**Odds Ratio**: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

**Case-Control Studies**: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

**Risk Factors**: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

**Logistic Models**: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

**Confidence Intervals**: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

**Cohort Studies**: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

**Genetic Predisposition to Disease**: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

**Prevalence**: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

**Cross-Sectional Studies**: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

**Multivariate Analysis**: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Retrospective Studies**: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

**Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide**: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

**Polymorphism, Genetic**: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

**Risk Assessment**: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

**Smoking**: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.

**United States**

**Questionnaires**: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

**Pregnancy**: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

**Age Factors**: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

**Treatment Outcome**: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

**Risk**: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Infant, Newborn**: An infant during the first month after birth.

**European Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.

**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**Follow-Up Studies**: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Socioeconomic Factors**: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

**Gene Frequency**: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.

**Chi-Square Distribution**: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

**Alleles**: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Asian Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.

**Incidence**: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

**Comorbidity**: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.

**Body Mass Index**: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

**China**: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.

**Japan**

**Severity of Illness Index**: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

**Haplotypes**: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.

**Registries**: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Prognosis**: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

**Sex Distribution**: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Sweden**

**Health Surveys**: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.

**African Americans**: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.

**Hospital Mortality**: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.

**Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic**: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.

**Environmental Exposure**: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.

**Breast Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.

**Alcohol Drinking**: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.

**Ethnic Groups**: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.

**California**

**Educational Status**: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

**Obesity**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

**Stroke**: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

**Biological Markers**: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

**Epidemiologic Methods**: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.

**Parity**: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.

**African Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.

**Genetic Association Studies**: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.

**Age Distribution**: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Hospitalization**: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.

**Hispanic Americans**: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.

**Hypertension**: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.

**Italy**

**Myocardial Infarction**: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).

**Pregnancy Outcome**: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.

**HIV Infections**: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

**Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)**: Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

**Diabetes Mellitus**: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.

**Residence Characteristics**: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.

**Population Surveillance**: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.

**Denmark**

**France**: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.

**Diet**: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.

**Germany**

**Pregnancy Complications**: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.

**Occupational Diseases**: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.

**Spain**: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

**Colorectal Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.

**Demography**: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

**Great Britain**

**Linkage Disequilibrium**: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.

**Continental Population Groups**: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.

**Health Status**: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.

**Premature Birth**: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).

**Postoperative Complications**: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.

**Genetic Variation**: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

**Occupations**: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.

**Urban Population**: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.

**Life Style**: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)

**Rural Population**: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.

**Asthma**: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).

**Washington**

**Genome-Wide Association Study**: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.

**Republic of Korea**: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

**Netherlands**: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.

**Publication Bias**: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.

**Age of Onset**: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.

**Occupational Exposure**: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.

**ROC Curve**: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

**New York**

**Length of Stay**: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.

**Norway**

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Databases, Factual**: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

**Massachusetts**

**Mass Screening**: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.

**Coronary Artery Disease**: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.

**Taiwan**

**Pesticides**: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.

**Birth Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Recurrence**: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.

**Europe**

**North Carolina**

**Canada**: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.

**Metabolic Syndrome X**: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)

**Depression**: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

**Breast Feeding**: The nursing of an infant at the breast.

**Chronic Disease**: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

**Causality**: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.

**Mothers**: Female parents, human or animal.

**Interviews as Topic**: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.

**Abortion, Spontaneous**: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.

**Acute Disease**: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Cardiovascular Diseases**: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.

**Survival Analysis**: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

**Tobacco Smoke Pollution**: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.

**Bias (Epidemiology)**: Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

**Gestational Age**: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.

**Disease Progression**: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.

**Maternal Exposure**: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.

**Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2**: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

**San Francisco**

**Patient Acceptance of Health Care**: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.

**Polymerase Chain Reaction**: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

**Housing**: Living facilities for humans.

**Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects**: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.

**Analysis of Variance**: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

**Infant, Low Birth Weight**: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.

**Coronary Disease**: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**India**

**Sexual Behavior**: Sexual activities of humans.

**Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice**: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

**Finland**

**Data Collection**: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

**Survival Rate**: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

**Contraceptives, Oral**: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.

**Outcome Assessment (Health Care)**: Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).

**Lung Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.

**Mexico**

**Health Behavior**: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

**Urban Health**: The status of health in urban populations.

**England**

**Social Class**: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.

**Overweight**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".

**Family Health**: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.

**Texas**

**Health Services Accessibility**: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.

**Prostatic Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.

**Boston**

**Intensive Care Units**: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.

**Diabetes Complications**: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.

**Healthcare Disparities**: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.

**Physician's Practice Patterns**: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.

**Maternal Age**: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.

**Los Angeles**

**Wounds and Injuries**: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.

**Patient Compliance**: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

**C-Reactive Protein**: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.

**Cooking**: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.

**Meta-Analysis as Topic**: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.

**Homozygote**: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.

**Marital Status**: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.

**Pennsylvania**

**Self Report**: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.

**Smoking Cessation**: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.

**Respiratory Sounds**: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.

**Postmenopause**: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.

**Reference Values**: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

**New Hampshire**

**Neoplasms**: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

**Anti-Bacterial Agents**: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

**Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)**: A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.

**Stress, Psychological**: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

**Ontario**: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)

**Nutrition Surveys**: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.

**Philadelphia**

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Brain Ischemia**: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.

