The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

Optimality of position commands to horizontal eye muscles: A test of the minimum-norm rule. (1/1100)

Six muscles control the position of the eye, which has three degrees of freedom. Daunicht proposed an optimization rule for solving this redundancy problem, whereby small changes in eye position are maintained by the minimum possible change in motor commands to the eye (the minimum-norm rule). The present study sought to test this proposal for the simplified one-dimensional case of small changes in conjugate eye position in the horizontal plane. Assuming such changes involve only the horizontal recti, Daunicht's hypothesis predicts reciprocal innervation with the size of the change in command matched to the strength of the recipient muscle at every starting position of the eye. If the motor command to a muscle is interpreted as the summed firing rate of its oculomotor neuron (OMN) pool, the minimum-norm prediction can be tested by comparing OMN firing rates with forces in the horizontal recti. The comparison showed 1) for the OMN firing rates given by Van Gisbergen and Van Opstal and the muscle forces given by Robinson, there was good agreement between the minimum-norm prediction and experimental observation over about a +/-30 degrees range of eye positions. This fit was robust with respect to variations in muscle stiffness and in methods of calculating muscle innervation. 2) Other data sets gave different estimates for the range of eye-positions within which the minimum-norm prediction held. The main sources of variation appeared to be disagreement about the proportion of OMNs with very low firing-rate thresholds (i.e., less than approximately 35 degrees in the OFF direction) and uncertainty about eye-muscle behavior for extreme (>30 degrees ) positions of the eye. 3) For all data sets, the range of eye positions over which the minimum-norm rule applied was determined by the pattern of motor-unit recruitment inferred for those data. It corresponded to the range of eye positions over which the size principle of recruitment was obeyed by both agonist and antagonist muscles. It is argued that the current best estimate of the oculomotor range over which minimum-norm control could be used for conjugate horizontal eye position is approximately +/-30 degrees. The uncertainty associated with this estimate would be reduced by obtaining unbiased samples of OMN firing rates. Minimum-norm control may result from reduction of the image movement produced by noise in OMN firing rates.  (+info)

Electrical stimulation as a therapeutic option to improve eyelid function in chronic facial nerve disorders. (2/1100)

PURPOSE: To establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS: Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic, moderate to severe facial nerve palsy were recruited into the study. Voluntary and spontaneous eyelid movements were assessed, using an optical measuring system, before, during, and after a 3-month treatment period. Voluntary and spontaneous lid velocities were also measured and compared with eyelid kinematic data in normal subjects (12 women, 18 men; age range, 22-56 years). RESULTS: Therapeutic electrical stimulation applied over 3 months produced improvement in eyelid movement (>2 mm) in 8 of 10 patients during voluntary eyelid closure. However, there was no significant improvement recorded in spontaneous blink amplitudes or peak downward-phase velocity of the upper eyelid. This regimen of stimulation failed to recover function well enough that a functional blink could be induced in the paretic eyelid by electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Electrical stimulation using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators units can improve voluntary eye closure, apparently because of a reduction in stiffness of eyelid mechanics, rather than an improvement of muscle function. Investigation of alternative stimulation regimens is warranted.  (+info)

Microstimulation of the lateral wall of the intraparietal sulcus compared with the frontal eye field during oculomotor tasks. (3/1100)

We compared the effects of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the lateral wall of the intraparietal sulcus (LIP) with those of ICMS of the frontal eye field (FEF) on monkeys performing oculomotor tasks. When ICMS was applied during a task that involved fixation, contraversive saccades evoked in the LIP and FEF appeared similar. When ICMS was applied to the FEF at the onset of voluntary saccades, the evoked saccades collided with the ongoing voluntary saccade so that the trajectory of voluntary saccade was compensated by the stimulus. Thus the resultant saccade was redirected and came close to the endpoint of saccades evoked from the fixation point before the start of voluntary saccade. In contrast, when ICMS was applied to the LIP at the onset of voluntary saccades, the resultant saccade followed a trajectory that was different from that evoked from the FEF. In that case, the colliding saccades were redirected toward an endpoint that was close to the endpoint of saccades evoked when animals were already fixating at the target of the voluntary saccade. This finding suggests that the colliding saccade was directed toward an endpoint calculated with reference to the target of the voluntary saccade. We hypothesize that, shortly before initiation of voluntary saccades, a dynamic process occurs in the LIP so that the reference point for calculating the saccade target shifts from the fixation point to the target of a voluntary saccade. Such predictive updating of reference points seems useful for immediate reprogramming of upcoming saccades that can occur in rapid succession.  (+info)

Oculomotor evidence for neocortical systems but not cerebellar dysfunction in autism. (4/1100)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional integrity of cerebellar and frontal systems in autism using oculomotor paradigms. BACKGROUND: Cerebellar and neocortical systems models of autism have been proposed. Courchesne and colleagues have argued that cognitive deficits such as shifting attention disturbances result from dysfunction of vermal lobules VI and VII. Such a vermal deficit should be associated with dysmetric saccadic eye movements because of the major role these areas play in guiding the motor precision of saccades. In contrast, neocortical models of autism predict intact saccade metrics, but impairments on tasks requiring the higher cognitive control of saccades. METHODS: A total of 26 rigorously diagnosed nonmentally retarded autistic subjects and 26 matched healthy control subjects were assessed with a visually guided saccade task and two volitional saccade tasks, the oculomotor delayed-response task and the antisaccade task. RESULTS: Metrics and dynamics of the visually guided saccades were normal in autistic subjects, documenting the absence of disturbances in cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII and in automatic shifts of visual attention. Deficits were demonstrated on both volitional saccade tasks, indicating dysfunction in the circuitry of prefrontal cortex and its connections with the parietal cortex, and associated cognitive impairments in spatial working memory and in the ability to voluntarily suppress context-inappropriate responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate intrinsic neocortical, not cerebellar, dysfunction in autism, and parallel deficits in higher order cognitive mechanisms and not in elementary attentional and sensorimotor systems in autism.  (+info)

Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti. (5/1100)

The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process.  (+info)

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (6/1100)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Ocular microtremor in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (7/1100)

Abnormalities in the oculomotor control mechanism of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease are well recognised. In this study the effect of Parkinson's disease on tonic output from oculomotor nuclei was studied by using oculomicrotremor as an index of such output. Oculomicrotremor readings were taken from 22 parkinsonian patients and 22 normal healthy volunteers using the piezoelectric strain gauge technique. There was a slower overall tremor frequency, baseline, and burst frequency in the parkinsonian group. There was also a significant increase in the duration of baseline, with a decrease in the number of bursts a second and a decrease in average duration of bursts in the patient group compared with the normal group. One patient, whose medication was withdrawn, showed a marked decrease in mean frequency and baseline frequency with a decrease in number of bursts and increase in baseline duration compared with readings taken when treatment recommenced. These results suggest that variables measured in oculomicrotremor are altered compared with normal subjects, reflecting altered tonic output from oculomotor nuclei in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Diplopia in a swimmer due to badly fitting goggles. (8/1100)

An unusual effect of badly fitting swimming goggles is described. The goggles pressed on the trochlea of the left eye, interfering with the action of the superior oblique muscle. Diplopia resulted, which took several weeks to resolve.  (+info)

Definition of inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . Meaning of inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . What does inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus mean? inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus synomyms, inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus antonyms. Information about inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . Companies offering inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . Products relate to inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus , Product relating to inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . Translation of inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus translation.
Background and Purpose: To add to the literature a case of isolated third nerve paresis involving the nerve fascicles subserving the superior rectus and the levator palpebrae muscles from brain stem infarction and presenting the characteristics of central disruption of binocular vision fusional amplitudes. Case Report: One patient with an old intracranial aneurysm and with old and recent brain stem infarcts and no other neurological manifestations, demonstrating findings characteristic of isolated paresis of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae muscles is reported. Conclusion: This dual involvement of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae muscles supports the anatomical arrangement of the ocular motor nucleus fascicles in the midbrain, clarified by experimental studies on animals and clinical data in humans and emphasizes the juxtaposition of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae fascicles and placing the levator palpebrae muscle fascicle lateral to the medial rectus fascicle in the ...
PURPOSE. To examine the distribution of myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) in human extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to correlate the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and the MyBP-C composition of the fibers.. METHODS. Samples from 17 EOMs, 3 levator palpebrae ( LP), and 6 limb muscles were analyzed with SDS-PAGE and immunoblot or processed for immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MyBP-C-fast, MyBP-C-slow, MyHCIIa, MyHCI, MyHCsto, MyHC alpha-cardiac, and MyHCemb.. RESULTS. In the limb muscle samples, fast fibers were labeled with anti-MyBP-C-fast and anti-MyBP-C-slow, whereas the slow fibers were immunostained with anti-MyBP-C-slow only, in accordance with previous studies. In 11 EOM samples MyBPC-fast was not detected, and weak staining with anti-MyBP-Cfast was seen only in a few fibers in the proximal part of 2 muscles. The mAb against MyBP-C-slow labeled all fibers, but fibers containing MyHCI were generally more strongly stained. In the levator palpebrae, immunostaining with ...
Looking for online definition of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles in the Medical Dictionary? congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles explanation free. What is congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles? Meaning of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles medical term. What does congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles mean?
Background: There are many surgical approaches to treat sixth nerve palsy depend on residual lateral rectus function, which the vertical rectus muscle transpositions (VRT) procedure is the surgical of choice in complete sixth palsy. VRT procedures, including full-tendon and partial tendon transpositions, often are combined with medial rectus muscle weakening. Partial tendon VRT procedure aimed to create success rate similar to full-tendon transposition with reduced risk of anterior segment ischemia when combined with simultaneous ipsilateral medial rectus muscle recession. ...
yup, Frontal bone, CT with contrast, stl, printable,with contrast, coronal, Superior sagittal sinus, Superior frontal gyrus, Falx cerebri, Middle frontal gyrus, Roof of orbit, Straight gyrus, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Superior rectus muscle, Inferior frontal gyrus Lacrimal gland, Superior oblique muscle, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Lateral rectus muscle, Ethmoidal cells, Medial rectus muscle, Inferior rectus muscle, Orbit (retrobulbar fat), Inferior oblique muscle, Zygomatic bone, Orbital plate, Middle and inferior nasal conchas, Nasal sinus, Maxillary sinus, Hard palate, Nasal septum, Tongue, Maxilla (alveolar process) Depressor anguli oris muscle, Body of mandible, carotid, artery, axis, dens, atlas ...
The supraorbital artery is an artery of the head. It springs from the ophthalmic artery as that vessel is crossing over to the medial side of the optic nerve. It passes upward on the medial borders of the superior rectus muscle and levator palpebrae superioris, meeting the supraorbital nerve accompanies it between the roof of the orbit and levator palpebrae superioris to the supraorbital notch. When passing through the supraorbital notch it divides into a superficial and a deep branch. Its terminal branches anastomose with branches of the supratrochlear artery and the superficial temporal arteries. This artery supplies the levator palpebrae superioris, the diploë of the frontal bone, the frontal sinus, the upper eyelid, and the skin of the forehead and the scalp. This artery may be absent in 10% to 20% of individuals. The arteries of the face and scalp. Bloodvessels of the eyelids, front view. supraorbital artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of ...
