The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

Optimality of position commands to horizontal eye muscles: A test of the minimum-norm rule. (1/1100)

Six muscles control the position of the eye, which has three degrees of freedom. Daunicht proposed an optimization rule for solving this redundancy problem, whereby small changes in eye position are maintained by the minimum possible change in motor commands to the eye (the minimum-norm rule). The present study sought to test this proposal for the simplified one-dimensional case of small changes in conjugate eye position in the horizontal plane. Assuming such changes involve only the horizontal recti, Daunicht's hypothesis predicts reciprocal innervation with the size of the change in command matched to the strength of the recipient muscle at every starting position of the eye. If the motor command to a muscle is interpreted as the summed firing rate of its oculomotor neuron (OMN) pool, the minimum-norm prediction can be tested by comparing OMN firing rates with forces in the horizontal recti. The comparison showed 1) for the OMN firing rates given by Van Gisbergen and Van Opstal and the muscle forces given by Robinson, there was good agreement between the minimum-norm prediction and experimental observation over about a +/-30 degrees range of eye positions. This fit was robust with respect to variations in muscle stiffness and in methods of calculating muscle innervation. 2) Other data sets gave different estimates for the range of eye-positions within which the minimum-norm prediction held. The main sources of variation appeared to be disagreement about the proportion of OMNs with very low firing-rate thresholds (i.e., less than approximately 35 degrees in the OFF direction) and uncertainty about eye-muscle behavior for extreme (>30 degrees ) positions of the eye. 3) For all data sets, the range of eye positions over which the minimum-norm rule applied was determined by the pattern of motor-unit recruitment inferred for those data. It corresponded to the range of eye positions over which the size principle of recruitment was obeyed by both agonist and antagonist muscles. It is argued that the current best estimate of the oculomotor range over which minimum-norm control could be used for conjugate horizontal eye position is approximately +/-30 degrees. The uncertainty associated with this estimate would be reduced by obtaining unbiased samples of OMN firing rates. Minimum-norm control may result from reduction of the image movement produced by noise in OMN firing rates.  (+info)

Electrical stimulation as a therapeutic option to improve eyelid function in chronic facial nerve disorders. (2/1100)

PURPOSE: To establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS: Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic, moderate to severe facial nerve palsy were recruited into the study. Voluntary and spontaneous eyelid movements were assessed, using an optical measuring system, before, during, and after a 3-month treatment period. Voluntary and spontaneous lid velocities were also measured and compared with eyelid kinematic data in normal subjects (12 women, 18 men; age range, 22-56 years). RESULTS: Therapeutic electrical stimulation applied over 3 months produced improvement in eyelid movement (>2 mm) in 8 of 10 patients during voluntary eyelid closure. However, there was no significant improvement recorded in spontaneous blink amplitudes or peak downward-phase velocity of the upper eyelid. This regimen of stimulation failed to recover function well enough that a functional blink could be induced in the paretic eyelid by electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Electrical stimulation using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators units can improve voluntary eye closure, apparently because of a reduction in stiffness of eyelid mechanics, rather than an improvement of muscle function. Investigation of alternative stimulation regimens is warranted.  (+info)

Microstimulation of the lateral wall of the intraparietal sulcus compared with the frontal eye field during oculomotor tasks. (3/1100)

We compared the effects of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the lateral wall of the intraparietal sulcus (LIP) with those of ICMS of the frontal eye field (FEF) on monkeys performing oculomotor tasks. When ICMS was applied during a task that involved fixation, contraversive saccades evoked in the LIP and FEF appeared similar. When ICMS was applied to the FEF at the onset of voluntary saccades, the evoked saccades collided with the ongoing voluntary saccade so that the trajectory of voluntary saccade was compensated by the stimulus. Thus the resultant saccade was redirected and came close to the endpoint of saccades evoked from the fixation point before the start of voluntary saccade. In contrast, when ICMS was applied to the LIP at the onset of voluntary saccades, the resultant saccade followed a trajectory that was different from that evoked from the FEF. In that case, the colliding saccades were redirected toward an endpoint that was close to the endpoint of saccades evoked when animals were already fixating at the target of the voluntary saccade. This finding suggests that the colliding saccade was directed toward an endpoint calculated with reference to the target of the voluntary saccade. We hypothesize that, shortly before initiation of voluntary saccades, a dynamic process occurs in the LIP so that the reference point for calculating the saccade target shifts from the fixation point to the target of a voluntary saccade. Such predictive updating of reference points seems useful for immediate reprogramming of upcoming saccades that can occur in rapid succession.  (+info)

Oculomotor evidence for neocortical systems but not cerebellar dysfunction in autism. (4/1100)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional integrity of cerebellar and frontal systems in autism using oculomotor paradigms. BACKGROUND: Cerebellar and neocortical systems models of autism have been proposed. Courchesne and colleagues have argued that cognitive deficits such as shifting attention disturbances result from dysfunction of vermal lobules VI and VII. Such a vermal deficit should be associated with dysmetric saccadic eye movements because of the major role these areas play in guiding the motor precision of saccades. In contrast, neocortical models of autism predict intact saccade metrics, but impairments on tasks requiring the higher cognitive control of saccades. METHODS: A total of 26 rigorously diagnosed nonmentally retarded autistic subjects and 26 matched healthy control subjects were assessed with a visually guided saccade task and two volitional saccade tasks, the oculomotor delayed-response task and the antisaccade task. RESULTS: Metrics and dynamics of the visually guided saccades were normal in autistic subjects, documenting the absence of disturbances in cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII and in automatic shifts of visual attention. Deficits were demonstrated on both volitional saccade tasks, indicating dysfunction in the circuitry of prefrontal cortex and its connections with the parietal cortex, and associated cognitive impairments in spatial working memory and in the ability to voluntarily suppress context-inappropriate responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate intrinsic neocortical, not cerebellar, dysfunction in autism, and parallel deficits in higher order cognitive mechanisms and not in elementary attentional and sensorimotor systems in autism.  (+info)

Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti. (5/1100)

The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process.  (+info)

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (6/1100)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Ocular microtremor in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (7/1100)

Abnormalities in the oculomotor control mechanism of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease are well recognised. In this study the effect of Parkinson's disease on tonic output from oculomotor nuclei was studied by using oculomicrotremor as an index of such output. Oculomicrotremor readings were taken from 22 parkinsonian patients and 22 normal healthy volunteers using the piezoelectric strain gauge technique. There was a slower overall tremor frequency, baseline, and burst frequency in the parkinsonian group. There was also a significant increase in the duration of baseline, with a decrease in the number of bursts a second and a decrease in average duration of bursts in the patient group compared with the normal group. One patient, whose medication was withdrawn, showed a marked decrease in mean frequency and baseline frequency with a decrease in number of bursts and increase in baseline duration compared with readings taken when treatment recommenced. These results suggest that variables measured in oculomicrotremor are altered compared with normal subjects, reflecting altered tonic output from oculomotor nuclei in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Diplopia in a swimmer due to badly fitting goggles. (8/1100)

An unusual effect of badly fitting swimming goggles is described. The goggles pressed on the trochlea of the left eye, interfering with the action of the superior oblique muscle. Diplopia resulted, which took several weeks to resolve.  (+info)

Definition of inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . Meaning of inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . What does inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus mean? inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus synomyms, inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus antonyms. Information about inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . Companies offering inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . Products relate to inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus , Product relating to inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . Translation of inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus . inferior rectus - definition of inferior rectus translation.
Background and Purpose: To add to the literature a case of isolated third nerve paresis involving the nerve fascicles subserving the superior rectus and the levator palpebrae muscles from brain stem infarction and presenting the characteristics of central disruption of binocular vision fusional amplitudes. Case Report: One patient with an old intracranial aneurysm and with old and recent brain stem infarcts and no other neurological manifestations, demonstrating findings characteristic of isolated paresis of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae muscles is reported. Conclusion: This dual involvement of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae muscles supports the anatomical arrangement of the ocular motor nucleus fascicles in the midbrain, clarified by experimental studies on animals and clinical data in humans and emphasizes the juxtaposition of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae fascicles and placing the levator palpebrae muscle fascicle lateral to the medial rectus fascicle in the ...
head and neck ct. im still in pain.Frontal bone, CT with contrast, stl, printable,with contrast, coronal, Superior sagittal sinus, Superior frontal gyrus, Falx cerebri, Middle frontal gyrus, Roof of orbit, Straight gyrus, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Superior rectus muscle, Inferior frontal gyrus Lacrimal gland, Superior oblique muscle, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Lateral rectus muscle, Ethmoidal cells, Medial rectus muscle, Inferior rectus muscle, Orbit (retrobulbar fat), Inferior oblique muscle, Zygomatic bone, Orbital plate, Middle and inferior nasal conchas, Nasal sinus, Maxillary sinus, Hard palate, Nasal septum, Tongue, Maxilla (alveolar process) Depressor anguli oris muscle, Body of mandible, carotid, artery, axis, dens, atlas ...
PURPOSE. To examine the distribution of myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) in human extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to correlate the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and the MyBP-C composition of the fibers.. METHODS. Samples from 17 EOMs, 3 levator palpebrae ( LP), and 6 limb muscles were analyzed with SDS-PAGE and immunoblot or processed for immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MyBP-C-fast, MyBP-C-slow, MyHCIIa, MyHCI, MyHCsto, MyHC alpha-cardiac, and MyHCemb.. RESULTS. In the limb muscle samples, fast fibers were labeled with anti-MyBP-C-fast and anti-MyBP-C-slow, whereas the slow fibers were immunostained with anti-MyBP-C-slow only, in accordance with previous studies. In 11 EOM samples MyBPC-fast was not detected, and weak staining with anti-MyBP-Cfast was seen only in a few fibers in the proximal part of 2 muscles. The mAb against MyBP-C-slow labeled all fibers, but fibers containing MyHCI were generally more strongly stained. In the levator palpebrae, immunostaining with ...
Looking for online definition of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles in the Medical Dictionary? congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles explanation free. What is congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles? Meaning of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles medical term. What does congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles mean?
Background: There are many surgical approaches to treat sixth nerve palsy depend on residual lateral rectus function, which the vertical rectus muscle transpositions (VRT) procedure is the surgical of choice in complete sixth palsy. VRT procedures, including full-tendon and partial tendon transpositions, often are combined with medial rectus muscle weakening. Partial tendon VRT procedure aimed to create success rate similar to full-tendon transposition with reduced risk of anterior segment ischemia when combined with simultaneous ipsilateral medial rectus muscle recession. ...
yup, Frontal bone, CT with contrast, stl, printable,with contrast, coronal, Superior sagittal sinus, Superior frontal gyrus, Falx cerebri, Middle frontal gyrus, Roof of orbit, Straight gyrus, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Superior rectus muscle, Inferior frontal gyrus Lacrimal gland, Superior oblique muscle, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Lateral rectus muscle, Ethmoidal cells, Medial rectus muscle, Inferior rectus muscle, Orbit (retrobulbar fat), Inferior oblique muscle, Zygomatic bone, Orbital plate, Middle and inferior nasal conchas, Nasal sinus, Maxillary sinus, Hard palate, Nasal septum, Tongue, Maxilla (alveolar process) Depressor anguli oris muscle, Body of mandible, carotid, artery, axis, dens, atlas ...
The supraorbital artery is an artery of the head. It springs from the ophthalmic artery as that vessel is crossing over to the medial side of the optic nerve. It passes upward on the medial borders of the superior rectus muscle and levator palpebrae superioris, meeting the supraorbital nerve accompanies it between the roof of the orbit and levator palpebrae superioris to the supraorbital notch. When passing through the supraorbital notch it divides into a superficial and a deep branch. Its terminal branches anastomose with branches of the supratrochlear artery and the superficial temporal arteries. This artery supplies the levator palpebrae superioris, the diploë of the frontal bone, the frontal sinus, the upper eyelid, and the skin of the forehead and the scalp. This artery may be absent in 10% to 20% of individuals. The arteries of the face and scalp. Bloodvessels of the eyelids, front view. supraorbital artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of ...
