Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Blepharoplasty: Plastic surgery of the eyelid. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Blepharophimosis: The abnormal narrowness of the palpebral fissure in the horizontal direction caused by the lateral displacement of the medial canthi of the eyelids. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Eyelid DiseasesEye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Fascia Lata: CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.Muscular Dystrophy, Oculopharyngeal: An autosomal dominant hereditary disease that presents in late in life and is characterized by DYSPHAGIA and progressive ptosis of the eyelids. Mutations in the gene for POLY(A)-BINDING PROTEIN II have been associated with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Hypertelorism: Abnormal increase in the interorbital distance due to overdevelopment of the lesser wings of the sphenoid.Pyridostigmine Bromide: A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Rhytidoplasty: Plastic surgery performed, usually by excision of skin, for the elimination of wrinkles from the skin.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Coloboma: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Myasthenic Syndromes, Congenital: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a congenital defect in neuromuscular transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This includes presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic disorders (that are not of autoimmune origin). The majority of these diseases are caused by mutations of various subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) on the postsynaptic surface of the junction. (From Arch Neurol 1999 Feb;56(2):163-7)Enophthalmos: Recession of the eyeball into the orbit.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Naphazoline: An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Abnormalities, MultipleTears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Kearns-Sayre Syndrome: A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive EXTERNAL OPHTHALMOPLEGIA, cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHIES) with conduction block (HEART BLOCK), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984)Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Conjunctival DiseasesEye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Ophthalmoplegia, Chronic Progressive External: A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)ConjunctivitisOcular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Perioperative Period: The time periods immediately before, during and following a surgical operation.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Trabeculectomy: Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.Cuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Retinal DiseasesGlaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.MinnesotaMyopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Eye ProteinsCataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ocular symptoms may include retinal degeneration, ophthalmoplegia, and ptosis. Those with MNGIE are often thin and experience ... and neurologic or ocular symptoms such as hearing loss, weakness, and peripheral neuropathy. These gastrointestinal symptoms ...
Ocular motility should always be tested, especially when patients complain of double vision or physicians suspect neurologic ... However, if accompanied by ptosis of the upper eyelid, this may indicate Horner's syndrome. If there is a small, irregular ... Close inspection of the anterior eye structures and ocular adnexa are often done with a slit lamp which is a table mounted ... The examiner views the illuminated ocular structures, through an optical system that magnifies the image of the eye and the ...
However, occasionally mild ptosis is found. The absence of generalized signs of orbital involvement is helpful in eliminating ... Notably, there is no restriction of extraocular movements, no diplopia, and often no apparent ocular signs such as proptosis. ... no discernible ocular signs (the eye looked normal) and did not cause restricted extraocular movement. Tychsen L, Tse DT, ...
Mutations in the PAX6 gene have recently been shown to not only cause ocular abnormalities, but also problems in the brain and ... Other common eye defects include cataracts and ptosis. About 50% of people develop Wilms' tumour. WAGR syndrome is caused by a ... Specifically, several genes in this area are deleted, including the PAX6 ocular development gene and the Wilms' tumour gene ( ...
Ptosis and vertical strabismus are caused by spreading of toxin to adjacent muscles, and their risk decreases with lower doses ... "Avaliacao da motilidade extrinseca ocular de pacientes facectomizados sob anesthesia retrobulbar". Arq. Bras. Oftalmol. 57 (2 ... Subconjunctival hemorrhage, ptosis (drooping eyelid) and vertical strabismus are the most common complications, most resolving ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Rainin EA, Carlson BM (Sep 1985). "Postoperative diplopia and ptosis. A clinical ...
... can help differentiate OMG from other causes of ptosis. For example, although most cases of acquired ptosis in ... Ocular myasthenia Myasthenia gravis Cogan, DG (1965). "Myasthenia gravis: a review of the disease and a description of lid ... In ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), the symptoms are confined to the extraocular and eyelid muscles. Patients most commonly ... It is a simple, quick, and non-invasive test for ocular myasthenia gravis that can be performed not only by ophthalmologists or ...