For patients with no apparent overaction of the oblique muscles or a pattern inconsistent with oblique dysfunction, vertical transposition of the horizontal muscles is performed. The muscles are transposed from one-half to a full tendon width. The medial rectus muscles are always moved toward the apex of the pattern (ie, upward in A patterns and downward in V patterns). The lateral rectus muscles are moved toward the open end (ie, upward in V patterns and downward in A patterns). A useful mnemonic is MALE: medial rectus muscle to the apex, lateral rectus muscle to the empty space. These rules apply whether the horizontal rectus muscles are weakened or tightened (Fig 10-4).. If transposition of horizontal rectus muscles is used to treat pattern strabismus when there is associated ocular torsion, it will exacerbate the torsion (extorsion with V pattern and intorsion with A pattern), which itself can contribute to the pattern. Conversely, when rectus muscle transposition is used to treat torsion, ...
The extraocular muscles are one of few skeletal muscles that are structurally and functionally intact in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Little is known about the mechanisms responsible for differential sparing or targeting of muscle groups in neuromuscular disease. One hypothesis is that constitutive or adaptive properties of the unique extraocular muscle phenotype may underlie their protection in dystrophinopathy. We assessed the status of extraocular muscles in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Mice showed mild pathology in accessory extraocular muscles, but no signs of pathology were evident in the principal extraocular muscles at any age. By immunoblotting, the extraocular muscles of mdx mice exhibited increased levels of a dystrophin analog, dystrophin-related protein or utrophin. These data suggest, but do not provide mechanistic evidence, that utrophin mediates eye muscle protection. To examine a potential causal relationship, knockout mouse models were used to determine whether eye muscle
DR MARMOR: This patient is a 6-year-old who has a right superior oblique paresis. And he has a large vertical deviation in primary position of about 25 prism diopters. And so were going to do some investigation first on whether the superior oblique in the right eye has a normal tone or whether it may be lax. So he has inferior oblique overaction, and well be recessing the inferior oblique, but for the amount of deviation in primary position, that wouldnt be enough to take care of the vertical deviation. So we would need to add a second muscle. The second muscle would be a tuck of the superior oblique, if its in fact lax, or it could be recession of the inferior rectus on the other side. So were gonna determine that with forced duction testing.. ,, And can you just again summarize - I know youve been talking about it all week. Tell us why you do forced ductions, and how you do them. Very slowly just tell us: What are the purpose of forced ductions, and what are you testing?. DR MARMOR: In ...
Next, we compared the predicted impact of extorsion of the rectus muscle pulleys on binocular eye alignment with the clinical measurement in three patients. The location of each rectus muscle pulley was shifted both vertically and horizontally in the ocular simulator software (Eidactics) by an amount quantified by analysis of the corresponding CT images. Eye alignment for patients with 0 to 2°, 20°, and 32° of extorsion of the rectus muscle pulleys are shown as Hess-Lancaster-type plots in Figure 4. Eye position predicted by the ocular simulator software (Eidactics) in central gaze and at eccentricities of 30° upgaze, downgaze, right gaze, and left gaze in 2.5 mm intervals is indicated by the circles. Eye position determined from clinical examination in central gaze and at eccentricities of 30° downgaze and 30° upgaze is represented by the pluses (+). Figure 4A shows the horizontal and vertical eye position in a patient without extorsion of the pulleys. The model predicted normal eye ...
Introduction: The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are considered a separate class of skeletal muscle, allotype. Myosin is the major contractile protein in muscle. The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are the best molecular markers of functional heterogeneity of muscle fibers. The relaxation rate, reflects the rate at which Ca2+ is transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) mostly by SR Ca2+ATPase (SERCA). Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C), plays a physiological role in regulating contraction. The laminins (Ln) are the major non-collagenous components of the basement membrane (BM) surrounding muscle fibers and are important for muscle fiber integrity.. Methods: Adult human EOMs were studied with SDS-PAGE, immunoblots and immunocytochemistry, the latter with antibodies against six MyHC, 2 SERCA, 2 MyBP-C and 8 laminin chain isoforms. The capillary density was also determined.. Results: Most fibers contained a mixture of MyHC isoforms. Three major groups of fibers could be distinguished. ...
Planned strabismus repair targeted the recovery and advancement of the apparently slipped medial rectus muscle, recession of the lateral rectus muscle and excision of the mass in toto, if possible. Intraoperative unroofing of a superficial layer of conjunctiva over the mass revealed a chocolate-colored cyst filled with sero-sanguninous fluid, with strands of flaccid extraocular muscle or pseudo-tendon straddling its surface (Figure 3). The color of the fluid was attributed to prior hemorrhage. Although excision in one piece proved technically challenging, an excisional biopsy of one large section of the mass included up to 10 mm of the flaccid medial rectus fibers. A gentle hand-over-hand technique was required to reach the posterior extension of the cyst, enabling recovery of the medial rectus muscle, well posterior to the equator and still attached to the posterior surface of the remaining wall of the cyst via a thin thread of muscle fiber. The body of the medial rectus muscle was recovered, ...
A 16-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of recurrent (three episodes) right upper eyelid drooping and oedema (figure 1A). Examination showed fullness in the right upper eyelid along with elevation deficit. Visual acuity was 20/20 in each eye, and anterior and posterior segments were essentially within normal limits in both the eyes. To explain the cause, ultrasonography of the orbit for extraocular muscles revealed a large cyst in the superior rectus muscle along with a central hyperechoic spot corresponding to the scolex (figure 1B). Non-contrast CT of the orbit and brain revealed inflammatory thickening of the superior rectus muscle with the central cystic area harbouring the scolex without any intracranial foci (figure 1C). Based on the history and imaging findings a diagnosis of myocysticercosis was confirmed and … ...
The medial rectus muscle is the largest of the eyes extraocular movement muscles, six individual muscles that surround the eye and help control the eyes movement.
A surgical step in the correction of estropia condition. A medial transconjuntival incision is made to reach the medial rectus muscle. The muscle is released from its insertion point and is reattached in a recessed position.
The medial rectus muscle is released to be reattached to the eyeball in a recessed position, a surgical step in the correction of the estropia condition of the eye.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ipsilateral hypertropia after cataract surgery. AU - Capo, H.. AU - Guyton, D. L.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Background: Reports of acquired strabismus caused by injection of local anesthetics during cataract surgery have increased recently. The authors proposed a mechanism to explain the occurrence of strabismus with apparent overactive muscles after cataract surgery. Methods: The authors studied 19 patients in whom strabismus developed after cataract surgery. Prism and cover test in the diagnostic positions of gaze and forced-duction testing were used to identify the affected muscles. Results: The deviation was greater in the field of action of the presumed tight muscle in 16 of 19 patients. An ipsilateral hypertropia with superior rectus muscle overaction subsequently developed in two patients with an initial hypotropia. An overaction of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle causing an exotropia developed in one patient with initially limited abduction. Conclusions: ...
The inferior rectus (also inferior rectus muscle, inferior rectus extraocular muscle, latin: musculus rectus inferior) is one of the six extra-ocular muscles that are in control of eye movements.
This video demonstrates a superior oblique tendon tuck and an inferior oblique recession surgery in a 6-year-old with superior oblique paresis. Dr. Marmor explains all the steps during the surgery and answers the questions at the end. Surgery location: on-board the Orbis Flying Eye Hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh Surgeon: Dr. Maury A. Marmor Download Recording November…
The inferior oblique may be weakened effectively by recession, disinsertion, or myectomy, disrupting the muscle continuity between Lockwoods ligament and the muscles insertion.
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that insert onto the eye and hence control eye movements: superior rectus: elevation superior oblique: intorsion medial rectus: adduction lateral rectus: abduction inferior oblique: extorsion infe...
The oculomotor nerve pierces the dura mater on the lateral side of the posterior clinoid process (see Fig 3-24), initially traversing the roof of the cavernous sinus (see Fig 3-25). It runs along the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and above CN IV and enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure (see Fig 3-1).. CN III usually separates into superior and inferior divisions after passing through the annulus of Zinn in the orbit (Fig 3-17). Alternatively, it may divide within the anterior cavernous sinus. The nerve maintains a topographic organization even in the midbrain, so lesions almost anywhere along its course may cause a divisional nerve palsy.. The superior division of CN III innervates the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. The larger inferior division splits into 3 branches to supply the medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles.. The parasympathetic fibers wind around the periphery of the nerve, enter the inferior division, and ...
The muscles have been elevated. Branches of the superior division of the oculomotor nerve(16) enter the superior rectus muscle. Branches of the nerve also pass through the muscle or along its medial border to reach the inferior surface of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle(12 ...
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, or CFEOM, is a class of rare genetic disorders affecting one or more of the muscles that move the eyeballs. Individuals with CFEOM have varying degrees of ophthalmoplegia (an inability to move the eyes in one or more directions) and ptosis. The condition is present from birth and non-progressive, runs in families, and usually affects both eyes similarly. In the most common form, the superior recti are dysfunctional and the inferior recti, lacking proper opposition, pull the eyes down, forcing the head to be tilted upward in order to see straight ahead.[citation needed] There are three types of CFEOM, numbered 1-3. CFEOM1, the most common type, is now known to be caused by one of several mutations in the KIF21A gene, while CFEOM2 is caused by mutations in the PHOX2A gene. CFEOM3 is caused by mutations in the TUBB3 gene. CFEOM was first named in 1956, although papers describing conditions now known or assumed to be CFEOM appear in the medical ...
Looking for rectus muscle of eyeball, medial? Find out information about rectus muscle of eyeball, medial. the contractile tissue that effects the movement of and within the body. Muscle tissue in the higher animals is classified as striated, smooth, or cardiac,... Explanation of rectus muscle of eyeball, medial
Looking for rectus muscle of thigh? Find out information about rectus muscle of thigh. the contractile tissue that effects the movement of and within the body. Muscle tissue in the higher animals is classified as striated, smooth, or cardiac,... Explanation of rectus muscle of thigh
There are more than 1 million cesarean deliveries performed annually in the United States, at a rate of 30.2% of all deliveries. Data are limited regarding optimal surgical closure techniques to minimize adhesions at cesarean. Adhesions are implicated in pelvic pain, infertility, difficult repeat surgery, and bowel obstruction. Practice techniques regarding rectus muscle reapproximation vary widely, and there are no data regarding the impact of this step on pain, and some data suggesting a reduction in significant adhesions. Given the frequency of cesarean deliveries, small changes in surgical technique may yield significant benefits.. We hope to learn 1) whether suture reapproximation of the rectus muscles increases pain, and 2) the degree to which suture reapproximation of the rectus muscles alters adhesions when studied in a prospective, randomized trial.. All patients undergoing primary cesarean delivery at Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital (LPCH) will be offered the study. Once consented, ...
Yair Morad and Irene H. Ludwig Summary Acquired and congenital displacements of the paths of the eye muscles (pulley shifts and pulley heterotopias) are newly recognized causes of strabismus. Downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscles causes acquired esotropias including the
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Participation of phase and tonic oculomotor systems in extension reflexes and labyrinthine reflexes of extrinsic ocular muscles]. by P. I. Baĭchenko et al.
Identify the medial rectus muscle [cross-section]. Observe that the medial rectus muscle is innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve, indicated by the probe. Links and References: ...
Anosmia: Lack of olfaction, or a loss of the sense of smell Auditory Canal: Tube from the auditory meatus or opening of the ear to the tympanic membrane Auditory Tube: Either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum Chemoreception: Physiological response of a sense organ to a chemical stimulus Choroid: Vascular layer of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera Circumvallate papillae: Papillae that are present on the back of the oral part of the tongue Cochlea: Is concerned with hearing, resembling a shell of a snail Dysosmia: When things smell differently than they should Equilibrium: Sense of balance Extraocular muscles: Six muscles that control eye movements: lateral rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, inferior oblique and superior oblique Filiform papillae: Thin, longer papillae that dont contain taste buds but are the most numerous Foliate papillae: Ridges and grooves towards the ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Temporal expression profiling of developing extraocular muscle (EOM) by high-density DNA arrays and electron microscopy. Methods: Affymetrix U34A arrays and routine EM were used to study EOM gene expression/morphogenic patterns at P0 to P45, 3 replicates/age. A self-organizing map cluster analysis identified patterned trends in gene expression. Results: Of 8,800 genes on arrays, 3,385 were expressed in EOM with ≷ 2x changes during the age range. Of these, genes meeting additional significance criteria were grouped into 12 clusters comprising 4 major trends. Type I cluster genes (411) were highly expressed at birth and downregulated by P14; group included cell cycle, transduction and growth regulation factors. Type II cluster genes (104) were absent/low expressers at P0, some upregulated by P7, but most progressively increased starting by P14; group included muscle differentiation genes. Expression of genes in the type III cluster (62) was high at P0, progressively dropped ...