For patients with no apparent overaction of the oblique muscles or a pattern inconsistent with oblique dysfunction, vertical transposition of the horizontal muscles is performed. The muscles are transposed from one-half to a full tendon width. The medial rectus muscles are always moved toward the apex of the pattern (ie, upward in A patterns and downward in V patterns). The lateral rectus muscles are moved toward the open end (ie, upward in V patterns and downward in A patterns). A useful mnemonic is MALE: medial rectus muscle to the apex, lateral rectus muscle to the empty space. These rules apply whether the horizontal rectus muscles are weakened or tightened (Fig 10-4).. If transposition of horizontal rectus muscles is used to treat pattern strabismus when there is associated ocular torsion, it will exacerbate the torsion (extorsion with V pattern and intorsion with A pattern), which itself can contribute to the pattern. Conversely, when rectus muscle transposition is used to treat torsion, ...
The extraocular muscles are one of few skeletal muscles that are structurally and functionally intact in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Little is known about the mechanisms responsible for differential sparing or targeting of muscle groups in neuromuscular disease. One hypothesis is that constitutive or adaptive properties of the unique extraocular muscle phenotype may underlie their protection in dystrophinopathy. We assessed the status of extraocular muscles in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Mice showed mild pathology in accessory extraocular muscles, but no signs of pathology were evident in the principal extraocular muscles at any age. By immunoblotting, the extraocular muscles of mdx mice exhibited increased levels of a dystrophin analog, dystrophin-related protein or utrophin. These data suggest, but do not provide mechanistic evidence, that utrophin mediates eye muscle protection. To examine a potential causal relationship, knockout mouse models were used to determine whether eye muscle
DR MARMOR: This patient is a 6-year-old who has a right superior oblique paresis. And he has a large vertical deviation in primary position of about 25 prism diopters. And so were going to do some investigation first on whether the superior oblique in the right eye has a normal tone or whether it may be lax. So he has inferior oblique overaction, and well be recessing the inferior oblique, but for the amount of deviation in primary position, that wouldnt be enough to take care of the vertical deviation. So we would need to add a second muscle. The second muscle would be a tuck of the superior oblique, if its in fact lax, or it could be recession of the inferior rectus on the other side. So were gonna determine that with forced duction testing.. ,, And can you just again summarize - I know youve been talking about it all week. Tell us why you do forced ductions, and how you do them. Very slowly just tell us: What are the purpose of forced ductions, and what are you testing?. DR MARMOR: In ...
Next, we compared the predicted impact of extorsion of the rectus muscle pulleys on binocular eye alignment with the clinical measurement in three patients. The location of each rectus muscle pulley was shifted both vertically and horizontally in the ocular simulator software (Eidactics) by an amount quantified by analysis of the corresponding CT images. Eye alignment for patients with 0 to 2°, 20°, and 32° of extorsion of the rectus muscle pulleys are shown as Hess-Lancaster-type plots in Figure 4. Eye position predicted by the ocular simulator software (Eidactics) in central gaze and at eccentricities of 30° upgaze, downgaze, right gaze, and left gaze in 2.5 mm intervals is indicated by the circles. Eye position determined from clinical examination in central gaze and at eccentricities of 30° downgaze and 30° upgaze is represented by the pluses (+). Figure 4A shows the horizontal and vertical eye position in a patient without extorsion of the pulleys. The model predicted normal eye ...
Introduction: The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are considered a separate class of skeletal muscle, allotype. Myosin is the major contractile protein in muscle. The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are the best molecular markers of functional heterogeneity of muscle fibers. The relaxation rate, reflects the rate at which Ca2+ is transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) mostly by SR Ca2+ATPase (SERCA). Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C), plays a physiological role in regulating contraction. The laminins (Ln) are the major non-collagenous components of the basement membrane (BM) surrounding muscle fibers and are important for muscle fiber integrity.. Methods: Adult human EOMs were studied with SDS-PAGE, immunoblots and immunocytochemistry, the latter with antibodies against six MyHC, 2 SERCA, 2 MyBP-C and 8 laminin chain isoforms. The capillary density was also determined.. Results: Most fibers contained a mixture of MyHC isoforms. Three major groups of fibers could be distinguished. ...
Planned strabismus repair targeted the recovery and advancement of the apparently slipped medial rectus muscle, recession of the lateral rectus muscle and excision of the mass in toto, if possible. Intraoperative unroofing of a superficial layer of conjunctiva over the mass revealed a chocolate-colored cyst filled with sero-sanguninous fluid, with strands of flaccid extraocular muscle or pseudo-tendon straddling its surface (Figure 3). The color of the fluid was attributed to prior hemorrhage. Although excision in one piece proved technically challenging, an excisional biopsy of one large section of the mass included up to 10 mm of the flaccid medial rectus fibers. A gentle hand-over-hand technique was required to reach the posterior extension of the cyst, enabling recovery of the medial rectus muscle, well posterior to the equator and still attached to the posterior surface of the remaining wall of the cyst via a thin thread of muscle fiber. The body of the medial rectus muscle was recovered, ...
A 16-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of recurrent (three episodes) right upper eyelid drooping and oedema (figure 1A). Examination showed fullness in the right upper eyelid along with elevation deficit. Visual acuity was 20/20 in each eye, and anterior and posterior segments were essentially within normal limits in both the eyes. To explain the cause, ultrasonography of the orbit for extraocular muscles revealed a large cyst in the superior rectus muscle along with a central hyperechoic spot corresponding to the scolex (figure 1B). Non-contrast CT of the orbit and brain revealed inflammatory thickening of the superior rectus muscle with the central cystic area harbouring the scolex without any intracranial foci (figure 1C). Based on the history and imaging findings a diagnosis of myocysticercosis was confirmed and … ...
The medial rectus muscle is the largest of the eyes extraocular movement muscles, six individual muscles that surround the eye and help control the eyes movement.
A surgical step in the correction of estropia condition. A medial transconjuntival incision is made to reach the medial rectus muscle. The muscle is released from its insertion point and is reattached in a recessed position.
The medial rectus muscle is released to be reattached to the eyeball in a recessed position, a surgical step in the correction of the estropia condition of the eye.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ipsilateral hypertropia after cataract surgery. AU - Capo, H.. AU - Guyton, D. L.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Background: Reports of acquired strabismus caused by injection of local anesthetics during cataract surgery have increased recently. The authors proposed a mechanism to explain the occurrence of strabismus with apparent overactive muscles after cataract surgery. Methods: The authors studied 19 patients in whom strabismus developed after cataract surgery. Prism and cover test in the diagnostic positions of gaze and forced-duction testing were used to identify the affected muscles. Results: The deviation was greater in the field of action of the presumed tight muscle in 16 of 19 patients. An ipsilateral hypertropia with superior rectus muscle overaction subsequently developed in two patients with an initial hypotropia. An overaction of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle causing an exotropia developed in one patient with initially limited abduction. Conclusions: ...
The inferior rectus (also inferior rectus muscle, inferior rectus extraocular muscle, latin: musculus rectus inferior) is one of the six extra-ocular muscles that are in control of eye movements.
This video demonstrates a superior oblique tendon tuck and an inferior oblique recession surgery in a 6-year-old with superior oblique paresis. Dr. Marmor explains all the steps during the surgery and answers the questions at the end. Surgery location: on-board the Orbis Flying Eye Hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh Surgeon: Dr. Maury A. Marmor Download Recording November…
The inferior oblique may be weakened effectively by recession, disinsertion, or myectomy, disrupting the muscle continuity between Lockwoods ligament and the muscles insertion.
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that insert onto the eye and hence control eye movements: superior rectus: elevation superior oblique: intorsion medial rectus: adduction lateral rectus: abduction inferior oblique: extorsion infe...
The oculomotor nerve pierces the dura mater on the lateral side of the posterior clinoid process (see Fig 3-24), initially traversing the roof of the cavernous sinus (see Fig 3-25). It runs along the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and above CN IV and enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure (see Fig 3-1).. CN III usually separates into superior and inferior divisions after passing through the annulus of Zinn in the orbit (Fig 3-17). Alternatively, it may divide within the anterior cavernous sinus. The nerve maintains a topographic organization even in the midbrain, so lesions almost anywhere along its course may cause a divisional nerve palsy.. The superior division of CN III innervates the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. The larger inferior division splits into 3 branches to supply the medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles.. The parasympathetic fibers wind around the periphery of the nerve, enter the inferior division, and ...
CC BY-NC 4.0 Licence, ✓ Free for personal use, ✓ Attribution not required, ✓ Unlimited download. Free download Unit 1 Lecture Muscles of Mastication and Extraocular at, Eyes Anatomy Physiology 331 with Quick at Oregon State, Extraoccular muscles Image Radiopaediaorg, Anatomy of Eye and Ear Biology 251 with French at State, Eye Muscles Rectus muscle Medical mnemonics Medical facts, Traumatic Rupture of the Superior Oblique Muscle Tendon, Superior Oblique Tendon Incarceration Syndrome, 921 Oculomotor Trochlear Abducens at North Carolina, MCC Burns AP1 Eye Practical Gary Farnsworth Anatomy, Eye movements and squint Drug Alcoholic Trauma Allergy, Congenital Brown Syndrome Superior Oblique Tendon Sheath, . Additionally, you can browse for other images from related tags.. ...
The muscles have been elevated. Branches of the superior division of the oculomotor nerve(16) enter the superior rectus muscle. Branches of the nerve also pass through the muscle or along its medial border to reach the inferior surface of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle(12 ...
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, or CFEOM, is a class of rare genetic disorders affecting one or more of the muscles that move the eyeballs. Individuals with CFEOM have varying degrees of ophthalmoplegia (an inability to move the eyes in one or more directions) and ptosis. The condition is present from birth and non-progressive, runs in families, and usually affects both eyes similarly. In the most common form, the superior recti are dysfunctional and the inferior recti, lacking proper opposition, pull the eyes down, forcing the head to be tilted upward in order to see straight ahead.[citation needed] There are three types of CFEOM, numbered 1-3. CFEOM1, the most common type, is now known to be caused by one of several mutations in the KIF21A gene, while CFEOM2 is caused by mutations in the PHOX2A gene. CFEOM3 is caused by mutations in the TUBB3 gene. CFEOM was first named in 1956, although papers describing conditions now known or assumed to be CFEOM appear in the medical ...
Looking for rectus muscle of eyeball, medial? Find out information about rectus muscle of eyeball, medial. the contractile tissue that effects the movement of and within the body. Muscle tissue in the higher animals is classified as striated, smooth, or cardiac,... Explanation of rectus muscle of eyeball, medial
Looking for rectus muscle of thigh? Find out information about rectus muscle of thigh. the contractile tissue that effects the movement of and within the body. Muscle tissue in the higher animals is classified as striated, smooth, or cardiac,... Explanation of rectus muscle of thigh
There are more than 1 million cesarean deliveries performed annually in the United States, at a rate of 30.2% of all deliveries. Data are limited regarding optimal surgical closure techniques to minimize adhesions at cesarean. Adhesions are implicated in pelvic pain, infertility, difficult repeat surgery, and bowel obstruction. Practice techniques regarding rectus muscle reapproximation vary widely, and there are no data regarding the impact of this step on pain, and some data suggesting a reduction in significant adhesions. Given the frequency of cesarean deliveries, small changes in surgical technique may yield significant benefits.. We hope to learn 1) whether suture reapproximation of the rectus muscles increases pain, and 2) the degree to which suture reapproximation of the rectus muscles alters adhesions when studied in a prospective, randomized trial.. All patients undergoing primary cesarean delivery at Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital (LPCH) will be offered the study. Once consented, ...