**Family Characteristics**: Size and composition of the family.

**Parents**: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.

**Income**: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.

**Gravidity**: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

**Emergency Service, Hospital**: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.

## Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (1/18160)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region. (+info)## Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (2/18160)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation. (+info)## Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions. (3/18160)

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern Netherlands. Data concerned 4521 working men and 2411 working women and included current occupational class (seven classes), working conditions (physical working conditions, job control, job demands, social support at work), perceived general health (very good or good versus less than good) and demographic confounders. Data were analysed with logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: For both men and women we observed a higher odds ratio for a less than good perceived general health in the lower occupational classes (adjusted for confounders). The odds of a less than good perceived general health was larger among people reporting more hazardous physical working conditions, lower job control, lower social support at work and among those in the highest category of job demands. Results were similar for men and women. Men and women in the lower occupational classes reported more hazardous physical working conditions and lower job control as compared to those in higher occupational classes. High job demands were more often reported in the higher occupational classes, while social support at work was not clearly related to occupational class. When physical working conditions and job control were added simultaneously to a model with occupational class and confounders, the odds ratios for occupational classes were reduced substantially. For men, the per cent change in the odds ratios for the occupational classes ranged between 35% and 83%, and for women between 35% and 46%. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial part of the association between occupational class and a less than good perceived general health in the working population could be attributed to a differential distribution of hazardous physical working conditions and a low job control across occupational classes. This suggests that interventions aimed at improving these working conditions might result in a reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population. (+info)## Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (4/18160)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years). (+info)## Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. (5/18160)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women. (+info)## Premature morbidity from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. (6/18160)

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: I used the California Hospital Discharge Database, which contains information on all discharges from acute care hospitals in California, to identify women with SLE who had been hospitalized for treatment of either acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) from 1991 to 1994. I compared the proportions of hospitalizations for each cause among women with SLE with those in a group of women without SLE, for 3 age strata (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and > or =65 years). RESULTS: Compared with young women without SLE, young women with SLE were 2.27 times more likely to be hospitalized because of AMI (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-3.46), 3.80 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CHF (95% CI 2.41-5.19), and 2.05 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CVA (95% CI 1.17-2.93). Among middle-aged women with SLE, the frequencies of hospitalization for AMI and CVA did not differ from those of the comparison group, but the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.73). Among elderly women with SLE, the risk of hospitalization for AMI was significantly lower (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.89), the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.49), and the risk of hospitalization for CVA was not significantly different from those in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: Young women with SLE are at substantially increased risk of AMI, CHF, and CVA. The relative odds of these conditions decrease with age among women with SLE. (+info)## Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (7/18160)

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum. (+info)## Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly prospective heart disease study. (8/18160)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in primary ischaemic heart disease. METHODS: Plasma specimens collected during 1979-83 from men in Caerphilly, south Wales, were analysed for IgG antibodies to CMV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and latex tests. Incident ischaemic heart disease events were ascertained after five and 10 years from death certificates, hospital records, and ECG changes; 195 incident ischaemic heart disease cases were compared with 216 controls of a similar age drawn from the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: 164 cases (84%) and 180 controls (83%) were seropositive for CMV. Optical density, an indicator of CMV antibody titre, was similar for cases and controls. Among controls, seropositivity was not associated with age, socioeconomic status currently or in childhood, smoking, height, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, or leucocyte count. The unadjusted odds ratio relating CMV seropositivity to incident ischaemic heart disease was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.79) and was little changed (1.11, 0.63 to 1.97) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and socioeconomic status currently and in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection is unlikely to be a strong risk factor for development of myocardial infarction in middle aged men. (+info)###### Interpretation of Genetic Association Studies: Markers with Replicated Highly Significant Odds Ratios May Be Poor Classifiers

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###### Logistic3

- I am running several proc logistic models, utilizing the odds ratio estimates. (sas.com)
- In the odds ratio tables I have generated from the Proc Logistic, I have asked sas in the original logistic model to compare (example: men, vs women) or diabetic vs non-diabetic. (sas.com)
- Some statistical background: the MUE considers a binomial model for the sampling fraction of cases, taking as fixed or given the incidence ratio in unexposed individuals and the person-year exposure… Oct 26, 2017 · He recently added the 'probratio' function which transforms odds ratios from logistic regression models to risk ratios using a second GLM or marginal standardization. (myorigami.site)

###### Estimate3

- Although SAS will produce the point estimate, and 95% wald confidence limits, I can not figure out the code for SAS to give me the p value for each point estimate in the odds ratios. (sas.com)
- They are calculated from the parameter estimates, exp(estimate) equal the odds ratio. (sas.com)
- chisq in the parameter estimates value would be non-significant (ex: p 0.77) but the 95% wald confidence limits for the odd ratios is greater than 1 (ex: point estimate 1.023, 95% CI 1.018-1.028) for both the lower and upper limit. (sas.com)

###### Estimates1

###### Calculate1

- Make sure you include how to calculate the relative risk and the odds ratio. (termpaperswriter.com)

###### Confidence1

- Odds ratios (OR)† and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity by education level. (nih.gov)

###### Outcome1

- OR above 1 then there is a greater relative odds of outcome, below 1, lower relative odds of outcome - yup! (talkstats.com)