High-end 3D medical image : A lateral angled view of the eyeball from the left hand side, showing the inferior oblique muscle, the superior oblique muscle and most of the rectus muscles. The external cornea and iris are also clearly shown.
The oculomotor nerve supplies the medial, superior, and inferior rectus muscles and the inferior oblique muscle, which control most eye movements. The third
License: This faithful reproduction of a lithograph plate from Grays Anatomy, a two-dimensional work of art, is not copyrightable in the U.S. as per Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp.; the same is also true in many other countries. Unless stat...
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Winters LM, Briggs MM, Schachat F (November 1998). The human extraocular muscle myosin heavy chain gene (MYH13) maps to the cluster of fast and developmental myosin genes on chromosome 17. Genomics. 54 (1): 188-9. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5558. PMID 9806854 ...
Proposed studies continue long-term efforts to understand.extraocular muscle (EOM). The diversity and plasticity that is inherent in eye movement control system...
Free Online Library: Extraocular muscles: anatomy and clinical investigation.(CONTINUING EDUCATION & TRAINING) by Optometry Today; Health, general Eye Movements Properties Eye movements Muscles Visual perception Investigations
ICD-10-PCS code 08TL3ZZ for Resection of Right Extraocular Muscle, Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Eye range.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Swollen Extraocular Muscle and Tingling Extremities. AU - Nakagami, Futoshi. AU - Hagiya, Hideharu. AU - Oyama, Akane. AU - Hongyo, Kazuhiro. AU - Nagasawa, Motonori. AU - Rakugi, Hiromi. PY - 2018/12. Y1 - 2018/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053598043&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053598043&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.08.007. DO - 10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.08.007. M3 - Article. C2 - 30142316. AN - SCOPUS:85053598043. VL - 131. SP - e492-e493. JO - American Journal of Medicine. JF - American Journal of Medicine. SN - 0002-9343. IS - 12. ER - ...
Infiltrative orbital mass involving the lacrimal gland, lateral and superior rectus muscles in a 40 year old female (idiopathic sclerosing inflammation of the orbit) ...
Magnetic resonante (MRI) showed an apparently choroidal tumour that infiltrated sclera and suggested infiltration of the superior rectus muscle, which would be compatible with a melanoma, which presented differential diagnosis with metastasis or haemangioma. The sonographer reported an elevated hypoechogenic lesion compatible with haemangioma. Fluorescein angiography did not provide us much information, only numerous and marked choroidal folds were evident, with no other alterations of interest in vascularization or parenchyma. Indocyanine green (ICG) did not find alterations to clarify the diagnosis. VA was maintained over the time. Analytical and sistemic imaging tests were normal, so there was no related systemic disease. The size of the lesion was slowly declining ...
A rarely discussed but increasingly common sports injury is the oblique muscle strain. Oblique muscles are also often referred to as abdominal...
When a subject watches an approaching object, three things happen the eyes converge through the action of the medial rectus muscles the pupils constrict and
Looking for online definition of inferior rectus (muscle) in the Medical Dictionary? inferior rectus (muscle) explanation free. What is inferior rectus (muscle)? Meaning of inferior rectus (muscle) medical term. What does inferior rectus (muscle) mean?
Divergence excess type should be treated with bilateral lateral rectus muscle recessions. Basic Types: should be treated with recession lateral rectus- recession lateral rectus in both eyes or unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession/medial rectus muscle resection Simulated Divergence Excess : should be treated with recession lateral rectus- recession lateral rectus in both eyes or unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession/medial rectus muscle resection
Infantile esotropia is defined as the onset of constant esodeviation in children less than 6 months of age.There are several other clinical findings that often accompany infantile esotropia including: large amplitude of the angle (greater than 30 prism diopters), dissociated vertical deviation, dissociated horizontal deviation, inferior oblique overaction, latent nystagmus, cross fixation with pseudo abduction deficit, low degree of hyperopia (less than 3 diopters), and amblyopia. The incidence of infantile esotropia is approximately 1%,making this an important issue for pediatric ophthalmologist.. There are multiple surgical techniques used to treat infantile esotropia with the main goal being to align the eyes so that binocular vision may develop.The most common initial treatment is either bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions or unilateral medial rectus muscle recession and lateral rectus muscle resection. For infants with very large angles of esotropia (,60 prism diopters [PD]), surgery ...
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Purpose:To investigate the accuracy of high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy using the bag/balloon technique to locate recti muscle insertions before and after strabismus surgery.Methods:This was a prospective masked study. The distance from the limbus to horizontal recti muscle insertions was measured by caliper intraoperatively and ultrasound biomicroscopy preoperatively and during follow-up.
DR WAGNER: Great. We just started doing a boy with congenital esotropia, bilateral esotropia. And were gonna recess the right and left medial rectus muscles.. ,, How old is the boy?. DR WAGNER: Thats better. Okay. Okay. He also has a very… A somewhat tighter medial rectus muscle. I think thats, again, related to a longstanding esotropia. Hes now… Im not sure. How old is he now? 13 years old. Probably had this since birth. So I think youll often develop… Youre gonna hold it that way. And then Id like to have the suture ready. It is long, right? What are you doing? Different needle? Thats okay. So here we have a number of blood vessels there. We could probably catch them with the locking bite, the second bite that I go through. Gonna go around. Come through the hole. And try to lock it. Should be locked. There we go. Thats a little shorter. This is a little better suture. Have the back end away from me. Thank you. Ill grab it here.. ,, Doctor, I know youre in the middle of the ...
Paralysis of the third cranial nerve affects the medial, superior, and inferior recti, and inferior oblique muscles.. The eye is incapable of movement upwards, downwards or inwards, and at rest the eye looks laterally and downwards owing to the overriding influence of the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles respectively. The reduced response of levator palpebrae superioris results in ptosis - a drooping of the upper eyelid.. A third nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is often termed a medical third palsy and often has an ischaemic or diabetic aetiology.. Full assessment of oculomotor nerve function involves testing of movement, reaction to light, and accommodation. If all of these are normal, PERLA may be written in the notes - pupils equal, reactive to light and normal accommodation. ...
1) I is the olfactory nerve. The olfactory nerve is a characteristic sensory nerve which serves as a smell transmitter to the brain for interpretation.. 2) II is the optic nerve. The optic nerve is purely sensory in nature and is responsible for vision whereby it transits all visual signals emanating from the eyes retina to the brain for interpretation.. 3) III is the oculomotor nerve. The oculomotor nerve is a type of a motor nerve which has the function of coordinating the eyeball and eyelid movements in that it innervates the inferior oblique, inferior rectus, medial rectus, superior rectus, and the levator palpebrae superioris which jointly perform most the movements of the eye.. 4) IV is the trochlear nerve. The trochlear nerve is a motor nerve which innervates the muscle called superior oblique and this helps in turning the eye laterally and downwards.. 5) V is the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve is both a motor and sensory nerve which obtains sensation directly from the face and ...
The Parks-Bielschowsky three-step test , also known as Park's three-step test or Bielschowsky head tilt test , is a method used to isolate the paretic extraocular muscle , particularly superior oblique muscle and trochlear nerve (IVth cranial nerve), in acquired vertical double vision . It was originally described by Marshall M. Parks . Bielschowsky's head tilt test Step 1: Determine which eye is hypertropic in primary position. If there is right hypertropia in primary position, then the depressors of the R eye (IR/SO) or the elevators of the L eye are weak (SR/IO). Step 2: Determine whether the hypertropia increases on right or left gaze. The vertical rectus muscles have their greatest vertical action when the eye is abducted. The oblique muscles have their greatest vertical action when the eye is adducted. Step 3: Determine whether the hypertropia increases on right or left head tilt. During right head tilt, the right eye intorts (SO/SR) and the left eye extorts (IO/IR). When a healthy
Dissociated horizontal deviation after traumatic brain injury.. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2010 Dec;24(6):377-9. Authors: Lee TE, Cha DS, Koh SB, Kim SH. A 4-year-old boy visited the hospital with exotropia after brain hemorrhage caused by trauma. He had undergone decompressive craniectomy and cranioplasty 18 months prior to presentation at our hospital. An alternate prism cover test showed more than 50 prism diopters (PD) of left exotropia when he was fixing with the right eye and 30 PD of right exotropia when he was fixing with the left eye at near and far distance. On the Hirschberg test, 60 PD of left exotropia was noted in the primary position. Brain computerized tomography imaging performed 18 months prior showed hypodense changes in the right middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery territories. Subfalcian herniation was also noted secondary to swelling of the right hemisphere. The patient underwent a left lateral rectus muscle recession of 7.0 mm and a left medial rectus muscle ...
View Notes - 13. from NA NA at Marquette. Matching Questions Figure 13.1 Using Figure 13.1, match the following: 1) Innervates the superior oblique muscle. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 501; Fig. 13.5
The sclera is the opaque (usually white), fibrous, protective layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fibers.[1] In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing slightly blue. In the old, however, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear slightly yellow. The sclera forms the posterior five sixths of the connective tissue coat of the globe. The sclera maintains the shape of the globe, offering resistance to internal and external forces, and provides an attachment for the extraocular muscle insertions. The thickness of the sclera varies from 1mm at the posterior pole to 0.3 mm just behind the rectus muscle insertions. ...
The aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle has been cut back so that the entire extent of the tarsal muscle is visible. Smooth muscle fibers are less evident in the extreme lateral and medial parts of this layer. The orbital septum does not appear to be a complete membrane in the lateral and inferior parts of the orbit, but rather consists of fibrous bands intermingled with lobules of fat. The layer of connective tissue which extended betweeen the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital septum has been completely removed ...
MERINO, P et al. Bilateral superior oblique palsy and botulinum toxin. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol [online]. 2004, vol.79, n.3, pp.119-123. ISSN 0365-6691.. Purpose: Purpose: To study the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of bilateral acquired oblique superior palsy. Material and method: Five patients with bilateral asymmetrical acquired superior oblique palsy were treated with periodical injections of botulinum toxin in the inferior oblique and rectus muscles (2.5-5 U). The average age of the sample was 37.4 years. A trauma etiology was present in four cases. Treatment was applied at two months after the beginning of the illness in two cases, at four months in another two cases, and at one year in the other patient. Results: A good result was achieved in three of the cases with botulinum toxin. Two patients required surgery. All of the patients were injected in the inferior obliques, and two cases were also injected in the inferior rectus. The number of injections ranged between four ...
The extra-ocular, or extrinsic eye, muscles are a series of small muscles that arise from the pre-otic somites in the developing head. Associated with these somites are the three ventral motor cranial nerves (III or the oculomotor, IV or the trochlear, and VI or the abducens) rostral to the developing ear. The seven extra-ocular muscles encircle the eye within the orbit. Six of the seven muscles attach to the sclera of the eye and produce the complete range of eye movements. The seventh muscle moves the upper eyelid out of the visual pathway. The six muscles of the eyeball are an incredibly stable muscle group over the long history of vertebrate evolution. Across the entire range of vertebrate animals, from fish to mammals, the six extra-ocular muscles show little variation. These intricately controlled muscles have some of the highest neuron to muscle fiber ratios in the body, with motor units consisting of approximately ten muscle fibers. The levator palpebrae superioris, the only member of ...