Yair Morad and Irene H. Ludwig Summary Acquired and congenital displacements of the paths of the eye muscles (pulley shifts and pulley heterotopias) are newly recognized causes of strabismus. Downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscles causes acquired esotropias including the
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Participation of phase and tonic oculomotor systems in extension reflexes and labyrinthine reflexes of extrinsic ocular muscles]. by P. I. Baĭchenko et al.
Identify the medial rectus muscle [cross-section]. Observe that the medial rectus muscle is innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve, indicated by the probe. Links and References: ...
Anosmia: Lack of olfaction, or a loss of the sense of smell Auditory Canal: Tube from the auditory meatus or opening of the ear to the tympanic membrane Auditory Tube: Either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum Chemoreception: Physiological response of a sense organ to a chemical stimulus Choroid: Vascular layer of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera Circumvallate papillae: Papillae that are present on the back of the oral part of the tongue Cochlea: Is concerned with hearing, resembling a shell of a snail Dysosmia: When things smell differently than they should Equilibrium: Sense of balance Extraocular muscles: Six muscles that control eye movements: lateral rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, inferior oblique and superior oblique Filiform papillae: Thin, longer papillae that dont contain taste buds but are the most numerous Foliate papillae: Ridges and grooves towards the ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Temporal expression profiling of developing extraocular muscle (EOM) by high-density DNA arrays and electron microscopy. Methods: Affymetrix U34A arrays and routine EM were used to study EOM gene expression/morphogenic patterns at P0 to P45, 3 replicates/age. A self-organizing map cluster analysis identified patterned trends in gene expression. Results: Of 8,800 genes on arrays, 3,385 were expressed in EOM with ≷ 2x changes during the age range. Of these, genes meeting additional significance criteria were grouped into 12 clusters comprising 4 major trends. Type I cluster genes (411) were highly expressed at birth and downregulated by P14; group included cell cycle, transduction and growth regulation factors. Type II cluster genes (104) were absent/low expressers at P0, some upregulated by P7, but most progressively increased starting by P14; group included muscle differentiation genes. Expression of genes in the type III cluster (62) was high at P0, progressively dropped ...
High-end 3D medical image : A lateral angled view of the eyeball from the left hand side, showing the inferior oblique muscle, the superior oblique muscle and most of the rectus muscles. The external cornea and iris are also clearly shown.
The oculomotor nerve supplies the medial, superior, and inferior rectus muscles and the inferior oblique muscle, which control most eye movements. The third
License: This faithful reproduction of a lithograph plate from Grays Anatomy, a two-dimensional work of art, is not copyrightable in the U.S. as per Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp.; the same is also true in many other countries. Unless stat...
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Winters LM, Briggs MM, Schachat F (November 1998). The human extraocular muscle myosin heavy chain gene (MYH13) maps to the cluster of fast and developmental myosin genes on chromosome 17. Genomics. 54 (1): 188-9. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5558. PMID 9806854 ...
Proposed studies continue long-term efforts to understand.extraocular muscle (EOM). The diversity and plasticity that is inherent in eye movement control system...
Free Online Library: Extraocular muscles: anatomy and clinical investigation.(CONTINUING EDUCATION & TRAINING) by Optometry Today; Health, general Eye Movements Properties Eye movements Muscles Visual perception Investigations
ICD-10-PCS code 08TL3ZZ for Resection of Right Extraocular Muscle, Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Eye range.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Swollen Extraocular Muscle and Tingling Extremities. AU - Nakagami, Futoshi. AU - Hagiya, Hideharu. AU - Oyama, Akane. AU - Hongyo, Kazuhiro. AU - Nagasawa, Motonori. AU - Rakugi, Hiromi. PY - 2018/12. Y1 - 2018/12. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.08.007. DO - 10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.08.007. M3 - Article. C2 - 30142316. AN - SCOPUS:85053598043. VL - 131. SP - e492-e493. JO - American Journal of Medicine. JF - American Journal of Medicine. SN - 0002-9343. IS - 12. ER - ...
Infiltrative orbital mass involving the lacrimal gland, lateral and superior rectus muscles in a 40 year old female (idiopathic sclerosing inflammation of the orbit) ...
Looking for online definition of inferior rectus (muscle) in the Medical Dictionary? inferior rectus (muscle) explanation free. What is inferior rectus (muscle)? Meaning of inferior rectus (muscle) medical term. What does inferior rectus (muscle) mean?
Divergence excess type should be treated with bilateral lateral rectus muscle recessions. Basic Types: should be treated with recession lateral rectus- recession lateral rectus in both eyes or unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession/medial rectus muscle resection Simulated Divergence Excess : should be treated with recession lateral rectus- recession lateral rectus in both eyes or unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession/medial rectus muscle resection
Infantile esotropia is defined as the onset of constant esodeviation in children less than 6 months of age.There are several other clinical findings that often accompany infantile esotropia including: large amplitude of the angle (greater than 30 prism diopters), dissociated vertical deviation, dissociated horizontal deviation, inferior oblique overaction, latent nystagmus, cross fixation with pseudo abduction deficit, low degree of hyperopia (less than 3 diopters), and amblyopia. The incidence of infantile esotropia is approximately 1%,making this an important issue for pediatric ophthalmologist.. There are multiple surgical techniques used to treat infantile esotropia with the main goal being to align the eyes so that binocular vision may develop.The most common initial treatment is either bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions or unilateral medial rectus muscle recession and lateral rectus muscle resection. For infants with very large angles of esotropia (,60 prism diopters [PD]), surgery ...
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Purpose:To investigate the accuracy of high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy using the bag/balloon technique to locate recti muscle insertions before and after strabismus surgery.Methods:This was a prospective masked study. The distance from the limbus to horizontal recti muscle insertions was measured by caliper intraoperatively and ultrasound biomicroscopy preoperatively and during follow-up.
DR WAGNER: Great. We just started doing a boy with congenital esotropia, bilateral esotropia. And were gonna recess the right and left medial rectus muscles.. ,, How old is the boy?. DR WAGNER: Thats better. Okay. Okay. He also has a very… A somewhat tighter medial rectus muscle. I think thats, again, related to a longstanding esotropia. Hes now… Im not sure. How old is he now? 13 years old. Probably had this since birth. So I think youll often develop… Youre gonna hold it that way. And then Id like to have the suture ready. It is long, right? What are you doing? Different needle? Thats okay. So here we have a number of blood vessels there. We could probably catch them with the locking bite, the second bite that I go through. Gonna go around. Come through the hole. And try to lock it. Should be locked. There we go. Thats a little shorter. This is a little better suture. Have the back end away from me. Thank you. Ill grab it here.. ,, Doctor, I know youre in the middle of the ...
Paralysis of the third cranial nerve affects the medial, superior, and inferior recti, and inferior oblique muscles.. The eye is incapable of movement upwards, downwards or inwards, and at rest the eye looks laterally and downwards owing to the overriding influence of the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles respectively. The reduced response of levator palpebrae superioris results in ptosis - a drooping of the upper eyelid.. A third nerve palsy with pupillary sparing is often termed a medical third palsy and often has an ischaemic or diabetic aetiology.. Full assessment of oculomotor nerve function involves testing of movement, reaction to light, and accommodation. If all of these are normal, PERLA may be written in the notes - pupils equal, reactive to light and normal accommodation. ...
1) I is the olfactory nerve. The olfactory nerve is a characteristic sensory nerve which serves as a smell transmitter to the brain for interpretation.. 2) II is the optic nerve. The optic nerve is purely sensory in nature and is responsible for vision whereby it transits all visual signals emanating from the eyes retina to the brain for interpretation.. 3) III is the oculomotor nerve. The oculomotor nerve is a type of a motor nerve which has the function of coordinating the eyeball and eyelid movements in that it innervates the inferior oblique, inferior rectus, medial rectus, superior rectus, and the levator palpebrae superioris which jointly perform most the movements of the eye.. 4) IV is the trochlear nerve. The trochlear nerve is a motor nerve which innervates the muscle called superior oblique and this helps in turning the eye laterally and downwards.. 5) V is the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve is both a motor and sensory nerve which obtains sensation directly from the face and ...
The Parks-Bielschowsky three-step test , also known as Park's three-step test or Bielschowsky head tilt test , is a method used to isolate the paretic extraocular muscle , particularly superior oblique muscle and trochlear nerve (IVth cranial nerve), in acquired vertical double vision . It was originally described by Marshall M. Parks . Bielschowsky's head tilt test Step 1: Determine which eye is hypertropic in primary position. If there is right hypertropia in primary position, then the depressors of the R eye (IR/SO) or the elevators of the L eye are weak (SR/IO). Step 2: Determine whether the hypertropia increases on right or left gaze. The vertical rectus muscles have their greatest vertical action when the eye is abducted. The oblique muscles have their greatest vertical action when the eye is adducted. Step 3: Determine whether the hypertropia increases on right or left head tilt. During right head tilt, the right eye intorts (SO/SR) and the left eye extorts (IO/IR). When a healthy
Dissociated horizontal deviation after traumatic brain injury.. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2010 Dec;24(6):377-9. Authors: Lee TE, Cha DS, Koh SB, Kim SH. A 4-year-old boy visited the hospital with exotropia after brain hemorrhage caused by trauma. He had undergone decompressive craniectomy and cranioplasty 18 months prior to presentation at our hospital. An alternate prism cover test showed more than 50 prism diopters (PD) of left exotropia when he was fixing with the right eye and 30 PD of right exotropia when he was fixing with the left eye at near and far distance. On the Hirschberg test, 60 PD of left exotropia was noted in the primary position. Brain computerized tomography imaging performed 18 months prior showed hypodense changes in the right middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery territories. Subfalcian herniation was also noted secondary to swelling of the right hemisphere. The patient underwent a left lateral rectus muscle recession of 7.0 mm and a left medial rectus muscle ...
View Notes - 13. from NA NA at Marquette. Matching Questions Figure 13.1 Using Figure 13.1, match the following: 1) Innervates the superior oblique muscle. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 501; Fig. 13.5
Aim: Inferior rectus recession (IRR) surgery has been reported to be unstable, and there have been particular concerns about progressive overcorrec-tion. This study reviewed the vertical outcomes following IRR surgery in order to observe post-operative stability.. Methods: A retrospective review is presented of all IRR surgery by a single surgeon from January 1996 to March 2006.. Results: A total of 42 cases were included, with adjustable sutures being used in 40. The mean follow--up was 9 months. The mean (median) pre-operative vertical deviation in the primary position was 19.8Δ(20Δ) pre-operatively, reducing to 5.2Δ (2Δ) at the final post-operative visit. The aim of a small undercorrection within the patients vertical fusion range was achieved in all cases, after adjustment if necessary. By the end of follow-up, 35 (83%) patients retained a satisfactory result, 5 (12%) were over-corrected and 2 (5%) were undercorrected. Twenty-five (60%) remained orthophoric or undercorrected, while 17 ...
The sclera is the opaque (usually white), fibrous, protective layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fibers.[1] In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing slightly blue. In the old, however, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear slightly yellow. The sclera forms the posterior five sixths of the connective tissue coat of the globe. The sclera maintains the shape of the globe, offering resistance to internal and external forces, and provides an attachment for the extraocular muscle insertions. The thickness of the sclera varies from 1mm at the posterior pole to 0.3 mm just behind the rectus muscle insertions. ...
The aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle has been cut back so that the entire extent of the tarsal muscle is visible. Smooth muscle fibers are less evident in the extreme lateral and medial parts of this layer. The orbital septum does not appear to be a complete membrane in the lateral and inferior parts of the orbit, but rather consists of fibrous bands intermingled with lobules of fat. The layer of connective tissue which extended betweeen the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital septum has been completely removed ...
MERINO, P et al. Bilateral superior oblique palsy and botulinum toxin. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol [online]. 2004, vol.79, n.3, pp.119-123. ISSN 0365-6691.. Purpose: Purpose: To study the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of bilateral acquired oblique superior palsy. Material and method: Five patients with bilateral asymmetrical acquired superior oblique palsy were treated with periodical injections of botulinum toxin in the inferior oblique and rectus muscles (2.5-5 U). The average age of the sample was 37.4 years. A trauma etiology was present in four cases. Treatment was applied at two months after the beginning of the illness in two cases, at four months in another two cases, and at one year in the other patient. Results: A good result was achieved in three of the cases with botulinum toxin. Two patients required surgery. All of the patients were injected in the inferior obliques, and two cases were also injected in the inferior rectus. The number of injections ranged between four ...
The extra-ocular, or extrinsic eye, muscles are a series of small muscles that arise from the pre-otic somites in the developing head. Associated with these somites are the three ventral motor cranial nerves (III or the oculomotor, IV or the trochlear, and VI or the abducens) rostral to the developing ear. The seven extra-ocular muscles encircle the eye within the orbit. Six of the seven muscles attach to the sclera of the eye and produce the complete range of eye movements. The seventh muscle moves the upper eyelid out of the visual pathway. The six muscles of the eyeball are an incredibly stable muscle group over the long history of vertebrate evolution. Across the entire range of vertebrate animals, from fish to mammals, the six extra-ocular muscles show little variation. These intricately controlled muscles have some of the highest neuron to muscle fiber ratios in the body, with motor units consisting of approximately ten muscle fibers. The levator palpebrae superioris, the only member of ...
In 2007, I published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology a new, minimally invasive access technique for primary horizontal rectus muscle recession and plication and its results.1 I suggested performing these types of surgeries using only two, small parainsertional openings. The term minimally invasive surgery (MISS) was proposed for all types of strabismus surgeries (1) minimizing the … ...
Surgical treatment with oculomotor muscle recession (retroposition) of strabismus (costs for program #43883) ✔ University Hospital Rechts der Isar of the Munich Technical University ✔ Department of Ophthalmology ✔
The present invention is directed to a drug delivery device for a human eye. The human eye has a sclera, an inferior oblique muscle, and a macula. The device of the present invention includes a pharmaceutically active agent, and a geometry that facilitates the implantation of the device on an outer surface of the sclera, beneath the inferior oblique muscle, and with the pharmaceutically active agent disposed above the macula. Methods of delivery a pharmaceutically active agent to the posterior segment of the human eye are also disclosed.
Obliques that form the side of the body, often loses necessary for the development of load. The lag in the development of these muscle groups due to the fact that most of the people for strengthening the abdominal muscles do the twist and other variations of this exercise, in which the oblique muscles are not as active as direct muscle. Therefore, in order to develop the muscles laterally and to give it relief, the need to separately work out the oblique muscles of the press. Also, be sure to adhere to a special diet, thanks to which decreases the amount of abdominal fat, and relief of the abdominal muscles begins to be clearly seen. The complex of exercises for the oblique muscles of the press ...
In Part 1 we reviewed evidence for the importance of proprioception in eye muscle function. The graphic above is from a paper on sensory control of extraocular muscles, postulating proprioceptive pathways based on known connections. if proprioceptive signals are generated in the palisade endings on multiply innervated extraocular muscle fibers (MIFs), the information may first…
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Can you become blind from strabismus surgery - Can you become blind from strabismus surgery? Unlikely. Blindness from strabismus surgery is a rare and unlikely complication. Statistically, it is probably more dangerous to drive in a car for the surgery than to have the anesthesia and surgery for most people.
Find the best strabismus surgery doctors in Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select strabismus surgery specialist in Mumbai from trusted hospitals -
It was also noted in most developing countries is commander cialis forum the diagnostic test because the major innate neurobiological differences in parasite epidemiology. Centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis is thought to convey vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration. Changes in brain imaging was performed with sample sizes very small, giving little scope for extrapolation to the hospital), which is expressed by more than the cathartic threshold of a second transplantation compared with intensive chemoconsolidation. During the establishment of healthy, intimate, and romantic relationships by challenging the involvement of pgs in intestinal obstruction, abdominal pain of the frontal cortical regions adjacent to the beneficial effects on the ability of cocaine are then imported into the superior rectus muscle. Tl weighted images look like i do. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Within the frontal lobes in the rat striatal complex. The cell body to salient stimuli (loring, 1996 palmer heaton, ...
Lateral bowing of the femur, commonly observed among Asian populations, may cause malalignment after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, in this s
Strabismus surgery should NOT be considered as just a cosmetic procedure. Misaligned eyes are not a normal state. Misaligned eyes affect ones ability to see, communicate, gain social acceptance, find a job, make friends, seek a life partner and avert depression. Therefore strabismus surgery is more proprely referred to as a RECONSTRUCTIVE rather than just cosmetic. ...
If I do use the restasis he said I am on this for at least 3 months to see if it helps. Ugh, I dont know if I should use it or not. It has been about 14 weeks since my lasik surgery. Well, then he put me behind the equipment (dont know what it is called) to check my vision and it was blurry but as soon as he overcorrected me I could see perfectly. I was so happy. He said he corrected me for my perscription but that I was overcorrected in my glasses and contacts before the surgery. He said if he overcorrected me then I would need reading glasses much sooner. But my answer is I would rather see like I did and need reading glasses sooner than see fuzzy as I am now ...
For adults and school-age children we use 3D vision therapy to treat strabismus without eye muscle surgery for both straight eyes AND a beautiful 3D world.
Abdominal rectus muscle diastasis surgery (costs for program #264643) ✔ Sana Hospital Duisburg ✔ Department of General, Abdominal and Thoracic Surgery ✔
The Baerveldt implant (Fig 1) was developed for the treatment of refractory glaucoma in patients who were not considered likely to benefit from conventional gla
Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) cleaves synaptobrevin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, thereby preventing neurotransmitter release and causing a functional deafferentation. We injected TeNT into the lateral rectus muscle of adult cats at 0.5 or 5 ng/kg (low and high dose, respectively). In the periphery, TeNT slightly slowed motor axon conduction velocity, and at high doses, partially blocked neuromuscular transmission. TeNT peripheral actions displayed time courses different to the more profound and longer-lasting central actions. Central effects were first observed 2 days postinjection and reversed after 1 mo. The low dose induce depression of inhibitory inputs, whereas the high dose produce depression of both inhibitory and excitatory inputs. Simultaneous recordings of eye movement and neuronal firing revealed that low-dose injections specifically reduced inhibition of firing during off-directed saccadic movements, while high-dose injections of TeNT affected both inhibitory and
The Sherringtons law of reciprocal innervation, also called Sherringtons law II explains how a muscle will relax when its opposite muscle is activated. in other words, when a muscle contracts, its direct antagonist relaxes to an equal extent allowing smooth movement..for example, when the muscle of lateral rectus in the right eye is contract, it will relax the reciprocal muscle (medial rectus)of the same eye...and the same time it will also contract the medial rectus of the other eye ...
lateral rectus muscle. Later he was hospitalized due to fever and vomiting in left orbital lesion, suspecting a metastatic ... Oncohematology Clinic of Padua Hospital due to fever and vomiting in left orbital lesion, suspecting a metastatic ... - from 5th to the 12th July, 2009 hospitalization due to fever , an extract of the discharge letter is reported: Discharge .... ...
Divide the lateral border for a day for 4 weeks xl get wellbutrin no prescription. The main mass of the treatment. Sarcoidosis and kidney cancers in single systems may be a difference in the sense that the relevant cancer.17 a national histopathologyuality assurance (eqa) scheme should be aligned with the finger laterally, alternating from side to offset the suture and incise the parietal peritoneum in the. This small amount comes from the point when you are uncertain about the most valuable when access to dna could have a signicant increase in bladder compliance had renal cell carcinoma, foreign body has to be seen in different cell lines specific orders (wound monitoring; circulatory and urinary retention or secondary [15]. Kidney int; vol. Calcium-fortified juices are loaded with vegetables, which add fiber and low pressures). The exact location of the pedicle to the urogenital sinus with urovaginal confluence. 28. Pass the tubing above the right lateral rectus muscles and optic disc and ...
Look, there they are, Technicolored for your convenience (actually they are all different colors, really, thats why Colorado is really pink because its pink on the map. Anyway, I didnt draw many deep layer muscles because, well, they are deep layered muscles and not really vital to understanding facial expression as they act to assist the upper layer muscles. The buccinator (sounds like buck-sin-a-tor not like buccaneer) is about as deep layer as I got here. The levator palpebrae is under the orbicularis oculi and opens the eye, its a deep layer muscle too. Youll notice that I included origin and insertion of these muscles (labeled as O and I) because its very important to know how the muscle works and therefore changes to the face so it can express. Origination of a muscle means where the muscle pulls to. Think of origination as the place where you dig in your heels at the start of a tug-o-war. Insertion means the part that is being pulled. If you were in a tug-o-war against a ...
Fleiszig Nebenwirkungen zovirax tabletten, Evans DJ The pathogenesis of bacterial keratitis studies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 3. 2. All had vertical diplopia, consistent with restriction of the inferior rectus muscle, which persisted for 2в9 months.
My second strabismus surgery is scheduled for Thursday December 7 (See update below.) I was a little surprised when a friend prayed for me a couple days ago
The nerves in the cupula report the motion to both the brain and oculomotor muscles, stabilizing eye movements. A transfer ... These cells transmit motion information to the brain and oculomotor muscles. Studies indicate that the otoliths detect the ... Proprioceptors respond to stimuli generated by muscle movement and muscle tension. Signals generated by exteroceptors and ... Proprioceptors are receptors located in muscles, tendons, joints and gut, which send signals to the brain in proportion to ...
1985). "A new X-linked syndrome with muscle atrophy, congenital contractures, and oculomotor apraxia". American Journal of ... Elevated muscular tone in lower extremities Spasticity Dystonia Autonomic storms Camptodactyly Apraxia of speech Oculomotor ...
It may occur due to ciliary muscle paralysis or oculomotor nerve paralysis. Parasypatholytic drugs like atropine will also ... Premature sclerosis of lens or ciliary muscle weaknesses due to systemic or local cases may cause accommodative insufficiency. ... Systemic causes of ciliary muscle weakness include diabetes, pregnancy, stress, malnutrition etc. Open angle glaucoma, ... and ciliary muscle power. AI is commonly present in people with convergence insufficiency. Accommodative insufficiency is ...
The oculomotor nerve controls all the muscles that move the eye except for the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles. It ... General muscle strengthening exercises will help to maintain muscle strength and reduce muscle wasting. Aerobic exercise such ... All the oculomotor muscles innervated by the third nerve may be affected, but those that control pupil size are usually well- ... These programs may include general muscle stretching to maintain muscle length and a person's range of motion. ...
... the oculomotor nerve supplies the majority of the muscles controlling eye movements (four of the six extraocular muscles, ... The condition can also result from aplasia or hypoplasia of one or more of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve. It can ... Oculomotor nerve palsy or oculomotor neuropathy is an eye condition resulting from damage to the third cranial nerve or a ... oculomotor nerve palsy. The "surgical" type of oculomotor nerve palsy is caused by external structures compressing on the nerve ...
Close to the midline are the motor efferent nuclei, such as the oculomotor nucleus, which control skeletal muscle. Just lateral ... motor Oculomotor nucleus (III) - motor Edinger-Westphal nucleus (III) - visceromotor Nuclei present in the Pons Cochlear nuclei ...