Early signs of the ocular form include eye pain, epiphora (excessive watering of the eye), and/or ptosis (drooping of the upper ... Ocular sparganosis is especially prevalent in China and Vietnam. The highest numbers of cases occur in Korea and Japan. As of ... If untreated, ocular sparganosis can lead to blindness. In one case of brain infestation by Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, a man ... Yang J.W.; Lee J.H.; Kang M.S. (2007). "A Case of Ocular Sparganosis". Korean Journal of Ophthalmology. 21 (1): 48-50. doi: ...
The reason for this is that the ocular muscles are more susceptible, in comparison with other muscles, for the nerve ... The first real symptoms of paralysis will be palpebral ptosis (drooping of the eyelids) and external ophthalmoplegia, which is ...
The term "ocular myasthenia gravis" describes a subtype of MG where muscle weakness is confined to the eyes, i.e. extraocular ... This generally is performed on the eyelids when a ptosis is present, and is deemed positive if a ≥2 mm rise in the eyelid ... This is done because a person with MG and ptosis of the eyes might be involuntarily using the forehead muscles to compensate ... MG generally starts with ocular (eye) weakness; it might then progress to a more severe generalized form, characterized by ...
Individuals with the syndrome exhibit ocular (ptosis, hyperopia, or megalocornea), cardiac, urogenital (vesicoureteral reflux, ...
The ptosis is typically bilateral, but may be unilateral for a period of months to years before the fellow lid becomes involved ... Often someone else will point out the ocular disturbance to the patient. Patients will move their heads to adjust for the loss ... Ptosis associated with CPEO may be corrected with surgery to raise the lids, however due to weakness of the orbicularis oculi ... The first presenting symptom of ptosis is often unnoticed by the patient until the lids droop to the point of producing a ...
... ptosis, external ocular condition, or learning difficulties. There may be artefacts caused by dust, dirt, condensation, or ... The longer a person has diabetes, the higher their risk of developing some ocular problem. Between 40 and 45 percent of ... Masharani, Umesh (2006). "Diabetes Ocular complications". Chronic Complications of Diabetes. Armenian Medical Network. Hooper, ...
... which is a developmental disorder characterized by congenital ptosis, excessively-arched eyebrows, hypertelorism, ocular ...
Fraunfelder, Frederick T. (2008). Roy and Fraunfelder's Current Ocular Therapy. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 593. ISBN ... apparent enophthalmos due to ptosis), Marfan syndrome, Duane's syndrome, silent sinus syndrome or phthisis bulbi. ...
Ocular hypertelorism: Wideset eyes, which lead to a similar facial resemblance between patients. Facial abnormalities are the ... slight ptosis Thirty-seven-year-old patient demonstrating hyperelasticity 21-month-old, third generation patient, confirmed by ... such as ECG abnormalities and ocular hypertelorism, or without lentigines, 3 of the above conditions are present, with a first- ... genetic tests as Y279C, exhibiting ocular hyperteliorism, cephalofacial similarity. Torso of thirty-seven-year-old, second- ...
... ptosis) and weakness of ocular muscles decreased reflexes: gag, swallow, pupil reactivity to light decreased sensation and ...
... ocular hypertelorism), drooping of the upper eyelids (ptosis), a short breast bone, clenched hands, choroid plexus cysts, ...
... extra-ocular muscles). This results in ptosis and ophthalmoplegia respectively. KSS involves a combination of the already ... that gradually progresses to a bilateral ptosis. As the ptosis worsens, the individual commonly extends their neck, elevating ... 9.17 Ocular Myopathies". In Yanoff, Myron; Duker, Jason. Ophthalmology (Online Textbook),format= requires ,url= (help) (3rd ed ... Along with the insidious development of ptosis, eye movements eventually become limited causing a person to rely more on ...
This medical condition is known as bilateral ptosis and it is a classic, tell-tale sign of severe envenomation. Other common ... the muscle that elevates the upper eyelid and the ocular and ciliary muscles controlling the lens. Between 20 minutes and ...
The ocular disturbances, are sometimes followed by permanent blindness. Phospholipase A2 neurotoxins also cause damage to ... Bites from C. d. terrificus in particular can result in impaired vision or complete blindness, auditory disorders, ptosis, ...