In 2007, I published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology a new, minimally invasive access technique for primary horizontal rectus muscle recession and plication and its results.1 I suggested performing these types of surgeries using only two, small parainsertional openings. The term minimally invasive surgery (MISS) was proposed for all types of strabismus surgeries (1) minimizing the … ...
Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle recession (retroposition) of strabismus (costs for program #43883) ✔ University Hospital Rechts der Isar of the Munich Technical University ✔ Department of Ophthalmology ✔ BookingHealth.com
The present invention is directed to a drug delivery device for a human eye. The human eye has a sclera, an inferior oblique muscle, and a macula. The device of the present invention includes a pharmaceutically active agent, and a geometry that facilitates the implantation of the device on an outer surface of the sclera, beneath the inferior oblique muscle, and with the pharmaceutically active agent disposed above the macula. Methods of delivery a pharmaceutically active agent to the posterior segment of the human eye are also disclosed.
Obliques that form the side of the body, often loses necessary for the development of load. The lag in the development of these muscle groups due to the fact that most of the people for strengthening the abdominal muscles do the twist and other variations of this exercise, in which the oblique muscles are not as active as direct muscle. Therefore, in order to develop the muscles laterally and to give it relief, the need to separately work out the oblique muscles of the press. Also, be sure to adhere to a special diet, thanks to which decreases the amount of abdominal fat, and relief of the abdominal muscles begins to be clearly seen. The complex of exercises for the oblique muscles of the press ...
In Part 1 we reviewed evidence for the importance of proprioception in eye muscle function. The graphic above is from a paper on sensory control of extraocular muscles, postulating proprioceptive pathways based on known connections. if proprioceptive signals are generated in the palisade endings on multiply innervated extraocular muscle fibers (MIFs), the information may first…
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Can you become blind from strabismus surgery - Can you become blind from strabismus surgery? Unlikely. Blindness from strabismus surgery is a rare and unlikely complication. Statistically, it is probably more dangerous to drive in a car for the surgery than to have the anesthesia and surgery for most people.
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It was also noted in most developing countries is commander cialis forum the diagnostic test because the major innate neurobiological differences in parasite epidemiology. Centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis is thought to convey vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration. Changes in brain imaging was performed with sample sizes very small, giving little scope for extrapolation to the hospital), which is expressed by more than the cathartic threshold of a second transplantation compared with intensive chemoconsolidation. During the establishment of healthy, intimate, and romantic relationships by challenging the involvement of pgs in intestinal obstruction, abdominal pain of the frontal cortical regions adjacent to the beneficial effects on the ability of cocaine are then imported into the superior rectus muscle. Tl weighted images look like i do. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Within the frontal lobes in the rat striatal complex. The cell body to salient stimuli (loring, 1996 palmer heaton, ...
Lateral bowing of the femur, commonly observed among Asian populations, may cause malalignment after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, in this s
Strabismus surgery should NOT be considered as just a cosmetic procedure. Misaligned eyes are not a normal state. Misaligned eyes affect ones ability to see, communicate, gain social acceptance, find a job, make friends, seek a life partner and avert depression. Therefore strabismus surgery is more proprely referred to as a RECONSTRUCTIVE rather than just cosmetic. ...
If I do use the restasis he said I am on this for at least 3 months to see if it helps. Ugh, I dont know if I should use it or not. It has been about 14 weeks since my lasik surgery. Well, then he put me behind the equipment (dont know what it is called) to check my vision and it was blurry but as soon as he overcorrected me I could see perfectly. I was so happy. He said he corrected me for my perscription but that I was overcorrected in my glasses and contacts before the surgery. He said if he overcorrected me then I would need reading glasses much sooner. But my answer is I would rather see like I did and need reading glasses sooner than see fuzzy as I am now ...
For adults and school-age children we use 3D vision therapy to treat strabismus without eye muscle surgery for both straight eyes AND a beautiful 3D world.
Abdominal rectus muscle diastasis surgery (costs for program #264643) ✔ Sana Hospital Duisburg ✔ Department of General, Abdominal and Thoracic Surgery ✔ BookingHealth.com
The Baerveldt implant (Fig 1) was developed for the treatment of refractory glaucoma in patients who were not considered likely to benefit from conventional gla
Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) cleaves synaptobrevin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, thereby preventing neurotransmitter release and causing a functional deafferentation. We injected TeNT into the lateral rectus muscle of adult cats at 0.5 or 5 ng/kg (low and high dose, respectively). In the periphery, TeNT slightly slowed motor axon conduction velocity, and at high doses, partially blocked neuromuscular transmission. TeNT peripheral actions displayed time courses different to the more profound and longer-lasting central actions. Central effects were first observed 2 days postinjection and reversed after 1 mo. The low dose induce depression of inhibitory inputs, whereas the high dose produce depression of both inhibitory and excitatory inputs. Simultaneous recordings of eye movement and neuronal firing revealed that low-dose injections specifically reduced inhibition of firing during off-directed saccadic movements, while high-dose injections of TeNT affected both inhibitory and
The Sherringtons law of reciprocal innervation, also called Sherringtons law II explains how a muscle will relax when its opposite muscle is activated. in other words, when a muscle contracts, its direct antagonist relaxes to an equal extent allowing smooth movement..for example, when the muscle of lateral rectus in the right eye is contract, it will relax the reciprocal muscle (medial rectus)of the same eye...and the same time it will also contract the medial rectus of the other eye ...
lateral rectus muscle. Later he was hospitalized due to fever and vomiting in left orbital lesion, suspecting a metastatic ... Oncohematology Clinic of Padua Hospital due to fever and vomiting in left orbital lesion, suspecting a metastatic ... - from 5th to the 12th July, 2009 hospitalization due to fever , an extract of the discharge letter is reported: Discharge .... ...
Divide the lateral border for a day for 4 weeks xl get wellbutrin no prescription. The main mass of the treatment. Sarcoidosis and kidney cancers in single systems may be a difference in the sense that the relevant cancer.17 a national histopathologyuality assurance (eqa) scheme should be aligned with the finger laterally, alternating from side to offset the suture and incise the parietal peritoneum in the. This small amount comes from the point when you are uncertain about the most valuable when access to dna could have a signicant increase in bladder compliance had renal cell carcinoma, foreign body has to be seen in different cell lines specific orders (wound monitoring; circulatory and urinary retention or secondary [15]. Kidney int; vol. Calcium-fortified juices are loaded with vegetables, which add fiber and low pressures). The exact location of the pedicle to the urogenital sinus with urovaginal confluence. 28. Pass the tubing above the right lateral rectus muscles and optic disc and ...
Look, there they are, Technicolored for your convenience (actually they are all different colors, really, thats why Colorado is really pink because its pink on the map. Anyway, I didnt draw many deep layer muscles because, well, they are deep layered muscles and not really vital to understanding facial expression as they act to assist the upper layer muscles. The buccinator (sounds like buck-sin-a-tor not like buccaneer) is about as deep layer as I got here. The levator palpebrae is under the orbicularis oculi and opens the eye, its a deep layer muscle too. Youll notice that I included origin and insertion of these muscles (labeled as O and I) because its very important to know how the muscle works and therefore changes to the face so it can express. Origination of a muscle means where the muscle pulls to. Think of origination as the place where you dig in your heels at the start of a tug-o-war. Insertion means the part that is being pulled. If you were in a tug-o-war against a ...
Fleiszig Nebenwirkungen zovirax tabletten, Evans DJ The pathogenesis of bacterial keratitis studies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 3. 2. All had vertical diplopia, consistent with restriction of the inferior rectus muscle, which persisted for 2в9 months.
My second strabismus surgery is scheduled for Thursday December 7 (See update below.) I was a little surprised when a friend prayed for me a couple days ago
Extraocular eye movement is a function of cranial nerves and can be easily assesed. This article briefly discusses extraocular eye movement at an appropriate level for medical providers like nurses, EMTs, and paramedics.
The nerves in the cupula report the motion to both the brain and oculomotor muscles, stabilizing eye movements. A transfer ... These cells transmit motion information to the brain and oculomotor muscles. Studies indicate that the otoliths detect the ... Proprioceptors respond to stimuli generated by muscle movement and muscle tension. Signals generated by exteroceptors and ... Proprioceptors are receptors located in muscles, tendons, joints and gut, which send signals to the brain in proportion to ...
It may occur due to ciliary muscle paralysis or oculomotor nerve paralysis. Parasypatholytic drugs like atropine will also ... Premature sclerosis of lens or ciliary muscle weaknesses due to systemic or local cases may cause accommodative insufficiency. ... Systemic causes of cliary muscle weakness include diabetes, pregnancy, stress, malnutrition etc. Open angle glaucoma, ... and ciliary muscle power. AI is commonly present in people with convergence insufficiency. Accommodative insufficiency is ...
1985). "A new X-linked syndrome with muscle atrophy, congenital contractures, and oculomotor apraxia". American Journal of ... Elevated muscular tone in lower extremities Spasticity Dystonia Autonomic storms Camptodactyly Apraxia of speech Oculomotor ...
Close to the midline are the motor efferent nuclei, such as the oculomotor nucleus, which control skeletal muscle. Just lateral ... motor Oculomotor nucleus (III) - motor Edinger-Westphal nucleus (III) - visceromotor Nuclei present in the Pons Cochlear nuclei ...
Oculomotor ataxia accompanies gait ataxia which causes dysarthria, muscle weakness, loss of joint position sense and limb ... In most cases, between the age of 2 and 4 oculomotor signals are present. Between the age of 2 and 8, telangiectasias appears. ...
The oculomotor nerve controls all the muscles that move the eye except for the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles. It ... General muscle strengthening exercises will help to maintain muscle strength and reduce muscle wasting. Aerobic exercise such ... All the oculomotor muscles innervated by the third nerve may be affected, but those that control pupil size are usually well- ... These programs may include general muscle stretching to maintain muscle length and a person's range of motion. ...
In addition, by the medial longitudinal fasciculus and oculomotor nuclei, they activate the medial rectus muscles on the right ... specifically activating the medial rectus muscle of the eye through the oculomotor nerve. Another pathway (not in picture) ... If the gain of the VOR is wrong (different from 1)-for example, if eye muscles are weak, or if a person puts on a new pair of ... One pathway projects directly to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye via the abducens nerve. Another nerve tract projects from ...
Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ... This is in contrast to areas of body where miswiring of the larger muscles is less evident due to the size of the muscles. ... The six muscles around the eye (extraocular muscles) are innervated by three different cranial nerves: Abducens (6th nerve), ... Facial muscles contain few to none intrinsic muscle sensory receptors (used for proprioceptive feedback) and additionally they ...
For example, the oculomotor nucleus contains α-MNs that innervate muscles of the eye, and is found in the midbrain, the most ... Beta motor neuron Extrafusal muscle fiber Gamma motor neuron Intrafusal muscle fibre Muscle spindle Renshaw cell John A. ... denervated muscles are prone to atrophy. A secondary cause of muscle atrophy is that denervated muscles are no longer supplied ... For example, the muscles of a single finger have more α-MNs per fibre, and more α-MNs in total, than the muscles of the ...
Parasympathetic fibers travel with cranial nerve III, the oculomotor nerve, to innervate the circular layer of muscle of the ... There are two types of muscle that control the size of the iris: the iris sphincter, composed of circularly arranged muscle ... In cases of head injury or orbit trauma (eye injury), the iris sphincter (the muscle responsible for closing the pupil) or the ... Sympathetic stimulation of the adrenergic receptors causes the contraction of the radial muscle and subsequent dilation of the ...
... ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip palate Contractures hyperkeratosis lethal Contractures of feet-muscle atrophy-oculomotor apraxia ... photocontact Continuous muscle fiber activity hereditary Continuous spike-wave during slow sleep syndrome Contractural ...
The oculomotor nerve controls all muscles of the eye except for the superior oblique muscle controlled by the trochlear nerve ( ... Most muscles are supplied by the cortex on the opposite side of the brain; the exception is the frontalis muscle of the ... The muscle, skin, or additional function supplied by a nerve, on the same side of the body as the side it originates from, is ... This is where a person is unable to move the muscles on one or both sides of their face. The most common cause of this is ...
... orbital muscle innervated by the oculomotor nerve and notes on the metameric character of the head in craniates. Zoologica ...
... orbital muscle innervated by the oculomotor nerve and notes on the metameric character of the head in craniates. Zoologica ... H. C. (1971). The nerve supply to the second metamere basicranial muscle in osteolepiform vertebrates, with some remarks on the ... Bjerring, H. C. (1967). Does a homology exist between the basicranial muscle and the polar cartilage? Colloques Internationaux ... Bjerring, H. C. (1993). Yet another interpretation of the coelacanthiform basicranial muscle and its innervation. Acta ...
In humans, the movements of oculomotor muscles ("eye-blink reflex" or "eye-blink response" assessed using electromyographic ... By this step, artifacts from eye movements and muscle activity independent of blink responses are removed. To avoid aliasing ... recording of orbicularis oculi muscle and by oculography) could be used as a measure. Pulse-alone results are compared to ...
The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are connected. This is important in coordinating the motion of the lateral ... The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation ( ... The muscles show little inertia - a shutdown of one muscle is not due to checking of the antagonist, so the motion is not ... Muscles show small degrees of activity even when resting, keeping the muscles taut. This "tonic" activity is brought on by ...
Ptosis caused by oculomotor palsy can be unilateral or bilateral, as the subnucleus to the levator muscle is a shared, midline ... Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply (oculomotor nerve for levator ... For example, myogenic ptosis results from a direct injury to the levator muscle and/or Müller's muscle. On the other hand, ... oculomotor nerve)) which controls this muscle. Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes ...
The muscles it controls are the striated muscle in levator palpebrae superioris and all extraocular muscles except for the ... to the smooth muscle of superior tarsal (Mueller's) muscle. The oculomotor nerve include axons of type GSE, general somatic ... Since the oculomotor nerve controls most of the eye muscles, it may be easier to detect damage to it. Damage to this nerve, ... Paralysis of the oculomotor nerve, i.e., oculomotor nerve palsy, can arise due to: direct trauma, demyelinating diseases (e.g ...
In humans, the muscle is about 35 mm long. The inferior oblique is innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve ... Inferior oblique muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep ... The inferior oblique muscle is the only muscle that is capable of elevating the eye when it is in a fully adducted position. ... The inferior oblique muscle or obliquus oculi inferior is a thin, narrow muscle placed near the anterior margin of the floor of ...
... the oculomotor nerve supplies the majority of the muscles controlling eye movements (4 out of the 6 extracocular muscles. All ... The condition can also result from aplasia or hypoplasia of one or more of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve. It can ... different individual muscles being affected, thus producing different presentation patterns. Compressive oculomotor nerve ... "oculomotor neuropathy". A complete oculomotor nerve palsy will result in a characteristic down and out position in the affected ...
It is one of the extraocular muscles. It is innervated by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III). In ... Superior rectus muscle Superior rectus muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. ... The superior rectus muscle is the only muscle that is capable of elevating the eye when it is in a fully abducted position. The ... Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye ...
In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ... The oculomotor nerve is predominantly affected as it lies closest to the pituitary. The cavernous sinus also contains the ... The most common problem is growth hormone deficiency, which is often left untreated but may cause decreased muscle mass and ... This contains a number of nerves that control the eye muscles. 70% of people with pituitary apoplexy experience double vision ...
Lesions in CN III can cause ptosis, because without stimulation from the oculomotor nerve the levator palpebrae cannot oppose ... Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection ... It is a skeletal muscle. The superior tarsal muscle, a smooth muscle, is attached to the levator palpebrae superioris, and ... The smooth muscle that originates from its undersurface, called the superior tarsal muscle is innervated by postganglionic ...
As with most of the muscles of the orbit, it is innervated by the inferior division of oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III). It ... Inferior rectus muscle Inferior rectus muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. ... The inferior rectus muscle is the only muscle that is capable of depressing the pupil when it is in a fully abducted position. ... Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. "Eye Theory ...
For example, the oculomotor nucleus contains α-MNs that innervate muscles of the eye, and is found in the midbrain, the most ... denervated muscles are prone to atrophy. A secondary cause of muscle atrophy is that denervated muscles are no longer supplied ... For example, the muscles of a single finger have more α-MNs per fiber, and more α-MNs in total, than the muscles of the ... Muscle weakness and atrophy are inevitable consequences of α-MN lesions as well. Because muscle size and strength are related ...
... code used by oculomotor neurons. Eye movements are generated by six muscles, arranged in three orthogonally-aligned pairs. Thus ... Sparks, DL; Gandhi NJ (2003). "Single-cell signals: an oculomotor perspective". Prog Brain Res. 142: 35-53. doi:10.1016/S0079- ...
... and inferior oblique muscles. Fibers to the trochlear (IV) nucleus control the superior oblique muscle. Fibers to the ... Then, it courses posteriorly toward the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI), the ... Also, fibers to the paramedian pontine reticular formation mediates the movements with the oculomotor (III) and trochlear (IV) ... Cross section of the midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus showing oculomotor nucleus . Scheme showing central ...
The ptosis seen in Horner's syndrome is of a lesser degree than is seen with an oculomotor nerve palsy. The muscle derives its ... The superior tarsal muscle is a smooth muscle adjoining the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that helps to raise the upper ... The sympathetic fibres continue to the superior division of the oculomotor nerve, where they enter the superior tarsal muscle ... However, the same term is also used for the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle, and also for the orbitalis muscle that ...
... that innervate the muscles, and occasionally disorders involving the supranuclear oculomotor pathways or ingestion of toxins. ... Problems with these muscles may be due to mechanical problems, disorders of the neuromuscular junction, disorders of the ... Temporary diplopia can also be caused by tired or strained eye muscles. If diplopia appears with other symptoms such as fatigue ... 2007). "Oculomotor disorders". Semin Neurol. 27 (3): 244-56. doi:10.1055/s-2007-979682. PMID 17577866. Kernich, C.A. (2006). " ...
The Müller's muscle, or the superior tarsal muscle, in the upper eyelid and the inferior palpebral muscle in the lower 3 eyelid ... The levator palpebrae superioris' action is sent through the oculomotor nerve. The duration of a blink is on average 100-150 ... There are multiple muscles that control reflexes of blinking. The main muscles, in the upper eyelid, that control the opening ... These muscles are not only imperative in blinking, but they are also important in many other functions such as squinting and ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
... muscle rigidity, psychiatric disturbances, dystonia and dysphagia. The combination of neurological symptoms, a low blood ...
... rigidity is often asymmetrical and it tends to affect the neck and shoulder muscles prior to the muscles of the face and ... These are known as the motor, oculo-motor, associative, limbic and orbitofrontal circuits, with names indicating the main ... Muscles and nerves that control the digestive process may be affected by PD, resulting in constipation and gastroparesis (food ... Rigidity is stiffness and resistance to limb movement caused by increased muscle tone, an excessive and continuous contraction ...
Common misconception about EOG is that measured potential is the electromyogram of extraocular muscles. In fact, it is only the ... Competition-interaction theory and SERIF emphasise low level oculomotor processes in reading such as how the word length of the ... and oculomotor control.[11] Eye trackers bounce near infrared light off the interior of the eyeball, and monitor the reflection ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
... the digastric muscle and the stylohyoid muscle, the occipital artery and the posterior auricular artery. Higher up, it is ... of the internal carotid artery passes between the optic and oculomotor nerves to the anterior perforated substance at the ... overlapped by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and covered by the deep fascia, the platysma, and integument: it then passes ... separated from the external carotid by the styloglossus and stylopharyngeus muscles, the tip of the styloid process and the ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those with sixth nerve palsy therefore experience horizontal double ... It can cause the symptoms of hypokalemia (low blood potassium levels), which include muscle weakness and tingling in the ... the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of facial expression on one or both sides of the face.[5] ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
The gray line of the eye is a line that divides the eyelid into parts: anterior part is skin and muscle while posterior is ...
舌骨上神經(英语:Suprahyoid muscles) *Digastric branch of facial nerve(英语:Digastric branch of facial nerve) ... 動眼神經核(英语:Oculomotor nucleus). *動眼神經
... responsible for the nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation arises in the otolith organs and couples to the oculomotor ...
Low muscle tone patterns in extensor versus gravity and flexor versus gravity muscle systems ... such as the Wilbarger Approach and the Vestibular-Oculomotor Protocol. ... Receptors in the muscles and joints are used to determine where parts of the body are located in space ...
Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction. Hidden categories: *All articles with dead ...
動眼神經核(英語:Oculomotor nucleus). *動眼神經副核 ... 舌骨上神經(英語:Suprahyoid muscles) *digastric. *stylohyoid. *腮腺神經叢(英語
The infection of the heart, muscles, and vessels in the body can lead to meningovascular syphilis. Generally, rashes may start ... "Neurosyphilis presenting with gummatous oculomotor nerve palsy". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 75 (5): 789. doi:10.1136/ ...
The oculomotor nerve is responsible for the efferent limb of the pupillary reflex; it drives the iris muscles that constrict ... Oculomotor nerve damage on one side: (Example in parens: Left oculomotor nerve, CN III, is transected, therefore the left ... "Cranial Nerve III-Oculomotor Nerve". yale.edu. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2008-07-27.. ... The efferent limb is the pupillary motor output from the pretectal nucleus to the ciliary sphincter muscle of the iris. The ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
lower limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Posterior thoracic nucleus → Dorsal/posterior spinocerebellar tract → ICP → ... For example, motor neurons, which travel from the spinal cord to the muscle, can have axons up to a meter in length in humans. ... upper limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Accessory cuneate nucleus → Cuneocerebellar tract → ICP → Anterior lobe of ... Primary motor cortex → Genu of internal capsule → Corticobulbar tract → Facial motor nucleus → Facial muscles ...
... smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle has no striations when examined microscopically. It contracts ... oculomotor, motor division of the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear and hypoglossal nerves.[63] ... Muscle cells (myocytes) form the active contractile tissue of the body. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause ... Obliquely striated muscle is intermediate between the other two. The filaments are staggered and this is the type of muscle ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ...
... is paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye, resulting in a loss of accommodation.[1] Because of the paralysis of ... They are indicated for use in cycloplegic refraction (to paralyze the ciliary muscle in order to determine the true refractive ... the ciliary muscle, the curvature of the lens can no longer be adjusted to focus on nearby objects. This results in similar ...
... which relay the signal to the motor neurons in antigravity muscles.[6] These antigravity muscles are extensor muscles in the ... lower limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Posterior thoracic nucleus → Dorsal/posterior spinocerebellar tract → ICP → ... upper limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Accessory cuneate nucleus → Cuneocerebellar tract → ICP → Anterior lobe of ... The spinal cord induces extensor effects in the muscle on the side of the neck to which the head is bent, and flexor effects in ...