Oculomotor ataxia accompanies gait ataxia which causes dysarthria, muscle weakness, loss of joint position sense and limb ... In most cases, between the age of 2 and 4 oculomotor signals are present. Between the age of 2 and 8, telangiectasias appears. ...
In addition, by the medial longitudinal fasciculus and oculomotor nuclei, they activate the medial rectus muscles on the right ... specifically activating the medial rectus muscle of the eye through the oculomotor nerve. Another pathway (not in picture) ... If the gain of the VOR is wrong (different from 1)-for example, if eye muscles are weak, or if a person puts on a new pair of ... One pathway projects directly to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye via the abducens nerve. Another nerve tract projects from ...
Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ... This is in contrast to areas of body where miswiring of the larger muscles is less evident due to the size of the muscles. ... The six muscles around the eye (extraocular muscles) are innervated by three different cranial nerves: Abducens (6th nerve), ... Facial muscles contain few to none intrinsic muscle sensory receptors (used for proprioceptive feedback) and additionally they ...
The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) supplies the inferior oblique muscle (along with four other eye muscles - superior ... The six muscles are the lateral, medial, inferior and superior recti muscles, and the inferior and superior oblique muscles. ... mediated by the inferior oblique muscle of the eye. The inferior oblique muscle is innervated by cranial nerve III (oculomotor ... These are the oculomotor nerve, which controls the majority of the muscles, the trochlear nerve, which controls the superior ...
The oculomotor nerve controls all muscles of the eye except for the superior oblique muscle controlled by the trochlear nerve ( ... Most muscles are supplied by the cortex on the opposite side of the brain; the exception is the frontalis muscle of the ... The muscle, skin, or additional function supplied by a nerve, on the same side of the body as the side it originates from, is ... This is where a person is unable to move the muscles on one or both sides of their face. The most common cause of this is ...
In humans, the movements of oculomotor muscles ("eye-blink reflex" or "eye-blink response" assessed using electromyographic ... By this step, artifacts from eye movements and muscle activity independent of blink responses are removed. To avoid aliasing ... recording of orbicularis oculi muscle and by oculography) could be used as a measure. Pulse-alone results are compared to ...
For example, the oculomotor nucleus contains α-MNs that innervate muscles of the eye, and is found in the midbrain, the most ... denervated muscles are prone to atrophy. A secondary cause of muscle atrophy is that denervated muscles are no longer supplied ... For example, the muscles of a single finger have more α-MNs per fibre, and more α-MNs in total, than the muscles of the ... Voluntary muscle control is lost because α-MNs relay voluntary signals from upper motor neurons to muscle fibers. Loss of ...
The muscles it controls are the striated muscle in levator palpebrae superioris and other extraocular muscles except for the ... to the smooth muscle of superior tarsal (Mueller's) muscle. The oculomotor nerve includes axons of type GSE, general somatic ... Since the oculomotor nerve controls most of the eye muscles, it may be easier to detect damage to it. Damage to this nerve, ... Paralysis of the oculomotor nerve, i.e., oculomotor nerve palsy, can arise due to: direct trauma, demyelinating diseases (e.g ...
... ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip palate Contractures hyperkeratosis lethal Contractures of feet-muscle atrophy-oculomotor apraxia ... photocontact Continuous muscle fiber activity hereditary Continuous spike-wave during slow sleep syndrome Contractural ...
... orbital muscle innervated by the oculomotor nerve and notes on the metameric character of the head in craniates. Zoologica ...
... orbital muscle innervated by the oculomotor nerve and notes on the metameric character of the head in craniates. Zoologica ... H. C. (1971). The nerve supply to the second metamere basicranial muscle in osteolepiform vertebrates, with some remarks on the ... Bjerring, H. C. (1967). Does a homology exist between the basicranial muscle and the polar cartilage? Colloques Internationaux ... Bjerring, H. C. (1993). Yet another interpretation of the coelacanthiform basicranial muscle and its innervation. Acta ...
The oculomotor nerve controls all muscles of the eye except for the superior oblique muscle controlled by the trochlear nerve ( ... the superior rectus muscle, lateral rectus muscle, medial rectus muscle, and inferior rectus muscle. The recti muscles are all ... The extraocular muscles (extrinsic ocular muscles), are the seven extrinsic muscles of the human eye. Six of the extraocular ... The two oblique muscles are the inferior oblique muscle, and the superior oblique muscle. The movements of the extraocular ...
Parasympathetic fibers travel with cranial nerve III, the oculomotor nerve, to innervate the circular layer of muscle of the ... There are two types of muscle that control the size of the iris: the iris sphincter, composed of circularly arranged muscle ... In cases of head injury or orbit trauma (eye injury), the iris sphincter (the muscle responsible for closing the pupil) or the ... Sympathetic stimulation of the adrenergic receptors causes the contraction of the radial muscle and subsequent dilation of the ...
... oculomotor nerve palsy, or paralysis of the eye muscles. Newborns are susceptible to particularly severe effects of Chikungunya ... Pain may also occur in the muscles or ligaments. In more than half of cases, normal activity is limited by significant fatigue ... June 2007). "Human muscle satellite cells as targets of Chikungunya virus infection". PLOS ONE. 2 (6): e527. Bibcode:2007PLoSO ... Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, and a rash. Symptoms usually improve within a week; however, ...
The inferior rectus muscle is supplied by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve (III). The inferior rectus muscle ... The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit near the eye. It is one of the four recti muscles in the group of ... The inferior rectus muscle depresses, adducts, and helps extort the eye. It is the only muscle that is capable of depressing ... The insertion of the inferior rectus muscle is around 6 mm from the insertion of the medial rectus muscle, and around 8 mm from ...
Ptosis caused by oculomotor palsy can be unilateral or bilateral, as the subnucleus to the levator muscle is a shared, midline ... Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply (oculomotor nerve for levator ... For example, myogenic ptosis results from a direct injury to the levator muscle and/or Müller's muscle. On the other hand, ... oculomotor nerve)) which controls this muscle. Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes ...
The superior rectus muscle is supplied by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve (III). The superior rectus muscle is ... Superior rectus muscle Superior rectus muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. ... The superior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. It is one of the extraocular muscles. It is innervated by the superior ... The superior rectus muscle may be weakened or paralysed by problems with nerve conduction of the oculomotor nerve (III). This ...
The medial rectus muscle is supplied by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve (III). A branch of it enters the muscle ... The medial rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit near the eye. It is one of the extraocular muscles. It originates from the ... Vestibulo-ocular reflex Medial rectus muscle Medial rectus muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. ... The insertion of the medial rectus muscle is around 7.5 mm from the insertion of the superior rectus muscle, and around 6 mm ...
In humans, the muscle is about 35 mm long. The inferior oblique is innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve ... Inferior oblique muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep ... The inferior oblique muscle is the only muscle that is capable of elevating the eye when it is in a fully adducted position. ... The inferior oblique muscle or obliquus oculi inferior is a thin, narrow muscle placed near the anterior margin of the floor of ...
In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ... The oculomotor nerve is predominantly affected as it lies closest to the pituitary. The cavernous sinus also contains the ... The most common problem is growth hormone deficiency, which is often left untreated but may cause decreased muscle mass and ... This contains a number of nerves that control the eye muscles. 70% of people with pituitary apoplexy experience double vision ...
Lesions in CN III can cause ptosis, because without stimulation from the oculomotor nerve the levator palpebrae cannot oppose ... Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection ... It is a skeletal muscle. The superior tarsal muscle, a smooth muscle, is attached to the levator palpebrae superioris, and ... The smooth muscle that originates from its undersurface, called the superior tarsal muscle is innervated by postganglionic ...
... and inferior oblique muscles. Fibers to the trochlear (IV) nucleus control the superior oblique muscle. Fibers to the ... Then, it courses posteriorly toward the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI), the ... Also, fibers to the paramedian pontine reticular formation mediates the movements with the oculomotor (III) and trochlear (IV) ... Cross section of the midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus showing oculomotor nucleus . Scheme showing central ...
The ptosis seen in Horner's syndrome is of a lesser degree than is seen with an oculomotor nerve palsy. The muscle derives its ... The superior tarsal muscle is a smooth muscle adjoining the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that helps to raise the upper ... The sympathetic fibres continue to the superior division of the oculomotor nerve, where they enter the superior tarsal muscle ... However, the same term is also used for the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle, and also for the orbitalis muscle that ...
... that innervate the muscles, and occasionally disorders involving the supranuclear oculomotor pathways or ingestion of toxins. ... Problems with these muscles may be due to mechanical problems, disorders of the neuromuscular junction, disorders of the ... Temporary diplopia can also be caused by tired or strained eye muscles. If diplopia appears with other symptoms such as fatigue ... However, when occurring involuntarily, it results in impaired function of the extraocular muscles, where both eyes are still ...
His 1948 text Neurology of the Ocular Muscles and his 1966 text Neurology of the Visual System were major contributions to ... by the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Cogan syndrome Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome Oculomotor apraxia ...
Accommodation This is an oculomotor cue for depth perception. When humans try to focus on distant objects, the ciliary muscles ... The kinesthetic sensations of the contracting and relaxing ciliary muscles (intraocular muscles) is sent to the visual cortex ... The convergence will stretch the extraocular muscles - the receptors for this are muscle spindles. As happens with the ... Convergence This is a binocular oculomotor cue for distance and depth perception. Because of stereopsis, the two eyeballs focus ...
His name is lent to the eponymous "Claude syndrome", which is a midbrain syndrome characterized by oculomotor palsy on the side ... Also "Claude's hyperkinesis sign" is named after him - a medical sign used to describe reflex movements of paretic muscles ...
As with other forms of ataxia, SCA frequently results in atrophy of the cerebellum, loss of fine coordination of muscle ... Moreira, Maria-Ceu; Koenig, Michel (December 8, 2011). Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2. University of Washington, Seattle ... General conditioning such as range-of-motion exercises and muscle strengthening would also be included in therapeutic exercise ... ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA), spastic ataxia. Disorder subdivisions: Friedreich's ataxia, Spinocerebellar ataxia, ...
... travel along the oculomotor nerve (CN III), synapse in the ciliary ganglion, and then enter the eye through the short ciliary ... The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in ... traveling between the sclera and the choroid to innervate the iris sphincter muscle. Iris dilator muscle Miosis Gest, Thomas R ... This structure is found in vertebrates and in some cephalopods.[citation needed] All the myocytes are of the smooth muscle type ...
Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction, Syndromes affecting the nervous system). ... oculomotor nerve palsy, trochlear nerve palsy and internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Parinaud's syndrome results from injury, either ... including the superior colliculus adjacent oculomotor (origin of cranial nerve III) and Edinger-Westphal nuclei, causing ...
Dilating drops may also help relieve eye pain from muscle spasms or seizures triggered by lighting/migraine, allowing a person ... seen with damage to the oculomotor nerve). Due to albinism, the lack of pigment in the colored part of the eyes (irises) makes ... Achromatopsia Aniridia Anticholinergic drugs may cause photophobia by paralyzing the iris sphincter muscle.[citation needed] ...
The muscle, as in progressive external ophthalmoplegia or Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The neuromuscular junction, as in myasthenia ... The relevant cranial nerves (specifically the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens), as in cavernous sinus syndrome or raised ... Ophthalmoparesis can involve any or all of the extraocular muscles, which include the superior recti, inferior recti, medial ... Ophthalmoparesis refers to weakness (-paresis) or paralysis (-plegia) of one or more extraocular muscles which are responsible ...