###### Wald1

- Calculates risk ratio by unconditional maximum likelihood estimation (Wald), and small sample adjustment (small). (myorigami.site)

###### Risk2

- The post absolute risk, relative risk, and odds ratio appeared first on College Nursing Assignments. (termpaperswriter.com)
- Most situations where we want these statistics, I think relative risk ratios are much better, more intutitive, and easier to explain. (myorigami.site)

###### Probability41

- a method of expressing probability, e.g. at odds of 3 to 2 this can be converted to conventional terminology by using each number as the numerator and the sum of them as the denominator, i.e. 3/5, 2/5 or 60% or 40% or 0.6, 0.4. (thefreedictionary.com)
- While the general public's literacy rate with probability (risk) is not super high, its familiarity with odds is even more tenuous. (statistics.com)
- With a probability of 1/100 of having the disease, the odds ratio is 1 : 99. (cornell.edu)
- But once you've been through the probability arguments, I think the odds ratios are a great way to think about these sorts of problems. (cornell.edu)
- Convert A to B odds for winning or losing to probability percentage values for both winning and losing. (bookofranovoline.net)
- The probability estimates, betting odds and Kelly staking plan explained. (fussballgames.eu)
- The probability reflected by the odds is known as the implied probability. (fussballgames.eu)
- The odds of success are defined as the ratio of the probability of success over the probability of failure. (ucla.edu)
- If the probability of success is .5, i.e., 50-50 percent chance, then the odds of success is 1 to 1. (ucla.edu)
- The transformation from probability to odds is a monotonic transformation, meaning the odds increase as the probability increases or vice versa. (ucla.edu)
- Below is a table of the transformation from probability to odds and we have also plotted for the range of p less than or equal to .9. (ucla.edu)
- The table below shows the relationship among the probability, odds and log of odds. (ucla.edu)
- Why do we take all the trouble doing the transformation from probability to log odds? (ucla.edu)
- It maps probability ranging between 0 and 1 to log odds ranging from negative infinity to positive infinity. (ucla.edu)
- The diagnostic odds ratio is a single indicator of how informative a diagnostic test is that is independent of the prevalence or pre-test probability of the target condition of interest (unlike diagnostic accuracy ). (getitglossary.org)
- The plot shows the confidence intervals on the probability of row2 for fixed odds ratio and specified probability for row1. (rdocumentation.org)
- The odds from recovering from the drug in the experimental group = probability of recovering ÷ probability of not recovering = 600 ÷ (1000 - 600) = 3/2. (fullybooked.club)
- Relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the exposed group versus the control (non-exposed) group. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk 61 Since we already In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the exposed group versus a non (Population) Attributable risk Confidence interval Odds ratio Hazard ratio Number needed to treat (NNT) Number needed to harm (NNH) OpenEpi EpiInfo. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Also, we are relating 3 things, namely the probability of survival of women , the probability of survival of men and their relative odds OR of survival. (geogebra.org)
- When a betting site offers odds about a selection, it is offering its subjective viewpoint about what it thinks is the probability of that selection winning. (bettinggods.com)
- Professional gamblers make a living by disagreeing with the opinions of betting sites and bet the odds when they think those odds underestimate the probability of a selection winning. (bettinggods.com)
- Decimal odds are much easier to use when converting odds to probability. (bettinggods.com)
- But it's only slightly more complicated to convert fractional odds to probability. (bettinggods.com)
- Understanding probability and odds is one of the skills you need to find value selections in whatever sports you want to bet on. (bettinggods.com)
- Understanding probability will help you price-up matches, and you can then compare your probability calculations against the odds that are available at any betting sites you use. (bettinggods.com)
- You'll notice that the probability of Thiem winning + the probability of Zverev winning does not add up to 100% using the bookmaker's odds. (bettinggods.com)
- This paper uses a toy data set to demonstrate the calculation of odds ratios and marginal effects from logistic regression using SAS and R, while comparing them to the results from a standard linear probability model. (blogspot.com)
- Another way to calculate the posttest probability of disease is to use the odds-likelihood (or odds-probability) approach. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios provide an estimation of whether there will be significant change in pretest to posttest probability of a disease given the test result, and thus can be used to make quick estimates of the usefulness of contemplated diagnostic tests in particular situations. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The simplest method for calculating posttest probability from pretest probability and likelihood ratios is to use a nomogram ( Figure 1-7 ). (unboundmedicine.com)
- The clinician places a straightedge through the points that represent the pretest probability and the likelihood ratio and then reads the posttest probability where the straightedge crosses the posttest probability line. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Nomogram for determining posttest probability from pretest probability and likelihood ratios. (unboundmedicine.com)
- To figure the posttest probability, place a straightedge between the pretest probability and the likelihood ratio for the particular test. (unboundmedicine.com)
- For instance, a probability of 0.75 is the same as 3:1 odds ( Figure 1-8 ). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Formulas for converting between probability and odds. (unboundmedicine.com)
- To obtain the posttest probability, the odds are converted to a probability ( Figure 1-8 ). (unboundmedicine.com)
- read probability) ratio is simply the ratio of the probability of a.Converting Sports Betting Odds. (muscle-fitness.ga)
- Pot odds are often compared to the probability of winning a hand with a future card in order to estimate the call's expected value . (wikipedia.org)
- Her probability of drawing one of those cards is therefore 4/47 (8.5%), which when converted to odds is 10.75:1. (wikipedia.org)