Figure 9: Muscle fiber oculomotor plant for the agonist and antagonist rectus eye muscles [12]. The muscles are assumed to be ... and the dynamics of muscle fibers in each column are represented by where denotes the tension developed by each muscle fiber ... The muscle fiber model (MFM) improves the oculomotor plant model by using several configurations of muscle fibers in series or ... 100 identical muscle fibers were connected in series in both the agonist and antagonist muscles in the oculomotor plant. Under ...
... Alireza Ghahari and John D ... J. D. Enderle, "Neural control of saccades," in The Brains Eyes: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects to Oculomotor Research, ... D. A. Robinson, "Models of mechanics of eye movements," in Models of Oculomotor Behavior and Control, B. L. Zuber, Ed., pp. 21- ... J. D. Enderle and D. A. Sierra, "A new linear muscle fiber model for neural control of saccades," International Journal of ...
... muscle atrophy and oculomotor apraxia medical term. What does contracture of feet, muscle atrophy and oculomotor apraxia mean? ... muscle atrophy and oculomotor apraxia explanation free. What is contracture of feet, muscle atrophy and oculomotor apraxia? ... muscle atrophy and oculomotor apraxia in the Medical Dictionary? contracture of feet, ... Contracture of feet, muscle atrophy and oculomotor apraxia , definition of contracture of feet, muscle atrophy and oculomotor ...
Successful Management of Traumatic Rupture of the Inferior Rectus Muscle Teena Mariet Mendonca, Gurudutt M Kamath 1. Senior ... Examination revealed right hypertopia and limitation of infraduction of right eye with rupture of Inferior Rectus (IR) muscle ... SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT OF TRAUMATIC RUPTURE OF THE INFERIOR RECTUS MUSCLE. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial ...
Oculomotor System Plasticity After Sustained Unilateral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Treatment of the Extraocular Muscles ... Oculomotor System Plasticity After Sustained Unilateral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Treatment of the Extraocular Muscles ... Extraocular muscle specimens were collected for histological analysis of changes in muscle morphology and innervation density ... Oculomotor System Plasticity After Sustained Unilateral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Treatment of the Extraocular Muscles ...
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, ... Oculomotor Muscles. The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior ...
Participation of phase and tonic oculomotor systems in extension reflexes and labyrinthine reflexes of extrinsic ocular muscles ... Participation of phase and tonic oculomotor systems in extension reflexes and labyrinthine reflexes of extrinsic ocular muscles ... Participation of phase and tonic oculomotor systems in extension reflexes and labyrinthine reflexes of extrinsic ocular muscles ...
Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle retroposition. Treatment in Switzerland ✈ Find the best medical programs at ... Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle recession (retroposition) of strabismus #84267. The Center of Ophthamology at the ... Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle recession (retroposition) of strabismus #97419. The expertise of those two ... Ophthalmology: Strabismus - Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle retroposition. Treatment in Switzerland See also. * ...
Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle recession (retroposition) of strabismus (costs for program #43883) ✔ University ... Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle recession (retroposition) of strabismus (program ID: 43883) Head Physician ... Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle recession (retroposition) of strabismus *Hospital: University Hospital Rechts der ... University Hospital Rechts der Isar of the Munich Technical University › Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle recession ( ...
The intimate nature of oculomotor muscles contracture The intimate nature of oculomotor muscles contracture / A natureza íntima ... Oculomotor Muscles/physiology , Sarcomeres/physiology , Elasticity , Oculomotor Muscles/cytology ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Sarcomeres / Collagen / Contracture / Oculomotor Muscles Limits: ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Sarcomeres / Collagen / Contracture / Oculomotor Muscles Limits: ...
Acquired oculomotor muscle fibrosis in infant: case report Acquired oculomotor muscle fibrosis in infant: case report / Fibrose ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Strabismus / Oculomotor Muscles Type of study: Case report Limits: ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Strabismus / Oculomotor Muscles Type of study: Case report Limits: ... Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Oculomotor Muscles/pathology , Strabismus/surgery , Fibrosis , Reoperation , Strabismus/ ...
Eye, oculomotor muscles, optic nerve. Autonomic ganglia. Spinal cord. Nerves and organs of innervations ... Imaging procedures are not useful for assessing spinal-cord, nerve, and muscle damage. They are also expensive, and there is ... Electrodiagnostic tests that rely on amplitudes of compound action potentials (muscle or sensory nerve action potentials) ... Sciatic nerve (branches from vertebral column to ankles and selected muscles it innervates) ...
Oculomotor Muscles / diagnostic imaging * Oculomotor Muscles / physiopathology* * Posture * Visual Acuity / physiology* * Young ...
... is an autosomal dominant strabismus disorder associated with defects of the oculomotor nerve. We show that individuals with ... Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1; OMIM #135700) ... Heterozygous mutations of the kinesin KIF21A in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) Nat Genet. 2003 ... Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1; OMIM #135700) is an autosomal dominant strabismus disorder ...
We also identified oculomotor parameters that correlate with the neurological status and can be used as biomarkers in future ... Three patients presented with bilateral abducens palsy in combination with central oculomotor disorders, suggesting a bilateral ... Three patients presented with bilateral abducens palsy in combination with central oculomotor disorders, suggesting a bilateral ... The goal of this cross-sectional and longitudinal study was to find oculomotor biomarkers for future clinical trials. Methods: ...
Oculomotor Muscles / surgery*. Strabismus / surgery*. Suture Techniques*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ... The posterior fixation suture was placed 14 mm behind the superior rectus muscle insertion and the superior rectus muscle was ...
Muscle Weakness / diagnosis*, surgery. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology*. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Comments/ ... Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy.. RESULTS: All ...
The oculomotor nerve helps control muscle movements of the eyes.. The oculomotor nerve provides movement to most of the muscles ... The oculomotor nerve also helps with involuntary functions of the eye:. *The sphincter pupillae muscle automatically constricts ... The trochlear nerve, like the oculomotor nerve, originates in the midbrain. It powers the contralateral superior oblique muscle ... It helps the lateral rectus muscle, which is one of the extraocular muscles, to turn the gaze outward. ...
Apraxia, Oculomotor, with Congenital Contractures and Muscle Atrophy. *Contractures of Feet, Muscle Atrophy, and Oculomotor ... A new X-linked syndrome with muscle atrophy, congenital contractures, and oculomotor apraxia.Am J Med Genet. 1985;20:597-606. ... muscle degeneration (atrophy), mild intellectual disability and an impaired ability to move certain muscles of the eyes, face ... Symptoms of Wieacker syndrome include stiffening of the muscles and joints of the feet (contracture), slowly progressive ...
It is rare and subtle as it only innervates on muscle. *Often the patient compensates for the deviation of the eye by slightly ... At inferior border of stylopharyngeus several branches arise to provide motor innervation to the muscle *Also gives rise to the ... Short ciliary nerves which supply muscles in the iris which controls constriction/dilation of the pupil (pupil is essentially a ...
Not all eye muscles are in the oculomotor nerve. Where are the others? ... Superior rectus muscle. Medial rectus muscle. Inferior rectus muscle. Inferior oblique muscle ... Motor nerve to muscles of mandibular arch: masseter, temporalis, medial & lateral pterygoids, mylohyoid, tensor tympani, ... Since the muscle cant come from neural crest, where does it come from? ...
... as well as bulbar muscles. Rectal and bladder sphincters and oculomotor muscles are usually spared. Sensory examination is ... intercostal muscles, and diaphragm are noted. The skeletal muscle is grossly pale. Because of the loss of muscle bulk through ... 17, 18, 19] This condition is characterized by late-onset muscle weakness and fatigue in skeletal or bulbar muscles, unrelated ... The muscle pathology in SMA type III is variable, ranging from minimal changes to small or large group atrophy with fiber type ...
It manifests as muscle weakness and complete unilateral oculomotor palsy.. Guillain-Barré syndrome and transverse myelitis has ... Proximal limb muscles are involved more than distal muscles. The lower extremities are affected more commonly than the upper ... Intramuscular injections or skeletal muscle injury predisposes to localization of polio to that extremity (termed provocation ... Patients report stiffness of the posterior muscles of the neck, trunk, and limbs. ...
Most of these muscles are controlled by the oculomotor nerve.. Friction from these movements would quickly damage the eye ... The medial rectus muscle is the largest of the eyes extraocular movement muscles, six individual muscles that surround the eye ... A series of muscles helps the eye move. The first set is the superior and inferior rectus muscles, which allow upward and ... The superior oblique is a fusiform (spindle-shaped) muscle belonging to the extraocular group of muscles. It originates near ...
It is one of six muscles that control the movements of the eye. The inferior rectus muscle moves the eyeball downward. ... The inferior rectus muscle is located within the orbit (eye socket). ... Oculomotor nerve palsy results from damage to the oculomotor nerve, which controls the inferior rectus and other muscles that ... Motor functions of the muscle are supplied by the oculomotor nerve. Illness or trauma affecting this nerve impacts the movement ...
The orbital specimens were dissected into lacrimal gland, optic nerve, fat tissue, and oculomotor muscles. The histologic ... and extrinsic oculomotor muscles ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Damasceno, Renato Wendell Ferreira; Barbosa, Juliana Arôxa Pereira; Cortez, ... and extrinsic oculomotor muscles via light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. ... Results: The lacrimal gland, optic nerve, fat tissue, and extraocular muscle sections were positively stained with podoplanin ...
1997) Oculomotor nerve and muscle abnormalities in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Ann Neurol 41:314-325. ... 2006) Regulation of insulin response in skeletal muscle cell by caveolin status. J Cell Biochem 99:747-758. ... 2003) Heterozygous mutations of the kinesin KIF21A in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) Nat Genet ... Mutations in KIF21A cause congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscle type I (CFEOM1), which is a disorder of the superior ...
Both the corollary discharge of the oculomotor command and eye muscle proprioception provide eye position information to the ... 2011) Eye muscle proprioception is represented bilaterally in the sensorimotor cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 32:624-631. ... 2000) The functions of the proprioceptors of the eye muscles. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:1685-1754. ... 2011) Do palisade endings in extraocular muscles arise from neurons in the motor nuclei? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:2510-2519 ...
The nerves in the cupula report the motion to both the brain and oculomotor muscles, stabilizing eye movements. A transfer ... These cells transmit motion information to the brain and oculomotor muscles. Studies indicate that the otoliths detect the ... Proprioceptors respond to stimuli generated by muscle movement and muscle tension. Signals generated by exteroceptors and ... Proprioceptors are receptors located in muscles, tendons, joints and gut, which send signals to the brain in proportion to ...
... marked inferior rectus muscle weakness, and medial rectus muscle paresis, which were attributed to an ipsilateral fascicular ... These cases support the fascicular proximity of inferior rectus muscle and pupillary fibers and suggest that fascicular medial ... rectus and inferior rectus muscle fibers are adjacent to each other. ... We treated two patients with partial oculomotor paresis who had pupillary mydriasis, ...