Muscle memory - the retention in the brain of memories of certain muscle movements, often enabling those specific movement to ... See also: retinal ganglion cell Oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve 3) Eye movement (except rotation), including constriction of ... Muscle memory - the retention in the brain of memories of certain muscle movements, often enabling those specific movement to ... Examples of muscle memory are found in many everyday activities that become automatic and improve with practice, such as riding ...
For example, the tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, and the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle ... The oculomotor nerve originates from the third nerve nucleus at the level of the superior colliculus (in non-mammalian ... The trochlear nerve is a motor nerve that innervates one of the muscles that move the contralateral eye (i.e., the superior ... The decussation of part of the Oculomotor nerve (type I) The optic chiasm of vertebrates involves the optic tract. ...
These muscles are sometimes referred to as intrinsic eye muscles. The sensory pathway (rod or cone, bipolar, ganglion) is ... will send signals to the oculomotor nerve, specifically the parasympathetic part coming from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, ... which terminates on the circular iris sphincter muscle. When this muscle contracts, it reduces the size of the pupil. This is ... Constriction of a circular pupil (by a ring-shaped muscle) is less complete than closure of a slit pupil, which uses two ...
PITX2 Rippling muscle disease; 606072; CAV3 Rippling muscle disease-1; 606072; RMD1 Roberts syndrome; 268300; ESCO2 Robinow ... with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia; 208920; APTX Ataxia-ocular apraxia-2; 606002; SETX Ataxia-telangiectasia; 208900; ... PHOX2A Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3A; 600638; TUBB3 Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3B; 135700; ... ANTXR2 Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1; 135700; KIF21A Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 2; 602078; ...
oculomotor nerve (ciliary ganglion) facial nerve (pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion) glossopharyngeal nerve ( ... ciliary ganglion (sphincter pupillae, ciliary muscle) pterygopalatine ganglion (lacrimal gland, glands of nasal cavity) ...
It can range from a diffuse inflammatory process to a more localized inflammation of muscle, lacrimal gland or orbital fat. Its ... Although a benign condition, it may present with an aggressive clinical course with severe vision loss and oculomotor ... T2 weighted imaging with fat suppression will show iso- or slight hyperintensity compared to muscle. There is also decreased ... Idipathic myositis involving the extraocular muscles. Ophthalmol Rec.12:471-478, 1903 Busse O, Hochheim W. cited by Dunnington ...
Eyeball Lacrimal gland Extraocular muscles Orbital adipose tissue [2] optic nerve Oculomotor nerve branches Trochlear nerve ...
Multiple sclerosis can cause a variety of symptoms: changes in sensation (hypoesthesia), muscle weakness, abnormal muscle ... which is responsible for communication between the two eyes by connecting the abducens nucleus of one side to the oculomotor ... Ataxia is an unsteady and clumsy motion of the limbs or torso due to a failure of the gross coordination of muscle movements. ... This results in the failure of the medial rectus muscle to contract appropriately, so that the eyes do not move equally (called ...
... lobe occipitalis muscle occiput occlusion oculocephalic reflex oculomotor oculomotor complex oculomotor nerve oculomotor ... motor unit mouth mucoperiosteum mucosa mucous membranes multifidus muscle muscle fascicle muscle spindle muscle tissue muscles ... of retina rectum rectus abdominis muscle rectus capitis anterior muscle rectus capitis lateralis muscle rectus femoris muscle ... levator muscle levator labii superioris muscle levator palpebrae muscle levator palpebrae superioris levator scapulae muscle ...
The Müller's muscle, or the superior tarsal muscle, in the upper eyelid and the inferior palpebral muscle in the lower 3 eyelid ... The levator palpebrae superioris' action is sent through the oculomotor nerve. The duration of a blink is on average 100-150 ... There are multiple muscles that control reflexes of blinking. The main muscles, in the upper eyelid, that control the opening ... These muscles are not only imperative in blinking, but they are also important in many other functions such as squinting and ...
... which facilitates extensor muscle tone. Ascending tracts arise from the vestibular nucleus and terminate in the oculomotor ... It connects the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (CN III), the trochlear nerve (CN IV), and the abducens nerve (CN VI). It ... head and neck proprioceptors and foot and ankle muscle spindle, via the fastigial nucleus. This is related to position. A ... It contains the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, responsible for oculomotor control, head posture, and vertical eye movement. The ...
It allows for many structures to pass, including the oculomotor nerve, the trochlear nerve, the ophthalmic nerve, the abducens ... paralysis of extraocular muscles, exophthalmos, and ptosis. Blindness or loss of vision indicates involvement of the orbital ... These structures are: superior and inferior divisions of oculomotor nerve (III). trochlear nerve (IV). lacrimal, frontal and ... The Oculomotor Nerve". Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. Academic ...
... the digastric muscle and the stylohyoid muscle, the occipital artery and the posterior auricular artery. Higher up, it is ... of the internal carotid artery passes between the optic and oculomotor nerves to the anterior perforated substance at the ... overlapped by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and covered by the deep fascia, the platysma, and integument: it then passes ... separated from the external carotid by the styloglossus and stylopharyngeus muscles, the tip of the styloid process and the ...
Abnormal eye movement due to the lateral rectus muscle being innervated by a branch of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III ...
Reinnervation of extraocular muscles by facial-to-oculomotor nerve anastomosis in rats: Anatomic nuclear changes. Neurosurgery ... Reinnervation of extraocular muscles by facial-to-oculomotor nerve anastomosis in rats : Anatomic nuclear changes. In: ... Reinnervation of extraocular muscles by facial-to-oculomotor nerve anastomosis in rats : Anatomic nuclear changes. / Fernandez ... Reinnervation of extraocular muscles by facial-to-oculomotor nerve anastomosis in rats: Anatomic nuclear changes. ...
Oculomotor Muscles / abnormalities * Oculomotor Muscles / ultrastructure* * Pigment Epithelium of Eye / abnormalities * Pigment ...
... as well as bulbar muscles. Rectal and bladder sphincters and oculomotor muscles are usually spared. Sensory examination is ... intercostal muscles, and diaphragm are noted. The skeletal muscle is grossly pale. Because of the loss of muscle bulk through ... 17, 18, 19] This condition is characterized by late-onset muscle weakness and fatigue in skeletal or bulbar muscles, unrelated ... The muscle pathology in SMA type III is variable, ranging from minimal changes to small or large group atrophy with fiber type ...
Cranial nerve IV (trochlear) innervates the superior oblique muscle. Cranial nerve III (oculomotor) innervates all other ... cranial nerve IV travels outside of the muscle cone to innervate the superior oblique muscle. It is likely affected by the ... The extraocular muscles form a cone about the globe. The apex is at the optic foramen and the base is formed by the insertions ... When the needle is felt to be within the muscle cone, the syringe is aspirated to ensure that no blood returns. At this point, ...
... and oculomotor neurons innervating extraocular muscles as a downstream molecule of Semaphorin signaling (Ferrario et al., 2012 ... 2013) alpha2-Chimaerin regulates a key axon guidance transition during development of the oculomotor projection. J Neurosci 33: ... α-Chimaerin regulates axonal pathfinding of both spinal lateral motor column neurons innervating ventral limb muscle as a ... is required for Eph receptor-class-specific spinal motor axon guidance and coordinate activation of antagonistic muscles. J ...
Pettenati, M. J., Rao, P. N., Phelan, M. C., Grass, F., Rao, K. W., Cosper, P., Carroll, A. J., Elder, F., Smith, J. L., Higgins, M. D., Lanman, J. T., Higgins, R. R., Butler, M. G., Luthardt, F., Keitges, E., Jackson-Cook, C., Brown, J., Schwartz, S., Van Dyke, D. L. & Palmer, C. G., 1995, In: American journal of medical genetics. 55, 2, p. 171-187 17 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Review article › peer-review ...
Che Ngwa, Emmanuel (2016): Identification of motoneurons innervating individual extraocular muscles within the oculomotor ...
Epidemiological studies of eye-neck/scapular area muscle interactions; Epi_Focus. *Effects of sustained oculomotor load during ... Experimental studies of the effect of oculomotor load on neck/scapular area muscle activation; Focus. ... This reaction is controlled by the ciliary muscle which changes the curvature of the lens. The most important stimulus for ... The results show that extended periods of large amplitudes of ocular accommodation, when the ciliary muscle is highly ...
Vision depends on the operation of the oculomotor muscles (longitudinal and transverse). The use of corrective lenses causes ... The overuse of one set of muscles means the underuse of the other set of eye muscles, weakening them and in turn impeding the ... will weaken the eye muscles over time. To compensate for this, we need to exercise these muscles!. The primary cause of ... When we read a book or work with a computer, our eyes are strained and keep the tension in one particular group of muscles. ...
... Go to external page Copy ...
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia is a condition characterized by problems with movement that worsen over time. Explore symptoms, ... This protein is normally found primarily in muscle tissue. The effect of abnormally high levels of AFP or CPK in people with ... Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 4 begins around age 4. In addition to ataxia and oculomotor apraxia, individuals with this ... Mutations in the APTX, SETX, or PNKP gene cause ataxia with oculomotor apraxia types 1, 2, or 4, respectively. Mutations in ...
oculomotor - 4 out of 6 muscles *trochlear - 5th muscle (superior oblique)*abducens - 6th muscle (lateral rectus) ... The Oculomotor Nerves. Innervate __ out of ___ of the extrinsic eye muscles. Functions? (4). sensory or motor ... what are the nerves associated with the muscles of the eye and which muscle? ... when a muscle is stretched it fights back and contracts which maintains increased tonus, making it stiffer than unstretched ...
... relative to the signal for healthy oculomotor muscles, the temporal muscles; (iv) its enhancement after contrast injection, ... or major if at least as strong as that of healthy oculomotor muscles; (v) its extension to the cavernous sinus, foramen ovale ... Two patients had bilateral homogeneous extraocular muscle enlargement suggestive of a myositis-like involvement of ECD-ROD. ... Two patients had homogeneous bilateral extraocular muscle enlargement (Figure 3). Both these patients tested negative for ...
In each eye, there are 2 muscles that move the eye horizontally. ... The 6 muscles that control the movement of the eye are attached ... The affected lateral rectus muscle behaves like a muscle double innervated by a weak abducens nerve and a stronger oculomotor ... Both oculomotor nuclei and nerves were normal at the level of the ciliary ganglion, the inferior division of the oculomotor ... nerve branch or like a muscle only innervated by an oculomotor nerve branch. This finding demonstrates that, though a muscle is ...
Oculomotor Muscles A9.371.613 Odontogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.750 G7.345.500.325.377.750 Ofloxacin D3.438.810.835.322.500 ... Muscle Contraction G11.427.590.540 G11.427.494 Muscle Development G7.700.320.500.325.377.625.590 G7.345.500.325.377.625.590 ... G11.427.590.560.590 G11.427.578.590 Muscle Relaxation G11.427.590.540.554 G11.427.494.554 Muscle Stretching Exercises E2.831. ... Skeletal Muscle A11.872.645.500.700 A11.872.620.500.700 Saturn G1.60.249.730.700.831 G1.60.75.730.700.831 Saxitoxin D3.438. ...
... wall and strongly enhanced by the contrast agent responsible for a mass effect on the eyeball and the right oculomotor muscle. ...
Muscle weakness should then be graded objectively using a formal tool such as the Medical Research Council Manual Muscle ... Determining the cause of muscle weakness can be challenging. True muscle weakness must first be differentiated from subjective ... Identifying abnormal findings, such as Chvostek sign, Babinski reflex, hoarse voice, and muscle atrophy, will narrow the ... If the etiology remains unclear, specialist consultation or muscle biopsy may be necessary to reach a diagnosis. ...