###### Probabilities13

- My impression is that, although it is true that predicted probabilities might be easier to understand, odds ratios have been used extensively in research when we interpret results from logit models. (stata.com)
- In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)
- One other area where we deal with odds, rather than probabilities, where the latter would seem more natural, is logistic regression. (statistics.com)
- However, after the model is fit, it is possible to convert from odds to probabilities. (statistics.com)
- Odds ratios are an alternate way of expressing probabilities, which simplifies the process of updating them with new evidence. (lesswrong.com)
- Fortunately, Bayes' theorem has a very intuitive formulation, not in terms of probabilities but in terms of odds ratios. (cornell.edu)
- Clearing the denominators reveals that we've just multiplied by an odds ratio of 9, which is the ratio of the two probabilities of getting a positive test result (9/10 in one case, 1/10 in the other). (cornell.edu)
- Whether consciously or subconsciously, your own assessments of the probabilities will be guided by what the odds suggest. (fussballgames.eu)
- As you can see, this slight adjustment in the calculation allows you to easily covert both fractional odds and decimal odds into probabilities. (bettinggods.com)
- Furthermore, we provide code for converting ORs into other measures of test performance like predictive values, post-test probabilities, and likelihood ratios, under mild conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
- A likelihood ratio of 1 implies that there will be no difference between pretest and posttest probabilities. (unboundmedicine.com)
- To use this formulation, probabilities must be converted to odds, where the odds of having a disease are expressed as the chance of having the disease divided by the chance of not having the disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Odds are summaries of probabilities that get used by sports books and nearly no one else, because they are counter-intuitive non-linear approximations to probabilities. (jasonkerwin.com)

###### Hazard ratios9

- It's particularly difficult when the outcome is reported in units like standard deviations, but reporting hazard ratios and odds ratios can be confusing as well, especially for those who only occasionally write about medical studies. (healthjournalism.org)
- 2) Make sure the results are reported in one of the following units: hazard ratios, odds ratios, relative risk (including risk ratio and rate ratio) or percentage change. (healthjournalism.org)
- Risk Ratio Confidence Interval Standard Errors The odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs), incidence-rate ratios (IRRs), and relative-risk ratios (RRRs) are all just univariate transformations of the estimated betas for the logistic, survival, and multinomial Confidence Interval Crosses 1 Specifically, the OR measures the ratio of the odds that an event or result will occur to the odds of the event not happening. (comunidadwindows.org)
- Some studies use relative risks (RRs) to describe results others use odds ratios (ORs).Barnett, M. Tags: critical appraisal, epidemiology, evidence, hazard ratio, hazard ratios, interpreting, patients, research An expense ratio is what each investor pays into a Statistics. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Tutorial about Hazard Ratios - Students 4 Best Evidence - Hazard Ratios vs. Risk Ratios (or Relative Risk) Hazard ratio is frequently interpreted Open-ended vs. Close-ended Questions in Web Questionnaires 161 may abandon the questionnaire. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Kaplan-Meier Curves, Hazard Ratios Composite Open-ended vs. Close-ended Questions in Web Questionnaires 161 may abandon the questionnaire.relative risk, odds ratio, attributable risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk 61 Since we already have relative risk, why would we want to calculate the odds ratio?Can hazard ratios be used instead of risk ratios in population with OR vs HR varies with the Odds Ratio versus Relative Risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Effect ratios such as odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) are useful measures of relative treatment effects and are used extensively in randomized clinical trials (RCT). (fharrell.com)
- Log odds and log hazard ratios have an unlimited ranges and can possibly apply to everyone. (fharrell.com)

###### Risks10

- 1 2 Thus there is a danger that if odds ratios are interpreted as though they were relative risks then they may mislead. (bmj.com)
- There is a problem with odds: unlike risks, they are difficult to understand. (bmj.com)
- The table shows the odds for various risks. (bmj.com)
- For risks of less than about 20% the odds are not greatly dissimilar to the risk, but as the risk climbs above 50% the odds start to look very different. (bmj.com)
- The relative risk of one group compared with another is simply the ratio of the risks in the two groups. (bmj.com)
- but then the ratio of the risks, which is RR, is approximately equal to the ratio of the odds, which is OR. (wikipedia.org)
- table, the column 1 relative risk is the ratio of the column 1 risks for row 1 to row 2. (sas.com)
- If we are comparing two groups using relative measures, such as relative risks or odds ratios , and see that the 95% CI includes the value of one in its range, we can say that there is no difference between the groups. (www.nhs.uk)
- We again reconsider the previous examples and produce estimates of odds ratios and compare these to our estimates of risk differences and relative risks. (mastersgfp.org)
- And so people misinterpret them constantly, presently odds ratios as relative risks even when they are not small, and the approximation does not hold. (jasonkerwin.com)

###### Coefficients5

- There is a direct relationship between the coefficients and the odds ratios. (ucla.edu)
- This means that the coefficients in logistic regression are in terms of the log odds, that is, the coefficient 1.695 implies that a one unit change in gender results in a 1.695 unit change in the log of the odds. (ucla.edu)
- 3,25,26 For example, geeglm() function in library (geepack DQGVSHFLI Ordinal Logistic Regression Models and Statistical Software: example to illustrate the One way to interpret the coefficients is via a proportional odds ratio. (isellmx.com)
- Since the coefficients are returned in log odds, exponentiating converts them to odds. (pjs-web.de)
- Models of binary dependent variables often are estimated using logistic regression or probit models, but the estimated coefficients (or exponentiated coefficients expressed as odds ratios) are often difficult to interpret from a practical standpoint. (blogspot.com)