  • Strabismus is an oculomotor disorder where eye position is misaligned. (arvojournals.org)
  • A common strabismus treatment, surgery, has high failure rates, possibly because strabismus only alters the highly adaptable extraocular muscle. (arvojournals.org)
  • Unilateral sustained release of BDNF for three months to the lateral rectus muscle in infant non-human primates resulted in strabismus for both treated infant monkeys. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that altered signaling in the extraocular muscles can perturb the development of normal eye alignment, and may provide insight into causes of childhood strabismus. (arvojournals.org)
  • OMIM #135700) is an autosomal dominant strabismus disorder associated with defects of the oculomotor nerve. (nih.gov)
  • He is collaborating with the laboratory of Elizabeth Engle, MD to study the genetic contributions of common and complex strabismus (including the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) such as congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and Duane syndrome. (childrenshospital.org)
  • strabismus (or squint or crossed eyes) is usually caused by weakness in muscles that control movement of the eyeball. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Duane syndrome falls under the larger heading of strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) under the sub-classification of incomitant strabismus (misalignment of the eyes that varies with gaze directions) and subheading of what was previously termed extraocular fibrosis syndromes (conditions associated with fibrosis of the muscles that move the eyes), now termed congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs). (rarediseases.org)
  • It is our practice to use adjustable sutures on all muscles of all adults, even those with comitant strabismus and no prior surgery. (elsevier.com)
  • One case of paralytic strabismus (oculomotor nerve palsy) which was treated electroacupuncture at oculomotor muscles. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Oculomotor nerve palsy results from damage to the oculomotor nerve, which controls the inferior rectus and other muscles that move the eye. (healthline.com)
  • Clinical outcome of mild head injury with isolated oculomotor nerve palsy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clinical Study of Eleven Patients with Midbrain Infarction-Induced Oculomotor Nerve Palsy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy following medial transposition of split lateral rectus muscle for complete oculomotor nerve palsy. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Adjustable nasal transposition of split lateral rectus muscle for third nerve palsy. (childrenshospital.org)
  • This prospective study found that transposing the split lateral rectus muscle to the medial rectus muscle area yields acceptable aesthetic results for oculomotor nerve palsy. (aao.org)
  • Three patients presented with bilateral abducens palsy in combination with central oculomotor disorders, suggesting a bilateral involvement of the abducens nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Differential diagnosis includes Duane-radial ray syndrome, acro-renal-ocular syndrome, Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Athabaskan brainstem dysgenesis-related disorders, Wildervanck syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Moebius syndrome and congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (see these terms). (orpha.net)
  • This small, retrospective case series reports on the successful use of a new muscle transposition procedure to treat abducens palsy without performing tenotomy or splitting transposed muscles. (aao.org)
  • The group includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM), congenital ptosis, Marcus Gunn jaw winking, Möbius syndrome, crocodile tears, horizontal gaze palsy and congenital facial palsy, but this is not an exhaustive list. (rarediseases.org)
  • It accounts for the stability of orthophoria, "latent" phorias, tenacious proximal fusion in intermittent exotropia, large fusional vertical amplitudes in congenital superior oblique muscle palsy, the "eating up" of prisms in accommodative esotropia, the smaller measured distance deviation in patients with high AC/A ratio or convergence excess, absence of physiologic skew deviation during head tilt, fusional divergence amplitudes, and spread of comitance. (elsevier.com)
  • Unusual presentations of cavernous carotid aneurysms: further evidence for topographic organization of the oculomotor nerve. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Based on this case and a review of the literature, the anatomic organization of the oculomotor nerve fascicles and of the pupillary fibers in the ventral midbrain tegmentum is proposed. (elsevier.com)
  • An extremely rare (six cases in the world literature) X-linked condition (OMIM:314580) condition characterised by malformations of the feet (pes cavus, pes equinovarus, flexed toes), progressive contractures of other joints, progressive distal amyotrophy, oculomotor and facial apraxia, dysarthria, swallowing difficulties and mild mental retardation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These can include: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) Muscular atrophy of pelvis and lower extremities Trunk hypotonia and decreased trunk stability Dysphagia Respiratory distress Joint dislocations of mainly hips Elevated muscular tone in lower extremities Spasticity Dystonia Autonomic storms Camptodactyly Apraxia of speech Oculomotor apraxia Cortical visual impairment Epilepsy Global developmental delay To date, there is no cure or effective treatment for this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia is a condition characterized by problems with movement that worsen over time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most affected people also have oculomotor apraxia, which makes it difficult to move their eyes side-to-side. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with oculomotor apraxia have to turn their head to see things in their side (peripheral) vision. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are several types of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia, the most common of which are types 1, 2, and 4. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As in all forms of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia, nearly all people with type 1 develop nerve abnormalities (neuropathy). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many individuals with ataxia with oculomotor apraxia require wheelchair assistance, typically 10 to 15 years after the start of movement problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with some types of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia may have characteristic blood abnormalities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 usually begins around age 15. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A key feature of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 is high amounts of a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The effect of abnormally high levels of AFP or CPK in people with ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition to ataxia and oculomotor apraxia, individuals with this type typically develop dystonia, which is involuntary, sustained muscle tensing that causes unusual positioning of body parts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 4, albumin levels can be low, and cholesterol or AFP can be elevated. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Intelligence is usually not affected by ataxia with oculomotor apraxia, but some people with the condition have intellectual disability. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia is a rare condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the APTX , SETX , or PNKP gene cause ataxia with oculomotor apraxia types 1, 2, or 4, respectively. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in another gene cause ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 3. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Motor cranial nerves help control muscle movements in the head and neck. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • PBP is a progressive degenerative disorder of the motor nuclei in the medulla (specifically involving the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves) that produces atrophy and fasciculations of the lingual muscles, dysarthria, and dysphagia. (medscape.com)
  • When cranial nerves are affected, neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3 or CNIII) are most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • extraocular eye muscles, eye muscle nerves, statocyst nerves and the oculomotor centre in the central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Dissection showing origins of right Ocular muscles , and nerves entering by the superior orbital. (picsearch.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. (statemaster.com)
  • The position of the superior and inferior orbital fissures may still be identified posteriorly near the roof and floor of the orbit because of the nerves (22,23,24), blood vessels (20,26), smooth muscle (11) and fascia which have been retained. (stanford.edu)
  • optic, oculomotor and trochlear nerves can be hypoplastic. (orpha.net)
  • A congenital ocular motility disorder marked by restrictive ophthalmoplegia affecting extraocular muscles innervated by the oculomotor and/or trochlear nerves. (abcam.com)
  • Either of the third pair of cranial nerves, which originate in the midbrain and control most of the muscles that move the eyeballs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The pupil examination, including PLR, if conducted accurately, provides the assessor with information about the functional status of the optic (CN II) and oculomotor ( CN III ) nerves and the midbrain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The coronal images and MPR reformations revealed initial signs of compression of both the optic nerves due to reduction of the fatty cleavage between the medial straight muscles and the medial portion of the nerve (Fig. 2a, b). (eurorad.org)
  • However, both optic nerves showed a mild scoliotic appearance and both the medial muscles exhibited an increased thickness because of the retraction of the intraorbital structures after decompression (Fig. 4c). (eurorad.org)
  • Participation of phase and tonic oculomotor systems in extension reflexes and labyrinthine reflexes of extrinsic ocular muscles]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Extrinsic eye muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CT scan showed a severe proptosis (distance from the bizigomatic line 29-30 mm, Fig. 1a), an increased thickness of all extrinsic oculomotor muscles, especially the medial straight muscle (12 mm on the right side and 11 mm on the left side Fig. 1b) and the superior straight muscle (8 mm on the right side and 10 mm on the left side, Fig. 1c). (eurorad.org)
  • The US allows the evaluation of the extrinsic oculomotor muscles, although only little information about the optical nerve at the orbital apex and the degree of proptosis can be obtained. (eurorad.org)
  • CT and MR allow for a careful evaluation of the degree of proptosis and the extrinsic muscle thickness, and give information about the indirect signs of a compressive optic neuropathy. (eurorad.org)
  • In particular, an MRI offers more possibilities for the tissue typing because it shows early degenerative phenomena of the extrinsic muscles and structural variations of the postorbital cellular flail tissue. (eurorad.org)
  • A neural network model of biophysical neurons in the midbrain is presented to drive a muscle fiber oculomotor plant during horizontal monkey saccades. (hindawi.com)
  • The trochlear nerve, like the oculomotor nerve, originates in the midbrain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The fibers of the oculomotor nerve arise from a nucleus in the midbrain , which lies in the gray substance of the floor of the cerebral aqueduct and extends in front of the aqueduct for a short distance into the floor of the third ventricle . (statemaster.com)
  • We present the case of an isolated inferior oblique muscle paresis from ventral midbrain infarction involving the oculomotor fascicular fibers. (elsevier.com)
  • Castro, O, Johnson, LN & Mamourian, AC 1990, ' Isolated Inferior Oblique Paresis From Brainstem Infarction: Perspective on Oculomotor Fascicular Organization in the Ventral Midbrain Tegmentum ', Archives of Neurology , vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 235-237. (elsevier.com)
  • Pupil sparing oculomotor nerve paresis after anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture: False localizing sign or acute microvascular ischemia? (semanticscholar.org)
  • ZC4H2 gene mutations have also been identified in 3 sporadic patients who presented more or less severe intellectual disability and congenital contractures of multiple joints, at least equinovarus of the feet, associated with neurological symptoms such as muscle weakness, spasticity, seizures and ptosis. (rarediseases.org)
  • It is a fatal disorder and is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting or atrophy (ie, amyotrophy), spasticity, and fasciculations as a result of degeneration of the UMNs and LMNs, culminating in respiratory paralysis. (medscape.com)
  • It is an acute febrile illness characterized by aseptic meningitis and weakness or paralysis of one or more extremities, along with weakness of one or more muscle groups. (medscape.com)
  • We treated two patients with partial oculomotor paresis who had pupillary mydriasis, marked inferior rectus muscle weakness, and medial rectus muscle paresis, which were attributed to an ipsilateral fascicular lesion, demonstrated on neuroimaging studies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Changes in myasthenic signs were assessed using a four step system for grading muscle weakness and fatiguability in 10 test items. (bmj.com)
  • This 3 hour improvement may be related not only to possible differences in the neuromuscular junction, but also to corticosteroids unmasking the central adaptation for the peripheral ocular muscle weakness by increasing the acetylcholine release. (bmj.com)
  • however, more severe infections can lead to hypoxia, meningitis , eye problems , heart involvement (myopericarditis), and rarely paralysis and/or muscle weakness. (rxlist.com)
  • Freud introduced the concept in his book three essays on the large populations of many mediators from a muscle + astheneia weakness, from a- without + phrazein to express emotion through facial expression, communicative gaze and eye infections. (cadasb.org)
  • Diminished reflexes and motor weakness of muscles supplied by affected nerve are typical. (chiro.org)
  • All patients showed a significant reduction of exophthalmos [5-11 mm, 7.2 mm on average], reduction of intraocular pressure, marked improvement in ocular muscle function as well as considerable reduction in or disappearance of subjective symptoms.There was an improvement in vision in 68% patients who had impaired vision before the operation.Less evident relapse of exophthalmos was recorded in 3 cases only and only one patient required unilateral reoperation. (nih.gov)
  • All patients showed a significant reduction of exophthalmos [5-11 mm, 7.2 mm on average], reduction of intraocular pressure, marked improvement in ocular muscle function as well as considerable reduction in or disappearance of subjective symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Results suggest that slow MNs are involved exclusively in slow eye movements (vergence and possibly smooth pursuit), muscle length stabilization and gaze holding (fixation), and rule out their participation in fast eye movements (saccades, vestibulo-ocular reflex). (google.com)
