, like all antibiotics, 4-quinolones can cause side effects, including nausea, diarrhea, headache, and skin rash. In some cases, they can also cause more serious side effects, such as tendon damage, nerve damage, and allergic reactions. Therefore, it is important to use these antibiotics only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any side effects immediately.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, thereby preventing the spread of the infection. There are several types of anti-bacterial agents, including: 1. Penicillins: These are the first antibiotics discovered and are effective against a wide range of bacteria. 2. Cephalosporins: These are similar to penicillins and are effective against many of the same types of bacteria. 3. Macrolides: These antibiotics are effective against bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. 4. Tetracyclines: These antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria and are often used to treat acne. 5. Fluoroquinolones: These antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria and are often used to treat respiratory infections. It is important to note that antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections and are not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Additionally, overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be more difficult to treat.

DNA gyrase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair in bacteria. It is responsible for unwinding and relaxing the supercoiled DNA double helix, which is necessary for the separation of the two strands during replication and the access of repair enzymes to damaged DNA. DNA gyrase is a type of topoisomerase, which is a family of enzymes that modify the topology of DNA by introducing or removing supercoils. In bacteria, DNA gyrase is composed of two subunits, A and B, and it requires ATP to function. In the medical field, DNA gyrase is an important target for antibiotics, as many antibiotics work by inhibiting the activity of DNA gyrase. For example, quinolones, a class of antibiotics commonly used to treat bacterial infections, target DNA gyrase and prevent it from unwinding and relaxing DNA. However, the overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which is a major public health concern.

In the medical field, "aza compounds" refers to a class of organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom (N) in place of a carbon atom (C) in their molecular structure. These compounds are often used as drugs or as intermediates in the synthesis of drugs. Aza compounds can be further classified based on the functional groups present in their structure. For example, aza analogs of carboxylic acids are called aza acids, while aza analogs of alcohols are called aza alcohols. Some common examples of aza compounds used in medicine include azithromycin (an antibiotic), azacitidine (a chemotherapy drug), and azelaic acid (a skin care product). Aza compounds are often used in medicine because they can interact with biological molecules in unique ways, leading to new therapeutic effects. For example, azithromycin is effective against a wide range of bacterial infections because it inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. Azacitidine, on the other hand, works by inhibiting DNA methyltransferases, which are enzymes involved in the regulation of gene expression.

Clofazimine is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat leprosy and other bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and preventing them from multiplying. Clofazimine is typically used in combination with other antibiotics to treat leprosy, and it may also be used to treat other bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets. Side effects of clofazimine may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking clofazimine and to report any side effects to your healthcare provider.

Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that have a fused ring system consisting of a six-membered aromatic ring and a five-membered heterocyclic ring containing nitrogen. They are structurally related to quinine, which is a well-known antimalarial drug. In the medical field, quinolines have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in various diseases. Some of the most notable examples include: 1. Antimalarial activity: Quinolines have been used as antimalarial drugs for many years, with quinine being the most widely used. However, resistance to quinine has emerged in some regions, leading to the development of new quinoline-based drugs, such as chloroquine and artemisinin. 2. Antibacterial activity: Some quinolines have been found to have antibacterial activity against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. For example, nalidixic acid is a quinoline antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections caused by certain bacteria. 3. Antiviral activity: Quinolines have also been studied for their potential antiviral activity against viruses such as influenza, HIV, and herpes simplex virus. 4. Antifungal activity: Some quinolines have been found to have antifungal activity against Candida species, which are common causes of fungal infections in humans. Overall, quinolines have a diverse range of potential therapeutic applications in the medical field, and ongoing research is exploring their use in the treatment of various diseases.

Nalidixic acid is an antibiotic medication used to treat bacterial infections, particularly those caused by strains of bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. It works by inhibiting the enzyme DNA gyrase, which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. This leads to the death of the bacteria. Nalidixic acid is typically used to treat urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and ear infections caused by susceptible bacteria. It is also sometimes used in combination with other antibiotics to treat more severe infections. However, it is important to note that nalidixic acid is not effective against all types of bacteria and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is also important to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by a healthcare provider to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Rifampin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. It is a member of the rifamycin family of antibiotics and works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to produce proteins. Rifampin is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules and is often used in combination with other antibiotics to increase its effectiveness. It is important to take rifampin exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Eye infections caused by bacteria are a common type of eye infection that can affect people of all ages. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, itching, discharge, and sensitivity to light. Bacterial eye infections can affect the surface of the eye (conjunctivitis) or the inside of the eye (endophthalmitis). Conjunctivitis is the most common type of bacterial eye infection and can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Endophthalmitis is a more serious infection that can cause vision loss and is typically treated with antibiotics administered directly into the eye. Bacterial eye infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can be taken orally or applied directly to the eye. In some cases, additional treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms or prevent complications. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a bacterial eye infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent the infection from spreading and reduce the risk of complications.