The ocular disturbances, which according to Alvaro (1939) occur in some 60% of C. d. terrificus cases, are sometimes followed ... Bites from C. d. terrificus in particular can result in impaired vision or complete blindness, auditory disorders, ptosis, ... Neurotoxic symptoms (ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, bulbar paralysis, and peripheral muscular weakness) developed in 85%. ... ptosis, fever, and severe abdominal pain. Local tissue damage appears to be relatively infrequent and of minor severity in most ...
Other less common features of this disorder are: cleft lip and palate ocular anomalies such as iris and/or retinal coloboma ... hypertelorism metopic ridging of the skull wide palpebral fissures long downslanted palpebral fissures congenital ptosis broad ...
... ocular Colobomata unilobar lung heart defect Colobomatous microphthalmia heart disease hearing Colobomatous microphthalmia ... Congenital l Congenital heart block Congenital heart disease ptosis hypodontia craniostosis Congenital heart disease radio ... disease type 2D Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with ptosis ... craniosynostosis maternal hyperthyroiditis Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation Congenital cystic eye multiple ocular and ...
Other ocular abnormalities include ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more of the extraocular muscles) and other types of ... Other common findings include drooping of the eyelid (ptosis), constriction of the pupil (miosis), redness of the conjunctiva, ... In addition to the connective tissue disease, the condition is sometimes accompanied by neurological, ocular and oral symptoms ... Muchnik, RS; Aston SJ; Rees TD (1979). "Ocular manifestations and treatment of hemifacial atrophy". American Journal of ...
Kupersmith MJ, Ying G (October 2005). "Ocular motor dysfunction and ptosis in ocular myasthenia gravis: effects of treatment". ... The symptoms of ocular MG can also be addressed by non-medicinal means. Ptosis can be corrected with placement of crutches on ... Ocular Myasthenia Gravis Article Barton JJ, Fouladvand M (2000). "Ocular aspects of myasthenia gravis". Semin Neurol. 20 (1): 7 ... and therefore ocular misalignment, fluctuates frequently. In contrast to generalized MG, purely ocular MG occurs equally among ...
List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. References[edit]. *^ a b c Matejcek, A; Goldman, RD (November 2013). " ...
Blepharoptosis (blef-uh-rahp-TOH-sis) or ptosis (TOH-sis) is a drooping of the upper eyelid that may affect one or both eyes. ... Herpes (Ocular Herpes). *Herpes Zoster (Shingles). *HIV-Related Eye Problems. *Hyperopia. *Ischemic Optic Neuropathy ...
Enhanced ptosis in myasthenia gravis. Arch Neurol 1981; 38: 531. 89. Ambler Z, Stalberg E. EMG diagnostika myasthenie gravis. ... Mee J, Paine M, Byrne E. Immunotherapy of ocular myasthenia gravis reduces conversion to generalized myasthenia gravis. J ...
A 68-year-old man presented with unilateral ptosis. Neurologic examination revealed ptosis of the left eye after a sustained ... Elle relève du domaine de la chirurgie thoracique Ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease of the neuromuscular junction ... Myasthenia Gravis Diagnose Anamnese • inspanningsgebonden oculaire (ptosis/diplopie), Thymectomie (altijd na overleg met ... ptosis (meestal asymmetrisch. Myasthenia gravis is a chronic, complex, autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy ...
Ocular Features: The singular ocular feature found in this condition is congenital bilateral non-progressive ptosis which may ... Ocular Features: Ptosis, strabismus, epicanthal folds, and upslanting lid fissures are often present but there is considerable ... Ocular Features: Patients have oculomotor apraxia, saccadic pursuits, lack of fixation, and ptosis. No pigmentary changes were ... Ocular Features: Reported facial dysmorphism features include periocular anomalies of ptosis, hypertelorism, down-slanting lid ...
Comportamiento clínico-quirúrgico de la ptosis palpebral en la consulta de Cirugía Plástica Ocular / Clinico-surgical behavior ... la ptosis palpebral predominó en pacientes masculinos de la tercera edad, y fue más frecuente en el ojo izquierdo. La causa ... caracterizar la evolución clínica y quirúrgica de la ptosis palpebral. Métodos:. se realizó un estudio observacional analítico ... Se consideraron las variables, sexo, edad, ojo afectado, etiología, grado de la ptosis, apertura palpebral pre- y ...