###### Logit3

- So let's define the logit function as the log of the odds. (coursera.org)
- P1 minus logit P2, that's the log odds ratio for P1 to P2. (coursera.org)
- Wald statistics: The squared ratio of the unstandardized logit coefficient to its standard error . (wikiversity.org)

###### Meta-analyses1

- Pair-Matched Case -Control Table and the McNemar test and the Pair-Matched Odds Ratio to evaluate whether an association It looks like there are no examples One relative risk versus two odds ratios: implications for meta-analyses involving paired and unpaired binary data. (mastersgfp.org)

###### Terms of odds ratios1

- The reviewer commented that all results are expressed in terms of odds ratios which makes it very difficult to assess the magnitude of the effect. (stata.com)

###### Estimates of odds ratios1

- It consists of estimates of odds ratios and their confidence limits. (sas.com)

###### Calculation of odds ratios1

- This package simplifies the calculation of odds ratios in binomial models. (pjs-web.de)

###### Epidemiology1

- In my discipline (epidemiology) we have relied heavily on odds ratios simply out of habit and convenience (logistic regression) when our interest is almost never in the OR itself, but rather in the risk or prevalence ratio or difference. (stata.com)

###### Bayes1

- The odds ratio form of Bayes' rule is one way mathematicians can give back to doctors. (cornell.edu)

###### Outcomes3

- Odds ratios (95% CIs) comparing those with fatty kidney to those without fatty kidney are presented for dichotomous outcomes. (zanran.com)
- An approach for modelling multiple correlated outcomes in a network of interventions using odds ratios. (semanticscholar.org)
- If an event has an X% chance of happening, the odds that it happens are (X%)/(100-X%). The basic problem with odds ratios is that long ago someone (we should figure out who and curse their name) realized that for rare outcomes, an OR is approximately a relative risk, or (% chance thing occurs in treatment group)/(% chance thing occurs in control group). (jasonkerwin.com)

###### Interpret odds ratios1

- FAQ: How do I interpret odds ratios in logistic regression? (ucla.edu)

###### Regression19

- Because of past help I have received on this list I have learned how to convert model-based predictions from logistic regression into risk ratios or differences using marginal standardization with bootstrapped confidence intervals. (stata.com)
- I have a question regarding a reviewer's comment on my use of odds ratio in interpreting the results of a logistic regression, and would appreciate it very much if you can provide any insight or any references for responding to the comment. (stata.com)
- 10%), the adjusted odds ratio derived from the logistic regression can no longer approximate the risk ratio. (nih.gov)
- Yes, odds ratios are analogous to 'effect size' and can be interpreted in the same way for logistic regression and for 2x2 tables. (talkstats.com)
- I believe they're computed the same way in both logistic regression and contingency tables - they're simply the ratio of two odds. (talkstats.com)
- Browse other questions tagged regression logistic odds-ratio or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)
- How do I interpret the odds ratio of an interaction term in Conditional Logistic Regression? (stackexchange.com)
- In other words, the exponential function of the regression coefficient ( e b1 ) is the odds ratio associated with a one-unit increase in the exposure. (wordpress.com)
- In this page, we will walk through the concept of odds ratio and try to interpret the logistic regression results using the concept of odds ratio in a couple of examples. (ucla.edu)
- Exact Logistic Regression for a Matched Pairs a Matched Pairs case-Control Design with Polytomous in estimating odds ratios under matched pairs case, It only deals with the case of a matched pair: For this example, the odds ratio is computed as 21/4 = 5.25. (mastersgfp.org)
- When averaging two odds ratios (sort of what the adjusted regression is doing), their average will not usually be the unadjusted odds ratio even in the absence of confounding. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- I can derive the the marginal odds ratio, the risk difference and the relative risk from the adjusted logistic regression even though the model results are conditional odds. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- Generalized Linear Models to work with generalized linear models in R. We see that the odds ratio corresponding to income is 1.070, The odds can vary on a scale of 2 Basic R logistic regression models We will illustrate with the Cedegren dataset on the website. (isellmx.com)
- Odds Ratios (ORs) Allele Counting r 1 A + 1 B + 1 C + 1 D Lower limit of 95% CI LHON Example: Con dence Intervals for Odds Ratios (ORs) rs6767450 Cases Controls Cluster vs. Robust Estimation of Risk Ratio using Expanded Logistic Regression. (isellmx.com)
- As noted on paragraph 18.4.1 of the book Veterinary Epidemiologic Research, logistic regression is widely used for binary data, with the estimates reported as odds The odds ratio is 3.68 we must address the overdispersion and then fit the overdispersed logistic regression model. (isellmx.com)
- R: Calculate and interpret odds ratio in logistic regression. (isellmx.com)
- That has ever since been taught to applied statisticians working in certain fields (public health is one example) who use odds ratios for the scientifically important reason that they are the default output of many regression packages when you run a logistic regression. (jasonkerwin.com)
- First of all, the discussion is framed in terms of "matched pairs", which have nothing to do with odds ratios, or with the study designs and regression models from which odds ratios are commonly estimated. (andershuitfeldt.net)
- The object which they call the "odds ratio" does not correspond to the parameter which is estimated from logistic regression models or case-control studies, and it is not a ratio of odds . (andershuitfeldt.net)