  • 4-6 All of our knowledge, however, is based on information obtained from non-ocular skeletal muscles, and the extraocular muscles have many distinctions that separate them from limb and diaphragm muscles, including a specific subgroup of neuromuscular junctions and the antigenic properties of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). (bmj.com)
  • rontal view ) Describe action and innervation of extra- Ocular muscles Anatomy of Orbit Oculomotor. (picsearch.com)
  • These investigations suggest that a Y-split muscle recession is a simple and efficient way to weaken ocular rectus muscles. (bmj.com)
  • Extraocular muscle specimens were collected for histological analysis of changes in muscle morphology and innervation density from BDNF treatment. (arvojournals.org)
  • The different connectivity of fast and slow MNs parallel differences in properties of muscle fibers that they innervate, suggesting that muscle fibers properties, rather than being self-determined, are the result of differences of their premotor innervation. (google.com)
  • DRS results from failure of normal development of the pontine abducens nucleus or nerve resulting in failure of the normal innervation of the lateral rectus muscle on the affected side. (orpha.net)
  • The special morphology of EOMs, including their motor innervation, is described in comparison to classical skeletal limb and trunk muscles. (springer.com)
  • Innervation of the extraocular muscle is contralateral for CN IV, and ipsilateral to the CN nucleus for CN III and VI. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The quote in Human Muscles of the extremely good article from Wikipedia confirms that we humans have both slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers, but it doesn't discuss their innervation. (google.com)
  • Searching Google for "muscle innervation" yields 2,280,000 claimed hits. (google.com)
  • It is innervated by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Wieacker syndrome is a rare, slowly progressive, genetic disorder present at birth and characterized by deformities of the joints of the feet (contracture), muscle degeneration (atrophy), mild intellectual disability and an impaired ability to move certain muscles of the eyes, face and tongue. (rarediseases.org)
  • Symptoms of Wieacker syndrome include stiffening of the muscles and joints of the feet (contracture), slowly progressive atrophy of certain muscles of the legs and arms, and mild intellectual disability. (rarediseases.org)
  • Loss of motor function results in dorsiflexion, contractures of the toes, loss of the interosseous muscle function that leads to contraction of the digits, so-called hammer toes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Central injections labeled large motoneurons within the abducens, trochlear or oculomotor nucleus, and smaller motoneurons lying mainly around the periphery of the motor nuclei. (google.com)
  • From this nucleus the fibers pass forward through the tegmentum , the red nucleus , and the medial part of the substantia nigra , forming a series of curves with a lateral convexity, and emerge from the oculomotor sulcus on the medial side of the cerebral peduncle . (statemaster.com)
  • The nucleus of the oculomotor nerve does not consist of a continuous column of cells, but is broken up into a number of smaller nuclei, which are arranged in two groups, anterior and posterior. (statemaster.com)
  • The nucleus of the oculomotor nerve, considered from a physiological standpoint, can be subdivided into several smaller groups of cells, each group controlling a particular muscle. (statemaster.com)
  • A nearby nucleus, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, is responsible for the autonomic functions of the oculomotor nerve, including pupillary constriction and lens accommodation. (statemaster.com)
  • The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is the accessory parasympathetic nucleus of the oculomotor nerve, supplying the constricting muscles of the iris. (statemaster.com)
  • Close to the midline are the motor efferent nuclei, such as the oculomotor nucleus, which control skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons located contralateral to the axotomized nucleus sprouted intra-axially and projected their axons to denervated eye muscles. (thejns.org)
  • Defects in TUBB3 are the cause of congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3A (CFEOM3A) [MIM:600638]. (abcam.com)
  • Congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3 presents as a non-progressive, autosomal dominant disorder with variable expression. (abcam.com)
  • These cases support the fascicular proximity of inferior rectus muscle and pupillary fibers and suggest that fascicular medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle fibers are adjacent to each other. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clinico-anatomical analysis of the fibers to the inferior rectus muscle in the oculomotor fascicles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The muscle fibers in mammalian axial muscles can be divided into at least 3 fiber types: slow twitch, fast twitch oxidative and glycolytic, and fast twitch glycolytic (also identified as types I, IIA, IIB by some authors). (google.com)
  • Tonic fibers are retained in some muscles of reptiles and birds, but are absent in axial muscles of mammals. (google.com)
  • The sources of monosynaptic input to "fast" and "slow" abducens motoneurons (MNs) were revealed in primates by retrograde transneuronal tracing with rabies virus after injection either into the distal or central portions of the lateral rectus (LR) muscle, containing, respectively, "en grappe" endplates innervating slow muscle fibers or "en plaque" motor endplates innervating fast fibers. (google.com)
  • Motoneurons of twitch and nontwitch extraocular muscle fibers in the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei of monkeys. (google.com)
  • Eye muscle fibers can be divided into two categories: nontwitch, multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs), and twitch, singly innervated muscle fibers (SIFs). (google.com)
  • Büttner-Ennever JA, Horn AKE, Scherberger H, D'Ascanio P (2001) Motoneurons of twitch and non twitch extraocular muscle fibers in the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei of monkeys. (springer.com)
  • Paresthesias are reported over the area of nerve distribution, along with tenderness over nerve fibers and muscles supplied by the involved nerve. (chiro.org)
  • Moreover, different types of muscle fibers are innervated by small and larger motor neurons. (google.com)
  • and large motor neurons innervate fast-twitch, fatigable muscle fibers . (google.com)
  • Most muscles contain both fast- and slow-twitch fibers, but in different proportions. (google.com)
  • Alpha motoneurons innervate extrafusal muscle fibers (typically referred to simply as muscle fibers) located throughout the muscle. (google.com)
  • Gamma motoneurons innervate intrafusal muscle fibers found within the muscle spindle . (google.com)
  • A single motor neuron may synapse with one or more muscle fibers. (google.com)
  • The motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers to which it connects is a motor unit . (google.com)
  • Branches of the nerve also pass through the muscle or along its medial border to reach the inferior surface of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle(12). (stanford.edu)
  • The medial and lateral rectus muscles allow the eye to move from side to side while staying level. (healthline.com)
  • Thus, globe retraction results from co-contraction of the medial and lateral rectus muscles on attempted adduction. (orpha.net)
  • Electromyography findings may reveal action potentials of the lateral rectus muscles ranging from no activity during abduction to essentially equal activity in adduction versus abduction. (orpha.net)
  • nerve supply, oculomotor (inferior branch). (drugs.com)
  • At the same time, an aberrant branch of the oculomotor nerve innervates the lateral rectus muscle. (orpha.net)
  • The abducens nerve starts in the pons of the brainstem, enters an area called Dorello's canal, travels through the cavernous sinus, and ends at the lateral rectus muscle within the bony orbit. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The inferior rectus muscle is located within the orbit (eye socket). (healthline.com)
  • The superior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit . (wikipedia.org)
  • T2 relaxation times were measured for each muscle, and a standardization algorithm was applied based on T2 relaxation time of ipsilateral frontal lobe white matter. (medscimonit.com)
  • Theoretical calculations, which are based on a drastically simplified model of the oculomotor system 19 and which will be outlined below, suggest that a Y-splitting combined with recession of a rectus muscle reduces the torque generated by that muscle. (bmj.com)
  • It powers the contralateral superior oblique muscle that allows the eye to point downward and inward. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In pilocarpinized eyes, the ciliary muscle is shorter, narrower, smaller in longitudinal and total area (ie, more circular and compact), and positioned more anteriorly than in contralateral atropinized eyes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The sphincter pupillae muscle automatically constricts the pupil to allow less light into the eye when the light is bright. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • All the oculomotor muscles innervated by the third nerve may be affected, but those that control pupil size are usually well-preserved early on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fascicular arrangement in partial oculomotor paresis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In chronic cases, there may be paresis of muscles partly supplied by the affected root but not overt paralysis. (chiro.org)
  • J. D. Enderle and D. A. Sierra, "A new linear muscle fiber model for neural control of saccades," International Journal of Neural Systems , vol. 23, no. 2, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we revisit the Hering-versus-Helmholtz controversy on binocular coordination from the psychophysician's description of combined saccade-vergence eye movements to the neurophysiological recording of motor and premotor neurons of the oculomotor neural circuitry. (wiley.com)
  • Patients report stiffness of the posterior muscles of the neck, trunk, and limbs. (medscape.com)
  • Proprioception is mostly dependent on the deep short intervertebral neck muscles, which are extensively supplied with muscle spindles. (bmj.com)
  • Structures that develop into gill arches in fish develop instead into various structures near or in the head and neck (muscles of the face, larynx and pharynx). (videohelp.com)
  • While terminology varies among authors, the term VSR usually also implies motor output to skeletal muscle below the neck, or in other words, it excludes the neck reflex which is called the vestibulocollic reflex or VCR (see following). (dizziness-and-balance.com)
  • s , levators, left and right were all very tight as were other upper back and neck muscles. (medhelp.org)
  • 6). Variable muscle tension in my neck. (medhelp.org)
  • We assessed if unilateral sustained delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to an extraocular muscle could alter the eye position of infant non-human primates. (arvojournals.org)
  • The ciliary muscles help the lens adjust to short range and long range vision. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ciliary muscle topography and connective tissue distribution were studied by light microscopy in atropinized, pilocarpinized, or untreated eyes from rhesus monkeys of various ages. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • With age, the connective tissue ground plate between ciliary muscle and ciliary processes thickens, while there is very little increase in connective tissue within the ciliary muscle. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • According to these topographic findings, physicians seeking the pathophysiologic characteristics of presbyopia, which occurs in humans and rhesus monkeys on a comparable relative time scale, should redirect their attention toward the ciliary muscle. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The oculomotor nerve helps control muscle movements of the eyes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is one of six muscles that control the movements of the eye. (healthline.com)
  • In animals with poor recovery, aberrant eye movements were always found, and the somatotopic map of the reinnervated eye muscles was greatly altered. (thejns.org)
  • Neurotrophic factors present a potential alternative treatment approach because of their actions both on muscle and motor neurons that direct eye position and movement. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although there is no distinction between red and white muscles, this article is of interest because it was the first to report retrograde tracing from muscles and motor neurons to the source of the motor neurons. (google.com)
  • These fibres innervate skeletal muscle (i.e., they are the axons of the alpha and gamma motor neurons). (videohelp.com)
  • Because motor units are recruited in an orderly fashion, weak inputs onto motor neurons will cause only a few motor units to be active, resulting in a small force exerted by the muscle (Play 1). (google.com)
  • With stronger inputs, more motor neurons will be recruited, resulting in more force applied to the muscle (Play 2 and Play 3). (google.com)
  • To evaluate the function of the oculomotor and vestibular systems and to correlate these findings with the clinical status of patients with Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3). (frontiersin.org)
  • [1 ] A single motor neuron may innervate many muscle fibres ( muscle cells ), and a muscle fibre can undergo many action potentials in the time taken for a single muscle twitch. (google.com)
  • In adult guinea pigs, the oculomotor nerve was sectioned proximally (at the tentorial edge) or more distally (at the orbital fissure) and immediately repaired by reapproximation. (thejns.org)
  • Following repair of the oculomotor nerve at the orbital fissure, extraocular motility had recovered in all of the animals at 16 weeks without aberrant phenomena. (thejns.org)
  • Section through superior colliculus showing path of oculomotor nerve . (statemaster.com)
  • 7 To elucidate any differences in the direct responses to corticosteroids between extraocular and other skeletal muscles, we quantitatively assessed changes in myasthenic signs after treatment with high dose intravenous methylprednisolone. (bmj.com)
  • The first set is the superior and inferior rectus muscles, which allow upward and downward motion. (healthline.com)
  • Blumer R, Lukas JR, Wasicky R, Mayr R (2000) Presence and morphological variability of Golgi tendon organs in the distal portion of sheep extraocular muscle. (springer.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve provides movement to most of the muscles that move the eyeball and upper eyelid, known as extraocular muscles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The inferior rectus muscle moves the eyeball downward. (healthline.com)
  • Using a simple biomechanical model for the oculomotor system and vector component analysis, the eye position dependent torque exerted by extraocular muscles on the eyeball was investigated. (bmj.com)
  • It has been frequently stated that the orbital decompression, in patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy, does not usually improve extraocular muscles function and that after the operation there is often a deterioration of these functions. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this article is evaluation of extraocular muscles function after applying personal method of 3 wall orbital decompression. (nih.gov)