Ocular ptosis: differential diagnosis and treatment. Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Luna, Sabina; Roig, Carles ...
Ptosis (eyelid drooping) in infants and children is when the upper eyelid is lower than it should be. This may occur in one or ... Ocular motility (eye movement) test. *Visual field testing. Other tests may be done to check for diseases or illnesses that may ... Children with ptosis may tip their head back to see. They may raise their eyebrows to try to move the eyelid up. You may notice ... Ptosis (eyelid drooping) in infants and children is when the upper eyelid is lower than it should be. This may occur in one or ...
droopy eyelids (ptosis. ), a small chin. , and low-set ears. Overall, the face is broad. and long. , and the facial features ... widely spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism. ), outside corners of the eyes that point downward (down-slanting palpebral fissures ...
Ocular symptoms may include retinal degeneration, ophthalmoplegia, and ptosis. Those with MNGIE are often thin and experience ... and neurologic or ocular symptoms such as hearing loss, weakness, and peripheral neuropathy. These gastrointestinal symptoms ...
Ocular Motility Cases; Orbit Cases; Ptosis Cases; Nystagmus Cases; Cardiovascular Cases; Neurological Cases; etc..." For more ... OCULAR IMPLANTS Ocular Implants & Artificial Eyes OCULAR IMPLANTS - Ophtec B.V. ORBITAL IMPLANTS - Ceramisys ... Cases & Grand Rounds ~ Courses, Textbooks, etc. ~ Ocular Implants Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Guidelines ~ Atlases ~ ... Ptosis; Dacryocystorhinostomy; etc..." For more information see Chua Eye Page or Welcome to Sucess in MRCOphth Ophthalmic ...
Ocular. Common (1% to 10%): Blurred vision Postmarketing reports: Abnormal accommodation, ptosis[Ref] ...
Kupersmith MJ, Ying G (October 2005). "Ocular motor dysfunction and ptosis in ocular myasthenia gravis: effects of treatment". ... The symptoms of ocular MG can also be addressed by non-medicinal means. Ptosis can be corrected with placement of crutches on ... Ocular Myasthenia Gravis Article Barton JJ, Fouladvand M (2000). "Ocular aspects of myasthenia gravis". Semin Neurol. 20 (1): 7 ... and therefore ocular misalignment, fluctuates frequently. In contrast to generalized MG, purely ocular MG occurs equally among ...
These autoimmune disorders can have devastating systemic and ocular effects. Ocular symptoms may include dry or red eyes, ... Because a number of these diseases may initially present with ocular symptoms, physicians should maintain a high index of ... A thorough ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity, pupillary reaction, ocular motility, confrontation field testing, ... Diplopia, eyelid ptosis. Sarcoidosis. Uveitis, conjunctival nodules, cranial nerve palsies, enlarged lacrimal glands, optic ...
I was diagnosed 18 months ago with mild ocular myasthenia gravis. I had ptosis (primarily ... ...
Ocular weakness. *Eyelid Muscle Weakness resulting in Ptosis (unilateral or bilateral). *May increase with sustained upward ... Absent in most cases of ocular Myasthenia Gravis. *Present in 38-50% of generalized Myasthenia Gravis patients who are AChR-Ab ... The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., ... Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. ...
Ocular Prosthetics. *Orbit Evisceration. *Orbital Decompression and Orbitotomy. *Ptosis (Eyelids) Surgery. *Reconstructive ...
ocular motility abnormalities. *prior ptosis, and/or strabismus surgery. *more than 2 mm of pre-existing ptosis ...
Ocular. Common (1% to 10%): Eyelid ptosis. Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Dry eye, eyelid edema, eye infection, diplopia. Very rare ( ...
Ocular Prosthetics. *Paracentesis of Anterior Eye. *Repair of Brow Ptosis and Blepharoptosis ...
Ptosis Repair in Ocular Myasthenia Gravis. Semin Ophthalmol. 2016 May 18. 1-5. [Medline]. ... Ptosis. Ptosis may be unilateral or bilateral. The ptosis may be elicited with sustained upward gaze, as shown in the image ... and the possible unmasking of diplopia in patients with unilateral ptosis. Ptosis surgery in patients with stable ptosis that ... Juvenile ocular MG is autoimmune ocular MG that presents before age 19 years. It carries a better prognosis for spontaneous ...