###### Commonly6

- Odds ratios are commonly written as the ratio of two numbers separated by a colon. (lesswrong.com)
- Odds ratios are most commonly used in case-control studies, however, they can also be used in cross-sectional and cohort study designs as well (with some modifications and/or assumptions). (wordpress.com)
- The goal of this post is to explain the meanings of (commonly-heard) metrics that indicate the "odds" of something (either directly or indirectly). (fullybooked.club)
- Odds ratios are also commonly used in epidemiological studies to describe the likely harm an exposure might cause Bandolier therefore turned to Jon Deeks, PDF Prevalence odds ratio versusconvert hazard ratio to relative risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds ratio (OR) is a statistic commonly encountered in professional or scientific medical literature.Posted in UncategorizedTagged odds ratio vs relative risk usmle, relationship between odds ratio and relative risk, relative risk and Statistical ratios. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds are most commonly expressed as ratios, but converting them to percentages often make them easier to work with. (wikipedia.org)

###### Convert5

- On this page you'll be able to convert sports betting odds across the three different formats, or convert chance of winning percentages to each of the different formats, hassle-free and in a flash. (bookofranovoline.net)
- After entering the numbers, click "Calculate" to convert the odds ratio to NNT. (knowledgetranslation.net)
- Now you can analyze those values and, if you want to present summary statistics as odds ratios instead of log odds ratios, you can just convert them back. (deeplytrivial.com)
- To convert this ratio to the equivalent percentage, these two numbers are added together and the cost of the call is divided by this sum. (wikipedia.org)
- To convert any percentage or fraction to the equivalent odds, the numerator is subtracted from the denominator and then this difference is divided by the numerator. (wikipedia.org)

###### Intervals24

- produces a plot of log odds vs x2 with 0.95 confidence intervals. (ethz.ch)
- This function calculates odds ratios and population attributable risk with confidence intervals. (statsdirect.com)
- Provides structured output (data frame) of all predictors and their corresponding odds ratios and confident intervals for further analyses. (fiocruz.br)
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- How To Report Odds Ratios And Confidence Intervals For a child without hay fever, the proportion with eczema is 420/13 945 (3.0%) and the odds is 420/13 525. (comunidadwindows.org)
- Similarly, confidence intervals for the odds ratio are easily constructed by appealing to the asymptotic normality of log OR, which has a limiting variance given by the square root of the sum of the reciprocals of these four numbers. (blogspot.com)
- Including "alpha = 0.05" in the parameter list fixes the default value for alpha at 0.05, which yields the 95% confidence intervals for the computed odds ratio, based on the Wald approximation described above. (blogspot.com)
- Also, automatically confident intervals (CI) of odds ratios are calculated and returned. (pjs-web.de)
- For continuous measures, multiple likelihood ratios can be defined to correspond to ranges or intervals of test results. (unboundmedicine.com)
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###### Relative risk29

- Odds ratios are hard to comprehend directly and are usually interpreted as being equivalent to the relative risk. (bmj.com)
- However, serious divergence between the odds ratio and the relative risk occurs only with large effects on groups at high initial risk. (bmj.com)
- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the relative risk by using the log transform, which is similar to the odds ratio computations described previously. (sas.com)
- ratio of two odds, but as used in the analysis of data from a case control study, a simple calculation, also called the cross-products ratio, which yields an approximate value for the relative risk of the exposure that has been examined in a case control study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- If the condition being studied is rare, the odds ratio is a close approximation to the relative risk. (thefreedictionary.com)
- See odds ratio and relative risk ratio (below). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Design Cross sectional study of all 260 abstracts in PubMed of articles published in 2003 that contained "relative risk" or "odds ratio" and reported results from a randomised trial, and random samples of 130 abstracts from cohort studies and 130 from case-control studies. (bmj.com)
- On 15 October 2004, I searched PubMed for all abstracts of articles published in 2003 that contained "relative risk" or "odds ratio" in any field. (bmj.com)
- The Relative Risk Ratio and Odds Ratio are both used to measure the medical effect of a treatment or variable to which people are exposed. (statistics.com)
- The finding in relative risk, hazard ratio, percentage change or odds ratio. (healthjournalism.org)
- That is a difference of 0.2, a relative risk of 1.53, and an odds ratio of 2.25. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- So that's a difference of 0.4-0.2, a relative risk of 0.4 / 0.2 and an odds ratio of (0.4 / (1-0.4) / ) / (0.2 / (1-0.2)).That is 0.2, 2, and 2.66. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- We get average adjusted effects, difference = 0.2, relative risk = 1.53, and odds ratio = 2.66. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- We can work out the marginal difference, relative risk and odds ratio as before. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- Relative risk is a statistical term used to describe the chances of a We can calculate relative risk using our example: How do I calculate an odds ratio? (isellmx.com)
- In most cases, the odds ratio and the relative risk will give a similar value and can in most cases be considered as interchangeable. (robertbarrington.net)
- For example, if the treatment and control groups have the same number of events (i.e. the treatment effect is small), the odds ratio and relative risk will both be the same (1). (robertbarrington.net)
- In contrast, as the treatment effect increases, the odds ratio and relative risk will diverge. (robertbarrington.net)
- Odds ratio.Hazard ratio is frequently interpreted as risk ratio (or relative risk), but they are not technically the same. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- The odds ratio is always further away from 1 than the relative risk, but they are more similar when the baseline risk is small. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk - Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk 61 Since we already have relative risk, why wouldYouTube. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- what are the difference between odds ratio and relative risk? (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- So if the relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) is 1.0, the two groups have the same chance of having whatever the study is measuring, be it an heart attack or stroke or death or whatever.Help with difference between odds ratio and relative risk (example included)? (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- 1. Odds Ratio It is defined as the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group or to a Relative risk, odds ratio, attributable risk and number needed to treat.RATE, RISK, HAZARD, AND ODDS Depending upon the focus, different indices are used to assess disease occurrence in a group of subjects. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- So, given a rare condition, the Odds Ratio approximates the Relative Risk (or Risk Ratio). (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- hazard ratio vs relative risk reduction.are hazard ratio and relative risk the same thing. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- where D is having aRelative risk includes two important features: (i) a comparison of 19 Mar 2011 Odds Ratio Vs Relative Risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- La plupart des commentaires des acheteurs disent que le Hazard Ratio Vs Relative Risk Vs Odds Ratio sont excellent produit. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- This includes the odds ratio, relative risk and risk difference. (coursera.org)