In the medical field, "administration, oral" refers to the process of delivering medication or other substances to a patient through the mouth. This can include tablets, capsules, liquids, powders, or other forms of medication that are designed to be taken orally. Oral administration is one of the most common methods of medication delivery, as it is convenient and generally well-tolerated by patients. However, it is important to note that not all medications are suitable for oral administration, and some may require alternative routes of delivery, such as injection or inhalation. Additionally, the effectiveness of oral medication can be affected by factors such as the patient's age, health status, and the specific medication being used.

Blepharitis is a common eye condition characterized by inflammation of the eyelids. It can affect either one or both eyelids and is often accompanied by symptoms such as redness, itching, burning, and swelling. Blepharitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections, skin conditions such as rosacea, and allergies. Treatment for blepharitis typically involves cleaning the eyelids with warm water and a mild soap, using antibiotic or anti-inflammatory eye drops or ointments, and in some cases, oral antibiotics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any blockages or debris from the eyelids.

Antitubercular agents, also known as antitubercular drugs or TB drugs, are medications used to treat tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These drugs work by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of the bacteria, thereby reducing the severity and duration of the infection. There are several classes of antitubercular agents, including: 1. Isoniazid (INH) 2. Rifampin (RIF) 3. Ethambutol (EMB) 4. Pyrazinamide (PZA) 5. Streptomycin (SM) 6. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) 7. Bedaquiline 8. Delamanid These drugs are typically used in combination to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance. The duration of treatment depends on the type and severity of the infection, but it can range from several months to a year or more. It is important to note that antitubercular agents can have side effects, and patients should be closely monitored during treatment to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks. Additionally, proper infection control measures should be taken to prevent the spread of TB in healthcare settings and the community.

Doxycycline is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including acne, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and respiratory tract infections. It is also used to prevent and treat malaria, as well as to treat certain types of anthrax. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, and it is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. It is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if you start to feel better before the medication is finished. Doxycycline can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to tell your healthcare provider about all of the medications you are taking before starting doxycycline.

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. It is a serious illness that can lead to complications such as intestinal bleeding, perforation of the intestine, and damage to the liver, spleen, and central nervous system. The disease is transmitted through contaminated food or water, or through contact with the feces or urine of an infected person. Symptoms of typhoid fever include fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, and a rash. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care. Vaccination is available to prevent typhoid fever.

Fleroxacin is an antibiotic medication that was previously used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and skin infections. It belongs to a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones, which work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Fleroxacin was approved for use in the United States in the 1990s, but its use was later restricted due to concerns about its potential to cause serious side effects, including tendon damage, nerve damage, and increased risk of certain types of infections. As a result, fleroxacin is no longer widely used in medical practice.

Antibiotics, Antitubercular refers to a class of drugs that are used to treat bacterial infections, including tuberculosis. These drugs work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, thereby preventing the spread of the infection and allowing the body's immune system to fight off the infection. Antitubercular drugs are specifically used to treat tuberculosis, which is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are several different classes of antitubercular drugs, including rifamycins, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, among others. These drugs are typically used in combination to ensure that all of the bacteria causing the infection are killed, and to reduce the risk of the bacteria developing resistance to the drugs. It is important to note that antibiotics, antitubercular drugs should only be used to treat bacterial infections and should not be used to treat viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Additionally, it is important to take these drugs exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, as stopping or skipping doses can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that are resistant to at least two of the most effective first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs: isoniazid and rifampin. MDR-TB is a serious public health concern because it is more difficult to treat and is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared to drug-susceptible tuberculosis. MDR-TB can occur in both new and previously treated cases of tuberculosis. It is typically diagnosed through the use of drug susceptibility testing, which can determine the resistance of the bacteria to different anti-tuberculosis drugs. Treatment for MDR-TB typically involves a combination of second-line drugs, which may be more toxic and have more side effects than first-line drugs. It is important to diagnose and treat MDR-TB promptly to prevent the spread of the disease and to improve outcomes for patients.

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination is a medication that contains two antibiotics: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. It is commonly used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and skin infections. The combination of these two antibiotics provides a broad spectrum of coverage against a variety of bacteria. Trimethoprim inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, while sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial dihydropteroate synthase, both of which are essential for bacterial growth and replication. The medication is usually taken orally in tablet form and is generally well-tolerated, although it may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.