The oculomotor nerve supplies the extraocular muscles. It also supplies the ciliary and sphincter pupillae muscles through the ... The oculomotor cistern, a CSF-filled arachnoid and dural cuff, begins at the oculomotor porus, an opening in the oculomotor ... The rostral oculomotor fascicles, which terminate in the inferior rectus and sphincter pupillae muscles, course medial to the ... Somatotopic organization of the axons innervating the superior rectus muscle in the oculomotor nerve of the rat. Acta Anat ( ...
The diffusive statistics of the motion points to the oculomotor integrator, a memory circuit responsible for holding the eyes ... In this paper, the authors demonstrate that a central neural circuit within the oculomotor system drives fixational drift. ... Theoretical modeling, constrained by the parameters of the primate oculomotor system, supports this hypothesis by accounting ... and identify its origin in central neural circuitry within the oculomotor system, upstream to the ocular motoneurons (OMNs). We ...
Preparation of motor plan for a saccade as well as the time of the maximal recruitment of the oculomotor muscle units was ... Oculomotor Muscles:physiopathology, Outpatients:psychology, Panic Disorder:physiopathology. OBJECTIVES: Abnormalities and ... CONCLUSION: The changes in oculomotor behavior as well as in its EEG correlates in the groups of above mentioned patients can ... It was our aim to contribute to this question by analyzing the bioelectrical correlates of the visual-oculomotor integration in ...
Muscles, Oculomotor -- See Oculomotor Muscles The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, ... Muscles, Smooth -- See Muscle, Smooth Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels ... Muscles, Skeletal -- See Muscle, Skeletal A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles ... Muscles, Voluntary -- See Muscle, Skeletal A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles ...
Oblique muscle surgery for treatment of nystagmus with head tilt. Lueder, G. T. & Galli, M., Aug 1 2012, In: Journal of AAPOS. ...
Oculomotor Muscles. -. dc.subject.mesh. Time Factors. -. dc.title. Bilateral multiple extraocular muscle metastasis from breast ... Multiple extraocular muscle involvement by breast carcinoma metastasis is very rare and should be considered in the ... Murthy Ramesh, Gupta Amit, Hegde Sunayana, Honavar Santosh G. Bilateral multiple extraocular muscle metastasis from breast ... on histopathology was diagnosed as bilateral breast metastases of lobular carcinoma involving multiple extraocular muscles. A ...
Oculomotor Muscles Entry term(s). Extraocular Muscle Extraocular Muscles Muscle, Oculomotor Muscles, Oculomotor Oculomotor ... Oblique Muscle, Superior. Oblique Muscles, Extraocular. Oblique Muscles, Inferior. Oblique Muscles, Superior. Oculomotor Muscle ... Inferior Oblique Muscle. Inferior Oblique Muscles. Levator Palpebrae Superioris. Muscle, Oculomotor. Muscles, Oculomotor. ... Muscles oculomoteurs Entry term(s):. Extraocular Muscle. Extraocular Muscle, Oblique. Extraocular Muscles. Extraocular Muscles ...
impulses back to the constrictor muscles of the iris of each eye are transmitted through the oculomotor nerve CN III. ... What do the oblique muscles of the eye do?. the opposite of what they sound- superior oblique moves it down and inward whereas ... 3 nerves that control the 6 muscles of the eye. cranial nerve 3 controls all except 2 LR6 & SO4- lactated ringer 6 and sulfate ... cross eye- caused by imbalance of ocular muscle tone, strabismus- examine extraocular movements- intracranial nerve issues ( ...
Muscles Medicine & Life Sciences 22% * Oculomotor Nerve Diseases Medicine & Life Sciences 18% ... The procedure involves half-tendon transpositions of the adjacent rectus muscles to the insertion of the paralyzed muscle, ... The procedure involves half-tendon transpositions of the adjacent rectus muscles to the insertion of the paralyzed muscle, ... The procedure involves half-tendon transpositions of the adjacent rectus muscles to the insertion of the paralyzed muscle, ...
Extraocular muscle paralysis resulting from destructive lesions in one or all of these cranial nerves results in failure of one ... and sixth cranial nerves innervate the extraocular muscles that position the globes in the orbits. ... encoded search term (Third Nerve Palsy (Oculomotor Nerve Palsy)) and Third Nerve Palsy (Oculomotor Nerve Palsy) What to Read ... and medial recti muscles and/or inferior oblique muscle. Multiple cranial nerve palsies might indicate lesions of the brainstem ...
... oculomotor disturbances), and difficulty with muscle coordination (Alcohol Alert). The symptoms that come along with Wernickes ...
  • OBJECTIVE: Oculomotor nerve palsy greatly impairs the patient's daily life. (
  • Methods: Eight patients with paralytic strabismus secondary to third nerve palsy (n=1), sixth nerve palsy (n=3), combined cranial nerve palsy (n=1), or extraocular muscle damage (n=3) were treated using a modification of the Hummelsheim transposition procedure. (
  • Conclusion: The modified Hummelsheim procedure appears capable of correcting large angles of strabismus associated with muscle palsy of various etiologies. (
  • Available at . (
  • How is fourth cranial nerve palsy diagnosed in the setting of third cranial nerve palsy (oculomotor cranial nerve palsy)? (
  • Available at . (
  • To suggest a surgical normogram for lateral rectus recession in exotropia associated with unilateral or bilateral superior oblique muscle palsy (SOP). (
  • Occasionally, a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causes oculomotor palsy and spares the pupil. (
  • Oculomotor Nerve Palsy (ONP) could result from lesions anywhere along its path between the oculomotor nucleus and extraocular muscles. (
  • Differential diagnosis of ONP can be made according to presence of pupil involment, Pupil sparing oculomotor nerve palsy typically result from ischemic cranial neuropathy, often associated with vascular risk factors, which improves (and usually fully resolves) within 3 months. (
  • We present herein a patient exhibiting oculomotor nerve palsy associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. (
  • There was no pathologic signal that considered as oculomotor nerve palsy. (
  • Third Nerve Palsy, also called Oculomotor Palsy, occurs when the third cranial nerve becomes injured or diseased. (
  • As the third cranial nerve controls many of the eye's muscles and functions, palsy of this nerve can result in complete or partial paralysis of the eye. (
  • Pupillary abnormalities or damage (i.e., coloboma or oculomotor palsy), or enucleation of the eye. (
  • CONCLUSION: The central rearrangement of the extraocular muscle nuclei after facial-to-oculomotor nerve anastomosis represents an original example of plasticity. (
  • Two patients had bilateral homogeneous extraocular muscle enlargement suggestive of a myositis-like involvement of ECD-ROD. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Bilateral multiple extraocular muscle metastasis from breast carcinoma. (
  • Murthy Ramesh, Gupta Amit, Hegde Sunayana, Honavar Santosh G. Bilateral multiple extraocular muscle metastasis from breast carcinoma. (
  • Multiple extraocular muscle involvement by breast carcinoma metastasis is very rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients with a prior history of breast carcinoma. (
  • Globe position relative to interzygomatic line (IZL) and orbital rim, optic nerve-sheath complex, extraocular muscle diameters, were measured. (
  • RESULTS: The differences among the age groups for the distances between cornea and sclera in relation to IZL, for the distances between cornea and sclera relative to orbital rim, and for the extraocular muscle diameters were statistically significant. (
  • In terms of the extraocular muscle diameter, it was found that the thinnest muscle of all groups was the lateral rectus muscle while the thickest was the medial rectus muscle. (
  • This is an extraocular muscle that is innovated by the oculomotor nerve. (
  • The extraocular muscle palsies usually are seen 2-4 weeks after the vesicular eruption, but sometimes occurs simultaneously with the eruption or more than 1 month later [ 3 ]. (
  • METHODS: In adult rats, the right oculomotor nerve was transected at the skull base. (
  • E: Superolateral view of the right oculomotor nerve from the cisternal segment to the orbital segment. (
  • In normal rats, the extraocular muscles are innervated by unilateral-ipsilateral brainstem motor nuclei, except for the superior rectus and superior oblique muscles, which are innervated by bilateral, primarily contralateral, nuclei. (
  • PBP is a progressive degenerative disorder of the motor nuclei in the medulla (specifically involving the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves) that produces atrophy and fasciculations of the lingual muscles, dysarthria, and dysphagia. (
  • Both oculomotor nuclei and nerves were normal at the level of the ciliary ganglion, the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve divided into several branches penetrating the inferior medial aspect of the lateral rectus muscle. (
  • Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. (
  • The medial longitudinal fasciculus is the main pathway that connects the vestibular and cochlear nuclei with the nuclei controlling the extraocular muscles (oculomotor gastritis gagging order pariet overnight, trochlear, and abducent nuclei). (
  • It is a fatal disorder and is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting or atrophy (ie, amyotrophy), spasticity, and fasciculations as a result of degeneration of the UMNs and LMNs, culminating in respiratory paralysis. (
  • As a result -- atrophy with the oculomotor muscle tissues. (
  • 4. Trochlear nerve - It supplies only one eye muscle, superior oblique muscle (SO)5. (
  • The oculomotor nerve is the most common site amongst them and the trochlear nerve is the least. (
  • The fourth cranial nerve in the brain is called the trochlear nerve and it innervates the superior oblique muscle which is one of the muscles that is used to orient the eye. (
  • The three remaining cranial nerves involved in vision control the eye muscles: the oculomotor nerve, which controls the majority of the muscles, the trochlear nerve, which controls the superior oblique muscle, and the abducens nerve, which controls the lateral rectus muscle. (
  • Wolff J. The occurrences of retraction movements of the eyeball together with congenital defects in the external ocular muscles. (
  • This will allow you to relax and make the ocular muscles rest. (
  • Essentially the communication between my brain and one of the ocular muscles is partially paralyzed. (
  • It is pierced by the tendons of the ocular muscles, along which it sends prolongations continuous with the muscular sheaths. (
  • The intramesencephalic segment extends from the nucleus to the point of exit of the oculomotor nerve from the midbrain. (
  • The oculomotor nuclear complex (ONC) and the initial parts of the nerve fibers are located within the tegmentum of the midbrain, which is in turn situated at the level of the tentorial notch, where it is surrounded by parts of the diencephalon, cerebellum, and cerebral hemisphere (Parent and Carpenter, 1995). (
  • The oculomotor nerve complex, which is positioned in the most ventral part of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) at the level of the superior colliculi, comprises the somatic cell column, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and an additional dorsal (supraoculomotor) nucleus in each half of the midbrain (Figs. 1A-1C) (Vitosevic et al. (
  • C) Granular staining in the neuropil and perineuronal staining (arrows) in the oculomotor nucleus of the midbrain. (
  • The affected lateral rectus muscle behaves like a muscle double innervated by a weak abducens nerve and a stronger oculomotor nerve branch or like a muscle only innervated by an oculomotor nerve branch. (
  • Identification of motoneurons innervating individual extraocular muscles within the oculomotor nucleus in human. (
  • The dorsal cell column (nucleus) innervates the inferior rectus muscle, the intermediate cell column (nucleus) innervates the inferior oblique muscle, and the ventral cell column (nucleus) supplies fibers to the medial rectus muscle. (
  • The small motor part of the trigeminal nerve is distributed chiefly to the muscles of mastication, and derives its fibres from the motor nucleus. (
  • [6] The red nucleus may play an additional role in controlling muscles of the shoulder and upper arm via projections of its magnocellular part. (
  • [7] [8] In humans, the red nucleus also has limited control over hands , as the rubrospinal tract is more involved in large muscle movement such as that for the arms (but not for the legs, as the tract terminates in the superior thoracic region of the spinal cord). (
  • A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. (
  • This injection provides akinesia of the extraocular muscles by blocking cranial nerves II, III, and VI, which prevents movement of the globe. (
  • Structures located within the cone (after passing through the annulus of Zinn) include the motor innervations to the rectus muscles (cranial nerves III and VI) and the afferent sensory fibers from the globe, which are carried by the short and long posterior ciliary nerves before joining the nasociliary nerve (a branch of cranial nerve V1). (
  • While cranial nerves III and VI pass within the cone, cranial nerve IV travels outside of the muscle cone to innervate the superior oblique muscle. (
  • The motor nerves enter the rectus muscles on the intraconal surface. (
  • what are the nerves associated with the muscles of the eye and which muscle? (
  • ventral rami of t2-t12 are what type of nerves and supply what muscles? (
  • Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. (