###### Proportional odds ratio1

- We propose a model, the proportional odds ratio (POR) model, which makes no assumptions about the shape of OR p , a baseline function capturing the way OR changes across papers. (biomedcentral.com)

###### PLoS Genetics1

- Somewhat reassuringly, a recent study published in PLoS Genetics showed that odds ratios at 19 Type II diabetes associated SNPs were consistent across European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. (genomesunzipped.org)

###### Predictors5

- This second approach can be applied to categorical predictors having any number of levels, but in the case of a binary (i.e., two-level) predictor, an attractive alternative is to measure their association with odds ratios. (r-bloggers.com)
- It helps to avoid false references of predictors and increments by specifying these parameters in a list instead of using 'exp(coef(model))' (standard approach of odds ratio calculation for GLMs) which just returns a plain numeric output. (fiocruz.br)
- For GAM(M)s, odds ratio calculation is highly simplified with this package since it takes care of the multiple 'predict()' calls of the chosen predictor while holding other predictors constant. (fiocruz.br)
- Usually you just create a vector which stores the increments of your predictors you want to calculate odds ratios for. (pjs-web.de)
- output (which is usually the intercept) because you only want to calculate odds ratios for your predictors! (pjs-web.de)

###### Attributable risk1

- Population attributable risk is presented as a percentage with a confidence interval when the odds ratio is greater than or equal to one ( Sahai and Kurshid, 1996 ). (statsdirect.com)

###### Coefficient3

- For instance, here they used the Beta-coefficient in their model, while here they used the odds ratio. (biostars.org)
- The odds ratio (OR) is the exponent of the beta coefficient. (biostars.org)
- Note that Wald = 3.015 for both the coefficient for gender and for the odds ratio for gender (because the coefficient and the odds ratio are two ways of saying the same thing). (ucla.edu)

###### Obtain the odds1

- This ratio is the odds ratio (OR) and can be computed following these steps: For a given individual that has "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" For a given individual that does not have "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio (OR). (wikipedia.org)

###### Confounder3

- Hi, So we have been given odds ratio for males and females in four different scenarios to find out if sex is a confounder or effect modifier in a study looking at the association between lung cancer and smoking. (talkstats.com)
- I'm not sure as to how to interpret these ratios in order to say if sex is a confounder or effect modifier. (talkstats.com)
- But it is common to see papers comparing odds ratios before and after confounder adjustment as a method of judging the extent of confounding. (frankpopham.co.uk)

###### Simplifies2

- For simplicity, suppose x and y are two binary variables of interest and assume that they are coded so that they each take the values 0 or 1 - this assumption is easily relaxed, as discussed below, but it simplifies the basic description of the odds ratio. (r-bloggers.com)
- This new definition of the odds ratio then simplifies to the traditional odds ratio under certain independence conditions. (andershuitfeldt.net)

###### Calculates2

- Free online Odds Ratio (OR) statistical calculator calculates Odds Ratio with 95% Confidence Interval from a 2x2 table. (bookofranovoline.net)
- pari mutuel system that calculates and continually updates betting odds. (muscle-fitness.ga)

###### Exposure odds ratio1

- The exposure odds ratio is equal to the disease odds ratio. (automarket-mongolia.tk)

###### Likelihood ratios4

- ODDS-LIKELIHOOD RATIOS is a topic covered in the Guide to Diagnostic Tests . (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios of serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios can be calculated using the above formulas. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios between 1 and 2 and between 0.5 and 1 indicate small differences (rarely clinically significant). (unboundmedicine.com)