DNA topoisomerases, type II, are a class of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating DNA topology during various cellular processes, such as DNA replication, transcription, and recombination. These enzymes are responsible for relaxing or tightening the supercoiled structure of DNA, which is essential for maintaining the proper function of the genome. Type II topoisomerases are divided into two subclasses: type IIA and type IIB. Type IIA topoisomerases, also known as topoisomerase II, are involved in DNA replication and transcription, and are often targeted by anti-cancer drugs. Type IIB topoisomerases, on the other hand, are involved in DNA repair and recombination. Type II topoisomerases work by creating temporary breaks in the DNA double helix, allowing the DNA strands to pass through each other and relieve tension. Once the topoisomerase has completed its task, it seals the DNA break, restoring the original topology of the DNA. In the medical field, type II topoisomerases are often targeted by drugs, such as etoposide and doxorubicin, which are used to treat various types of cancer. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of type II topoisomerases, leading to the accumulation of DNA damage and ultimately causing cell death. However, the use of these drugs can also lead to side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and hair loss.

Ethambutol is an antibiotic medication used to treat tuberculosis (TB). It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause TB. Ethambutol is often used in combination with other TB medications to increase the effectiveness of treatment and reduce the risk of the bacteria becoming resistant to the medication. It is usually taken as a pill or liquid, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific type and severity of TB being treated. Ethambutol can cause side effects such as visual disturbances, including changes in color vision, and can also cause liver damage in some people. It is important to take ethambutol exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any side effects that occur.

Anaerobic bacteria are a group of microorganisms that do not require oxygen to survive and grow. They are commonly found in environments that are low in oxygen, such as the human digestive tract, soil, and water. Anaerobic bacteria can be either obligate anaerobes, which means they cannot survive in the presence of oxygen, or facultative anaerobes, which can survive in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments. In the medical field, anaerobic bacteria are often associated with infections, particularly those that occur in the gastrointestinal tract, female reproductive system, and oral cavity. Some common examples of anaerobic bacteria that can cause infections include Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium difficile, and Peptostreptococcus micros. These bacteria can cause a range of infections, from mild to severe, and can be difficult to treat because they are resistant to many antibiotics.

Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, which are single-celled microorganisms that can be found almost everywhere in the environment, including on our skin and in our digestive tracts. When bacteria enter the body and multiply, they can cause illness and disease. Bacterial infections can affect any part of the body and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of bacterial infections include strep throat, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and skin infections. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to use antibiotics properly and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it more difficult to treat bacterial infections in the future.

Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. It is a type of macrolide antibiotic, which works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Azithromycin is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is typically taken once daily for a short period of time, usually 5 days. It is generally well-tolerated by most people, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain. It is important to note that azithromycin is only effective against bacterial infections and will not work against viral infections such as the flu or COVID-19. It is also important to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

In the medical field, "Bacteria, Aerobic" refers to a group of bacteria that require oxygen to survive and grow. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment and can cause a variety of infections in humans and animals when they enter the body. Aerobic bacteria are able to use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor in their metabolic processes, which allows them to produce energy in the form of ATP. This is in contrast to anaerobic bacteria, which do not require oxygen and use other electron acceptors, such as nitrate or sulfate, to produce energy. Some common examples of aerobic bacteria include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. These bacteria can cause a range of infections, including pneumonia, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. Treatment for infections caused by aerobic bacteria typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against these types of bacteria.

Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections. It works by binding to the ribosomes of bacteria, which are responsible for protein synthesis, and inhibiting their ability to produce essential proteins. This leads to bacterial cell death and the resolution of the infection. Amikacin is typically administered intravenously, although it can also be given intramuscularly or inhaled. It is important to note that amikacin can cause serious side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and allergic reactions. Therefore, it is typically reserved for use in cases where other antibiotics have failed or are not effective, and it is closely monitored by healthcare providers to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

In the medical field, "Bites, Human" refers to injuries caused by the bites or stings of animals or insects that are capable of inflicting harm on humans. These bites can be caused by a variety of animals, including dogs, cats, snakes, spiders, bees, wasps, and mosquitoes, among others. The severity of the injury can vary depending on the type of animal, the size of the bite, and the location of the bite on the body. Some bites may only cause minor discomfort and swelling, while others can lead to serious infections, allergic reactions, or even death. Treatment for human bites typically involves cleaning the wound, administering antibiotics to prevent infection, and providing pain relief as needed. In some cases, more serious medical intervention may be necessary, such as surgery to remove damaged tissue or to address complications from the bite.

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  • Ofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. (recallguide.org)
  • Fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. (recallguide.org)
  • ABSTRACT Susceptibility of 88 clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 116 Haemophilus influenzae isolates and 80 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates to 6 fluoroquinolones--ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin and gemifloxacin--were determined. (who.int)
  • There are also reports of tendon rupture and mental confusion with patients taking ofloxacin. (fsu.edu)
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  • Ofloxacin ophthalmic solution is an antibiotic (anti-infective) used to treat bacterial infections of the eyes. (medhealthchoice.com)
  • susceptibility to ofloxacin and levofloxacin was 97.7% and 98.9% respectively. (who.int)
  • Suprax and ofloxacin are antibiotics used to treat bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and gonorrhea. (turningtooneanother.net)
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