Profile of Tristan McMullan, a Consultant Ophthalmologist in Northampton, Northamptonshire, provided by Private Healthcare UK: The gateway to private healthcare in the UK
Ptosis (droopy eyelid). *Ocular hypertension (elevated eye pressure). When cataract surgery complications do occur, most are ...
Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT). *Ptosis correction surgery. *Squint correction. See less You might also be interested in... ...
List of 24 causes for Babinskis reflex and CNS causes of speaking difficulty with numbness and Ocular deviation, alternative ... AND Myasthenia-like ptosis (1 match). *AND Nausea with headache (1 match) ... Ocular deviation:*Causes: Ocular deviation *Introduction: Ocular deviation *Ocular deviation: Add a 4th symptom *Ocular ... Ocular deviation: Introduction. *Babinskis reflex and CNS causes of speaking difficulty with numbness and Ocular deviation and ...
List of 31 causes for Babinskis reflex and Facial apraxia and Ocular deviation, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, ... AND Myasthenia-like ptosis (1 match). *AND Nausea with headache (1 match) ... Ocular deviation:*Causes: Ocular deviation *Introduction: Ocular deviation *Ocular deviation: Add a 4th symptom *Ocular ... Babinskis reflex and Facial apraxia and Ocular deviation. *Babinskis reflex AND Facial apraxia AND Ocular deviation - Causes ...
  • Blepharoptosis (blef-uh-rahp-TOH-sis) or ptosis (TOH-sis) is a drooping of the upper eyelid that may affect one or both eyes. (uclahealth.org)
  • Ocular history was remarkable for uneventful cataract extraction in both eyes with IOL placement 20 years previously. (harvard.edu)
  • Adverse ocular effects of the injection include persistent rash, localized anaphylactic reaction, and as we will discuss eyelid ptosis. (aaopt.org)
  • There was periorbital fullness and partial ptosis of the left eye. (harvard.edu)
  • A, Left periorbital fullness and partial ptosis, with inferior displacement of the globe. (harvard.edu)
  • Two weeks after radiotherapy, the left eye showed madarosis with partial ptosis (Figure 4A). (harvard.edu)
  • Because the levator is the primary muscle responsible for keeping the lid open, severe deficits of third nerve function usually cause profound or complete ptosis. (aao.org)
  • Indirect causes of neurogenic ptosis include diabetes, tumors, carotid-cavernous aneurysms and multiple sclerosis. (aao.org)
  • In cases of unilateral ptosis, the contralateral lid may assume a ptotic position upon occluding the eye with the ptosis or lifting the ptotic lid with a finger (Herring phenomenon). (medscape.com)
  • The differential diagnosis of and natural history of ptosis-complicating Botox injection will be discussed as well as the mechanism of action of Botox, its use in ophthalmic and non-ophthalmic practice, and the ocular complications associated with its use. (aaopt.org)
  • No postoperative complications such as overcorrection, suture-knot exposure, or ocular irritation were observed.Our mini-incisional entropion repair is based on reinforcement of the lower eyelid retractors using transconjunctival buried sutures. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The second patient has a left 3rd nerve palsy resulting in ptosis, dilated pupil, limited adduction, elevation, and depression of the left eye. (utah.edu)
  • These devices show great promise in the treatment of ocular diseases such as uveitis, which are often managed with chronic corticosteroid therapy. (arvojournals.org)
  • The amount of eyelid elevation should be conservative to avoid ocular exposure and also may need to be supplemented with a lower eyelid-elevating procedure. (aao.org)
  • No studies were located in humans or animals regarding the effects on the respiratory, hematological, musculoskeletal, hepatic, renal, and dermal/ocular systems after inhalation exposure to thallium. (cdc.gov)
  • Postoperatively, she developed an inverse Bell's reflex and increased symptoms of ocular surface exposure. (bmj.com)
  • The ptosis may be elicited with sustained upward gaze, as shown in the image below, or on repeated eyelid closure. (medscape.com)
  • Photodocumentation on sustained upgaze or in different positions of gaze may aid in the identification of varying ptosis. (medscape.com)
  • Dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor or sympathetic nerve(s) or to the central nervous system may result in ptosis. (aao.org)