###### Compute5

- We compute the confidence interval for the diagnostic odds ratio of this test as [9, (wikipedia.org)
- As reported elsewhere , you can compute the standard error of the proportion as square root of the product of P * (1 - P) / N, where P is the ratio of patients with events/all patients, and N is the sample size (ie all patients). (stackexchange.com)
- I am not aware of any formula to compute the standard error of an odds, but it is reasonable you could find one. (stackexchange.com)
- Next, we will add another variable to the equation so that we can compute and odds ratio. (ucla.edu)
- In SPSS, the syntax is very similar to Excel: COMPUTE log_oddsratio = LN(oddratio). (deeplytrivial.com)

###### Statistical1

- In this paper, we investigate dichotomisation for statistical inference about odds ratios in a situation where two underlying distributions from which independent samples are drawn are skewed and unknown. (lboro.ac.uk)

###### Confidence limits1

- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the odds ratio by using the log transform. (sas.com)

###### Marginal odds1

- Evaluation of the propensity score methods for estimating marginal odds ratios in case of small sample size. (inserm.fr)

###### Having a myocardial infarction3

- The odds of having a myocardial infarction are therefore 5/15 = 0.33. (robertbarrington.net)
- The odds of having a myocardial infarction are therefore 8/12 = 0.66. (robertbarrington.net)
- Therefore the odds of having a myocardial infarction while taking magnesium were about 0.5 (or 50 %) of the odds of having a myocardial infarction while not talking magnesium. (robertbarrington.net)

###### Estimation1

- If you request BRR variance estimation ( VARMETHOD=BRR ), PROC SURVEYFREQ estimates the variance of the odds ratio as described in the section Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR) . (sas.com)

###### Percentage3

- Also, this package allows odds ratio calculation of percentage steps across the whole predictor distribution range for GAM(M)s. (fiocruz.br)
- In percentage method: I calc from those pot odds how much of the whole pot is mine. (stackexchange.com)
- Every book and every site covering poker "explain" this without actually explaining why this work (the comparison of hand and pot odds in either ratio or percentage method) and these are the only explanations I have been able to come up with. (stackexchange.com)

###### Differences2

- DIFF=FIRST computes differences from the first level, and DIFF=ALL computes odds ratios based on all pairwise differences. (sas.com)
- Comparing one group with another, expresses differences in the odds of something happening. (aidsmap.com)

###### Conditional odds1

- The joint distributions are used to calculate conditional odds ratios. (mastersgfp.org)

###### Plot6

- get a plot of odds ratios vs x2 instead? (ethz.ch)
- Calculated odds ratio of GAM(M)s can be inserted into the smooth function plot. (fiocruz.br)
- Forest plot of odds ratios of using 'poor' menstrual absorbent vs. 'good' menstrual absorbents in those with confirmed bacterial vaginosis. (figshare.com)
- We have also shown the plot of log odds against odds. (ucla.edu)
- Add odds ratios into plot of GAM(M) smoothing function. (r-pkg.org)
- Calculate or plot the odds ratio for a 2x2 table of counts. (rdocumentation.org)

###### Quartiles2

- Circles mark direct odds ratio estimates comparing higher hsCRP quartiles to the lowest quartile. (nih.gov)
- The odds of hypertension decreased across quartiles of 3-MU. (theveganapprentice.com)

###### Mathematically1

- The diagnostic odds ratio is defined mathematically as: Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR = T P / F P F N / T N {\displaystyle {\text{Diagnostic odds ratio, DOR}}={\frac {TP/FP}{FN/TN}}} where T P {\displaystyle TP} , F N {\displaystyle FN} , F P {\displaystyle FP} and T N {\displaystyle TN} are the number of true positives, false negatives, false positives and true negatives respectively. (wikipedia.org)

###### Prevalence ratio1

###### Effect7

- Your effect size can come from the log of the odds-ratio, but the variance will be determined by the actual proportions involved in calculating the OR. (stata.com)
- You can actually generate those effect size numbers (d) if you report an Odds Ratio with CI95 and a sample size, but that is more convoluted. (stata.com)
- Odds ratios are a common measure of the size of an effect and may be reported in case-control studies, cohort studies, or clinical trials. (bmj.com)
- We also compared the prediction error (PE) measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio (MOR) for final model selection and testing. (elsevier.com)
- In meta-analysis of analgesic effect, the odds ratio (OR) was used as an index of the validity of the analgesic effect, and was presented at a 95 percent confidence interval (CI). (theveganapprentice.com)
- The moral of the story is that (to me) odds ratios sound bigger than they really are, and effect sizes sound smaller, so you should be really careful comparing two studies that report their results differently. (fullybooked.club)
- I frequently hear criticism of adjusted effect ratios to the effect "How do you know your model is correct? (fharrell.com)

###### Allele2

- In genetic case-control association studies the OR typically represents the ratio of the odds of disease if allele A is carried compared to if allele B is carried. (genomesunzipped.org)
- In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDTwith new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. (elsevier.com)

###### Inference2

- Liang, K. Y. (1985), Odds ratio inference with dependent data. (springer.com)
- Okay, so let's talk about exact inference odds ratios. (coursera.org)

###### Calculate the odds ratio1

- you have to learn how to calculate the odds ratio. (muscle-fitness.ga)

###### Cohort1

- 3 An example of a matched-pair cohort study The matched-pair odds ratio for cocaine use among those who used In an actual analysis of matched cohort data, the perform a matched analysis (that is, retaining the pair matching of one control for each case) using condi- mate of the odds ratio. (mastersgfp.org)