  • Three nerves are connected to the extraocular muscles resulting in the control of gaze. (
  • Among the oculomotor muscles, the recti followed the lateral expansion of the head constituting the rectal stalk associated with the nerves II, III, IV and VI and the optic stalk. (
  • The eyeball, with its muscles, vessels, and nerves, is lodged in a mass of soft and yielding fat which entirely fills up the cavity of the orbit. (
  • The weakness may progress over hours to days to involve the arms, truncal muscles, cranial nerves, and muscles of respiration. (
  • Therefore, knowledge of the detailed anatomy and pathway of the oculomotor nerve is critical for the management of lesions located in the middle cranial fossa and the clival, cavernous, and orbital regions. (
  • Localization of lesions of the oculomotor nerve: recent concepts. (
  • Cranial nerve VI (abducens) innervates the lateral rectus muscle. (
  • Likewise, simultaneous EMG recording of the lateral and medial recti muscles revealed a paradoxical innervation of the lateral rectus muscle to be the pathogenetic principle of all forms of Duane syndrome. (
  • Therefore, the generally accepted concept was that the cause of abduction deficiency was fibrosis of the lateral rectus muscle and that the limitation of adduction was caused by a false posterior insertion of the medial rectus muscle or by adhesions between the medial rectus muscle and the orbital wall. (
  • It supplies all the extraocular muscles except the superior oblique and lateral rectus and also innervates the sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles. (
  • The recession amount of the lateral rectus muscle ranged from 4 to 8.5 mm in the UIO group and 5 to 9 mm in the BIO group. (
  • When his right eyelid was lifted(here the lid is retracted and held inplace with tape), the patient immediatelynoted diplopia, although thevisual acuity was normal (B) . In thisprimary position, the right eye wasabducted, indicating unopposed actionof the lateral rectus muscle. (
  • limited right eye depressionin downward gaze indicated weaknessof the inferior rectus muscle (D) . Because the lateral rectus musclewas intact, normal abduction wasnoted in right gaze (E) , whereas inleft gaze, weakness of the medial rectusmuscle resulted in limited righteye adduction (F) . (
  • Oculomotor nerve - It supplies to all eye muscles except superior oblique and lateral rectus. (
  • The sixth cranial nerve is responsible for sending signals to the lateral rectus muscle. (
  • When the sixth cranial nerve becomes damaged, it prevents the lateral rectus muscle from operating and results in an inward eye turn (esotropia) and double vision. (
  • It enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure, after exiting the cavernous sinus, to innervate the extraocular muscles. (
  • En este grupo están incluidos el recto medial o interno, recto lateral o externo, recto superior, recto inferior, oblicuo superior, oblicuo inferior, músculo orbital y músculo elevador del párpado superior. (
  • CONCLUSION: In pediatric patients who were divided into five groups based on their age, the positions of bulbus oculi relative to IZL or orbital rim and the normal diameter ranges of extraocular muscles and of the optic nerve-sheath complex in orbital MRI were determined. (
  • In all cadavers, extraocular muscles were observed to have a common tendinous origin at the orbital apex, continuous with dural connections extending into the skull base. (
  • In addition, they support the existence of variations in orbital anatomy including dual or accessory muscle slips of the extraocular muscles. (
  • The levator palpebræ superioris lies immediately beneath the orbital periosteum and covers the superior rectus muscle. (
  • The extraocular muscles converge at the orbital apex to form a fibrous connective tissue ring known as the annulus of Zinn. (
  • Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia is a condition characterized by problems with movement that worsen over time. (
  • Most affected people also have oculomotor apraxia, which makes it difficult to move their eyes side-to-side. (
  • People with oculomotor apraxia have to turn their head to see things in their side (peripheral) vision. (
  • There are several types of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia, the most common of which are types 1, 2, and 4. (
  • As in all forms of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia, nearly all people with type 1 develop nerve abnormalities (neuropathy). (
  • Many individuals with ataxia with oculomotor apraxia require wheelchair assistance, typically 10 to 15 years after the start of movement problems. (
  • People with some types of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia may have characteristic blood abnormalities. (
  • Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 usually begins around age 15. (
  • A key feature of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 is high amounts of a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood. (
  • The effect of abnormally high levels of AFP or CPK in people with ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 is unknown. (
  • In addition to ataxia and oculomotor apraxia, individuals with this type typically develop dystonia, which is involuntary, sustained muscle tensing that causes unusual positioning of body parts. (
  • In ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 4, albumin levels can be low, and cholesterol or AFP can be elevated. (
  • Intelligence is usually not affected by ataxia with oculomotor apraxia, but some people with the condition have intellectual disability. (
  • Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia is a rare condition. (
  • Mutations in the APTX , SETX , or PNKP gene cause ataxia with oculomotor apraxia types 1, 2, or 4, respectively. (
  • Mutations in another gene cause ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 3. (
  • Cranial nerve IV (trochlear) innervates the superior oblique muscle. (
  • Theoretical modeling, constrained by the parameters of the primate oculomotor system, supports this hypothesis by accounting for the amplitude as well as the statistics of the motion. (
  • The apex is at the optic foramen and the base is formed by the insertions of the muscles to the globe. (
  • By placing the optic low on the rifle and angling the head forward places a high amount of stress on the superior rectus muscle of the eye. (
  • It receives most of the fibres from the optic nerve, and gives rise to the cranial nerve III or common oculomotor nerve (motor). (
  • It has a narrow origin above that muscle from the margin of the optic foramen. (
  • If double vision comes from spread of the Botulinum toxin injected into the upper lid, the 2 images will be one above the other, (vertical diplopia) and the weakened muscle will be the Superior Rectus in the middle part of the upper eyelid. (
  • all but the inferior oblique muscles constitute the muscle cone (see Fig. 1 B). The levator palpebrae superioris lies superior to the superior oblique muscle. (
  • This review describes the microsurgical anatomy of the oculomotor nerve and presents pictures illustrating this nerve and its surrounding connective and neurovascular structures. (
  • The anatomy and even existence of a common tendinous origin of the extraocular eye muscles, or annulus of Zinn, has widely been debated in anatomical literature. (
  • The differential diagnosis of muscle weakness in adults is extensive because it can occur when pathology affects any level of the neuromuscular pathway (upper or lower motor neurons, neuromuscular junction, and muscle fibers). (
  • The stochastic nature of the motion, both in the presence and in the absence of visual stimuli, suggests that it is primarily driven by noise which may arise in various stages along the oculomotor pathway. (
  • D: Schematic view of lateral somatic cell columns containing motor neuron for the extraocular muscles innervation. (
  • The oculomotor nerve is a pure motor nerve and primarily triggers movements of the eyeball, hence its name (from the Latin oculus for eye and motous for motion) (Dorland, 2003). (
  • In paralytic strobism, on the contrary, only one eye mows, and the main sign of the presence of this kind of strabismus is the absence of movement of the eyeball toward the paralyzed muscle. (
  • In addition to the normal rotation of the eyeball, these muscles compress and conversely reduce the compression to shift the focal distance from the lens. (
  • These problems cause the vision to deteriorate: myopia due to the inability of the muscles to compress the eyeball to change the focal length. (
  • the other six are muscles of the eyeball. (
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated if there is concern for acute neurologic conditions, such as stroke or cauda equina syndrome, and may also guide muscle biopsy. (
  • After oculomotor nerve injury, when the central nerve stump is not available, neurotization of the distal nerve stump with a donor nerve may be performed. (
  • The other extremity of the nerve autograft was connected end-to-end to the distal stump of the transected oculomotor nerve. (
  • Heterozygous female carriers may also be affected, but to a lesser degree (intellectual disability, distal muscle weakness, camptodactyly, joint contractures, and pes equinovarus). (
  • The control of the vertical posture in a static position is ensured mainly by integration of visual and proprioceptive information, therefore, the oculomotor muscles can play a leading role in these disturbances. (
  • In 43.2% of children treated for cancer, there was an increase in stability of the postural balance when moving to the EC position, thus, probably, indicating to the leading role of oculomotor muscles in affected stability of the vertical posture in the children. (
  • The potential leading role of oculomotor muscles in posttransplant posture control allows us to recommend inclusion of oculography into the examination protocols, as well as a set of exercises for oculomotor muscles in rehabilitation programs for children treated for cancer. (
  • 10,11 Spread of stimulation beyond the boundaries of the intended target region can cause side effects such as dysarthria, paraesthesia, oculomotor disturbances and muscle contractions. (
  • The results show that extended periods of large amplitudes of ocular accommodation, when the ciliary muscle is highly contracted, was significantly coupled to a bilateral increase in static activity level. (
  • We report a rare presentation of an initially misdiagnosed case of a pseudotumor, which on histopathology was diagnosed as bilateral breast metastases of lobular carcinoma involving multiple extraocular muscles. (
  • Twelve weeks later, axonal regeneration in the autograft and brainstem somatotopic representation of the reinnervated extraocular muscles were investigated by use of histological and retrograde axonal tracing techniques. (
  • This study explored the anatomical origins of the recti muscles, their course into the orbit and the dural connections of the common tendinous origin with the skull base. (
  • Here, we present an experimental anatomic study in rats related to the motor nuclear organization after facial-to-oculomotor nerve anastomosis. (
  • The facial and scalp muscles are all innervated by the facial nerve. (
  • The almost infinite variety of facial expression is produced partly by the action of these muscles, partly by their inactivity, or by the action of antagonising muscles (antithesis). (
  • For a philosophical account of the action of the facial muscles, the student should consult Darwin's Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, and Duchenne's Mécanisme de la Physiologie humaine. (
  • However, a cell column medial to both the dorsal and intermediate cell columns, referred to as the medial cell column, provides crossed fibers that innervate the superior rectus muscle (Fig. 1D) (Horn et al. (
  • Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (
  • Which of the following indicates the correct path sympathetic nerve fibers take when leaving the spinal cord before returning to a spinal nerve on their way to stimulate arrector pili muscles and sweat glands in the skin? (
  • Individuals with this type may also develop muscle wasting in their hands and feet, which further impairs movement. (
  • It also supplies the ciliary and sphincter pupillae muscles through the ciliary ganglion. (
  • The typical patient with GBS, which in most cases will manifest as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), presents 2-4 weeks following a relatively benign respiratory or gastrointestinal illness with complaints of finger dysesthesias and proximal muscle weakness of the lower extremities. (
  • I in thn thicker walls of the rectus muscle, these belonging to form a fully-form«l sponge. (
  • Given its broad differential diagnosis, muscle weakness can be challenging to evaluate in primary care practice. (
  • The large lateral somatic cell columns contain motor neurons that innervate the extraocular muscles. (
  • Congenital strabismus is always a consequence of disorders of oculomotor muscles development. (
  • Here we show that fixational drift is correlated with neural activity, and identify its origin in central neural circuitry within the oculomotor system, upstream to the ocular motoneurons (OMNs). (
  • The weakened muscle will be the Inferior Oblique , in the medial part of the lower lid. (
  • What do the oblique muscles of the eye do? (
  • When downward gaze is attempted, the superior oblique muscle causes the eye to adduct slightly and rotate. (
  • The fourth cranial nerve controls the actions of the superior oblique eye muscle and is responsible for turning the eye inward and downward. (
  • The primary cause of nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and strabismus is an impairment of at least one of the six eye muscles. (